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The relation between memories of childhood psychological maltreatment and Machiavellianism

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Abstract

Machiavellianism is a hot topic in several branches of psychology. Using Life-History Theory several studies identified Machiavellianism as a fast life strategy. According to this idea, Machiavellianism should be related to childhood adversities. Using a sample of adults we investigated the relationship between Machiavellianism and self-reported memories of childhood psychological maltreatment. Participants (247 individuals, 141 female, 32.38 ± 5.43 years of age on average) completed the Mach-IV Scale and the Childhood Abuse and Trauma Scale. Results showed a relationship between neglect and Machiavellianism in general, Machiavellian tactics, and Machiavellian world view. There was also a marginally significant link between punishment and Machiavellian tactics. Results are discussed from a moral developmental perspective and through the alexithymia hypothesis of Machiavellianism.

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... Developing hypotheses about the nomological network requires augmenting the limited information on each dimension with unidimensional research. Studies have identified unique effects of each dimension on political ideology (Gold, Friedman, & Christie, 1971), borderline personality organization (Láng, 2015a), reward sensitivity (Birkás, Csathó, Gács, & Bereczkei, 2015), development (Láng & Lénárd, 2015), empathy, and emotional intelligence (Andrew et al., 2008). Monaghan et al. (2016) demonstrated that the views dimension associated positively with all domains of psychopathology, whereas the tactics dimension associated positively with externalizing and impulsivity domains, and weakly with depression domains. ...
... Machiavellianism's development appears to be largely influenced by the environment, with only modest genetic inheritance (Vernon, Villani, Vickers, & Harris, 2008;Veselka, Schermer, & Vernon, 2011). Machiavellian views and tactics are likely learnt socially and reinforced through direct modelling of attachment figures (Kraut & Price, 1976) in combination with traumatic, harsh, and neglectful environments (e.g., Láng & Birkás, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015;McIlwain, 2011). Substantial evidence supports lower empathy, theory of mind, and emotional intelligence among those higher on Machiavellianism (Ali, Amorim, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009;Austin et al., 2007), and differentially between the views and tactics dimensions (Andrew et al., 2008). ...
... Q(12) = 22.92, Láng and Birkás (2014) was also used in the paper Láng and Birkás (2015). Dataset cited as Láng (2015a) was also used in the Láng and Lénárd (2015). These results suggested men report being more Machiavellian than women, with population effect sizes ranging from 0.21 to 0.27. ...
Article
Machiavellianism captures one's cynical view of humanity and willingness to use immoral means to achieve one's goals. Although Machiavellianism consists of views and tactics dimensions, a unitary approach dominates our understanding of this construct. Therefore, we aimed to further substantiate its dimensionality and elucidate each dimension's unique characteristics. An international collaboration (k = 15, N = 17,004; 57.39% male; aged 11–85, M = 26.97) contributed datasets from Korea, Hungary, Canada, USA, and Australia. We tested a nomological network comprising associations of Machiavellianism's dimensions with demographic variables and four conceptual domains: development (trauma, family functioning, world-view), personality (Big Five, HEXACO, narcissism, psychopathy), emotionality (emotional intelligence, regulation), and behavior (self-report, game scenarios). Meta-analytic confirmatory factor analysis supported the two-dimensional structure. Men were higher on views and tactics than women, and age did not influence Machiavellianism overall. Mean Machiavellianism varied across national cultures differently for views and tactics. Both dimensions related to adverse developmental experiences and negatively to agreeableness and honesty-humility. The views dimension related to emotionality negatively, and higher distrust and delinquency, whereas the tactics dimension related to aspects of psychopathy, and lower conscientiousness and empathy. Overall, we provide essential theoretical advancements and the foundation for future research into Machiavellianism.
... According to LH theory, Machiavellianism may be an LH strategy, which is induced by unfavorable environmental factors. For example, recent research has shown that childhood maltreatment (Láng & Lénárd, 2015) and an unpredictable childhood environment (e.g., "Things were often chaotic in my house" ;Jonason, Icho, & Ireland, 2016) are associated with Machiavellianism in adulthood. An unpredictable early childhood environment may promote Machiavellianism and correlated behaviors (Jonason et al., 2016). ...
... Stable social rank in a group may allowed individuals to maximize their benefits of resources acquisition while minimizing the costs associated with direct competition (Cummins, 2005). The extant literature suggests that Machiavellianism occurs when individuals lack control over social rank-relevant environment (Láng & Lénárd, 2015). The perception of loss of control originates from a perception of environmental uncertainty (Mittal & Griskevicius, 2014). ...
... The perception of loss of control originates from a perception of environmental uncertainty (Mittal & Griskevicius, 2014). Given that Machiavellianism is a strategy for gaining control of resources and social dominance through manipulation of other people (Láng & Lénárd, 2015), the uncertainties that trigger it may be related to social status and resources. In other words, individuals may use Machiavellian strategies, such as deception or manipulation, to cope with the uncertain future for social status. ...
Article
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This study used the life history (LH) theory to investigate how environmental cues are associated with Machiavellianism. A total of 252 undergraduate students completed self-report measures of social rank uncertainty, Machiavellianism, fast LH strategy, and dominance. The results indicated that Machiavellianism was related to a fast LH strategy. Furthermore, a fast LH strategy mediated an association between social rank uncertainty and Machiavellianism. Finally, Machiavellianism was positively associated with dominance. These findings may enhance our understanding of the evolutionary origin of Machiavellianism.
... Individuals engaging in this particular life strategy go at the expense of getting along, psychological well-being, and physical health to solve adaptive tasks (Carter et al., 2014a;Furnham et al., 2013). Recently, several studies identified Machiavellianism as parts of this fast life history strategy (Jonason, Koenig, & Tost, 2010;Lang & Lenard, 2015). In other words, Machiavellianism might be an alternative life history strategy rather than a pathology requiring treatment (Jonason & Krause, 2013). ...
... Past research on Machiavellianism has concentrated mostly on the behavioral consequences, and few studies have been concerned with the antecedent conditions. To our knowledge, some existing studies have focused on this issue, and identified a few relevant markers that partly account for the Machiavellianism trait: (a) an underlying genetic basis (Petrides, Vernon, Schermer, & Veselka, 2011;Vernon et al., 2008); (b) a dopamine dysfunction of the central nervous system (Geng, Chang, Li, Sun, & Huang, 2014;Mazza, De Risio, Tozzini, Foncone, & Casacchia, 2003;McNamara, Durso, & Harris, 2007); (c) dismissing and fearful attachment (Lang & Birkas, 2014;McHoskey, 2001), low self-esteem (Rauthmann & Kolar, 2013b), and loneliness (Lang & Lenard, 2015); (d) innate and universal psychological motivations (Jonason & Ferrell, 2016), such as dominance and power motives; and (e) adverse environments, as well as a fast life history strategy (Jonason & Krause, 2013;Lang & Birkas, 2014;Lang & Lenard, 2015). Studies of children and adults have already found evidence of the involvement of several genes in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such as the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene, the D2 dopamine receptor gene, the D4 dopamine receptor gene, the D5 dopamine receptor gene, and the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase gene (Faraone et al., 2000;Su, 2014). ...
... Past research on Machiavellianism has concentrated mostly on the behavioral consequences, and few studies have been concerned with the antecedent conditions. To our knowledge, some existing studies have focused on this issue, and identified a few relevant markers that partly account for the Machiavellianism trait: (a) an underlying genetic basis (Petrides, Vernon, Schermer, & Veselka, 2011;Vernon et al., 2008); (b) a dopamine dysfunction of the central nervous system (Geng, Chang, Li, Sun, & Huang, 2014;Mazza, De Risio, Tozzini, Foncone, & Casacchia, 2003;McNamara, Durso, & Harris, 2007); (c) dismissing and fearful attachment (Lang & Birkas, 2014;McHoskey, 2001), low self-esteem (Rauthmann & Kolar, 2013b), and loneliness (Lang & Lenard, 2015); (d) innate and universal psychological motivations (Jonason & Ferrell, 2016), such as dominance and power motives; and (e) adverse environments, as well as a fast life history strategy (Jonason & Krause, 2013;Lang & Birkas, 2014;Lang & Lenard, 2015). Studies of children and adults have already found evidence of the involvement of several genes in the etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such as the dopamine transporter (DAT) gene, the D2 dopamine receptor gene, the D4 dopamine receptor gene, the D5 dopamine receptor gene, and the dopamine-beta-hydroxylase gene (Faraone et al., 2000;Su, 2014). ...
Article
The social-emotional functions associated with Machiavellianism have been widely examined. However, most research on Machiavellianism is cross-sectional design, and has been conducted in adult populations. Using a sample of adolescents (n = 454), the current study employed a longitudinal design to examine how Machiavellianism relates to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The results indicated that (a) a significant increase in Machiavellianism scores and a significant decrease in difficulties scores were observed over the course of a year; (b) Machiavellianism shows significant positive associations, both cross-sectional and longitudinal, with nearly all categories of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems; (c) time 1 hyperactivity was a significant predictor of time 2 (one year later) Machiavellianism; and (d) over the course of a year, Machiavellianism still has a significant impact on subsequent conduct problems. The implications of these findings are interpreted and discussed.
... A constellation of environmental experiences influences the development of Machiavellianism. Difficult early or later life experiences, such as abuse, neglect, trauma, and family discord (Láng & Abell, 2018;Láng & Birkás, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015;McIlwain, 2011), likely facilitate cynical world-views, interpersonal distrust, and insecure attachment. These experiences result in core world-views or schemas, such as emotional deprivation and mistrust/abuse . ...
