ArticleLiterature Review

Immunomodulatory Effects of Triphala and its Individual Constituents: A Review

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Abstract

The role of plant extracts and Ayurvedic polyherbal preparations in treating various ailments has been acknowledged since time immemorial. Studies based on the effect of these extracts in treatment of different diseases have also been well documented. Indian medicinal literature also emphasizes the synergistic effect of polyherbal drugs in restoring and rejuvenating immune system. This review focuses on the immunomodulatory potential of the polyherbal preparation, Triphala and its three constituents, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis. The role of Triphala and its extract has been emphasized in stimulating neutrophil function. Under stress condition such as noise, Triphala significantly prevents elevation of IL-4 levels as well as corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN-γ levels. Under the condition of inflammatory stress its immunosuppressive activity is attributed to its inhibitory action on complement system, humoral immunity, cell mediated immunity and mitogen-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the individual constituents reportedly enhance especially the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species. This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators.

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... The most important chemical constituents in the formulation of triphala are gallic acid, tannins, chebulinic acid, ellagic acid, flavonoids, fatty acids, amino acids, anthraquinones and numerous carbohydrates (Belapurkar et al., 2014;Lee et al., 2005;Lu et al., 2012). HPLC has discovered ellagic acid, gallic acid and chebulinic acid to be the chief constituents of triphala (Lu et al., 2012). ...
... Gallic acid: Gallic acid is also found in all three myrobalans of triphala. Gallic acid has immunostimulatory and antioxidant properties (Belapurkar et al., 2014). Moreover, gallic acid subdues the growth of malignant cells (Mukherjee et al., 2006). ...
... Triphala also works to manage several autoimmune diseases in the Ayurvedic and Greco-Arabic systems of medicines. The presence of multiple active constituents in all three ingredients, such as flavonoids, tannins, phenols and ascorbic acid, are accountable for triphala's potent immunosuppressant and immunostimulatory activities, determining it as a powerful plant-based immunomodulator (Belapurkar et al., 2014). ...
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Triphala is the most prominent and compound Ayurvedic composition. This composition is the combination of three myrobalans, i.e. Emblica officinalis (amla), Terminalia chebula (halila) and Terminalia bellirica (bahira); all three of them are in equal proportions. It consists of a diverse range of plant chemicals that exert rejuvenating and reinvigorating effects on the human body and raise life expectancy in people of all ages with different body constitutions. It has been used to manage gastrointestinal disorders, such as nausea, vomiting, indigestion, constipation, non-bleeding piles and toxins in the colon, and is also advised in cardiovascular disorders, diabetes mellitus, hepatic dysfunction, chronic inflammatory conditions, ophthalmic conditions, cough, leucorrhea, ulcers, pyorrhea/scurvy, fever, hypertension, inflammatory bowel disease and hypercholesterolemia. This chapter will discuss the history of triphala, its importance in the traditional medicinal system, chemical constituents of triphala and proven pharmacological uses, including stress-reducing, wound-healing, immunostimulatory, anti-infectious, antiobesity and cancer-preventing activities.
... There are several reviews on the biological activities of Terminalia species (Fahmy et al. 2015;Upadhyay et al. 2014;Dwevedi et al. 2016;Cock 2015;Anand et al. 2015;Beigi et al. 2018). Other examples are phytopharmacological reviews of T. arjuna (Kumar 2014), T. bellirica (Deb et al. 2016;Kumari et al. 2017;Singh et al. 2018a;Arabind et al. 2019;Khaliq and Fahim 2018;Belapurkar et al. 2014), T. catappa (Anand et al. 2015;Venkatalakshmi et al. 2016a;Mallik et al. 2013) No individual reviews on T. elliptica and T. paniculata are located, but they are dealt with in the general reviews on Terminalia (Cock 2015;Fahmy et al. 2015;Chang et al. 2019;Zhang et al. 2019). ...
... Several reviews discuss the phytochemical compositions of T. arjuna (Fahmy et al. 2015; Cock 2015; Jain et al. 2009; Paarakh 2010; Hafiz et al. 2014; Amalraj and Gopi 2017; Arumugam and Gopinath 2011; Gaikwad and Jadhav 2018), T. bellirica (Belapurkar et al. 2014; Kumar and Khurana 2018; Kumari et al. 2017), T. catappa(Anand et al. 2015; Fahmy et al. 2015;Dwivedi et al. 2016) and T. chebula (Bag et al. 2013;Walia and Arora 2013;Belapurkar et al. 2014;Riaz et al. 2017;Singh and Malhotra 2017;Upadhyay et al. 2014; Promila and Madan 2018;Chattopadhyay and Bhattacharyya 2007). ...
... 3 (Continued) Pharmacological activities of Terminalia speciesand T. chebula(Hedina et al. 2016;Rathinamoorthy and Thilagavathi 2014;Sawant et al. 2013;Belapurkar et al. 2014;Singh and Malhotra 2017;Ashwini et al. 2011). ...
... Nowadays, various in vivo and in vitro phytochemical analyses of these herbominerals and their effects on various disease conditions are being undergone extensive research, which showed that these have an immunomodulatory role against the infectious factor and restore, rejuvenate, and re-establish body's physiological factors to maintain equilibrium. [2,3] The involvement of immune cells with white blood cells (WBCs), lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages and with specialized [Downloaded free from http://www.journayu.in on Wednesday, December 30, 2020, IP: 10.232. ...
... [64] Further, the study reported increase in concentration of melatonin in the pineal glands, as well as the cytokines such as IL-2, IL-10, and TNF-α, which play a crucial role in immunity, thereby focusing on its immunostimulant property. [2] Terminalia bellirica Gallic acid has been reportedly responsible for stimulation of the immune system as it increases the production of ROS in macrophages, resulting in increased phagocytic activity. [65][66][67] Terminalia bellirica fruit is also rich in gallic acid and thus has been reported to be responsible for increasing macrophage phagocytic activity. ...
Article
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Background: A new virus of corona family known as novel coronavirus causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19) also known severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus‑2 (SARS‑CoV‑2). A good number of principles are found in the classical texts of Ayurveda, which can be compared with the concepts of SARS‑CoV‑2, and many herbal drugs written in the Ayurvedic text, through its immunomodulatory effect, may enhance host–defense mechanism against such diseases to decrease the mortality. Aim: Our objectives of this review are (i) to understand the concepts of SARS‑CoV‑2 in light of Ayurveda with their approximate delineation through theoretical analysis; (ii) to review the role of Immune Booster Kashaya Special (IBKS) in boosting and regulating immunity and in preventing complications; and (iii) to explore the effectiveness of each drug among scientific community to facilitate for their extensive research. Methodology: We also searched for relevant keywords in various texts of Ayurveda as well as on online databases such as PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, CrossRef, and Google Scholar to understand the concepts of SARS‑CoV‑2 in light of Ayurveda and to explore the possible role of 14 medicinal plants of “immune booster Kashaya” formulation. Result: We found that SARS‑CoV‑2 is symptomatically very much similar to Sannipataj Jwar as described in Ayurveda and the content of IBKS possesses antiviral, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, antipyretic, anti‑inflammatory, cardioprotective, antianxiety, and phagocytic properties. It seems to promote the body’s immune mechanism against viral activity and to prevent complications such as inflammation‑induced damage and cytokine storming in COVID‑19. Conclusion: As there is a lack of an effective SARS‑CoV‑2 virus‑specific medicine or vaccine, these immunomodulatory strategies may be implemented before or shortly after viral exposure and may be paired with antiviral therapies to improve antiviral immune responses by providing interferon‑inducing agents or by nonspecific boosting of immunity with innate factors. Immune booster Kashaya should be gone through extensive in vivo and in vitro studies and clinical trials for further validation. Keywords: Agantuja Roga, Ayurveda, complementary and alternative medicine, coronavirus, coronavirus disease 2019, immunomodulation in coronavirus disease, Sannipataj Jwar, Vyadhikshamatva
... Emblicanin A and Punigluconin of Phyllanthus emblica also showed good binding affinity À9.2 kcal/mol and À8.7 kcal/mol respectively. These molecules and the extracts of Phyllanthus emblica that containing these molecules are also reported for antiviral activities against different groups of viruses and as an immunomodulator (Belapurkar et al., 2014;Nisar et al., 2018;Salehi et al., 2018). Therefore, these molecules could be tested and developed as RdRp inhibitors. ...
... Punigluconin, Chebulic acid, and Anolignans that are present in Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellerica respectively also offer higher binding affinity against main protease. These three plant components are present in Triphala which have various therapeutic activities including immunostimulant (Belapurkar et al., 2014;Peterson et al., 2017). Hence, these molecules are individually or in combination could be developed as a protease inhibitor of the COVID-19 virus. ...
Article
The recently emerged COVID-19 has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization as to date; no therapeutic drug/vaccine is available for the treatment. Due to the lack of time and the urgency to contain the pandemic, computational screening appears to be the best tool to find a therapeutic solution. Accumulated evidence suggests that many phyto-compounds possess anti-viral activity. Therefore, we identified possible phyto-compounds that could be developed and used for COVID-19 treatment. In particular, molecular docking was used to prioritize the possible active phyto-compounds against two key targets namely RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and main protease (Mpro) of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, an antiviral drug- Remdesivir (RdRp inhibitor) and Darunavir (Mpro inhibitor) are used as reference drugs. This study revealed that phyto-molecules- Mulberroside-A/C/E/F, Emblicanin A, Nimbolide, and Punigluconin showed high binding affinity against RdRp while Andrographolides, Mulberrosides, Anolignans, Chebulic acid, Mimusopic acid, and Punigluconin showed better binding affinity against Mpro as compared with the reference drug. Furthermore, ADME profiles validated the drug-likeness properties of prioritized phyto-compounds. Besides, to assess the stability, MD simulations studies were performed along with reference inhibitors for Mpro (Darunavir) and RdRp (Remdesivir). Binding free energy calculations (MM-PBSA) revealed the estimated value (ΔG) of Mpro_Darunavir; Mpro_Mulberroside E; RdRp_Remdesivir and RdRp_Emblicanin A were −111.62 ± 6.788, −141.443 ± 9.313, 30.782 ± 5.85 and −89.424 ± 3.130 kJmol⁻¹, respectively. Taken together, the study revealed the potential of these phyto-compounds as inhibitors of RdRp and Mpro inhibitor that could be further validated against SARS-CoV-2 for clinical benefits. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma
... Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase is inactivated by T. chebula, an active ingredient in Triphala. 30 Evidence indicates that 0.6% Triphala and 0.1% Chlorhexidine have an inhibitory effect on plaque, gingivitis, and growth of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Considering all the effects triphala can be used as a preventive measure of Covid -19. ...