... The other two Dark Triad traits have clinical counterparts, with long histories as diagnoses (or specifiers), and associated with antagonism, externalising psychopathology, criminality / delinquency, and impulsivity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013;Chabrol et al., 2009;Patrick, 2005). Finally, the associated maladaptive early or later life experiences, attachment difficulties, and schema development (see Láng & Abell, 2018;Láng & Birkás, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015;McIlwain, 2011) strongly influence the development of psychopathology throughout the lifespan (Cicchetti & Toth, 1995). Overall, there are strong arguments as to why Machiavellianism should relate to lower levels of subjective well-being and increased psychopathology. ...
... Then, the nature of each dimension is explicated through their relationship with key demographic factors (i.e., gender, age, and culture), and associations within conceptually important domains: development, emotionality, broader personality, and behavioural domains Developing hypotheses about the nomological network requires augmenting the limited information on each dimension with unidimensional research. Studies have identified unique effects of each dimension on political ideology (Gold, Friedman, & Christie, 1971), borderline personality organisation (Láng, 2015a), reward sensitivity (Birkás, Csathó, Gács, & Bereczkei, 2015), development (Láng & Lénárd, 2015), empathy, and emotional intelligence (Andrew et al., 2008). Monaghan et al. (2016) demonstrated that the views dimension associated positively with all domains of psychopathology, whereas the tactics dimension associated positively with externalising and impulsivity domains, and weakly with depression domains. ...
Thesis
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Individuals learn to influence and manipulate others to function as part of society. Machiavellianism captures one’s willingness to orchestrate the behaviour of others against their interests, rights, and well-being. Research focuses primarily on a single Machiavellianism dimension. This thesis, however, contends that Machiavellianism comprises two correlated dimensions: a views dimension that captures one's cynical and distrusting view of humanity and the world, and a tactics dimension that captures one’s willingness to endorse exploitative and amoral behaviours when deemed advantageous. This thesis aimed to develop a stronger understanding of each dimension, and this required developing stronger psychometric instruments. The secondary aim was to test the presupposition of no psychopathological cost to Machiavellianism. After an initial foray into Machiavelli and Machiavellianism in the first two chapters, Chapter 3 identifies a robust Machiavellianism factor-structure and how each dimension relates to psychopathological domains in 1478 US and 218 Australian participants. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that Machiavellianism comprises two robust dimensions which could be reliably captured through a 10-item subset of the Mach-IV scale, named Two-Dimensional Mach-IV (TDM-IV). Further, Machiavellian views associated with all major psychological domains, while Machiavellian tactics related only to the externalising and thought dysfunction domains. Machiavellianism is two-dimensional, with each dimension having distinctive psychopathological implications. The study in Chapter 4 investigates whether these two dimensions are universal, or merely measurement artefacts within Study 1. If universal, this research further aimed to develop a nomological network to better understand the nature of each dimension. International collaborators shared 15 datasets, which comprisedover 17,000 participants. The two-factor structure was reproducible and structurally equivalent across cultures, languages, types of respondent, response category length, age, and gender. Further, each dimension was situated within a different constellation of broad personality traits, developmental pathways, emotionality, and behaviour. Therefore, the two dimensions appear to be core aspects of Machiavellianism and need to be independently captured in future research. The TDM-IV derives from the Mach-IV, inheriting many of its psychometric concerns that reduce the accuracy of its inferences, such as confusing item wording and not accounting for acquiesces appropriately. To overcome these weaknesses, Chapter 5 presents the development and validation of the Two-Dimensional Machiavellianism Scale (TDMS). The TDMS had excellent psychometric properties in six independent samples involving over 3800 participants, based on confirmatory factor analysis, longitudinal structural equation modelling, and item response theory. The scale provided invariant measurement across all samples and a test-retest sample, was internally consistent, and provided most information in the low to high average range. This study demonstrates confirmatory and discriminatory validity with existing measures of Machiavellianism, broader personality taxonomies, socio-political attitudes, psychopathy, narcissism, and morality vignettes. Finally, Chapter 6 explicates this two-dimensional Machiavellianism construct and discusses key areas for future investigation, including latent profiles, longitudinal modelling of each dimension’s development, and cross-cultural equivalence. Together, this research demonstrates that: a) Machiavellianism comprises two distinct dimensions, b) the TDMS, as a psychometrically robust measure of Machiavellianism, should replace current measures of Machiavellianism, and c) the presupposition of psychopathological immunity among Machiavellians is false.
... From a social cognitive theory perspective, cyberbullying may be related to a combination of childhood experiences (in a distal fashion) and personality (in a proximal fashion) dispositions (Bandura, 1977(Bandura, , 2001. Consequently, individuals' antisocial personality traits may be associated with their childhood maltreatment (Láng & Lénárd, 2015), which interact to produce various manifestations of antisocial behaviors such as cyberbullying, and that has to be considered a context-specific form of aggression (Corcoran et al., 2015;Vandebosch & Van Cleemput, 2008). Indeed, childhood maltreatment is associated with increased cyberbullying (Emirtekin et al., 2019) and antisocial personality traits (Láng & Lénárd, 2015;Schimmenti et al., 2015). ...
... Consequently, individuals' antisocial personality traits may be associated with their childhood maltreatment (Láng & Lénárd, 2015), which interact to produce various manifestations of antisocial behaviors such as cyberbullying, and that has to be considered a context-specific form of aggression (Corcoran et al., 2015;Vandebosch & Van Cleemput, 2008). Indeed, childhood maltreatment is associated with increased cyberbullying (Emirtekin et al., 2019) and antisocial personality traits (Láng & Lénárd, 2015;Schimmenti et al., 2015). Such traits are associated with cyberbullying (Goodboy & Martin, 2015; van Geel et al., 2017), suggesting that childhood emotional abuse might be associated with cyberbullying directly and indirectly via antisocial personality traits. ...
... Another potential factor offered by socio-cognitive models in accounting for cyberbullying may be that those experiences of maltreatment should be associated with the development of personality traits that facilitate cyberbullying. Considerable evidence links dark traits-even in non-clinical samples-to adverse childhood experiences (Fiester & Gay, 1991;Jonason et al., 2016;Jonason, Zeigler-Hill, & Baldacchino, 2017;McDonald et al., 2012;Patch & Figueredo, 2017), including verbal (Afifi et al., 2011) and psychological abuse (Láng & Lénárd, 2015). It appears that a combination of temperamental vulnerabilities and experiences can lead to the development of specific antisocial traits such as psychopathy (Schimmenti et al., 2015) and covert narcissism (e.g., hypersensitivity, hidden grandiosity, and inadequacy; Neumann, 2017), but not overt narcissism (Cohen et al., 2014). ...
Article
Dark personality traits (i.e., Machiavellianism, psychopathy, narcissism, spitefulness, and sadism) are associated with adverse childhood experiences and deviant online behaviors. However, their mediating role between childhood emotional abuse and cyberbullying has never previously been investigated. We examined direct and indirect associations of childhood emotional abuse and cyberbullying via dark personality traits among 772 participants. Men were better characterized by dark personality traits and were more likely to engage in cyberbullying than women, and there were no sex differences in childhood emotional abuse. Collectively, dark traits fully mediated the relationship between childhood emotional abuse and cyberbullying in men, with partial mediation in the total sample and women. More specifically, Machiavellianism and spitefulness were mediators in both samples, sadism was a mediator in men and the total sample, and psychopathy was a mediator in the total sample and women. The dark personality traits can account for the association between childhood emotional abuse and cyberbullying, especially among men.
... Machiavellianism -either as a component of the Dark Triad or separately -has been a widely studied construct since the 1970s. Recent research (Láng & Birkás, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015;Ryumshina, 2013) evidenced that experiences in the family of origin had a considerable effect on adolescents' and adults' Machiavellianism. Further, narcissistic personality traits have already been reported to be a possible outcome of destructive forms of parentification (Jones & Wells, 1996). ...
... Several studies showed that Machiavellianism was significantly associated with recollections or concurrent perceptions of parental rejection (Kraut & Price, 1976;Láng & Birkás, 2015;Ojha, 2007). Moreover, Láng and Lénárd (2015) showed that higher levels of Machiavellianism in adults were associated with more frequent memories of childhood negative home atmosphere and neglect. Studies from a family systems perspective further contribute to the issue. ...
... As presented in detail earlier, parentification not only includes a caregiving burden but also the neglect of children's developmental needs (Hooper, 2007), and a pervasive feeling of uncertainty in children (Burnett et al., 2006). Both neglect (Láng & Lénárd, 2015) and unpredictable family environment (Láng & Birkás, 2014) demonstrated associations with Machiavellianism. Moreover, in destructive parentification (Jurkovic, 1998) caregiving ceases to be a genuine expression of concern for others. ...
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has revealed several developmental aspects of Machiavellianism. In this study, we explored the potential relationship between perceived parentification in the family of origin and Machiavellianism in adulthood. Three hundred and ninety five Hungarian adults (282 women) completed self-report measures of parentification and Machiavellianism. Results showed that emotional parentification and children’s unacknowledged efforts to contribute to the well-being of their families were associated with Machiavellianism - but only in men. Machiavellian tactics and worldview are proposed as possible coping mechanisms with the neglectful and unpredictable family environment. Gender differences in the results are explained in terms of gender role socialization and men’s and women’s different susceptibility for different forms of psychopathology.
... Several studies have drawn associations between childhood and developmental experiences and subsequent development of dark personality traits (e.g., Barlett, 2016;Bernstein, Stein, & Handelsman, 1998;Brumbach, Figueredo, & Ellis, 2009;Jonason, Lyons, & Bethell, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015;Schraft, Kosson, & McBride, 2013). For example, results by Jonason et al. (2014) suggested that low quality of maternal care predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism, narcissism, and primary psychopathy, and that some of these processes were mediated by attachment style. ...
... The strongest correlation emerged between childhood IPV exposure and Factor 2 psychopathy with a medium effect size. These relationships are consistent with past research reporting tendencies for those who experienced adverse circumstances throughout development to later exhibit characteristics consistent with dark personality traits (e.g., Bernstein et al., 1998;Brumbach et al., 2009;Jonason et al., 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015;Schraft et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a major international public health concern that poses significant mental and physical health risks for affected individuals. To improve prevention efforts, it is imperative that researchers and government bodies understand risk factors for IPV. One such risk factor concerns the extent to which violence is intergenerational, such that exposure to violence predisposes individuals to engage in violence toward intimate partners. The purpose of this research is to assess childhood exposure to violence as a risk factor for perpetration of IPV in adulthood, and to evaluate the Dark Tetrad personality traits as mediators in this relationship. We recruited 153 men and 246 women (age range = 18-73, Mage = 33.50, SDage = 10.26) through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk to complete a series of questionnaires and an open-ended IPV perpetration assessment. Results showed no relationship between IPV perpetration and childhood IPV exposure, indicating that mediation analyses were not possible. Possible explanations are discussed. Follow-up exploratory analyses demonstrated that gender moderated the relationships between childhood IPV exposure and levels of Factor 1 psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Specifically, men who were exposed to IPV in childhood were more likely to develop higher levels of Factor 1 psychopathy and Machiavellianism, whereas women were not. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of providing researchers and clinicians with a greater understanding of environmental events preceding maladaptive trait development. It is also important for researchers and clinicians to consider gender differences in pathways between exposure to IPV and subsequent development of dark personality traits. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... Machiavellian individuals have repeatedly reported cold, neglecting, chaotic, and overindulgent parental bonding (Láng & Birkás, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015). Being unable to provide realistic limits and secure attachments, these families create a toxic environment favorable for the development of EMSs in children. ...
... Machiavellian adolescents' expectations that their needs for emotional support won't be met presumably develop from their experience with neglecting and rejecting caregivers (Láng & Lénárd, 2015). Moreover, the dismissing attachment style (Jonason, Lyons, & Bethell, 2014) of Machiavellian individuals might also be the outcome of the activation of the Emotional Deprivation EMS and a maladaptive avoidant coping response (Young et al., 2003). ...
Article
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Given the relationship between personality dysfunction and Machiavellianism, schema-approach and early mal-adaptive schemas (EMSs) in particular offer a promising approach to the better understanding of Machiavellian-ism. Using self-report measures of Machiavellianism and EMSs with 498 adolescents (354 girls), we tested which EMSs were associated with Machiavellianism. Results showed that Emotional deprivation, Mistrust/abuse, Entitlement/grandiosity, and Approval-seeking/Recognition-seeking EMSs were positively associated with Machiavellianism, while Enmeshment/Undeveloped self and Self-sacrifice EMSs were negatively related to Machiavellianism. Results are mostly discussed from developmental and relational perspectives. Machiavellianism is suggested to be the result of maladaptive coping responses to the EMSs listed above.
... It is believed that a fast life strategy is produced by adverse environments encountered in childhood, and reflected by self-regulation traits, motivational traits, sociosexuality physiological traits, developmental traits, and personality traits (Chen et al. 2017;Giudice 2016, Figueredo et al. 2005Láng 2015;Láng and Lénárd 2015), including Machiavellianism (Geng et al. 2016;Jonason and Krause 2013;Jonason and Tost 2010). Individuals who develop in harsh and / or unpredictable environments are more likely to adopt a fast life strategy (Ellis et al. 2009). ...
... p < .01 for girls), thus demonstrating that adolescents with greater scores on negative life events endorsed more immoral, and cynical lifestyle such as, low empathy, manipulation, and deception. However, Machiavellianism may be a possible strategy response to adversities, and represents an attempt to recover control of the world and others (Láng and Lénárd 2015). Vernon et al. 2008;Veselka et al. 2012), this study replicated the results of positive and significant relations between Machiavellianism, emotional and behavioral problems. ...
Article
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This study examines Machiavellianism and negative life events in relation to emotional / behavioral problems. Using a sample of adolescents (n = 454), we investigated the degree to which Machiavellianism, negative life events, and the interaction of Machiavellianism and negative life events accounts for variance in emotional / behavioral problems, and also tested for the moderating effect of gender in this respect. The results indicated that (a) Machiavellianism was positively related to negative life events, suggesting that the more adolescents endorsed Machiavellianism, the greater their scores on negative life events; (b) the correlation between Machiavellianism and conduct problems was stronger in boys than girls, thereby suggesting a more substantial relation between Machiavellianism and conduct problems in boys than girls; (c) increasing levels of Machiavellianism could increase the contributions of negative life events to the levels of emotional symptoms, conduct problems, and peer relationship problems. The implication of these findings are interpreted and discussed.
... Egy serdülőkorúakkal (16-19 év) végzett kutatás során a magas machiavellisták kaotikusabb és rigidebb családi működésről, szegényesebb családi kommunikációról számoltak be, valamint kevésbé voltak elégedettek családi életükkel, mint az alacsonyan machiavellista kortársaik (Láng & Birkás, 2014). Egy másik tanulmány felnőtt adatközlőket használva azt találta, hogy a machiavellizmus kapcsolatban áll a gyermekkorban tapasztalt negatív családi atmoszférával és szülői elhanyagolással (Láng & Lénárd, 2015). ...
... Hipotézisek: H 1 : A machiavellizmus személyiségvonás pozitív kapcsolatban áll a múltnegatív (Láng & Lénárd, 2015;Jonason et al., 2016), a jelenfatalista (Jakobwitz & Egan, 2006;DeShong et al., 2017), és a jövőorientált (Jones & Paulhus, 2011a;Rauthmann & Will, 2011) időperspektívával. ...
Article
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E vizsgálat célja annak alátámasztása, hogy a Sötét Triád vonások (machiavellizmus, szubklinikus pszichopátia, szubklinikus nárcizmus) átfedéseik ellenére különálló konstruktumok. Az elemzés feltevései szerint a Rövid Sötét Triád kérdőívvel mért három személyiségvonás a Zimbardo Időperspektíva Kérdőív és a Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja Személyiségkérdőív változóival egyedi összefüggéseket mutat. Az adatok a normál populációból származnak, a kérdőíveket 18 és 88 év közötti egyének töltötték ki, a minta 580 fős volt. A vizsgálat eredményei szerint a Sötét Triád tagjai egyedi idő-és személyiségprofillal rendelkeznek. A machiavellizmus személyiségvonás pozitív együttjárást mutat a jelenfatalista és jövőorientált időperspektívákkal, az aktivitás és agresszió személyiség-faktorokkal, valamint a verbális agresszió, alacsony önbecsülés és munkamánia alfaktorokkal. Ezen kívül negatív kapcsolatban áll az extraverzió vonással és a szociális melegség alfaktorral. A szubklinikus pszichopátiára jelenhedonista és múltnegatív idő-perspektíva, valamint az agresszió és a szenzoros élménykeresés jellemző. A ZKA alfaktorok közül a fizikai agresszió, az ellenségesség, a gátlástalanság, az izgalom és él-ménykeresés és a verbális agresszió mutatnak pozitív együttjárást a személyiségvonás-sal. Ezzel szemben a jövőorientált időperspektíva, az extraverzió személyiségvonás, va-lamint a pozitív érzelmek és a szociális melegség alfaktorok negatív összefüggésben áll-nak a pszichopátiával. A szubklinikus nárcizmus jellemző időperspektívája a jelenhedonizmus, jellemző személyiségfaktorai az extraverzió, a szenzoros élménykere-sés és az aktivitás, alfaktorai pedig az exhibicionizmus, a szociabilitás, a munkamánia és a gátlástalanság. Ugyanakkor negatív irányú összefüggésben áll a jelenfatalista idő-perspektívával, a neuroticizmus személyiségvonással, és az alacsony önbecsülés alfaktorral. Kulcsszavak: Sötét Triád, machiavellizmus, pszichopátia, nárcizmus, időperspektíva, Zuckerman-Kuhlman-Aluja személyiségkérdőív, Alernatív Öt Faktoros Modell, nárcizmus, epidemizmusa
... Finally, we aimed to reveal whether there are specific latent personality types preferred by Machiavellian individuals as romantic partners. According to previous results, Machiavellians learn during childhood that the significant others are dismissive, unhelpful and unreliable (Jonason et al., 2014;Kraut & Lewis, 1975;Láng & Lénárd, 2015;Ojha, 2007;Touhey, 1973). Such early experience prevents them from developing elaborate knowledge structures and models of a relationship based on warmth, intimacy, mutual acceptance and trust. ...
Article
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Machiavellianism is a personality trait that is characterized by manipulative and exploitative attitude toward others, lack of empathy, and a cynical view of human nature. In itself or as part of the Dark Triad it has been the target of several studies investigating romantic relations. Nevertheless, the relationship between Machiavellianism and romantic ideals has not been revealed yet. An undergraduate sample of 143 (92 females) with an average age of 19.83 years (SD = 1.51 years) filled out self-report measures of Machiavellianism (Mach-IV Scale) and romantic ideals (Ideal Standards Scale and NEO-FFI-IDEAL). According to our results, Machiavellianism correlated negatively with the importance of partner’s warmth-trustworthiness, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and with the importance of intimacy and loyalty in their ideal relationships. Machiavellianism correlated positively with the ideal partner’s possession over status and resources. Explorative factor analysis revealed three components of ideal partner’s characteristics. Machiavellianism loaded significantly on two out of three components. Results are discussed with regard to Ideal Standards Model and the Big Five model of personality.