Article
Health system should be supported by health research to deliver quality, accountable, equitable, fairer, better health care to target population.1 Earlier; defenseless people like prisoners, soldiers, poor and mentally ill along with animals were subjected to medical research without taking consent. As time pass by, new emerging health problems, shifting of epidemiological trends in disease patterns, rapid increase in population, new and emerging health problems, increasing commercial interests of private health sector and shrinking resources all contribute in inequity to health care.2 Hence it is extremely important that research addresses priorities and focuses on the most important health issues and conditions. Research must serve as a driver for health system, policies and practice. For this to happen, the health research systems should be fully accountable for sake of transparency and also have to be capable of delivering the desired returns. We are fortune to take benefit from documented experiences from history. The main goal of medical research article is to share one’s valuable experience so as to contribute to the progress of science.3 Conducting a medical research and publishing it in a medical journal, is sharing an important knowledge and experience to the world. A physician from one part of the world may have significant load of certain disease and sharing management experience in that particular disease may help doctors of other part of the world treat such kind of patient. Furthermore, author may also have individual benefits, like higher positions in academic hierarchy.4 The Journal of the institution reflects the academics wealth of the institute. Earlier, only few used to grab opportunities for professional growth via publication, majority of them suffer to lack of publication culture in the institution resulting in fossilization of their professional caliber.5 In developing countries like ours, to do quality medical research is often difficult. Furthermore, getting the article published in medical journal is another challenge. Leading international medical journals underreport on health research priorities for developing countries because of improper material, methods quality. Many factors play role in the paucity of inclusion of research papers from developing countries. Lack of resources like funding, proper man power and less access to scientific literature in similar setting leading to poor research output, faulty manuscript preparation and language proficiency may be the common problems. Inadequate laboratory facilities and training may be the other cause. Hence, researchers in developing countries should be supported and encouraged to produce material of the quality by proper guidance and required trainings. Open access journal is the window to the research world. It is one of the tools to increase publications. These journals facilitate the publication of local research output and may play defining role in helping researcher to improve their publication records, and make it accessible to other researchers. This type of open access journal is an important entity in national publishing that will hopefully gain broader prominence as awareness increases and the above efforts are implemented. To make our journal an index and of international stature is strenuous but with the help from our fraternity, we will surely reach the goal soon. Our journal will surely serve as a medium to access information, updated knowledge and a symbol of ideal journal in Nepal. This journal is the result of hard work, dedication and sacrifice. We apologize for taking this extra long time to publish but as they say ‘good things come to those who wait’ we proudly present you our journal, our masterpiece. No one is to be blamed for the delay of this process. Working with teachers, selecting experts for review, suggesting authors, verifying manuscripts, editing and proof reading was an arduous job but was done meticulously. We run out of words to express our gratitude to the reviewers who reviewed and upgraded the journal’s contents. It is very hard to imagine this journal with their crucial help and guidance. We apologize for not being able to incorporate all the articles due to some academic standards and expectations. I would also like to take this opportunity to thank Dr. Angel Magar, without whom this journal would be impossible. His valuable guidence help us shape the journal. We shall forever the indebted to him for his support. Dr. Bibek Rajbhandari is another individual we need to thank. His hard work and dedication can be seen in our journal. We are grateful for his help and support. We appreciate everything he has done selflessly and for the betterment of the journal. We would like to acknowledge Dr. Krishna Rana (JNMA Assistant Editor) and JNMA Trainees (Asmita Neupane, Rakshya Pandey, Suzit Bhusal, Suraj Shrestha, Nabin Sundas, Prastuti Shrestha, Riyaz Shrestha, Prabha Bhandari, Nita Lohala, Samiksha Lamichhane, Sushmita Bhattarai, Laxman Aryal, Barsha Karki and Kajol Ghimire, Sushil Dahal, Shraddha Bhattarai) for the consistent support during the phase of publication. REFERENCES Inis C. The WHO Strategy on research for Health. France:WHO,2012. Santosa A, Wall S,Fottrell E,Hogberg U, Byass P.The Deveopment and experience of epidemological transition theory over four decades: a systematic review. Glob Health Action.2014;7:10. Mohmoud F, Mohamed F. A practical guide for health researchers. Eastern Mediteranean:WHO Regional Publications, 2004. Clauset A, Arbesmans, Larremore D. Systematic inequtiy and hierarcy i faculty hiring networks. Sci.Adv.2015;1:e 1400005. Koul B, Kanwar A (ed.). Toward a Culture of Quality. Vancouver:Common Wealth of Learning, 2006.
... [5] Also, it is one of the most researched herbal formulations among Ayurveda medications. [6][7][8][9] Indigenous knowledge of traditional herbs is a cultural heritage shared by many Indian communities, where oral traditions are passed down through generations. [10,11] People's deeply ingrained faith and belief systems frequently influence healthcare decisions. ...
... Triphala extracts aids in scavenging free radicals which are responsible for producing reactive oxygen species by activating macrophages. It has the potential to be an immunostimulant and an substitute to allopathic immunomodulators [29]. Another component which inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by inhibiting phosphorylation of the VEGF receptor-2 is chebulinic acid. ...
Article
Triphala is an ancient ayurvedic medicine with numerous advantages. It’s an ayurvedic blend of three different ayurvedic herbs. As a result, the composite material’s efficiency will be greater than that of its elements. Shaping and cleaning are important aspects of successful endodontic treatment. A variety of chemicals are used to irrigatetherootcanalsandkillthemicroorganismsthatcauserootcanalinfection.Thesecompoundshavetheirown set of drawbacks. As a result, ayurvedic medications are increasingly being employed in endodontics to offset the disadvantages of traditional chemicals. The effectiveness of triphala in endodontic applications is examined in this review.
... Surely, flavours and moreover plants are oldest friends of mankind. [3] They give food & shelter just as serve to fix different ailments. Herbal medicines, every so often called standard or ordinary prescription, has reliably existed by one way in different social orders & improvements, Ayurveda, the Indian standard plan of prescription, lays complement on progression of prosperity thought of protection against different diseases. ...
Article
Immunomodulators play a key role in immunity of each animal in this world. Almost all animals have their own system to produce different immunomodulators at different time. Herbal medicines constitute a major component in all traditional and alternative systems of medicines like siddha, ayurveda, homeopathy, naturopathy, yogic science and native american medicines. This review emphasizes on twenty-five herbal drugs including Withania somnifera, Morus Alba Linn, Acacia catechu, Achillea wilhelmsii, L. Panax ginseng, Garlic (Allium Sativum), Terminalia Arjuna, Rhus toxicodendron and many more for their Immunomodulatory potential. In addition, many of the immune-boosting and health promoting drugs are available in the market in various dosage forms like in the form of tablets, capsules, candies, juices, kadha, tea, chyawanprash, are also mentioned. Increase in the levels of total leucocytes count (TLC), Differential leucocytes count (DLC), foot paw volume, phagocytic index was observed in delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, Neutrophil adhesion test, Acute paw anaphylaxis, phagocytosis, etc, are in vivo and in vitro biological screening methods used for the immunomodulatory activity. [2] Accordingly, this review provides numerous evidences which indicates that these medicinal drugs can be used for treating and boosting immune system and related complications. Keywords: Immune framework, Immune rule, Plant drugs, immunity boosters, marketed preparations.
... Recently, a lot of research works have been done on Triphala and it is found to be of great therapeutic potential. It has antimicrobial action, an immunomodulatory effect [6] as well as prebiotic potential [7]. This formulation is effective against cardiovascular diseases [8], tumours [9], various gastrointestinal disorders [10], hypertension [11] and many other diseases. ...
Article
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This review is based on Ayurvedic texts and online scientific databases like PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct to study use of scientific research methods in ayurvedic formulation Triphala. The following keywords were used: Triphala, terminalia chebula, terminalia bellerica, Phyllanthus embilica, chemical constituents, gallic acid, chebulinic acid, and molecular docking to write this review. Studies about Triphala and their individual drugs as well as their active compounds were concentrated upon. There are many research works being conducted on Triphala and its therapeutic effect. Yet, the need to develop these works to a fully utilisable form for the medical community is not achieved. This review concludes that Triphala is a treasure that needs to be further evaluated for the betterment of health globally.
... [11] Triphala possess as antiviral operator. [12] unanticipated events during the course of treatment. She was in follow-up for six months till December 2020, she did not developed any of the post-COVID complications. ...
Article
Renaissance in acceptance of the Siddha system of medicine in all over India happened during the current scenario of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The classical texts of Siddha medicine contain descriptions of the symptoms of COVID-19 as a syndrome like definition that may be correlated with KabaSuram. A 49-year-old female residing at New Delhi who got COVID-19 positive with comorbidity of hypothyroidism treated successfully using an integrative treatment plan (Siddha and Allopathic) as per Government-mandated COVID-19 treatment guidelines. The patient developed symptoms such as fever, sore throat, cold, cough with expectoration, difficulty in breathing, chest congestion, and body ache. Initially the patient took Western Medicine (WM) for five days but the symptoms did not subside. After five days an integrated treatment including Siddha medicine (Internal and external medicines) initiated at In Patient ward, Safdarjung Hospital. The health of the patient improved within 3 days and all her symptoms got relieved within 10 days. After completion of treatment, she tested reverse transcription - polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and it was negative on 14th day. Another patient who was admitted with her got COVID-19 positive turned negative only after 30 days as she missed the integrative medicine by probability. The reported case had a prospective follow-up for six months and found to be free of post-COVID complications. Since, this case report based on a single case which shows a positive outcome is incapable of generalizing the conclusion. Further suitable clinical trials need to be conducted to assess its efficacy. The status of the summary is reported as per CAse REport (CARE) guidelines.
... [58] The fruit extract is reported to be astringent, antioxidant, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, and anthelmintic activities. [59] The addition of bioactive contents and secondary products in Bakuchi through the hydrolysis process may be helpful to overcome the pathogenesis of the indicated disease [ Figure 2]. Zingiber officinale Roscoe reported bioactive components such as volatile oil, gingerol, shogaol, and zingerone compounds. ...
Article
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Bakuchi (Psoralea corylifolia L.) is an herb mainly indicated for the treatment of skin diseases in the classical text of Ayurveda. Before the use of several potent herbs, metals, minerals, and poisonous plants, specific processing is mentioned to be done to minimize the untoward effect of the drug or to make the drug more suitable for further processing as mentioned in Ayurveda classics. Such procedures are considered pretreatment (Shodhana). Although classical texts of Ayurveda have mentioned pretreatment of Bakuchi fruits before their therapeutic use, its internal administration after processing is not prevalent in clinical practice. This pretreatment may be considered as the Shodhana procedure of Bakuchi. Accordingly, data were assembled in the context of pretreatment of Bakuchi from Ashtanga Samgraha, Gadanigraha, Rasoudhhara Tantra, Vrunda Madhava, Anandakanda, Rasakamadhenu, and from published researches. Three procedures, viz. Nimajjana (immersion), Prakshalana (washing with water), and Bharjana (roasting), were mentioned for pretreatment of Bakuchi. Pretreatments are noted as soaking of Bakuchi fruits in Gomutra (cow's urine) or Ardraka Swarasa (juice of Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for 7 or 21 days or Bibhitaka Kwatha (decoction of Terminalia belerica Roxb.) for 1 night and Bharjana (roasting) in Ghee. Blisters occur because of the presence of furanocoumarins like psoralen in formulations, which holds Bakuchi. Pretreatment performed on Bakuchi fruits may derive newer chemical moieties, further rendering it helpful to minimize adverse drug reactions, increase the efficacy of Bakuchi or its containing formulation, and further break the pathogenesis of the disease.
... Gallic acid or 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, is a secondary plant metabolite found in higher plants, [33] honey, [34, 35,] and Triphala [36,37,38] as well. Gallic acid is known for antioxidant activity [39] and its anti-obesity properties. ...
Article
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An open labeled randomized controlled clinical trial conducted to evaluate the anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-obesity activity of processed honey. The outcome satisfactorily established the link between the anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemic activity of processed honey.
... Triphala is known to prolong life and rejuvenate those who consume for an extended period of time, without causing any side effects as it works slowly and gently 4 . It has a variety of potential applications, including free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, appetite stimulation, gastric hyperacidity reduction, dental caries prevention, antipyretic, analgesic, antibacterial, antimutagenic, wound healing, anticariogenic, antistress, adaptogenic, hypoglycemic, anticancer, hepatoprotective, chemoprotective, radio protective, and chemo preventive effect [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] . Terminalia bellerica (TB) containing tannins, flavonoids, and other phenolic compounds are responsible for a variety of biological activities and their fruits acts as an excellent expectorant and a powerful rejuvenator against microbial infections. ...
Article
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Triphala Churna consisting Triphala and its constituents have been revealed to have antibacterial properties against human pathogens. The phenolic ring of phytochemicals has been confirmed to be toxic against microorganisms and hence responsible for antibacterial effect. It has also been found to possess antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and other properties. The objective of this project is to investigate which bioactive compounds of Triphala churna have antibacterial action and can protect humans from infection. The majority of the molecules in phytochemical examination were positive for ethanolic and acetone extracts and the physicochemical characteristics were within the acceptable limits. In silico data clearly explains that the compounds of Triphala churna follows Lipinski’s rule of five. The toxicity profile and ADME parameters of the compounds revealed that most of the compounds were nontoxic towards carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and reproductive effect. Based on the energy type of interaction between these molecules and the study protein, molecular docking revealed that the three compounds from Triphala churna own the highest docking score against InhA protein: Terflavin B (-9.67 Kcal/mol), Ellagic acid (-9.37 Kcal/mol), and Corilagin (-8.57 Kcal/mol).
... Hepatitis B virus DNA polymerase is inactivated by T. chebula, an active ingredient in Triphala. 30 Evidence indicates that 0.6% Triphala and 0.1% Chlorhexidine have an inhibitory effect on plaque, gingivitis, and growth of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. Considering all the effects triphala can be used as a preventive measure of Covid -19. ...