... The confines of reality and appropriate boundaries mean very little to a true Machiavellian who would be of the impression that the best defense is a good offense and would place emphasis in winning at any cost. Negative home atmosphere, loneliness, and parental neglect have been linked to Machiavellianism and it has recently been queried whether Machiavellian attitude can be considered as an adaptive, defensive response to neglectful environments (Láng & Lénárd, 2015). In this perspective, the deceitful and exploitative strategy associated with Machiavellianism may be viewed as a means of pre-emptive defense. ...
Article
Those high in the Dark Triad traits, i.e. narcissism, psychopathy and Machiavellianism are often painted as either the "villains" or the "perpetrators". The consensus of personality research thus far is that these traits function by playing offense. Nonetheless, there is scope to understand the defensive stance of these traits. In this online questionnaire design study ( N=. 244) the relationship between the Dark Triad traits, defensive strategies and stress were investigated by correlational analysis. Unique associations with stress and defensive functioning depict individual differences in the Dark triad traits. Acting out, dissociation and splitting were the defenses that all three traits had in common; and all three traits were correlated with the use of an immature defensive strategy. An important novel finding of this present study was that an immature defensive strategy was found to mediate the relationship between Machiavellianism and stress. This brings us closer to understanding the psychological makeup of this trait. Applications are discussed within a clinical framework and the case is presented for a focus on theory of psychological defense to be adopted when working with such clientele.
... Moreover, perceived verbal aggressiveness proved to be the most important predictor of students' Machiavellianism, which is in accordance with previous findings showing that instructors' verbal aggressiveness is positively related with students' Machiavellian tactics, such as amoral manipulation, desire for status, desire for control, distrust and antisocial fair play behaviors, such as gamesmanship and cheating (Bekiari, 2017;Hassandra, Bekiari, & Sakellariou, 2007). According to Láng & Lénárd (2015), the negative climate at home and loneliness seem to be negatively correlated with Machiavellianism while punishment seems also to foster Machiavellianism. ...
... Furthermore, recent studies have shown a significant association between negative childhood experiences (e.g. parent-child relationship and family functioning) and the presence of DT traits (Jonason, Lyons, & Bethell, 2014;Láng & Birkás, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015). Consequently, the Dark Triad, to some extent, can be considered a personality indicator of a fast life history strategy (e.g., Gladden, Figueredo, & Jacobs, 2009). ...
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Recent empirical findings on the Dark Triad and Life History Theory suggest that the behaviors linked to the Dark Triad are dominantly characterized by a fast life strategy with increased motivation to acquire short-term benefits and prioritize situations with immediate rewards. Current studies have also suggested that time perspectives could be one of the psychological mediators between actual behavior and life history strategies assuming that a present-oriented attitude is associated with fast life strategies. In line with this suggestion, we predicted to find associations between time perspectives and the Dark Triad traits. The prediction was investigated by self-reports. In accordance with the predictions, the results showed positive associations of the Dark Triad traits with the present-oriented time perspectives. In addition, unlike Narcissism, Machiavellianism and Psychopathy were found to be related to a negative view of the past. Our study provides the first evidence for significant associations between Dark Triad personality and time perspectives.
... The Verbal Fluency task, the Trail Making Test and the Sorting Test from the Delis Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis et al., 2001)) were used to measure semantic verbal fluency, cognitive flexibility and problem-solving, respectively. Lastly, Machiavellianism tendencies were recently reported to be associated with depression and anxiety (Monaghan et al., 2016), and, of particular relevance to the present sample, past traumatic experiences (Láng and Lénárd, 2015). Hence, participants completed self-report measures of depression (BDI-II; Beck et al., 1996) state and trait anxiety (STAI; Spielberger et al., 1983), and post traumatic stress disorder (M-PTSD; Keane et al., 1988), and a total score was calculated for each. ...
Article
Machiavellianism - a personality trait that is characterized by a tendency to distrust, deceive and exploit others - has been the focus of growing attention in psychological research. Neuroimaging studies of Machiavellianism highlight the influence of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) on Machiavellianism tendencies. However, knowledge regarding the causal role of the left and right dlPFC on Machiavellianism is still obscure. Here, we measured general Machiavellian tendencies, as well as two subscales (i.e., Machiavellian Views and Machiavellian Tactics) in a large sample of brain-injured patients (N=129) and non-brain-injured control participants (N=37) to determine whether Machiavellianism tendencies can be altered by brain damage. We analyzed Machiavellianism tendencies as a function of lesion location, with patients separated into four groups based on dlPFC damage: left dlPFC damage, right dlPFC damage, non-dlPFC damage, and healthy controls. We found that left dlPFC damage increased Machiavellianism in general, and Machiavellian perspective (views) in particular, but did not modulate behavior (tactics). Critically, left dlPFC damage predicted higher levels of Machiavellianism after controlling for general and emotional intelligence, linguistic abilities, empathy and psychopathology. These findings establish a causal role of the left dlPFC in modulating Machiavellian views, and indicate that one can hold Machiavellian views without necessarily endorsing Machiavellian tactics.
... Another large body of research has shown that negative childhood experiences (e.g., poor parent-child relationship, poor family functioning) are associated with DT traits (Jonason et al., 2014;Birkás, 2014, 2015;Birkás et al., 2015b;Láng and Lénárd, 2015;Láng and Abell, 2018). Furthermore, recent studies have revealed that several characteristics linked to DT traits are also proximate indicators of fast LH strategies (for a review see Furnham et al., 2013;Vize et al., 2016;Muris et al., 2017). ...
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Life history theory posits that behavioral adaptation to various environmental (ecological and/or social) conditions encountered during childhood is regulated by a wide variety of different traits resulting in various behavioral strategies. Unpredictable and harsh conditions tend to produce fast life history strategies, characterized by early maturation, a higher number of sexual partners to whom one is less attached, and less parenting of offspring. Unpredictability and harshness not only affects dispositional social and emotional functioning, but may also promote the development of personality traits linked to higher rates of instability in social relationships or more self-interested behavior. Similarly, detrimental childhood experiences, such as poor parental care or high parent-child conflict, affect personality development and may create a more distrustful, malicious interpersonal style. The aim of this brief review is to survey and summarize findings on the impact of negative early-life experiences on the development of personality and fast life history strategies. By demonstrating that there are parallels in adaptations to adversity in these two domains, we hope to lend weight to current and future attempts to provide a comprehensive insight of personality traits and functions at the ultimate and proximate levels.
... Childhood maltreatment may also give rise to defensive attitudes (Deater-Deckard et al., 2003), a maladaptive approach to reconciling violence from caregivers with the ongoing need for childhood protection and security, and Machiavellian attitudes and behaviors, characterized by selfishness, lack of empathy, and other limitations to moral development (Láng & Lénárd, 2015). Other researchers have conceptualized related defensive attitudes that youth may develop while navigating early adversities. ...
Article
Interpersonal conflicts are inevitable, but the probability that conflicts involve aggressive behavior varies. Prior research that has tended to focus on victimization in intimate partnerships reported through retrospective designs. Addressing these limitations, the current study examines daily reports of behaving aggressively in any conflict across relationships in a sample of 512 young adults drawn from the nationally representative iCOR cohort. Respondent attitudes and affective measures were collected at the end of the daily data collection period. Regression methods were applied to examine the probability and frequency of aggression, investigating early and recent exposure to adversities, attitudes, self-control, affect and emotional states, and alcohol use behavior. Recent adversities and the propensity to endorse a defensive honor code attitude, consistent with theory and retrospective studies of aggression, predicted both prevalence and frequency of aggressive behavior. The associations of childhood maltreatment and self-control with the prevalence of behaving aggressively were as expected, but these constructs were significantly associated with the frequency of aggression with unexpected, inverse directionality. Moreover, respondents’ affect and other emotional states were only associated with the frequency, not the prevalence, of aggressive behavior. Overall, this daily data collection constructively distinguished risk and protective factors for behaving aggressively more often. Further research is needed to disentangle the extent to which affective states drive or is a consequence of frequent aggressive behavior.
... From the results of previous studies (e.g. Kraut & Lewis, 1975;Láng & Lénárd, 2015;Ojha, 2007;Touhey, 1973), it can be concluded that the emphasis is on the toxic effect [(e.g. "basic fault", Balint, 1979)] of the early socialization environment rather than on its modelling effect in developing the Machiavellian personality, which then exerts far-reaching effects on the individual's life and adult relationships. ...
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It is commonly known from the literature that Machiavellian individuals have negative attitudes towards people and in general towards the world´s affairs. They are distrustful of the intentions of others, and they get cautiously involved into interpersonal interactions and take risks only if that may not have any severe negative consequence. It is also a fact that there are few ventures in life that potentially involve as much insecurity and personal vulnerability as the establishment and maintenance of close relationships. In our study, we were seeking the answer to the question: do people with high levels of Machiavellianism show a generally negative, distrustful and cautious attitude in their intimate relationships, as well? What effect their pessimistic approaches have on the other consequences of the relationship (satisfaction, commitment, investment, quality of alternatives)? This question was investigated on a dyadic sample of heterosexual couples (N = 101 pairs) with Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). The results of the correlations and actor effects show that men with high levels of Machiavellianism perceive in a negative way not just people in general, but their romantic partners and relationships as well and they experience an increased level of distrust, risk, and dissatisfaction into their close relationships. Women with high levels of Machiavellianism are less negativistic and feel less discontent towards their intimate partner and relationship, but even they are unable to put their distrust and precaution aside. The results of partner effects have revealed that women's Machiavellianism undermines men's trust, while men's Machiavellianism has the effect of minimizing women's investment into their relationship.
... There is a debate over gender differences in childhood abuse reports. Some studies found that males were more likely to report childhood abuse (Watts et al., 2017) while others found higher reported abuse among females (Láng & Lénárd, 2015). ...
Article
Many studies have reported an effect of childhood maltreatment and parenting behavior with the future development of psychopathic traits. However, there is a limited amount of research on parenting behavior and adult psychopathic traits as possible identifiers of childhood maltreat-ment. The aim of this study is threefold (1) identify specific parenting behaviors and adult psychopathic traits that predict forms of childhood maltreatment, (2) explore gender differences, and (3) expand on other studies on psychopathy by focusing on a representative sample of the community. There are significant associations between recalled childhood maltreatment and parenting behavior, and psychopathic traits. Parental rejection was the most recurrent predictor of childhood maltreatment with a significant positive relation to almost all its forms. Paternal overprotection was positively associated with sexual abuse, while the opposite was true for maternal overprotection. Psychopathic traits displayed in adulthood were also strong indicators of childhood maltreatment; females with high levels of boldness were more likely to have experienced sexual abuse in childhood, and those high in disinhibition were more likely to have experienced physical neglect and sexual abuse. While males were generally higher in terms of psychopathic traits, females reported more childhood abuse and negative parental behaviors. These findings provide support for using parenting behavior and psychopathic traits as markers of childhood maltreatment.
... Furthermore, it has been postulated that the experience of corporal punishment prevents moral internalization, which in turn contribute to the development of callous behaviors and Machiavellian traits (Láng & Lénárd, 2015); non-compliant children with high levels of callous behavior may motivate parents to use harsher methods of punishment (Waller et al., 2012). This results in a vicious cycle in which both parent and child recurrently resort to physical coercion in their interactions, influencing the child's subsequent parenting beliefs and practices. ...
Article
Despite corporal punishment being associated with negative developmental outcomes for children, it is commonly practiced in Malaysian courts, schools, and homes. This study examined the relationships among the Dark Tetrad personality traits (Machiavellianism, narcissism, psychopathy, sadism), anger rumination, and attitudes toward corporal punishment of children. Two hundred sixty-three participants from a university and community sample in Malaysia completed measures of attitudes toward child corporal punishment, the Short Dark Tetrad, and the Anger Rumination Scale. Participants also answered questions about whether they received corporal punishment at home and school as children. Correlation analyses showed that Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism were positively associated with acceptance of corporal punishment. Further regression analyses revealed that having received corporal punishment at home – but not at school – during childhood as well as trait Machiavellianism and sadism predicted accepting attitudes toward corporal punishment. Identifying factors that influence people’s attitudes regarding corporal punishment and discipline behaviors could yield new insights into parenting education programs and policies.
... It has been supported that the negative atmosphere at home and the loneliness seems to be in negative relation with Machiavellianism [72]. Machiavellianism appearing in childhood can also be interpreted as a reaction to authoritarianism [73]. ...
... Environmental factors influence Machiavellianism's development in contrast to psychopathy's strong genetic basis (Campbell et al., 2009;Vernon, Villani, Vickers, & Harris, 2008). Thus, Machiavellianism emerges as a consequence of difficult experiences during socialisation (Láng, 2015;Láng & Abell, 2018;Láng & Birkás, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015), rather than from hard-wired characteristics and neurological deficits that characterise psychopathy (Patrick, 2005). Neglectful, abusive, or traumatic experiences likely cultivate cynical and distrusting world-views and schemas that adversely affect the development of empathy, compassion, and moral reasoning. ...
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For over 45 years, research investigating Machiavellianism has largely used the same unidimensional approach, even though empirical research demonstrates that Machiavellianism is comprised of two robust dimensions: views and tactics. This paper elaborates on the theory and conceptualisation behind the two dimensions. It also documents the construction and validation of the 12-item Two-Dimensional Machiavellianism Scale (TDMS), which measures the cynical and untrusting views dimension, and the immoral interpersonal tactics dimension, across six samples (N = 3886, 37.70% men) using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory. The two-factor structure fitted the data well based on CFA, and was invariant across samples, gender, and over a three-month period (N = 338, 59.98% men). Evidence of each subscale’s construct validity was established using structural equation modelling. As expected, the Views subscale was primarily associated with misanthropy, hypersensitive narcissism, lower subjective well-being, and lower emotional stability. The Tactics subscale was primarily associated with psychopathy, lower conscientiousness, lower willingness to reciprocate, and “ends justified the means” behaviour in ethical dilemmas. The TDMS enhances practical and conceptual understanding of Machiavellianism through demarcating the underlying motivations and addresses the need for an updated and psychometrically sound measure of Machiavellianism.
... The Dark Triad, which focuses on the socially aversive side of personality without being a clinical concept, is a composition of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality traits (Furnham, Richards, & Paulhus, 2013;Rahafar, Randler, Castellana, & Kausch, 2017), namely Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. Machiavellianism is characterized by a deceitful, materialistic, unemotional, and selfish stance (Christie, Geis, Festinger, & Schachter, 1970;Láng & Lénárd, 2015). Narcissism refers to feelings of pride, superiority over others, admiration-seeking, egoism, and lack of empathy. ...
Article
The current study investigated the associations between Dark Triad and scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and the mediating effect of anger rumination on the relationships between Dark Triad and overall sleep quality in a sample of 560 adults. Men scored significantly higher on narcissism, and lower on use of sleeping medication than women did. Correlations revealed that Machiavellianism, primary, and secondary psychopathy, were significantly associated with poor sleep quality and greater anger rumination, whereas narcissism was neither associated with overall sleep quality, nor with anger rumination. Mediating effect analysis revealed that (1) Machiavellianism was directly associated with poor sleep quality, as well as indirectly associated with poor sleep quality via greater anger rumination; (2) both primary and secondary psychopathy were indirectly associated with poor sleep quality via greater anger rumination, and secondary psychopathy had the strongest direct effect on poor sleep quality among the Dark Triad. These results give further support to the overlapping but distinct nature of the Dark Triad, and provide insight into the behaviors and underlying psychological processes associated with the Dark Triad.
... Individuals from adverse, potentially traumatizing childhood environments -like borderline patients (Brüne, 2014;Brüne, Ghiassi, & Ribbert, 2010) -are more likely to pursue a fast LHS with, for example, impaired control of impulses and preference for short-term romantic relationships (Belsky et al., 1991). Several studies also link both the characteristics (e.g., impaired impulse control and unrestricted socio-sexuality [Birkás, Csathó, Gács, & Bereczkei, 2015;Jonason & Tost, 2010;McDonald, Donnellan, & Navarrete, 2012]) and the onto-genetic origins (e.g., neglectful parents and disengaged family of origin [Láng & Birkás, 2014;Láng & Lénárd, 2015]) of Machiavellianism to fast LHSs. ...
Article
Despite the phenomenological (e.g., manipulativeness) and dynamic (i.e., emotion dysregulation) analogies between Machiavellianism and Borderline Personality Organization (BPO), the relationship between these constructs has not yet been investigated. In our study, 225 non-clinical, non-student adults (130 females; 32.33 ± 5.42 years of age on average) completed measures of BPO and Machiavellianism. Results showed that Machiavellian personality traits were positively correlated with fear of fusion, diffuse identity , and use of primitive defenses. Machiavellianism, in general, and Machiavellian interpersonal tactics were predicted by fear of fusion and use of primitive defenses. Results are discussed from the perspective of Life History Theory.
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Background: Humans seem to have a unique ability to consciously organize the flow of time (i.e., past, present, and future) and to intentionally choose goals and values (i.e., character: self, others, the universe). These two parts of human awareness have implications for individuals’ relation to a society that will flourish or perish. In fact, a balanced time perspective is suggested as necessary for the experience of well-being and optimal societal functioning. Nevertheless, low character development might be expressed as a Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. In the present study, we aimed to investigate if individuals differ in their outlook on time depending on their dark character profiles. Method: We re-analyzed data from a previous study in which participants (N = 338) responded to the Short Dark Triad Inventory and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. However, here we use the Dark Cube (Garcia, 2017a), a model of malevolent character based on Cloninger’s biopsychosocial theory of personality and in the assumption of a Dark Triad, thus, clustering individuals in eight profiles (i.e., the combination of high/low in three malevolent character traits). Results: The results for each trait suggest multi-finality (i.e., same antecedents, different outcomes) and equifinality (i.e., different antecedents, same outcomes). For example, individuals high in narcissism presented a balanced time perspective when manipulative behavior was also high and psychopathy was low. Conclusions: In certain conditions, malevolent character is associated to a balanced time perspective. Thus, suggesting that in order to understand well-being and optimal societal functioning, we need to look at human awareness in relation to both time (i.e., past, present, future) and space (i.e., character: self, others, the universe).
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Life History Theory posits early-life adversities affect personality development partway through sensitizing individuals to certain environmental cues, thus influencing the person’s responses to different stressors. We therefore hypothesized that life history strategy affects perceived distress and self-efficiency in coping through certain personality traits. The concept of the Dark Triad describes specific forms of personalities found to be associated with faster life strategies and perceived stress. Hence, the aim of our study was to examine the possible mediator role of the Dark Triad traits on the relationship between life strategies and perceived stress. A sample of 432 (133 males) under- and postgraduate students (aged between 18 and 34 years, M= 23.4, SD = 3.9) answered the Short-Form of the Arizona Life History Battery, the Mini-K, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Short Dark Triad. Multiple linear regression and subsequent mediation analyses showed significant mediation effects of Dark Triad traits on both perceived distress and perceived coping. Our results indicate that these personality traits are part of the process in which faster life strategies predict higher level of perceived stress and lower levels of coping ability.