Article
Full-text available
The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has engulfed the entire global community, causing widespread public health concerns. Despite various attempts to control the disease’s spread, the epidemic continues to rise due to the community spread of the infection. The oral cavity has been suggested as a possible reservoir for Covid-19 transmission due to the close proximity to the patient during dental treatment, the high generation of aerosols, and the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in saliva. Pre procedural rinsing of mouthwashes have been widely used as a standard measure due to their ability to reduce the number of microorganisms in the oral cavity. Mouthwashes like chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX), cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), povidone-iodine (PVP-I), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and certain herbal products can be suggested as a possible solution to reduce the viral load in the oral cavity. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review on certain mouthwashes, their antiviral activity against Covid -19.
... In addition to this, it greatly restores the production of IL-2 and IFNγ. This activity is responsible for the restoration of antioxidant status against Cr (VI)-induced free radical production back to control level (Belapurkar et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Indian gooseberry/Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn. syn. Phyllanthus emblica L) has an amazing nutritional profile and is a reservoir of biologically active compounds which have potential health benefits and are regarded as a remedy for lethal diseases. The unique features of amla, conferred by their bioactive components, have extended future prospects about their usage for useful effects on human nutrition and health globally. With the rapidly growing popularity of this unique therapeutic fruit, it is important to have comprehensive knowledge of this fruit. The current review article presents the nutritional profile, bioactive components, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, and postharvest processing of amla fruit. Moreover, studies related to therapeutic properties of amla and its utilization in development of functional foods have been presented in this review. E. officinalis is a promising source of bioactive compounds which showed varied potential in the management of a number of human ailments which has been proven through various studies. Therefore, amla should be taken in the regular diet, thereby utilizing its potential health benefits. Practical applications Amla (Indian gooseberry), as source of natural bioactive compounds, has a great potential application in improving the status of human nutrition and health. The utilization of amla extract has various biological effects, like antimicrobial, antioxidant, gastroprotective, anticancer, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, radioprotective, anti‐inflammatory, antidiabetic, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effect, owing to its bioactive components. The use of amla extract has recently increased in food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic products to replace synthetic antioxidants which have inherent harmful health effects. The review report will provide information on bioactive components, therapeutic properties, utilization of amla in the development of future functional foods, and postharvest processing of amla, which will provide critical information to researchers all over the world.
... Triphala has been reported to exhibit antibacterial, antiinflammatory, and anti-diarrheal activity [32] as well as the ability to regulate of gastrointestinal movements which are crucial for heavy metal elimination and have the potential to cure heavy metal toxicity [33]. ...
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Background Brass is a copper-zinc alloy that also contains additional elements, including lead. Industrial operations on brass produce dust and fumes that can be harmful to an individual’s health. Ayurveda recommends Dadima Svarasa and Triphala Churna for the management of symptoms caused due to brass toxicity. Objective(s) To obtain preliminary evidence on the efficacy of Triphala Churna (powder mixture of three myrobalans) and Dadima Svarasa (pomegranate juice) in the management of brass-associated high serum level of copper, zinc, lead, and their harms through an open-label single-arm pilot study. Materials and methods A total of 20 workers with brass toxicity and increased level of one or more of the serum ions including copper, zinc and lead were prescribed. 5gm Triphala powder once daily and Dadima Svarasa 40 ml in two divided doses were administered daily for 28 days. Changes in serum concentration of heavy metals and common health problems like anorexia, headache, dizziness, weakness, nausea, nose irritation, eye irritation, epigastric pain, abdominal distention, chest pain, dyspnea, cough, lumbar pain, body ache, numbness, and occupational dermatitis were reported at baseline and end of the trial. Results Trial drugs were found to produce significant decrease in mean values of serum copper (p < 0.001) and serum lead (p < 0.001) whereas significant increase in mean values of serum zinc (p > 0.001) was observed. Significant relief was observed in nausea (p = 0.005), anorexia (p = 0.000), epigastric pain (p = 0.001), abdominal distention (p = 0.014), weakness (p = 0.005) and body ache (p = 0.005). Conclusion Triphala Churna along with Dadima Svarasa are safe and effective in the management of brass-associated high serum levels of copper and lead and their health hazards.
... Lysozyme is widely used as a humoral immune indicator in fish, and it plays a vital role in antimicrobial activity via its release by leukocytes (Jin et al., 2013;Li et al., 2012;Yunis-Aguinaga et al., 2016). immunomodulating and antibacterial responses (Belapurkar et al., 2014;Kumari et al., 2009;Saravanan et al., 2007). The use of medicinal herbs as feed additives (phytogenic feed additives) diets has been studied in various fish species with the aim to improve immune function, disease resistance and health management Rattanachaikunsopon & Phumkhachorn, 2010;Rufchaei et al., 2020). ...
Article
The supplementation of functional feed in aquafeed can enhance immunity, growth performance and survival rate of fish. Triphala is one of the most popular herbal formulations in traditional Ayurvedic medicine. It is rich in gallic, chebulagic and chebulinic acids. Triphala is composed of equal ratios of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Phyllanthus emblica. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of each of the three herbal compounds of triphala, as well as triphala itself, on the growth, immunity and plasma biochemistry of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). We conducted a 60‐day growth trial on Nile tilapia using five different dietary groups: control, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellirica, Phyllanthus emblica and triphala. The results showed a negative effect of Terminalia chebula on growth of tilapia, whereas Terminalia chebula and Terminalia bellirica caused signs of abnormal liver health (swollen hepatocytes and absent nuclei), so these two plants appear to have negative effects on fish health when used individually, whereas Phyllanthus emblica and triphala improved growth performance and health of Nile tilapia. Triphala had a positive impact on several plasma biochemical parameters: reduced tChol, triglycerides, LDL, ALT and AST. These results suggest that triphala can improve fish health and boost immunity, without any notable negative side effects, and as such has the potential to be used as a functional feed additive in fish diets. Our results do not support the use of the individual components. The exact mechanisms through which triphala compounds modulate the disease resistance, molecular effects and metabolic responses remain unknown and require further investigations.
... Terminalia chebula is reported for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiarthritic and gastrointestinal motility (Bag et al. 2013;Manosroi et al. 2013;Afshari et al. 2016). Triphala is a polyherbal formulation comprised of T. chebula, T. bellerica and Emblica officinalis reported for stimulating neutrophil function and significantly reduces IL-4 levels and corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN levels (Belapurkar et al. 2014). ...
... Terminalia chebula is reported for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiarthritic and gastrointestinal motility (Bag et al. 2013;Manosroi et al. 2013;Afshari et al. 2016). Triphala is a polyherbal formulation comprised of T. chebula, T. bellerica and Emblica officinalis reported for stimulating neutrophil function and significantly reduces IL-4 levels and corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN levels (Belapurkar et al. 2014). ...
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Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization with rapid spread across 216 countries. COVID-19 pandemic has left its imprints on various health systems globally and caused immense social and economic disruptions. The scientific community across the globe is in a quest for digging the effective treatment for COVID-19 and exploring potential leads from traditional systems of healthcare across the world too. Ayurveda (Indian traditional system of medicine) has a comprehensive aspect of immunity through Rasayana which is a rejuvenation therapy. Here we attempt to generate the potential leads based on the classical text from Ayurveda in general and Rasayana in particular to develop effective antiviral and/or immunomodulator for potential or adjunct therapy in SARS-CoV-2. The Rasayana acts not only by resisting body to restrain or withstand the strength, severity or progression of a disease but also by promoting power of the body to prevent the manifestation of a disease. These Rasayana herbs are common in practice as immunomodulator, antiviral and protectives. The studies on Rasayana can provide an insight into the future course of research for the plausible development of effective management of COVID-19 by the utilization and development of various traditional systems of healthcare. Keeping in view the current pandemic situation, there is an urgent need of developing potential medicines. This study proposes certain prominent medicinal plants which may be further studied for drug development process and also in clinical setup under repurposing of these herbs.
... Terminalia chebula is reported for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, cardioprotective, antiarthritic and gastrointestinal motility (Bag et al. 2013;Manosroi et al. 2013;Afshari et al. 2016). Triphala is a polyherbal formulation comprised of T. chebula, T. bellerica and Emblica officinalis reported for stimulating neutrophil function and significantly reduces IL-4 levels and corrects decreased IL-2 and IFN levels (Belapurkar et al. 2014). ...
Article
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization with rapid spread across 216 countries. COVID-19 pandemic has left its imprints on various health systems globally and caused immense social and economic disruptions. The scientific community across the globe is in a quest for digging the effective treatment for COVID-19 and exploring potential leads from traditional systems of healthcare across the world too. Ayurveda (Indian traditional system of medicine) has a comprehensive aspect of immunity through Rasayana which is a rejuvenation therapy. Here we attempt to generate the potential leads based on the classical text from Ayurveda in general and Rasayana in particular to develop effective antiviral and/or immunomodulator for potential or adjunct therapy in SARS-CoV-2. The Rasayana acts not only by resisting body to restrain or withstand the strength, severity or progression of a disease but also by promoting power of the body to prevent the manifestation of a disease. These Rasayana herbs are common in practice as immunomodulator, antiviral and protectives. The studies on Rasayana can provide an insight into the future course of research for the plausible development of effective management of COVID-19 by the utilization and development of various traditional systems of healthcare. Keeping in view the current pandemic situation, there is an urgent need of developing potential medicines. This study proposes certain prominent medicinal plants which may be further studied for drug development process and also in clinical setup under repurposing of these herbs.
... In India, the traditional medicines such as AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy) have been in practice for centuries and focus on healing of the mind and body and in treating different ailments. [1] Triphala is an ayurvedic polyherbal medicine mainly consisting of three ingredients namely, Amalaki (Phyllanthus emblica), Bibhitaki (Terminalia bellirica), and Haritaki (Terminalia chebula) in equal proportions. [2] The phytochemicals present in it are components rich in gallic acid, tannins, chebulagic acid, ellagic acid, phenols and glycosides. ...
... (Combretaceae) (haritaki in Bengali) are popularly used to treat various human diseases as they contain various bioactive secondary metabolites (saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids etc.), essential oils, organosulphur, micronutrients, hormone-like agents, antimicrobial agents, antioxidants and immune-promoting agents (Hazra, Sarkar, Biswas & Mandal, 2010;Vani, Rajani, Sarkar & Shishoo, 1997). A large body of study pinpointed the presence of bioactive phenolics and other compounds in E. officinalis, T. bellirica and T. chebula (Bown, 1995;Saxena, Saxena, Nema, Singh & Gupta, 2013) that are attributable in the different functions in the health and physiology of humans and animals with the diverse mode of actions (Belapurkar, Goyal & Tiwari-Barua, 2014;Tewari et al., 2017;Variya, Bakrania & Patel, 2016). ...
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Traditional medicinal plants (TMP) are considered valuable alternatives to hazardous synthetic chemical utilized as animal growth promoters. This study aimed to evaluate effects of dietary supplementation of seed and leaf powder (75:25) of three Bangladeshi TMP viz. Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Gaertn. Roxb., and Terminalia chebula Retz. on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients, hematological indices, immune index and antioxidant status in post-weaned bull calves. Dietary treatments: TMP1 (basal diet = green grass + concentrate), TMP2 (basal diet + 0.5% mixture of seed and leaf (75:25) of E. officinalis Gaertn.), TMP3 (basal diet + 0.5% mixture of seed and leaf (75:25) of T. bellirica Gaertn. Roxb.), and TMP4 (basal diet + 0.5% mixture of seed and leaf (75:25) of T. chebula Retz.). Supplementation of TMP significantly (p<0.10) improved weight gain without affecting digestibility. Hematological indices did not change much by treatment of TMP except for enhancement of monocyte (p<0.10) and platelet percentage (p<0.05). A reduction in IGF, enhancement (p<0.05) of lymphocyte proliferation, and IgG were recorded in TMP2, TMP3 and TMP4 compared to TMP1. Decreasing (p<0.05) trend of interleukins-1 and 6, and an elevation of TNF-α and antioxidant status were recorded in the TMP2, TMP3, and TMP4 in comparison to TMP1. An elevated level of total antioxidant and glutathione peroxidase activities were found in calves treated with TMP2, TMP3, and TMP4 (p<0.05) relative to TMP1. Taken together, our results indicate that supplementation of feed with Bangladeshi TMP promoted growth and some health indices like immune-advocating efficacy of post-weaned bull calves.