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Leaders can be found at any hierarchical level of the organization, representing a determinant factor in the global performance and their subordinates’ level of job satisfaction. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the leader’s attachment type and his leadership style, but also try to understand how this relationship can be impacted by the presence of accentuated personality traits. In this regard, data was collected using a set of self-report instruments (N = 110) from a sample consisting of 72 women (65.5%) and 38 men (34.5%) which take part in NGOs, between the ages of 19 and 43 years old. Results showed that the anxious attachment type significantly and negatively predicts efficient leadership styles, as opposed to the avoidant type that doesn’t seem to share such effects. Moreover, neither of the two insecure attachment types could significantly predict the leader’s inefficacy. Regarding to the effect that accentuated personality traits may exhibit, results indicated that Machiavellianism is the only dark trait which has a moderating effect on the relationship between attachment type and leadership style, but only at a lower level of the trait and in a way that reduces the efficacy of the avoidant leader. These results are characterized by a considerable practical importance, mainly in the fields of psychologists and social workers’ activity, in organizational selection and training.
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Leaders can be found at any hierarchical level of the organization, representing a determinant factor in the global performance and their subordinates’ level of job satisfaction. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between the leader’s attachment type and his leadership style, but also try to understand how this relationship can be impacted by the presence of accentuated personality traits. In this regard, data was collected using a set of self-report instruments (N = 110) from a sample consisting of 72 women (65.5%) and 38 men (34.5%) which take part in NGOs, between the ages of 19 and 43 years old. Results showed that the anxious attachment type significantly and negatively predicts efficient leadership styles, as opposed to the avoidant type that doesn’t seem to share such effects. Moreover, neither of the two insecure attachment types could significantly predict the leader’s inefficacy. Regarding to the effect that accentuated personality traits may exhibit, results indicated that Machiavellianism is the only dark trait which has a moderating effect on the relationship between attachment type and leadership style, but only at a lower level of the trait and in a way that reduces the efficacy of the avoidant leader. These results are characterized by a considerable practical importance, mainly in the fields of psychologists and social workers’ activity, in organizational selection and training.
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Certain disapproving friends and family may interfere in others’ romantic relationships by undermining commitment processes. In the current study, we assessed whether friends and family members’ scores on the Dark Tetrad, a constellation of socially aversive personality traits including narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, and sadism, predict relationship interference. In Study 1, 206 people selected a friend who was currently in a romantic relationship they disliked or disapproved of. They then indicated how often they interfered in the disliked couple’s relationship, completed measures of the Dark Tetrad, and additional measures of interest (e.g., gender, closeness to the target of interference). In Study 2, 180 people selected a family member who was currently or formerly in a disliked relationship, before completing the same measures. In both studies, overall dark personality and closeness to the friend or family member positively correlated with relationship interference. Additionally, when controlling for overall dark personality and the other dark tetrad traits, sadism specifically predicted interference with friends’ relationships; high narcissism and, surprisingly, low Machiavellianism predicted interference with family members’ relationships. Implications for dark personality traits and relationships are discussed.
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Dehumanization is an important psychological phenomenon because it is so common but so dire in its consequences. The present study examined direct and indirect associations of childhood maltreatment and self- or other-dehumanization via dark personality traits among 658 adolescents. We demonstrated for the first time retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment predicted conceptualizing self or others as lacking in human attributes. Victims of childhood maltreatment would be more likely to develop dark personality traits. Moreover, Machiavellianism and psychopathy partially mediated the associations between childhood maltreatment and self- or other-dehumanization, whereas the predictive effect of narcissism for dehumanization was not significant. Our results suggested the possible role of dehumanization in the negative effects of childhood maltreatment should be examined in following studies.
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The article raises the issue of children’s manipulation, and examines the conditions contributing to the formation of the manipulative attitudes. As such are analyzed: importance of these attitudes for the child, existence of manipulative attitudes in parents, family microclimate and position to the manipulations in society. According to the results of an empirical study, the characteristics of the family, provoking the development of manipulative behavior in children, are described. The members of this family hardly cooperate with each other and others, are focused on self-interests, and try to satisfy them without much effort, and by using the people around them. It is accompanied by the insincerity and lack of attention to the child, and most of all to his needs, feelings and emotional stress. © 2013, Association for the Development of Science, Engineering and Education. All rights reserved.
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The development of individual differences has always been a primary focus of psychological research, and it continues to be an intensely debated topic to this day. Three issues in particular stand out in contemporary debate. The first pertains to the sources of individual variation, with the pressing task of understanding the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Second, there is the issue of early experience (especially within the family) and its role in shaping later development, a role which some question and for which there exists no comprehensive theory capable of accounting for many conflicting findings. Finally comes the issue of continuity versus discontinuity in individual differences across the life span; this subject is rendered difficult by the compartmentalized way in which development is often studied and by the lack of organizing principles for linking diverse behavioral phenomena, manifested at different points in time, into meaningful clusters. This chapter illustrates how an evolutionary approach can advance understanding of all three of these issues, and how a developmental perspective can provide fascinating insights to the study of individual differences.
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The current paper synthesizes theory and data from the field of life history (LH) evolution to advance a new developmental theory of variation in human LH strategies. The theory posits that clusters of correlated LH traits (e.g., timing of puberty, age at sexual debut and first birth, parental investment strategies) lie on a slow-to-fast continuum; that harshness (externally caused levels of morbidity-mortality) and unpredictability (spatial-temporal variation in harshness) are the most fundamental environmental influences on the evolution and development of LH strategies; and that these influences depend on population densities and related levels of intraspecific competition and resource scarcity, on age schedules of mortality, on the sensitivity of morbidity-mortality to the organism's resource-allocation decisions, and on the extent to which environmental fluctuations affect individuals versus populations over short versus long timescales. These interrelated factors operate at evolutionary and developmental levels and should be distinguished because they exert distinctive effects on LH traits and are hierarchically operative in terms of primacy of influence. Although converging lines of evidence support core assumptions of the theory, many questions remain unanswered. This review demonstrates the value of applying a multilevel evolutionary-developmental approach to the analysis of a central feature of human phenotypic variation: LH strategy.
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The behavior, attitudes and social strategies associated with Machiavellian personality traits are well studied in psychology. Still, developmental origins of Machiavellianism have gained little attention so far, especially from a family system perspective. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between Machiavellianism and family functioning in adolescence. A sample (N = 366) of adolescents completed the Mach-IV and FACES IV. High-Mach and low-Mach individuals differed in their perception of family functioning. High-Machs perceived their families as more disengaged, more chaotic, less rigid, less cohesive, and less flexible. High-Machs also reported poorer family communication and less satisfaction with family life. Results are discussed mainly from the perspectives of attachment theory and early maladaptive schemas.
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Does the quality of the relationship one has with their parents influence the development of “dark” personality traits? We examined (N = 352) the Dark Triad traits (i.e., narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism) and their components in relation to a measure of parental care and a measure of attachment. Machiavellianism was the most susceptible to variance associated with low quality or irregular parental care and attachment patterns. Low quality parental care for narcissism and psychopathy had effects localized to components of each trait and specific to the sex of the parent. Path modeling suggests the quality of parental care leads to attachment patterns which may then lead to different aspects of the Dark Triad.
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Machiavellianism is a personality trait of which the essence is created by a specific view of the social world that is treated as a place of combat, by egocentric motivation, subjective treatment of other people and a tendency to achieve goals by means of interpersonal manipulation. This article presents the results of a few researches dedicated to the phenomenon of Machiavellianism in children and the youth, and to stressing problems and threats created by the Machiavellian pupils at school; it also suggests to the teachers some ways to overcome those problems.
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Ten years ago Paulhus and Williams (2002) called attention to the ‘Dark Triad’, a constellation of three conceptually distinct but empirically overlapping personality variables. The three members – Machiavellianism, narcissism and subclinical psychopathy – often show differential correlates but share a common core of callous-manipulation. There are now dozens of studies on the triad and, according to Google Scholar, over 350 citations. The goal of this review is to update and critically evaluate this rapidly expanding literature. The standard measures of each Dark Triad member are reviewed along with newer combination measures. The Dark Triad members are located in mainstream structural models, namely, the interpersonal circumplex as well as Five- and Six-Factor Models. Key issues and controversies are addressed.
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The current research applied a mid-level evolutionary theory that has been successfully employed across numerous animal species—life history theory—in an attempt to understand the Dark Triad personality trait cluster (narcissism, psychopathy, and Machiavellianism). In Study 1 (N = 246), a measure of life history strategy was correlated with psychopathy, but unexpectedly with neither Machiavellianism nor narcissism. Study 2 (N = 321) replicated this overall pattern of results using longer, traditional measures of the Dark Triad traits and alternative, future-discounting indicators of life history strategy (a smaller-sooner, larger-later monetary dilemma and self-reported risk-taking behaviors). Additional findings suggested two sources of shared variance across the Dark Triad traits: confidence in predicting future outcomes and openness to short-term mating.
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Maltreated and nonmaltreated preschoolers' (mean age = 4 years 6 months) judgments regarding hypothetical and actual moral transgressions were examined. Thirty-six maltreated children (17 physically abused and 19 neglected) and 19 comparison nonmaltreated children judged, justified, and evaluated affective responses to 6 hypothetical moral transgressions. Perpetrators and victims also judged and evaluated affective responses to actual classroom moral transgressions. All children evaluated moral transgressions as very serious, punishable, and wrong in the absence of rules. Moral judgments and justifications differed as a function of context (hypothetical vs actual) and type of transgression but not maltreatment status. Affective responses differed as a function of maltreatment subtype and gender. Maltreated and nonmaltreated children may differ in the organization of their affective responses rather than in their moral evaluations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The aim of the present study was to replicate some of the already existing findings regarding the assessment of bully/victim problems in a sample of Greek primary school pupils using the Bullying Behaviour Scale and the Peer Victimisation Scale [Austin S, Joseph S (1996): British Journal of Educational Psychology 66:447–456] and to extend the investigation of the association between bully/victim problems and personality by examining the self-esteem, Machiavellianism, and locus of control of children who are classified as bullies, victims, or both bullies and victims. Associations with the Self-Perception Profile for Children [Harter S (1985): University of Denver] were also examined for the same purpose. The results suggest that what sets bully/victims apart from bullies or victims is their low social acceptance and their high level of Machiavellianism and negative self-esteem. Implications for interventions against bullying are briefly discussed. Aggr. Behav. 26:49–56, 2000. © 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Researchers adopting an evolutionary perspective have conceptualized the Dark Triad as an exploitative interpersonal style reflective of a fast life history strategy. However, not all research has supported this claim. We posit that different elements of the constructs associated with the Dark Triad may reflect different life history strategies. Our results indicate that the measures of the Dark Triad and other indicators of life history strategies form two distinct factors: (1) a fast life strategy factor that includes the impulsive antisociality facet of psychopathy, the entitlement/exploitativeness facet of narcissism, Machiavellianism, unrestricted sociosexuality, and aggression, and (2) a slow life strategy factor that includes the fearless dominance facet of psychopathy and both the leadership/authority and grandiose exhibitionism facets of narcissism. These factors differentially correlate with established measures of life history strategy. These findings add to the literature by clarifying how the Dark Triad fits into a life history framework.
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Despite the recent flurry of research on the Dark Triad, this work has been atheoretical. In two studies, totaling 358 participants, we attempt to situate the Dark Triad within the larger framework of Life History Theory by correlating them with three measures of self-control. Both psychopathy (Study 1 and Study 2) and Machiavellianism (Study 2 only) were correlated with low self-control, a tendency to discount future consequences, and high rates of attention deficit disorder. Narcissism was not correlated with measures of self-control in either study. Results are consistent with Life History Theory in that these two sets of psychological traits are expected to be part of a fast life strategy.
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The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data were used to test predictions from life history theory. We hypothesized that (1) in young adulthood an emerging life history strategy would exist as a common factor underlying many life history traits (e.g., health, relationship stability, economic success), (2) both environmental harshness and unpredictability would account for unique variance in expression of adolescent and young adult life history strategies, and (3) adolescent life history traits would predict young adult life history strategy. These predictions were supported. The current findings suggest that the environmental parameters of harshness and unpredictability have concurrent effects on life history development in adolescence, as well as longitudinal effects into young adulthood. In addition, life history traits appear to be stable across developmental time from adolescence into young adulthood.
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The effect of child maltreatment on children's social-cognitive development was examined by investigating abused, neglected, and nonmaltreated children's judgments regarding the permissibility of social-conventional and moral transgressions pertaining to physical harm, psychological distress, and the unfair distribution of resources. Abused and neglected children and a control group of nonmaltreated children matched on IQ, age, and social class judged the seriousness, deserved punishment, generalizability, and rule contingency of familiar transgressions for themselves and others. Abused subjects were more likely than neglected subjects to consider psychological distress to be universally wrong for others; neglected subjects were more likely than abused subjects to judge the unfair distribution of resources to be universally wrong for themselves. Abused and control children, but not neglected children, judged all transgressions to deserve more punishment when committed by others than when committed by the self. All children distinguished between morality and social convention and between different types of moral transgressions on all 4 criteria. Furthermore, all children were more egocentric in their judgments for the self than for others. These findings are discussed in relation to research on the effects of child maltreatment and on moral judgment.
Book
The culmination of over three decades of investigation into traumatic processes, Repetition and Trauma is the late Max Stern's pioneering reconceptualization of trauma in the light of recent insights into the physiology and psychology of stress and the "teleonomic" character of human evolution in developing defenses against shock. As such, it is a highly original attempt to reformulate certain basic tenets of psychoanalysis with the findings of modern biology in general and neurobiology in particular. At the core of Stern's effort is the integration of laboratory research into sleep and dreaming so as to clarify the meaning of pavor nocturnus. In concluding that these night terrors represent "a defense against stress caused by threatening nightmares," he exploits, though he interpretively departs from, the laboratory research on dreams conducted by Charles Fisher and others in the 1960s. From his understanding of pavor nocturnus as a compulsion to repeat in the service of overcoming a developmental failure to attribute meaning to states of tension, Stern enlarges his inquiry to the phenomena of repetitive dreams in general. In a brilliant reconstruction of Freud's Beyond the Pleasure Principle, he suggests that Freud was correct in attributing the repetitive phenomena of traumatic dreams to forces operating beyond the pleasure principle, but holds that these phenomena can be best illumined in terms of Freud's conception of mastery and Stern's own notion of "reparative mastery."
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Although the merits of parents using corporal punishment to discipline children have been argued for decades, a thorough understanding of whether and how corporal punishment affects children has not been reached. Toward this end, the author first presents the results of meta-analyses of the association between parental corporal punishment and 11 child behaviors and experiences. Parental corporal punishment was associated with all child constructs, including higher levels of immediate compliance and aggression and lower levels of moral internalization and mental health. The author then presents a process-context model to explain how parental corporal punishment might cause particular child outcomes and considers alternative explanations. The article concludes by identifying 7 major remaining issues for future research.
Book
This exciting new book offers a survey of the field of child abuse and neglect from the perspective of modern developmental attachment theory. The book opens with an account of the theory and describes the ways in which attachment difficulties manifest themselves in children's behaviour. The following three sections look at abuse, neglect, and compound cases of abuse and neglect, backing this up with empirical research evidence and vivid case material. The final section provides a comprehensive review of attachment-based interventions. This is a clear and compelling textbook, anchored in research evidence and geared in its structure to answer the kinds of questions practitioners and student practitioners specialising in child welfare are most likely to ask.
Chapter
This chapter provides an overview of life history theory (LHT). LHT conceptualizes specific allocation tradeoffs in terms of three broad, fundamental trade-offs: the present-future reproduction trade-off, the quantity-quality of offspring trade-off, and the tradeoff between mating effort and parenting effort. The chapter then considers specific applications of LHT to an understanding of the human life course. The topics concerning human life histories are the evolution of large brains, development and childhood, and aging. The chapter argues for ways in which LHT can and should be infused into evolutionary psychology. Over the past 40 years, evolutionary biology has witnessed a tremendous explosion in understanding of adaptations, particularly as they relate to behavior. A key foundation of these developments is economic cost-benefit analysis of selection pressures. LHT is not a particular domain of cost-benefit analysis; rather, it is a broad, overarching perspective within which understanding of adaptation must ultimately be situated.
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A total of 1329 children were tested twice across 1 year (M = 7 years 5 months of age at Time 1 (T1)) in the Zurich Project on Social Development. The measures at T1 were corporal punishment, neighbourhood trustworthiness and children's trustworthiness (not lying/cheating and not stealing). At Time 2 (T2), children reported the promise keeping of their classmates, which, via social relations analyses, yielded evidence for individual differences in reliability trustworthiness. Structural equation modelling analyses confirmed that there was stability in children's trustworthiness as a latent variable. The structural equation modelling further yielded evidence that (1) corporal punishment at T1 was negatively associated with children's trustworthiness at T1 and negatively predicted changes in children's trustworthiness and (2) neighbourhood trustworthiness at T1 was positively associated with children's trustworthiness at T1 and positively predicted changes in children's trustworthiness. The findings yielded support for the hypotheses that corporal punishment negatively, and neighbourhood trustworthiness positively, contributes to the development of trustworthiness in children. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Examined the role of the family in the development of Machiavellianism. 36 high- or low-Machiavellian 6th graders played a bluffing game, and their parents completed Machiavellian belief measures. The Machiavellianism of fathers and mothers was positively related to their children's success at deceiving others but not at seeing through others' attempts at deception. In addition, fathers' Machiavellianism was positively related to their children's Machiavellian beliefs. These data support a modeling hypothesis for the development of Machiavellianism. Unexpectedly, the children's own behaviors and beliefs were unrelated. This pattern of results suggests that a child's manipulative behaviors and beliefs are learned separately and only become consistent over time. (22 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Forty-eight pairs of fifth-grade children were in an experiment designed to assess the manner and degree to which Mach, sex, and source of responsibility affect manipulative interpersonal behavior. The major findings were that High Mach subjects (a) were more successful, (b) used manipulative strategies more frequently, and (c) were judged as sounding more effective in general than Low Mach subjects. Sex was found to interact with Mach and success in terms of the strategies employed and the affective and cognitive consequences of the behavior.
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The volitional model of Machiavellianism emphasizes that the Machiavellian person chooses to be manipulative. The model is critiqued. An alternative model is proposed, which asserts that the Machiavellian is a person who is unconnected to his or her own emotion, that is he or she is alexithymic. This deficit results in an inability to emotionally connect to others with the result that other people are treated as objects to be controlled to meet his or her self-focused goals. The model was tested on a general population sample of university students. Findings indicate that Machiavellianism was highly associated with alexithymia. In particular Machiavellianism was positively associated with externally orientated thinking and difficulty in identifying feelings. In addition Machiavellianism was positively associated with shame proneness but negatively associated with guilt proneness. The findings are discussed in relation to the role of emotion and the formation of interpersonal relationships, and the concept of volitional Machiavellianism. Implications for the concept of "successful psychopathy" are explored.