... SPIONs are powerful glucose lowering factor that play important role in diabetic treatment. Triphala also contains bio active compounds such as Quercetin (9).It has been shown that QC treatment can enhance cognitive impairement in the diabetic rats, which may have the potential for treating neuropathy in the diabetic patients (10).Histological analysis showed that the treatment with QC-Fe3o4 restored the shape of beta islands and increased the number of islets and their area in diabetic rats (11). Kanta Loha Bhasma along with the Triphala extract having the same effect in human samples also. ...
Article
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... This herbal preparation, based on synergy, benefits almost all organs/systems of the human body, most specifically skin, liver, eyes, and the digestive and respiratory systems. It is therapeutically useful in terms of immunomodulation, and as an antibacterial and antimutagenic product (Belapurkar et al., 2014;Peterson et al., 2017). Phytochemicals from tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and olive oil from Olea europaea also have synergistic effect, as tomatoes contain carotenoids (principally lycopene), which are fat-soluble and their absorption into the bloodstream is higher in a lipid medium, such as olive oil. ...
Chapter
In recent times, a considerable change in the day-to-day lifestyle has been observed, and this transformation in working style, sleeping pattern, eating habits, etc., has resulted in several a number of physical and mental disorders. However, people are now becoming cautious towards maintaining a healthy lifestyle. In this context, nutritional therapy and phytotherapy have emerged as an attractive option among a variety of remedial measures. To prevent the disease and improvise the health, nutraceuticals of plant origin are gaining popularity. Nutraceuticals are bioactive compounds naturally present in food items, dietary supplements, and plant products/extracts acknowledged for their potential safe, nutritional, and therapeutic effects with safety. They help in boosting the immune system against various disorders, such as obesity, allergy, inflammation, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and cardiovascular ailments, and often provide an effective management of such problems. The present chapter focuses on plant-based nutraceuticals and their role in improvising the immune system of humans for a better quality of life. It also highlights the concept of synergistic foods as an immune booster, and a causal factor for to achieve various health benefits.
... This study thus concludes the use of Triphala and its three individual constituents as potential immunostimulants and/or immunosuppressants further suggests them to be a better alternative for allopathic immunomodulators. [12][13] Anti Hyperlipidemic activity Clinical data: In a human clinical trial, healthy and hypercholesterolemic men (35 to 55 years of age) given emblica supplementation for 28 days experienced a decrease in serum cholesterol levels. The condition was reversible upon discontinuation of the supplement. ...
Article
Diabetes mellitus vis a vis Madhumeha is multifactorial metabolic disorder. It is one of the oldest diseases recognized since antiquity. Ayurvedic texts have vividly described that high calorie diet and sedentary lifestyle are the important causative factor of Apathyanimittaja Prameha (Type-2 diabetes mellitus) along with also described the genetic causes of diabetes mellitus in terms of SahajaPrameha (Type-1 diabetes mellitus). No doubt, modern antidiabetic drugs have significant potential to correct hyperglycemia in diabetic but it"s prolong use may lead to deleterious effect on diabetics. In this regard, numbers of herbal, mineral and herbo-mineral drugs have been mentioned in classical books of Ayurveda. These drugs not only correct the blood glucose level also minimize the chances of occurrence of short term and long term side effect. Overall, the drugs having dominance Kashaya rasa and Tridoshashamaka properties are found to be effective in the management of Madhumeha wsr diabetes mellitus. In this context, Ayurvedic formulation is selected to laid down an emphasis on its therapeutic potential based on Ayurvedic pharmcodynamic and contemporary work done by the researchers of biomedical sciences.
... The functioning of MS2Compound was demonstrated with a re-analysis of a complex metabolomics dataset from a traditional medicine formulation-Triphala. It is one of the well-known ayurvedic formulations in traditional practices with anticancer, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory activities (Belapurkar et al., 2014;Biradar et al., 2008;Vadde et al., 2015). This formulation comprised dried extracts from three plants; Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia bellirica, and Terminalia chebula, and they are rich in phytochemicals such as phenols, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and others. ...
Article
Metabolomics is a leading frontier of systems science and biomedical innovation. However, metabolite identification in mass spectrometry (MS)-based global metabolomics investigations remains a formidable challenge. Moreover, lack of comprehensive spectral databases hinders accurate identification of compounds in global MS-based metabolomics. Creating experiment-derived metabolite spectral libraries tailored to each experiment is labor-intensive. Therefore, predicted spectral libraries could serve as a better alternative. User-friendly tools are much needed, as the currently available metabolomic analysis tools do not offer adequate provision for users to create or choose context-specific databases. Here, we introduce the MS2Compound, a metabolite identification tool, which can be used to generate a custom database of predicted spectra using the Competitive Fragmentation Modeling-ID (CFM-ID) algorithm, and identify metabolites or compounds from the generated database. The database generator can create databases of the model/context/species used in the metabolomics study. The MS2Compound is also powered with mS-score, a scoring function for matching raw fragment spectra to a predicted spectra database. We demonstrated that mS-score is robust in par with dot product and hypergeometric score in identifying metabolites using benchmarking datasets. We evaluated and highlight here the unique features of the MS2Compound by a re-analysis of a publicly available metabolomic dataset (MassIVE id: MSV000086784) for a complex traditional drug formulation called Triphala. In conclusion, we believe that the omics systems science and biomedical research and innovation community in the field of metabolomics will find the MS2Compound as a user-friendly analysis tool of choice to accelerate future metabolomic analyses.
... induced T-lymphocyte proliferation. Research studies shows that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the Terminalia chebula, Terminaia bellerica, Emblica officinalis enhances the macrophage activation due to their free radical scavenging activity and the ability to neutralize reactive oxygen species Belapurkar et al., 2014). Nagam (Zinc) is one of the constituents of Siddha higher order medicines. ...
Article
The recent outbreak of COVID-19 is attributed to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This viral disease is rapidly spreading across the globe, including India. The mainstay in managing the disease is supportive care, nutrition, and preventing further progression in the absence of proven antiviral drugs. Currently two vaccines Covishield and Covaxin are administered in India. Long-term plans of developing most reliable mRNA-based vaccines are also underway for the future method of prophylaxis. The Siddha system of medicine’s holistic approach emphasizes lifestyle modification, prophylactic interventions, and dietary management to boost the host immunity and treatment with herbal medicines and higher-order medicines as the case may be. In this review, a brief outline of the disease COVID-19, Coronavirus, evidence-based traditional Siddha interventions for respiratory ailments, immune boosters highlighting the relevant published research on individual herbs are dealt, which pave way for further research on drug repurposing for COVID-19. Historical evidence on the prevention and treatment of infections in Siddha classics is studied. Web search in databases such as Embase, Biomed Central Articles, Pub med, NLM, Web of Science CrossRef, Google scholar, AYUSH research portal, google search engine related to antiviral properties of herbs used in the preparation of Siddha drugs was also carried out.
... Modern studies have shown that Triphala is rich in polyphenols, vitamin C and flavonoids [9]. It has many pharmacological activities, such as anticancer [10], antibacterial [11], immunomodulatory [12], anti-inflammatory [13], antioxidant [9], liver protective [14,15], gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms improvement, fat prevention [16], chemical protection [17] and radiation protection [18]. Triphala was taken in the form of fresh fruit or fresh fruit juice in ancient Indian Buddhism. ...
Article
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Objective: Explore the effects of high-temperature reflux extraction and low-temperature decompressing inner ebullition on Triphala's chemical composition and anti-chronic pharyngitis activity. Methods: The network pharmacology was used to analyze the material basis, targets and pathways of Triphala for chronic pharyngitis. HPLC were used to compare the fingerprint profile and content of components between the two extracts. The antioxidant and anti-chronic pharyngitis activities of the two extracts were compared by DPPH assay and ammonia induced chronic pharyngitis model in rats. Results: The network pharmacology results showed that the active ingredients of Triphala for chronic pharyngitis are epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (+)-catechin, epicatechin, epicatechin gallate, (+)-gallocatechin, quercetin, luteolin, leucodelphinidin and other flavonoids; phenolic acids such as gallic acid and ellagic acid; alkaloids such as ellipticine, cheilanthifoline; hydrolyzed tannins such as corilagin and chebulic acid. The high-temperature reflux extract and the low-temperature decompressing inner ebullition extract have extremely significant differences in the fingerprint profile. Among them, the content of gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, corilagin, quercetin, and epicatechin gallate in the reflux extract is 1.1-5.3 times as much as decompressing inner ebullition extract. The free radical scavenging ability of reflux extract is significantly stronger than that of decompression extract (p < 0.01), and it has a repairing effect on pharyngeal mucosal damage (reducing keratinization or hyperplasia of mucosal epithelium, reducing inflammatory cell infiltration and bleeding), and reducing IL-1β (P<0.05), IL-6 (p<0.05), TNF-α overexpression ability is stronger than the decompressing inner ebullition extract. Conclusions: gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulic acid, catechin, epicatechin, corilagin and epicatechin gallate are the basic aglycones or oligomers of tannin. High temperature reflux extraction can significantly promote the occurrence of the hydrolysis of tannins and significantly increases the content of these components.Therefore, its anti-chronic pharyngitis activity is enhanced. It is suggested that high temperature reflux extraction should be used in the treatment of chronic pharyngitis.
... Interestingly, pretreatment with EEEA preventedthe changes in hematological parameters. The preventionof myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide maybe through activation of macrophages, which secrete a largenumber of substances including colony stimulating factorand interleukin-1 [24][25]. ...
Article
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Evolvulus alsinoidesa plant showed powerful anti-cancer activity in various cancer cell lines by stimulating macrophage cells which plays a central role in the immune system. The present study was conducted to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Evolvulus alsinoides (EEEA). In the current study, neutrophil adhesion test, carbon clearance test, haemagglutinating antibody titre test, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction test and cyclophosphamide-induced Immunosuppression test was performed. EEEA 200 and 400 mg/kg oral dose were selected for the study after conducting the acute dose toxicity study.All the studies were performed in Swiss albino mice. EEEA showed a dose dependent increase in the neutrophil adhesion to the nylon fibres, produced a significant increase in the phagocytic index in carbon clearance test and a significant protection against cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppression. Moreover both doses of EEEA produced an increase in the circulating serum immunoglobulins in haemagglutinating antibody titre test along with an increase in the foot pad edema in delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction test. From the above findings it is concluded that EEEA has the ability to modulate both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
... 5 Previous studies indicated that triphala was multifunctional including antimicrobial, 6,7 antioxidant, 8 anti-inflammatory activities, 9,10 chemopreventive, 11 radioprotective, 12,13 and immunomodulatory. 14 The main purposes of triphala currently used as CAM are lipid-lowering, blood glucose-lowering, antiobesity, antidiarrheal, and dental care. 15 To date, a number of non-randomized and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted to assess the antihyperlipidemic, 16,17 antihyperglycemic, [18][19][20] and anti-obesity effects 21,22 of triphala. ...
Article
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Aim.: The efficacy of triphala on lipid profile, blood glucose and anthropometric parameters and its safety were assessed. Methods.: Databases such as PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Thai Library Integrated System (ThaiLIS) were systematically searched to review current evidence of randomized controlled trials (RCT) on triphala. RCTs investigating the safety and efficacy of triphala on lipid profile, blood glucose and anthropometric parameters were included. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 authors. Results.: Twelve studies on a total of 749 patients were included. The triphala-treated groups showed significantly reduced low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglyceride in 6 studies. Five RCTs demonstrated triphala-treated groups led to statistically significant decrease in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference of obese patients. Moreover, triphala significantly decreased fasting blood glucose level in diabetic patients but not in people without diabetes. No serious adverse event associated with triphala was reported during treatment. Conclusions.: This review summarized a current evidence to show triphala might improve the lipid profile, blood glucose, the body weight, body mass index and waist circumference under certain conditions. However, large well-designed RCTs are required to confirm this conclusion.
... This is an approach to discover potential lead candidates present in Terminalia chebula and to find the probable drug targets of SARC-CoV-2. The basic purpose to choose T. chebula as our study material is its broad-spectrum anti-viral activity (Badmaev et al., 2000) and immunomodulator (Belapurkar et al., 2014) which is the basic requirement for a targeted drug against SARS-CoV-2. Terminalia chebula is a native plant of India which belongs to family Combretaceae is a commonly used medicinal plant in Ayurveda, Unani as well as homoeopathy (Rathinamoorthy, Thilagavathi, 2014). ...
... Thus, Albizzia lebbeck is involved to decreases the level of pro-cytokines -leptin, Various studies isolated some essential bioactive ingredients such aschebulinic acid, anthraquinone, arachidic acid, etc., along with other phytoconstituents such as polyphenols, terpenes, anthocyanins, flavonoids, alkaloids, and glycosides. They play a significant role as antibacterial, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory activities 25,[84][85][86][87][88] . The previous finding supported that its fruits hold various active chemical compounds responsible for different health benefits like geriatric diseases and improve memory and brain function. ...
Article
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Coronavirus disease (COVID) is highly contagious, and negligence of it causes high morbidity and mortality globally. The highly infectious viral disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was abbreviated as COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) by World Health Organization first time on February 11, 2020, and later on, WHO declared COVID-19 as a global pandemic on 11/3/2020. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that the SARS CoV-2 infects the overall population, irrespective of age, gender, or ethnic variation, but it was observed in clinical studies that older and compromised immunity population is much more prone to COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 majorly spread through aeration route in droplet form on sneezing and coughing, or by contact when touching eyes, nose or mouth with the infected hands or any other organs, resulting from mild to severe range of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This literature-based review was done by searching the relevant SCI and SCOPUS papers on the pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19, herbal formulation, and Ayurveda from the databases, Academia, Google Scholar, PubMed, and ResearchGate. The present review attempts to recognize the therapeutic strategies to combat COVID-19 because of the current human risk. Indian system of medicine, including herbals, has immense potential in treating and managing various viral infections and provides evidence to utilize Ayurvedic medication to improve immunity. Cumulative research findings suggest that Ayurvedic formulations and herbal immunomodulators (Tino sporacordifolia, Withania somnifera, Crocus sativus, Zafran, Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Albizia lebbek, Terminalia chebula, Piper longum, Mangifera indica, Ocimum sanctum, Centella asiatica ) are promising in the treatment of outrageous viral infections without exerting adverse effects. Considering the ancient wisdom of knowledge, the herbal formulations would compel healthcare policymakers to endorse Ayurveda formulations to control the COVID-19 pandemic significantly.
Chapter
Healthy operation of every organ depends on immune cells. T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer cells that control the immune homeostasis. Immunotherapy includes the process by which immune cells are immunomodulated. Immunological responses can be induced by immunostimulants, amplified by immune boosters, attenuated by immunomodulators, and prevented by immunosuppressive agents, according to therapeutic techniques. The over-activation of the immune system is mostly to blame for the rise of chronic immunological illnesses such as viral infections, allergies, and cancer. Immunomodulators may also be used to control the severity of long-term immunological diseases. Additionally, it is discovered that these immunomodulator-acting proteins represent prospective molecular targets for the control of the immune system. Furthermore, it is well known that organic molecules like phytocompounds have the ability to bind to these locations and affect the immune system. Curcumin, quercetin, stilbenes, flavonoids, and lignans are examples of specific phytocompounds shown to have immunomodulatory properties to address immunological diseases.
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This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antiplasmodial efficacy and toxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts from traditional recipes used in Thailand. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of ten traditional recipes were tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity (parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay), cytotoxicity (MTT assay), and hemolysis). Oxidant levels were measured using cell-permeable probe 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescent dye-based assays. The best candidate was chosen for testing in mouse models using 4-day suppressive and acute toxicity assays. An in vitro study showed that ethanolic extracts and three aqueous extracts exhibited antiplasmodial activity, with an IC50 in the range of 2.8-15.5 µg/mL. All extracts showed high CC50 values, except for ethanolic extracts from Benjakul, Benjalotiga, and Trikatuk in HepG2 and Benjalotiga and aqueous extract from Chan-tang-ha in a Vero cell. Based on the results of the in vitro antiplasmodial activity, an aqueous extract of Triphala was chosen for testing in mouse models. The aqueous extract of Triphala exhibited good antiplasmodial activity, was safe at an oral dose of 2 g/kg, and is a potential candidate as a new source for the development of antimalarial drugs.
Article
Poisonings have been identified as critical conditions in Ayurveda since centuries. Agada tantra is the specialized clinical branch where the therapeutic roots for poison management lie. Agada are given a significance as anti-poisonous formulations in various Ayurveda treatises. Ajita agada is the main concern in this study which the references were found on Susruta Samhita Kalpasthana, Aṣhṭanga Samgraha Uttarasthana and Bhaisajjaratnavali. This herbo-mineral anti-poisonous formulation is consisted of 17 ingredients and bee honey as its dipping material. Ajita agada is prescribed mainly for snake bites (Sarpa visha) and also for all the other kinds of animate (Jangama) and inanimate (Sthavara) poisons. Still, any organized management procedure in critical care for poisonings from Ayurveda perspective hasn't observed included in national health care system of Sri Lanka. This study is aimed at fulfilling this lacuna by means of finding a strategy for critical care of poisonings through Ajita agada. Upon Ayurveda pharmacodynamics are concerned, it's observed that Kaṭu (76.47%), Tikta (35.29%) and Kashaya rasa (29.41%) are prominent Rasa, Laghu (94.11%), Tikshṇa (58.82%) and Ruksha guna (35.29%) are prominent Guna, Ushṇa (82.35%) and Katu (23.52%) as the prominent Virya and Vipaka. By virtue of pharmacodynamics, Ajita agada shows a similarity with poison itself. This is very remarkable in collective understanding the therapeutic action of Ajita agada in management of poisonings. Further, chemical and clinical studies should be conducted with this regard.
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Ayurveda works towards the prevention and management of various health problems, Ayurveda also suggests many natural ways to promote general health. Ayurveda in this regards provides several modalities for controlling infectious diseases which described as Sankramak Roga in Ayurveda. As per Ayurveda these Sankramak Roga mainly arises due to the vitiated state of Doshas and this vitiation arises by microbial toxins in case of infectious diseases. Therefore Doshas pacifying medicines recommended controlling infections. Ayurveda drugs like Kapura, Neema, Guduchi, Tulsi and Vacha, etc. helps to treat such pathological conditions. The present scenario of pandemic disaster requires an approach where Ayurveda and modern science can join hand together to combat against this situation. The consequences of viral infections also increases susceptibility towards other infections i.e.; fungal diseases. Considering these all facts this article explored Ayurveda as well as modern approaches for the management of various types of Sankramak Roga w.s.r. to viral and fungal infections.
Article
Immune cells are important for the healthy function of every organ. The homeostasis of the immune system is selfregulated by T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer cells. The immunomodulation process of immune cells is part of the immunotherapy. According to therapeutic methods of immune responses are categorized as inducing (immunostimulant), amplification (immune booster), attenuation (immunomodulation), and prevention (immunosuppressive) actions. The prevalence of chronic immunological diseases like viral infections, allergies, and cancer is mainly due to the over-activation of the immune system. Further, immunomodulators are reported to manage the severity of chronic immunological disorders. Moreover, these immunomodulator-acting proteins are identified as potential molecular targets for the regulation of the immune system. Moreover, natural compound like phytocompounds are known to bind these targets and modulates the immune system. The specialized phytocompounds like curcumin, quercetin, stilbenes, flavonoids, and lignans are shown the immunomodulatory actions and ameliorate the immunological disorders. The present scenario of a COVID-19 pandemic situation has taught us the need to focus on strengthening the immune system and the development of the most promising immunotherapeutics. This review is focused on an overview of various phytocompounds and their molecular targets for the management of immunological disorders via immunosuppressants and immunostimulants actions.
Article
A well-known Ayurvedic preparation, Triphala, consists of Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.), Baheda (Terminalia bellirica Roxb.) and Harad (Terminalia chebula Retz.) in equal ratio and is used worldwide for its multiple therapeutic actions, so it is essential to standardize using modern analytical techniques to assure quality, purity, safety and efficacy. A simple, sensitive, rapid, reliable and economic high-performance thin-layer chromatography method was developed and validated for the quantification of gallic acid (GA) and ellagic acid (EA). This study gives an opportunity for standardization of marketed Triphala formulation. Methanolic extract of Triphala in-house and Triphala marketed was chromatographed on 20 cm × 10 cm aluminum-backed silica gel 60 F254 plates with layer thickness 0.2 mm with the mobile phase toluene–ethyl acetate–formic acid–methanol (3:3:1:0.2, V/V). Calibration plots were established showing the dependence of response on the amount chromatographed. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relation with R2 = 0.999 and 0.998 for peak area of GA and EA, respectively. The concentration range of GA was 200–2000 ng/band and of EA 50–400 ng/band. Detection and quantification were performed by densitometer scanning at wavelength λ = 200–400 nm by using a deuterium lamp. The standard RF values of GA (0.35) and EA (0.27) were matched with samples. The method was validated as per the International Council for Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and can be adopted to validate and standardize the methanolic extract of GA and EA present in other related herbal products.
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Background: Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the super-spreading virus, has claimed hundreds of thousands of lives worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the novel suggested herbal compound, formulated as compressed tablets, in reducing the length of hospital stay (LoS), intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and mortality in confirmed COVID-19 cases. Methods: Following an open-label, single-blind randomized clinical trial design, a total of 200 patients aged 18-65 admitted to Imam Reza hospital in Tabriz, northwest of Iran, were randomized to intervention and control groups in a 1:1 ratio, i.e., 100 subjects in each group. The former received standard treatment along with the compressed herbal tablets, and the latter only received the standard treatment. Adverse reactions incidence within 180 days after the beginning of the intervention was set as the primary safety endpoint. The most important and active ingredients of the tablets were Terminalia chebula, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Senna alexandrina, Ferrula asafoetida, Pistacia lentiscus, Zizyphus jujuba, Crocus sativus, Echinacea angustifolia, and Hyssopus officinalis. This trial is registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (code: IRCT20200522047545N1). Results: Those in the intervention arm had significantly lower rates of LoS (7.38 vs. 9.45, P = 0.030), ICU admission (6 out of 100 vs. 32 out of 100, P = 0.000), and mortality (1 vs. 19 out of 100, P = 0.000). Conclusions: Our observations suggest that adequate improvement is provided by the prepared herbal compound along with substantial savings in hospitalization hoteling costs. While further multi-center studies with a larger sample size are needed to extend our knowledge regarding the effect of this new option, these novel clinical data may well provide a new alternative for the management of COVID-19 disease.
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This review paper developed on the basis of literature survey highlights the use of traditional herbal folk medicine for controlling the deadly outbreak of corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) mutants, Delta variant (B.1.617.2) and Delta Plus (AY. 1) causing major health issue with the highest viral infections and deaths. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV-2) is a pandemic respiratory infections viral disease. SARS-CoV-2 syndrome is also causing an unusual type of pneumonia leading to the lungs infection. Botanical drugs constantly become a worthy therapeutic alternatives against viral infections including corona virus (SARS-CoV-2). Therefore, there is an urgent need for the agents that can act against SARS-CoV-2 as a precautionary measures which boost our immunity during Covid-19. In this review paper, there are many medicinal plants listed have been found inhibited the SARS-CoV-2 viral replications, and acts as immunity booster. The use of spices and herbs may also play a significant role against viral infections. Therefore, herbal and dietary therapy plays significant role in controlling many infectious diseases including corona virus (SARS-CoV-2) affecting human health. However, there is no clinical evidence to support herbal medicine as remedy for corona virus and warranted further scientific evidence. Further detailed clinical trial experiments should be conducted for the scientific validation. This review paper updates about plants either used as expression patterns for plant based vaccines or as antiviral drugs as a medicine for controlling SARS-CoV-2 outbreak since the disease is becoming endemic.
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This review paper highlights the use of herbal medicine in the management of the coronavirus disease COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, which has caused a worldwide outbreak of respiratory illness. This is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is zoonotic infecting both animal and human. Vaccines are the most promising solution to mitigate new viral strains. The Indian system of holistic medicine known as "Ayurveda" plays an important role in controling the viral disease SARS-CoV-2 and other health disorders. Dietary therapy and herbal medicine could be a complementary preventive therapy for COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). Plants have been used as a expression systems for the production of diagnostic reagents and pharmaceutical proteins often described as "molecular farming. On the basis of literature survy presented, some of the plant secondary metabolites that showed prominent antiviral activity against coronaviruses SARS-CoV-2 through impeding the main machinery used in their pathogenesis and replication cycle. The in vitro, in vivo, and in silico investigations revealed numerous plant-derived compounds with promising anti-SARS-CoV and anti-SARS CoV-2 activity. Therefore, this review gathered all antiviral plants in a single platform to facilitate the laboratory-based research for the development of novel drug/molecular therapeutics to overcome the SARS-CoV-2 and future pandemic situations. Further detailed clinical trial experiments should be conducted for the scientific validation.