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The culmination of over three decades of investigation into traumatic processes, "Repetition and Trauma: Toward a Teleonomic Theory of Psychoanalysis" is the late Max Stern's pioneering reconceptualization of trauma in the light of recent insights into the physiology and psychology of stress and the "teleonomic" character of human evolution in developing defenses against shock. As such, it is a highly original attempt to reformulate certain basic tenets of psychoanalysis with the findings of modern biology in general and neurobiology in particular. At the core of Stern's effort is the integration of laboratory research into sleep and dreaming so as to clarify the meaning of pavor nocturnus. From his understanding of pavor nocturnus as a compulsion to repeat in the service of overcoming a developmental failure to attribute meaning to states of tension, Stern enlarges his inquiry to the phenomena of repetitive dreams in general. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The traditional perspective on trauma views trauma from the perspective of the traumatic event and its characteristics. How life threatening was the event? How unanticipated? How often repeated? Who was the perpetrator? The psychological sequellae of trauma are thus most often viewed as following from the characteristics of the event. Characteristics of the child experiencing the trauma, as well as his or her social context, have received less attention except that a consensus exists that large individual differences do exist in how traumatic events are experienced. In this chapter we do not focus on characteristics of traumatic events or trauma responses. Instead, we argue here that the impact of trauma on the developing child cannot be understood apart from the social and psychological resources available to buffer the effects of fearful arousal on the child's psychobiological functioning. We intend to elaborate the view here that trauma in infancy has special characteristics and must be defined differently than trauma at later ages. Finally, new evidence suggests that the infant does not come equipped with a particular level of stress tolerance at birth that continues into the preschool and school years. In developing a view of the regulatory processes in the caregiver-infant system that contribute to dysregulation, we integrate insights from the literature on early brain development and early dysfunction of the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis with an intersubjective and bioregulatory model of the early functioning of the attachment system. We recontextualize the functioning of the attachment relationship over the first year within a revised evolutionary framework. This framework anticipates dual-level mechanisms embedded in the infant-caregiver relationship governing the regulation of fearful arousal in infancy, including both direct physiological mechanisms and intersubjective processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
One aim of this study was to examine the strength of association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alexithymia relative to other psychiatric disorders in a sample of 252 treatment-seeking psychiatric patients. The other aim of this study was to explore which type of childhood trauma was associated with a greater level of adult alexithymia. The study found that PTSD and borderline personality disorder (BPD) were the two disorders among selected psychiatric disorders to contribute independently to a higher degree of alexithymia. Another finding was that a greater severity of emotional neglect and physical neglect, rather than abuse, was significantly related to higher levels of alexithymia. In addition, the study found that among these variables, BPD had the strongest relationship to alexithymia.
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The relationship between parenting and the development of antisocial behavior in children is well established. However, evidence for associations between dimensions of parenting and callous-unemotional (CU) traits is mixed. As CU traits appear critical to understanding a subgroup of youth with antisocial behavior, more research addressing the link between early parenting and CU traits is needed. The current study investigated longitudinal predictions between measures of harsh and positive parenting, and early CU behavior. Data from mother-child dyads (N = 731; 49% female) were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample with young children, and included self-reported and multi-method observed parenting. CU behavior was assessed using a previously validated measure of deceitful-callous behavior (Hyde et al., 2011).   Results suggest that dimensions of harsh parenting, but not positive parenting, contribute to the development of child deceitful-callous behavior. Nevertheless, deceitful-callous behavior showed strong stability over time and the effects of harsh parenting, especially observed harshness, were modest. The current findings have implications for developmental psychopathology and early interventions for antisocial behavior. The results also raise a number of issues about measuring emerging CU behavior in very young children, including the interrelation between parent perceptions and reports of child behavior, parent reactions, and the subsequent development of severe antisocial behavior.
Article
This paper describes a self-report measure, the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale, which yields a quantitative index of the frequency and extent of various types of negative experiences in childhood and adolescence. Data on this measure are presented for two large samples of college students and for a small clinical sample of subjects with a diagnosis of Multiple Personality Disorder. The strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the scale in the college population is documented, and its validity is attested to by demonstrating that it correlates significantly with outcomes such as dissociation, depression, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and victimization, all of which have previously been associated with childhood trauma or abuse. The extremely high scores of the Multiple Personality subjects confer additional validity to the measure. The authors suggest that the construct of psychological maltreatment underlies the destructive elements of numerous forms of abuse and neglect, and that the scale they have developed may provide a useful index of this construct.
Article
This study examines, for the first time, the psychopathy subtypes and Machiavellianism in relation to life satisfaction and intimate relationships. Using structural equation modelling (SEM) in a male and female non-clinical sample, we investigated the degree to which primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy, Machiavellianism, gender, sociosexual orientation and the relationship components of intimacy, commitment and passion, accounted for variance in life satisfaction. Results indicated that Machiavellianism was negatively associated with the relationship components. Unexpectedly, primary psychopathy was positively associated with the relationship components. Secondary psychopathy was negatively associated with life satisfaction and intimacy. Implications for the conceptualisation of “dark side” traits and their effects on inter- and intra-personal relations are considered.
Article
This study investigated the relationships between psychopathy (primary and secondary), Machiavellianism, trait emotional intelligence and empathy, using an image task that required an appropriate empathic response to the emotional displays of others (happy, sad and neutral). Results indicated that primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism were positively associated with the experience of positive affect from sad stimuli, while secondary psychopathy and Machiavellianism were positively associated with the experience of negative affect in response to neutral stimuli, and the opposite pattern was found for trait emotional intelligence. Regressional analyses demonstrated that secondary psychopathy, Machiavellianism, trait emotional intelligence and state anxiety are important predictors when stimuli are ambiguous.
Article
The present study compared the lie-telling behavior of 3- and 4-year-old West African children (N = 84) from either a punitive or a nonpunitive school. Children were told not to peek at a toy when left alone in a room. Most children could not resist the temptation and peeked at the toy. When the experimenter asked them if they had peeked, the majority of the punitive school peekers lied about peeking at the toy while significantly fewer nonpunitive school children did so. The punitive school children were better able to maintain their deception than nonpunitive school children when answering follow-up questions. Thus, a punitive environment not only fosters increased dishonesty but also children's abilities to lie to conceal their transgressions.
Article
Over the past 30 years investigators have called repeatedly for research on the mechanisms through which social relationships and social support improve physical and psychological well-being, both directly and as stress buffers. I describe seven possible mechanisms: social influence/social comparison, social control, role-based purpose and meaning (mattering), self-esteem, sense of control, belonging and companionship, and perceived support availability. Stress-buffering processes also involve these mechanisms. I argue that there are two broad types of support, emotional sustenance and active coping assistance, and two broad categories of supporters, significant others and experientially similar others, who specialize in supplying different types of support to distressed individuals. Emotionally sustaining behaviors and instrumental aid from significant others and empathy, active coping assistance, and role modeling from similar others should be most efficacious in alleviating the physical and emotional impacts of stressors.
Article
The role of the family in the development of Machiavellianism was examined in this study. High- and low-Machiavellian sixth graders played a bluffing game. Their parents completed Machiavellian belief measures. The Machiavellianism of fathers and mothers was positively related to their children's success at deceiving others but not at seeing through others' attempts at deception. In addition, fathers' Machiavellianism was positively related to their children's Machiavellian beliefs. These data support a modeling hypothesis for the development of Machiavellianism. Unexpectedly, the children's own behaviors and beliefs were unrelated. This pattern of results suggests that a child's manipulative behaviors and beliefs are learned separately and only become consistent over time.
Article
A conceptualization of coping and adaptation following victimization is presented from a life-span developmental perspective. Recovery is characterized as an evolving process of interaction among three dimensions: social cognition, environmental sensitivity, and emotional-behavioral functioning. The model is illustrated through an individual case study and through an approach to research on outcomes of sexual victimization.
Article
Although the merits of parents using corporal punishment to discipline children have been argued for decades, a thorough understanding of whether and how corporal punishment affects children has not been reached. Toward this end, the author first presents the results of meta-analyses of the association between parental corporal punishment and 11 child behaviors and experiences. Parental corporal punishment was associated with all child constructs, including higher levels of immediate compliance and aggression and lower levels of moral internalization and mental health. The author then presents a process-context model to explain how parental corporal punishment might cause particular child outcomes and considers alternative explanations. The article concludes by identifying 7 major remaining issues for future research.
Mentalizing in clinical practice
  • J G Allen
  • P Fonagy
  • A Bateman
Allen, J. G., Fonagy, P., & Bateman, A. (2008). Mentalizing in clinical practice. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Social learning theory Machiavellianism and manipulative interpersonal behavior in children
  • A Bandura
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. New York: General Learning Press. Braginsky, D. D. (1970). Machiavellianism and manipulative interpersonal behavior in children. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 6, 77–99.
Studies in Machiavellianism
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Christie, R., & Geis, F. L. (1970). Studies in Machiavellianism. New York: Academic Press.
Childhood abuse and neglect – Attachment, development and intervention Shattered assumptions: Towards a new psychology of trauma
  • D Howe
Howe, D. (2005). Childhood abuse and neglect – Attachment, development and intervention. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Janoff-Bulman, R. (2010). Shattered assumptions: Towards a new psychology of trauma. New York: Free Press.
Effects of parental Machiavellianism on Machiavellian behaviour of children
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Rai, S. N., & Gupta, M. D. (1989). Effects of parental Machiavellianism on Machiavellian behaviour of children. Psychological Studies, 34, 175-180.
Family influence on formation of children's manipulative attitudes Engineering and Education, 1. Retrieved from <http://www.ijcrsee.com/index The measurement of psychological maltreatment: Early data on the child abuse and trauma scale
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Ryumshina, L. I. (2013). Family influence on formation of children's manipulative attitudes. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education, 1. Retrieved from <http://www.ijcrsee.com/index.php/ijcrsee/article/ view/15/74> on 6th December, 2014. Sanders, B., & Becker-Lausen, E. (1995). The measurement of psychological maltreatment: Early data on the child abuse and trauma scale. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 315–323.
Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self
  • A N Schore
Schore, A. N. (2003). Affect dysregulation and disorders of the self. New York, NY: Norton.