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This review paper highlights the medicinal properties particularly the immunogenic potentiality of iconic baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) (Kalphavraksha or Wish)tree species belongs to Malvaceae family. During the recent outbreak of second wave of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) mutants, Delta variant (B. 1. 617.2) strainand Delta Plus (AY.1) in India has created a major health issue resulted in more hospitalizations and death. Another problem is fully vaccinated people with"breakthrough" infections is rare but reported. This has created a situation and therefore, promoted herbal medicine, fruit pulp of baobab as an immunity boosterfor controlling the coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The baobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp is very rich in vitamin C (280-350 mg/g of the fruit), zinc, andthe source of protein and used as a herbal medicine long time ago by local traditional healers in India, Africa, Madagascar and other Asian countries. In additionto this, the baobab fruit pulp is acidic in nature and also known for protease inhibitors which limits the consumption of fruits. Plant protease inhibitors are directlyinvolved in blocking the viral replication and inhibited the viral synthesis. Therefore, two dose vaccination with additional dietary and medicinal therapy will helpto prevent the human body against invading viral antigen and improved the overall health condition of the Covid-19 patients. In India, the oral consumption ofbaobab (Kalphavraksha or Wish tree) fruit pulp with milk as an immunity booster has improved the Covid-19 patients health condition. However, there are noclinical evidences to support the scientific validation. Therefore, clinical experimental studies should be conducted particularly for the scientific validation ofimmunogenic potentiality of baobab fruit pulp. This will help in developing a novel drug for controlling the coronavirus infections in future pandemic. (PDF) Role of herbal medicine for controlling coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) disease (COVID-19). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/350631457_Role_of_herbal_medicine_for_controlling_coronavirus_SARS-CoV-2_disease_COVID-19 [accessed Oct 16 2022].
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Wounds are big challenges to the wound care professionals. Topical wound care products and wound dressings are evolved every day. Advanced dressings are produced by incorporating antimicrobial agents, growth factors and herbal extracts to enhance the wound healing process. Nanofibres are the recent focus as drug delivery vehicle for the delivery of drugs to the target site. The aim of the study is to prepare Terminalia bellerica loaded PCL nanofibrous mats by electrospinning and to characterize the nanofibres for biomedical applications. Terminalia bellerica is one of the ingredients of Triphala which play important role as rejuvenating agent. The increasing concentration of Terminalia loaded PCL nanofibrous mats shows increased fiber diameter, wettability and Water uptake property. The wettability of the PCL was decreased from 113.3 ± 3.62 to 59.98 ± 4.99, 44.96 ± 7.04 and 34.34 ± 3.45 respectively for the Terminalia loaded PCL nanofibres. The 5% herbal loaded PCL nanofibrous mats shows antimicrobial activity against gram negative bacteria. Further, Terminalia loaded PCL mats were found to be nontoxic and is responsible for the cell adhesion and proliferation and is useful as the potential candidate for wound dressing applications.
Chapter
Ayurveda, one of the most recognized/widely practiced disciplines of alternative medicine in the world is considered the world’s oldest comprehensive healthcare system. The co-existence of gut microbiota (GM) and humans throughout the lifespan and constant crosstalk between the two have prompted researchers to elucidate the biology of host-microbe interactions and to understand the underlying mechanisms of the functions of the GM in order to modulate and exploit this approach to improve human health. Currently concerted efforts are directed at understanding the effects of Ayurveda-herbal formulations (AHF) on the GM and the role of such interactions on the modulation of human health in the realm of neuroprotection. This chapter provides a brief account of the implications of altered GM on brain health and enumerates the status of the modulatory potential of AHF on the GM and its role in alleviating neurodegenerative disorders (NDD).
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Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading infectious diseases and health burdens in the world. One-third of the world’s population, including 40% from India, is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis. Current studies have indicated the urgent need for the development of new, safe, and efficacious drugs to help reduce the global burden of tuberculosis. Novel antimycobacterial scaffolds from natural products have recently been reported. Natural products of plant biodiversity have received considerable attention as potential anti-TB agents since they are a proven template for the development of new molecules against tuberculosis. We have selected eleven medicinal plants on the basis of four criteria to choose a plant for antituberculosis activity. The plants were having antituberculosis effect, hepatoprotective effect, immunemodulatory action, and having the ability to enhance bioavailability. All selected eleven plants were reviewed in ancient literature and research article-based review. So here, our objective is to study pharmacognostic, physochemical and cytotoxicity screening of eleven selected medicinal plants. There are three different extracts of eleven selected medicinal plants that were prepared on the basis of phytochemical screening performed for the confirmation of the presence of active constituents. All the parameters of pharmacognostical study and physicochemical parameters compared with standards and results were within the range of limits. Cytotoxicity screening of all extracts of elevn selected plants were performed, and none of the extracts from eleven selected medicinal plants shows any significant cytotoxicity. So further, these all extracts of pants can be taken for antituberculosis screening
Chapter
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a psychosomatic disorder characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Metabolism of an individual affected with IBD is equated to imbalance of jatharagni (digestive fire) which results in atijeernam (hyper digestive disorder), ajeernam (hypo digestive disorder), or kutajeernam (erroneous digestive disorder). Yoga stabilizes jatharagni that helps energy transformation of 1) food substances into nutritious substance, 2) nutritious substance into tissues. It improves anabolic and catabolic processes which help absorption of energy. Yogic cleansing techniques promote elimination of ama (toxic products) and kleda (waste products). Yoga therapy along with herbal medicine and lifestyle modification helps develop balanced state of doshas in individuals with IBD. Yoga practice has a healing effect on mind and body, reduces stress, increases emotional and physical self-awareness, and improves the ability to manage physical symptoms.
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Background The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has raised a global health concern due to the unavailability of any vaccines or drugs. The repurposing of traditional herbs with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity can be explored to control or prevent a pandemic. Objective The 3-chymotrypsin-like main protease (3CLpro), also referred to as the “Achilles’ heel” of the coronaviruses (CoVs), is highly conserved among CoVs and is a potential drug target. 3CLpro is essential for the virus’s life cycle. The objective of the study was to screen and identify broad-spectrum natural phytoconstituents against the conserved active site and substrate-binding site of 3CLpro of HCoVs. Methods Herein, we applied the computational strategy based on molecular docking to identify potential phytoconstituents for the non-covalent inhibition of the main protease 3CLpro from four different CoVs, namely, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. Results Our study shows that natural phytoconstituents in Triphala (a blend of Emblica Officinalis fruit, Terminalia bellerica fruit, and Terminalia chebula fruit), namely chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, and elagic acid, exhibited the highest binding affinity and lowest dissociation constants (Ki), against the conserved 3CLpro main protease of SARSCoV-2, SARS-CoV, HCoV-HKU1, and HCoV-229E. Besides, phytoconstituents of other herbs like Withania somnifera, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hyssopus officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Prunella vulgaris, and Ocimum sanctum also showed good binding affinity and lower Ki against the active site of 3CLpro. The top-ranking phytoconstituents’ binding interactions clearly showed a strong and stable interactions with amino acid residues in the catalytic dyad (CYS-HIS) and substrate-binding pocket of the 3CLpro main proteases. Conclusion This study provides a valuable scaffold for repurposing traditional herbs with anti-CoV activity to combat SARS-CoV-2 and other HCoVs until the discovery of new therapies.
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Ayurveda remains as the classical and comprehensive part of ancient Indian system of medicine for wellbeing promotive, disease preventive, and revival approach for human body. Triphala Rasayana is mentioned in Ayurveda comprising fruits of three plant species viz. Phyllanthus emblica L. (P. emblica), Terminalia chebula Retz (T. chebula), and Terminalia bellirica Roxb (T.bellirica). Triphala Rasayana has been utilized in various traditional systems of medicine, viz., Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. Traditionally Rasayana based drugs are utilized in different kinds of diseases without pathophysiological associations as indicated by current medication. Various medicinal attributes of Triphala Rasayana include antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and anticataract and is also considered as a pillar for gastrointestinal treatment specifically in functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). Due to Rasayan’s easy mode of administration, availability, and affordability, there is an increase of its global acceptance. Aim of review This review article summarizes the scientific validation, traditional uses, bioactive compounds, and ethnopharmacological properties of Triphala Rasayana. In addition, it also documents recent data on in vivo and in vitro pharmacological studies and clinical effects of Triphala rasayana. Material and method A literature review was carried out using PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, web of science, Ayush Research Portal, and Clinical Trials Registry-India. In addition to an electronic search, traditional ayurvedic texts, and books were used as source of information. Results Traditionally, “Triphala Rasayana” is classified as a tridoshic rasayana and one of the most well-studied ayurvedic Rasayana. It showed various pharmacological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective and antidiabetic. Besides this, Rasayana has reported ethnopharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, anticataract, wound healing, and radioprotection. It has shown a good impact on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) system with the reported pharmacological activities in gastrointestinal disorders such as constipation, gastric ulcer, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Phytochemical studies of Triphala Rasayana revealed the presence of chemical constituents like gallic acid, ellagic acid, chebulic acid, chebulinic acid, methyl gallate, emblicanin A, and emblicanin B. Additionally, clinical studies found Triphala Rasayana to be effective against antidiabetic, constipation and obesity. Conclusion The present review revealed that Triphala Rasayana has a potential for treating a diverse range of diseases, especially GIT disorders. Considering the beneficial properties of Triphala Rasayana, and proven non-toxic nature of Triphala Rasayana, it could be a source of rejuvenation in contemporary healthcare. Moreover, its clinical data was found effective in providing precious signals to correlate ayurvedic biology and modern medicine.
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Purpose: To investigate the immunomodulatory activity of the alcohol extract of Terminalia chebula Retz (Combretaceae) dried ripe fruits at the cellular level.Methods: For antioxidant study, the liver mitochondria were separated and used for the estimation of enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) - as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduced glutathione (GSH); Melatonin secretion was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) while spleen lymphocyte proliferation assay was performed by measuring optical density at 570 nm using ELISA reader. The cytokines, namely, IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α expression in spleen cells, were determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR)Results: Terminalia chebula extract (100 mg/kg/p.o.) increased the level of liver mitochondrial enzymes CAT and SO) as well as GSH but decreased the level of LPO in the liver when compared to the vehicle, sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and cyclophosphamide-treated groups. Secretion of melatonin by pineal gland was enhanced by T. chebula treatment. The extract also increased spleen lymphocyte proliferation. Based on RT-PCR analysis, the expression of cytokines, viz, IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α, was more in T. chebula-treated than in vehicle- and cyclophosphamide- treated groups.Conclusion: This study confirms the immunomodulatory activity of ripe T. chebula fruits as evidenced by increase in the concentration of antioxidant enzymes, GSH, T and B cells, the proliferation of which play important roles in immunity. This phenomenon also enhances the concentration of melatonin in pineal gland as well as the levels of cytokines, such as IL-2,IL-10 and TNF-α, which play important roles in immunity.
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Aqueous, alcoholic and ethyl acetate extracts of leaves of five Terminalia species (T. alata, T. arjuna, T. bellerica, T. catappa, T. chebula) were tested against five plant pathogenic fungi like Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Alternaria brassicicola, Alternaria alternata and Helminthosporium tetramera). The antifungal activities of all these extracts were determined by paper disc method. Nearly all the extracts were found effective against these fungi. The positive results so obtained were compared with that of the reference standard fungicide (Carbendazim). It was found that most of the extracts were more effective against fungi than the control fungicide.
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Typhoid is a worldwide problem today due to the emergence of multidrug resistance Salmonella typhi and limited scope of vaccine against this disease. As the plant product has little side effects and is the source of many compounds having wide range of biological activities, diverted the author to study the protective role of Terminalia chebula, against Salmonella typhimurium. The author has already reported the protective effect of aqueous extract of the fruits of this plant against S. typhimurium in vitro as well as in vivo and also the antioxidant activity against these bacteria. In this study the same extract was evaluated for its immunomodulatory activity against S. typhimurium in vivo. Animals pretreated with the same extract at a dose 500 mg/kg body wt orally showed an increase in WBC count by 3x10 3 /cu mm and lymphocyte count by 4 % as compared to saline treated control challenged with 50000 colony forming unit of S. typhimurium. The drug showed the proliferation of lymphocyte by 102% and increase in food pad thickness by 28.87% as compared to infected control in delayed type of hypersensitivity test. Thus the drug showed its protective effect through its immunomodulatory activity in mice and can be used in typhoid.
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The hydroalcoholic extract of T.Chebula fruit was evaluated for its wound healing activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats using excision and dead space wound models. Extract treated animals exhibited 82% reduction in the wound area when compared to controls which was 40%. The extract treated wounds were found to epithelize faster as compare to controls. The wet and dry granulation tissue weight content was increased significantly when compared to controls. T.Chebula promotes significant wound healing in diabetic rats and further evaluation of this activity in humans is suggested.
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The free radical scavenging property and antimicrobial activity of Triphala- the herbal product made of equal proportion of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis, were evaluated. Ethanol extracts of the formulation were tested for its total antioxidant activity using improved ABTS radical cation decolorizing assay and antibiotic assay against Streptococcus mutans (predominantly involved in bio-film formation on human teeth). An effort was also made to correlate its antiplaque activity using an in-vitro assay (conditions were kept similar to oral cavity) with Triphala and two commercial toothpastes (Product 1 and product 2). The herbal extract effectively inhibited the bio-film formation and the better antioxidant activity exhibited by the extract might protect the gum cells effectively from free radicals than the commercial toothpastes. Thus Triphala can be used as an effective antiplaque agent.
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Amla is well-known for its rich vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and polyphenol contents. To assess its antioxidant activity, we examined aqueous amla extract for its ability to inhibit γ-radiation-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) in rat liver microsomes and superoxide dismutase (SOD) damage in rat liver mitochondria. For the LPO experiment, amla extract was added as its aqueous solution; and irradiation was carried out at different time intervals. The extent of LPO was measured in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. It was observed that the amla extract acts as a very good antioxidant against γ-radiation-induced LPO. Similarly, it was found to inhibit the damage to antioxidant enzyme SOD. The antioxidant activity of the amla extract was found to be both dose- and concentration-dependent. The amount of ascorbic acid in amla was standardized by HPLC and titrimetric methods and was found to be 3.25 to 4.5% w/w. However in microsomes containing this composition of pure ascorbic acid alone, no inhibition in LPO was observed. Cyclic voltammetry of the amla extract was carried out to estimate the ascorbic acid equivalents, which was found to be 9.4% w/w of amla. This value was found to be in agreement when compared with the reactivity of both amla and ascorbic acid towards ABTS.- radical, a stable free-radical. Based on these results it is concluded that amla is a more potent antioxidant than vitamin C.
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An ethanol extract of Terminalia chebula fruit was studied for its antibacterial activity against clinically important standard reference bacterial strains. The antimicrobial susceptibility was screened using the disc diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using the broth microdilution method. The results showed that it was active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The T. chebula fruit extract was highly effective against Salmonella typhi SSFP 4S, Staphylococcus epidermidis MTCC 3615, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The MIC was determined as 1 mg/ml for S. typhi. These results indicate that the T. chebula dry fruit possesses a potential broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity and a search for the active compound is needed.
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Triphala is an Ayurvedic herbal formulation consisting of equal parts of three myrobalans: Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis. We recently reported that chebulagic acid (CA) isolated from Terminalia chebula is a potent COX-2/5-LOX dual inhibitor. In this study, compounds isolated from Terminalia bellerica were tested for inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent inhibition against COX enzymes with no inhibition against 5-LOX. It was identified as gallic acid (GA) by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses. We report here the inhibitory effects of GA, with an IC50 value of 74 nM against COX-2 and 1500 nM for COX-1, showing ~20 fold preference towards COX-2. Further docking studies revealed that GA binds in the active site of COX-2 at the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) binding site. The carboxylate moiety of GA interacts with Arg120 and Glu524. Based on substrate dependent kinetics, GA was found to be a competitive inhibitor of both COX-1 and COX-2, with more affinity towards COX-2. Taken together, our studies indicate that GA is a selective inhibitor of COX-2. Being a small natural product with selective and reversible inhibition of COX-2, GA would form a lead molecule for developing potent anti-inflammatory drug candidates.
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Stress is a term that generally has a negative connotation, which results in immune dysfunction. In this study, immunomodulatory effect of Triphala (equal proportion of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Emblica officinalis) during noise-stress in male albino rats was evaluated by analyzing the antibody titer, cytokines IL-2-Interleukin (2), IL-4 and IFN-Interferon (gamma) and Pan T, CD4 + /CD8 + lymphocyte phenotype in spleen. Four groups of rat were employed namely control, Triphala (1 g/kg body weight), noise-stress (100 dB/4 hr/15 days), Triphala + noise-stress and rats were immunized with sheep red blood cells (5 × 10 9 cells/ml). Results indicate that noise-stress induced elevation in the serum antibody titer and IL-4 levels associated with decreased IL-2, IFN-gamma, and reduction in Pan T, CD4 + /CD8 + lymphocyte phenotype in spleen were significantly prevented in Triphala treated noise-stress exposed group. This study showed the immunomodulatory ef-fect of Triphala during noise-stress and suggests its therapeutic usefulness.
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The in vitro antimicrobial activity of Sapindus mukorossi and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts were studied against Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acetone, ethanol, methanol, hot water and cold water extracts of S.mukorossi exhibited antimicrobial activity against one of the tested microorganisms i.e. S.cerevisiae. All the five extracts of E.officinalis showed inhibitory activity against S.mutans while the acetonic, hot and cold aqueous extracts showed inhibitory activity against S.aureus also. The largest zone of inhibition was obtained with the acetonic extract of S.mukorossi against S.cerevisiae (29.65mm) and hot water extract of E.officinalis against S.aureus (40.32mm). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the extracts were also determined against the selected microorganisms showing zones of inhibition ≥8mm. This study depicts that the fruits of Sapindus mukorossi and Emblica officinalis possess very good antifungal and antibacterial activities respectively and can be used as a potential source of novel antimicrobial agents used to cure dental caries.
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Seventeen different common citrus fruits have been analyzed for their content of nutrients: carbohydrate, protein, lipids, vitamins,carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, important macro and micro minerals such as sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorous, iron, zinc and copper. Carbohydrate, protein and fats in citrus fruits varied from 4.60-8.50, 5.80-7.90 and 2.50-9.50 g, respectively. The content of carotene, thiamine, riboflavin and ascorbic acid varied different amounts in citrus fruits. The highest contents of Carotene fruits are orange and tomato. Among the analyzed citrus fruits pineapple content the maximum amount of thiamine (0.20 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g) and wood apple content maximum riboflavin (0.15 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g). Amla (Indian gooseberry) fruits contents the highest ascorbic acid 600 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g of fresh edible parts of fruits. Lemon contained the highest amount of calcium. The highest amount of magnesium was found in Black berry (49.80 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g of edible portion of the fruits). Sodium present in different citrus fruits ranged from 1.0 to 28 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g. Wood apple contained the highest amount of phosphorus (98.90 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g) among all citrus fruits. Tomato contained the highest amount of Potassium (275 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g). The iron content in different fruits ranged from 0.10 to 38 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g. Zinc present in fruits ranged between 0.18 to 0.48 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g. Copper content in different fruits analyzed ranged from 0.1 to 0.68 mg 100<SUP>-1</SUP> g of fruits.
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Terminalia chebula has an esteemed origin in Indian mythology; its fruits are used to treat many diseases such as digestive, diabetes, colic pain, chronic cough, sore throat, asthma, etc. The water or ethanolic extracts of the fruits were reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and radio-protector properties. The present study is to isolate and identify the compounds that inhibit COX and 5-LOX, the key enzymes involved in inflammation and carcinogenesis. The ethanolic extract of the fruits was fractionated by RP-HPLC and fractions were tested for enzyme inhibition activity against COX and 5-LOX. One of the fractionated compounds showed potent dual inhibition against COX and 5-LOX. It was identified as chebulagic acid by LC-MS, NMR and IR analyses. The chebulagic acid was also tested for anti-proliferative activity. Chebulagic acid showed potent COX-LOX dual inhibition activity with IC(50) values of 15+/-0.288, 0.92+/-0.011 and 2.1+/-0.057 microM for COX-1, COX-2 and 5-LOX respectively. It also showed anti-proliferative activity against HCT-15, COLO-205, MDA-MB-231, DU-145 and K562 cell lines. Further mechanistic studies on COLO-205 cells revealed induction of apoptosis by chebulagic acid. Chebulagic acid, a COX-2 and 5-LOX dual inhibitor isolated from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, induces apoptosis in COLO-205 cells.
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Pestalotiopsis species were most dominant endophytic species isolated from four medicinal plants including Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia chebula, Azadirachta indica, and Holarrhena antidysenterica. Thirty Pestalotiopsis species isolated from different parts of the medicinal plants were selected for the study. The antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of Pestalotiopsis isolates were determined by measuring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl inhibitory activity, lipid peroxidation, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition activity. Pestalotiopsis isolates of T. arjuna origin exhibited maximum radical scavenging activity compared with the others. The IC50 values of Pestalotiopsis extracts for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity ranged from 14 to 27 microg/mL compared with 15 and 6 microg/mL for butylated hydroxytoluene and ascorbic acid, respectively. The DNA damage study was also done for three isolates, TC-315, TA-37, and TA-60; TA-37 gave 80% protection. The IC50 values of Pestalotiopsis extracts for lipid peroxidation ranged between 30 and 35.5 microg/mL, while for the positive control butylated hydroxytoluene, it was 26 microg/mL. Out of 32 fungal extracts screened for antihypertensive assay, five (TA-37, TA-60, TA-102, TA-103, and TC-320) showed >60% inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme. The IC50 values for five extracts ranged from 21 to 37 microg/mL and was 20 microg/mL for captopril used as a positive control. The antibacterial activity was measured by the microplate-based turbidity measurement method. Four Pestalotiopsis extracts (TA-04, TA-37, TA-60, and TA-102) showed >75% inhibition against five bacterial strains including Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum, and Staphylococcus aureus. The antioxidant, antibacterial, and antihypertensive activities demonstrated the potential of Pestalotiopsis extracts as therapeutic targets.
Book
Bridging the gap between the ancient art of herbalism and the emerging sciences of ethnopharmocology and phytopharmacotherapy, this book highlights the major breakthroughs in the history of the field and focuses on future directions in the discovery and application of herb-derived medicines. Implementing the concept of reverse pharmacology, it integrates documented clinical and experiential "hits" into pharmacological leads by transdisciplinary exploratory studies. It further develops these into drug candidates by experimental and clinical research.
Book
The 6th edition of a well-known and much used standard text in the field. This book covers all aspects of the biochemical abnormalities caused by various diseases and how they relate to the biochemical changes in the blood, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, joint fluids, other body fluids and in cells. The purpose is to provide the fundamental bases for understanding the biochemical changes which occur in disease processes and in turn to provide the rationale for applying this understandig to the diagnosis of the disease process. A substantial appendix is provided so that the user can quickly identify the reference ranges for a large number of animal species. Every veterinary school or college in the USA and throughout the world has a department or section which teaches and provides a clinical laboratory service to their in-house and out-patients. Private veterinary laboratories also provide this service to clients and patients. Every major pharmaceutical house has a group which studies animals in the course of their drug safety studies. New and developing studies include the deleterious effects of environmental toxicants to include wildlife and fishes. * An appendix is provided in the book so that the user can quickly identify the reference ranges for a large number of animal species.
Article
The objective of the present study was to investigate the immunomodulatory activity of Terminalia belerica on cellular and humoral immunity. Oral administration of the ethanolic extract of bark of Terminalia belerica, at the doses of 100mg/kg in mice, dose-dependently potentiated the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells (SRBC). It significantly enhanced the production of circulating antibody titre in mice in response to SRBC.
Article
Aqueous extract of dried Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Amla) fruit pulp powder was evaluated for immunomodulatory effect on male Swiss Albino mice. The mice were divided into three groups. The first group received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second and third groups received the extract orally at 100 and 200 mg! kg body weight dose levels respectively per day for a period of 19 days. There was significant dose dependent increase in haemagglutination antibody titre, sheep red blood cells induced delayed type of hypersensitivity reaction, macrophage migration index, respiratory burst activity of the peritoneal macrophages, total leukocyte count, percentage lymphocyte distribution, serum globulin and relative lymphoid organ weight in Emblica treated mice indicating its ability to stimulate humoral as well as cell mediated immunity along with macrophage phagocyte.
Article
The wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of fruit of Terminalia chebula evaluated on excision and incision model, in albino rats, in the form of an ointment with two concentrations (5% and 10% w/w ointment of bark extract in simple ointment base).Both concentrations of the ethanolic extract showed significant response in both the wound types tested when compared with the control group. Nitrofurazone ointment (0.2%w/w) used as standard.
Article
The absence of L-ascorbic acid, in free or conjugated form, in the fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Hindi : amla) has been established by comprehensive chromatographic (column, TLC, HPLC, HPTLC), spectroscopic (1H and 13C NMR, MS) and crucial chemical analyses of its fresh juice and solvent extractives. The long-lived belief that the therapeutic effects of amla is due to its rich vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) content has thus been dispelled. The potent vitamin C-like activity (antioxidative effect against reactive oxygen species, ROS) of amla fruits has now been located in the low Mr (Mol. wt < 1000) hydrolysable tannins. Four such compounds, emblicanin-A (1), emblicanin-B (2), punigluconin and pedunculagin, have been isolated from the fresh pericarp and their structures established by spectroscopic analyses and chemical transformation. The first two compounds are new naturally occurring galloellagi-tannins, while the other two similar compounds have been reported earlier in other plant species. The mechanism of antioxidative action of 1 and 2 is appraised.
Article
This study was to determine the difference of antioxidant activities between unfermented extracts and fermented products for Terminalia chebula Retzius, and to recognize antioxidative patterns. The methanol extract, water extract, 95 % ethanol extract, fermented product of dried powder at 25 °C and fermented product of residues after 95 % ethanol extraction at 37 °C showed good antioxidant activities based the scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) assay and the horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-luminol-hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) assay, respectively. The methanol extract, water extract, 95 % ethanol extract, fermented product of dried powder at 15 °C and fermented product of water extract at 25 °C exhibited a good value of antioxidant activity based on the pyrogallol-luminol assay. The antioxidative pattern plots revealed valuable information and showed good correlation between scavenging effect on DPPH radical assay and HRP-luminol-H 2 O 2 assay. These results may represent promising plant-sources of medicine in the future.
Article
In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of the Indian ayurvedic herbal formulation Triphala on experimental induced inflammation. The effect of Triphala was investigated on complement activity, humoral immune response, and cell mediated immune response in mice, and in mitogen (phytoheamagglutinin)-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Triphala administration significantly inhibited the complement activity, humoral and cell mediated immune response (delayed type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH)), and mitogen (phytohaemagglutinin)-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation in a dose dependent manner. These observations suggest that Triphala caused immunosuppression in experimental-induced inflammation, indicating that they may provide an alternative approach to the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Article
A) IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY OF TRIPHALA MEGAEXT (B)Objective:To evaluated Immunomodulatory activity of Triphala megaExt in albino mice Methods: Immunomodulatory activity of Triphala megaExt was determined by using different experimental models such as carbon clearance test and Delayed Type Hypersensitivity (DTH) response [Foot Pad Swelling]. Triphala megaExt was administered orally at low dose and high dose of 500 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg. Result: This result is shown significantly (p<0.01) increased in phagocytic index when compared to control group this indicates stimulation of the reticuloendothelial system and increase in DTH response or cell mediated immunity indicated of increase mean paw edema value. Conclussion: According to this study, it is clearly indicating that Triphala megaExt show potent Immunomodulatory activity.
Article
The methanolic and aqueous extracts of Capparis zeylanica are known to exhibit immunomodulatory activity. In the present investigation, the effect of ethonolic extract and its fractions on cellular humoral functions in mice have been studied. Alcoholic extract revealed significant (ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s Multiple Comparison test) immunostimulation by in-vitro phagocytosis, delayed hypersensitivity and haemagglutination model. Oral administration of EFCZ (ethyl acetate fraction) and NFCZ (n-butanol fraction) among the four fractions (20-40 mg/kg) significantly inhibited sheep red blood cells (SRBC) – induced delayed type hypersensitivity reactions and significantly increased the in vitro phagocytic index. It also produced a significant, dose related decrease in sheep erythrocyte specific heamagglutination antibody titre. The results obtained indicate the ability of the EFCZ and NFCZ fraction of Capparis zeylanica to modulate both cell mediated and the humoral components of the immune system.
Article
Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia chebula (500 mg/kg body wt, orally for 30 days) against isoproterenol-induced oxidative stress was investigated in rats. The levels of serum lipid peroxides, iron, ascorbic acid, vitamin E, plasma iron-binding capacity, and the activities of ceruloplasmin and glutathione were assayed, in addition to the activities of the antioxidant enzymes--glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in the heart tissue. Administration of isoproterenol increased the levels of lipid peroxides and iron, with corresponding decrease in the activities of the enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants. The pre-treatment with ethanolic extract of fruits significantly prevented the alterations induced by isoproterenol, and maintained a near normal antioxidant status. Results suggest that the cardioprotective effect of T. chebula fruit may partly be attributed to its antioxidant properties.
Article
In order to understand the factors responsible for the potent antioxidant and radioprotecting ability of triphala, it has been evaluated for radical scavenging ability, xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and phytochemical (phenolics) content. The radical scavenging experiments were carried out using fast reaction kinetic tools and the reactivity of triphala towards different radicals such as hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals, DPPH and ABTS • •- - was determined. When triphala was tested for superoxide radical scavenging activity using xan- thine and xanthine oxidase assay, it was observed that in addition to reacting with superoxide radical, it also inhibited uric acid formation, indicative of xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibitory activity. Phytochemical ana - lysis showed that triphala is rich in phenols/polyphenols (38 ± ± 3%) and tannins (35 ± ± 3%), while flavonoids were found to be absent. HPLC analysis showed that triphala contains 73 ± ± 5 mg gallic acid per gram of triphala, which was found to increase to 150 ± ± 5 mg/g upon acid hydrolysis. Relevance of these studies to the antioxidant and radio protection properties of triphala has also been discussed.
Article
The antiviral effects of aqueous extracts of Terminalis chebula Retz., Sanguisorba officinalis L., Rubus coreanus Miq. and Rheum palmatum L. were examined by a cell culture system using a hepatitis B virus (HBV) producing cell line, HepG2 2.2.15. The extracts were assayed for the inhibition of HBV multiplication by measurement of HBV DNA and surface antigen (HBsAg) levels in the extracellular medium of HepG2 2.2.15 cells after an 8-day treatment. All extracts decreased the levels of extracellular HBV virion DNA at concentrations ranging from 64 to 128 μg/mL and inhibited the secretion of HBsAg dose dependently. Of the four tested plants, Terminalis chebula exhibited the most prominent anti-HBV activities. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
By adopting proper temperature field, growth parameters and pulling–annealing technique a series of high quality ZnO doped lithium niobate (LN) crystals were grown by Czochralski method from the congruent melt. The defect structure of Zn:LN crystals was studied by X-ray analyses, IR and Raman spectrum. It is suggested that Zn ions first occupied Nb ions on Li sites, then Zn ions occupied the ordinary Li sites. Its photo-refraction threshold indicated crystal containing 6mol% Zn:LN has the highest resistance to optical damage, similar to Mg doped LN (5mol% MgO), having increased two orders of magnitude.
Article
The antimicrobial activity of crude and methanol extract ofTerminalia bellerica dry fruit was tested by disc diffusion method, against 9 human microbial pathogens. Crude aqueous extract of dry fruit at 4 mg concentration showed zone of inhibition ranging from 15.5-28.0 mm.S. aureus was found to be highly susceptible forming highest zone of inhibition, suggesting thatT. bellerica was strongly inhibitory towards this organism. These pathogens were highly sensitive to the methanol extract forming 14.0 to 30.0 mm zone of inhibition suggesting that the methanol extract ofT. bellerica was more effective than crude extract against most of the microbes tested exceptE. coli (enteropathogen) andP. aeruginosa. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of crude and methanol extracts were determined by broth dilution technique which ranged from 300 to >2400 μg/ml and 250 μg to >2000 μg/ml respectively, indicating thatT. bellerica was highly effective againstS. aureus with lower MIC values. There were some biochemical alterations induced byT. bellerica. These results indicate thatT. bellerica dry fruit possesses potential broad spectrum antimicrobial activity.
Article
Terminalia chebula. (Gaertn.) Retz. (Combretaceae), a plant widely used in the traditional medicinal systems of India, has been reported to possess antibacterial, laxative, antioxidant, and diuretic activities. In the current study, the aqueous fruit extract of Terminalia chebula. has been investigated for its effect on cell-mediated and humoral components of the immune system in mice. Administration of Terminalia chebula. extract produced an increase in humoral antibody (HA) titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) in mice. It was concluded that the Terminalia chebula. extract is a promising drug with immunostimulant properties.
The aim of the present study was to examine the efficacy of various seed extracts of Terminalia chebula as an antifungal potential against certain important plant pathogenic fungi. The organic extracts of methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform at the used concentration of 1500 ppm/disc revealed remarkable antifungal effect as a fungal mycelial growth inhibitor against Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Phytophthora capsici and Botrytis cinerea, in the range of 41.6–61.3%, along with MIC values ranging from 62.5 to 500 μg/ml. Also, the extracts had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of B. cinerea. The results obtained from this study suggest that the natural products derived from Terminalia chebula could become an alternative to synthetic fungicides for controlling such important plant pathogenic fungi.
Article
Currently, a pandemic swine influenza A virus infection causes a huge negative impact on human beings all over the world. However, the methods of treatment are not satisfactory, therefore it is urgent for us to set up new theory and practice to fight against the intractable virus. Terminalia chebula Retz, as a kind of traditional Chinese medicine, widely distributes and has multiple pharmacological effects. Evidences in laboratory and clinic practice confirm us to the potential of Terminalia chebula Retz inhibiting influenza A virus infection. We thus hypothesize that acetone extracts (tannic acids, A) of Terminalia chebula Ret may as a new alternative treat influenza A infection based on holistic concept of traditional Chinese medicine principle.
Article
Ten hydroalcoholic extracts of edible plants from the Calabria region (Italy) were evaluated for their in vitro antioxidant and antiradical properties and in vivo topical anti-inflammatory activity. All the extracts had radical-scavenging and/or antioxidant properties, the most active plants being hawkweed oxtongue and viper’s bugloss. The best free radical (DPPH·)-scavenging activity was found in hawkweed oxtongue and chicory leaves extracts (IC50 = 25 and 26 μg/ml, respectively). Hawkweed oxtongue, poppy and viper’s bugloss extracts showed the greatest inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation (IC50 = 3 μg/ml). Viper’s bugloss and hawkweed oxtongue extracts had the greatest antioxidant effect on bovine brain peroxidation (IC50 = 11 and 22 μg/ml). All the extracts also showed an anti-inflammatory effect: 300 μg/cm2 provoked oedema reductions ranging from 18% to 43%. Cress was the most active plant. Chicory leaves contained the highest amount of phenolics (190 mg/g) whilst Rush crimps contained the highest amount of flavonoids (32.9 mg/g), followed by hawkweed oxtongue (15.8 mg/g). Cress contained the highest number of sterols. Among them, γ-sitosterol (12.2%) and ergost-5-en-3-ol (3β) (4.5%) were found to be the major constituents. Moreover, three of the identified molecules (stigmasta-5,23-dien-3β-ol, stigmasta-5,24(28)-dien-3-ol (3β,22E) and 9,19-cyclolanost-24-en-3-ol (3β)) were found in this plant only.
Article
Pretreatment with the butanol extract of the water fraction of Phyllanthus emblica fruits at the dose of 100 mg/kg body-weight, orally administered to rats for 10 consecutive days, was found to enhance secretion of gastric mucus and hexosamine (P<0.001) in the indomethacin induced ulceration of rats. The morphological observations also supported a protective effect of the stomach wall from lesion. The indomethacin treatment of the premedicated animals with the drug hardly affected either the malondialdehyde (MDA) or superoxide dismutase (SOD) level in gastric tissue while the ulcerative agent itself significantly enhanced both the levels. An antioxidant property appears to be predominantly responsible for this cytoprotective action of the drug.