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When email use gets out of control: Understanding the relationship between personality and email overload and their impact on burnout and work engagement

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Abstract

Research on email overload has mainly focused on email-related predictors and on linking it to stress and productivity. However, only few studies have considered personality traits to explain email overload and no studies to date have examined burnout and work engagement as potential consequences. Hence, this study was conducted (N = 201) to test to which extent Core Self-Evaluations, the Big Five traits and ambition predict email overload beyond email-related predictors. Moreover, the relationship between email overload and burnout/work engagement was examined. Results show that Core Self-Evaluations predict email overload beyond other personality traits and email-related measures. Second, high feelings of email overload and low Core Self-Evaluations are suggested to contribute to higher levels of burnout and low work engagement, beyond other personality traits and control variables. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. This study demonstrated the importance of personality, in particular of Core Self-Evaluations, to explain email overload. Moreover, it strongly indicates that email overload is not only related to productivity but also to burnout and work engagement.

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... Researchers have considered exhaustion as the most importantand maybe the only dimension of burnout (Maslach et al., 2001). Indeed, the dimension of exhaustion has been the most widely reported/studied dimension of burnout (Armon, Shirom, & Melamed, 2012;Bakker, Demerouti, & Verbeke, 2004;Bianchi, Mayor, Schonfeld, & Laurent, 2016;Dahlin, & Runeson, 2007;Kristensen, Borritz, Villadsen, & Christensen, 2005;Maslach, & Leiter, 2015;Pines, 1997;Reinke, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Schonfeld, & Bianchi, 2016;Şirin, & Deniz, 2016;Toker, & Biron, 2012). For example, in a longitudinal study of over 1100 participants at two time periods (average 24 months apart) for burnout and big five personality factors (Armon et al., 2012), overall exhaustion was positively correlated at both times with neuroticism, conscientiousness, and extraversion. ...
... Research on burnout and personality factors is relatively recent (Armon et al., 2012;Bakker, van der Zee, Lewig, & Dollard, 2006;Morgan, & Bruin, 2010;Reinke, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). All five factors of personality (i.e., extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness) were shown to be associated with the three dimensions of burnout (Bakker et al., 2006;Bühler, & Land, 2003;Kokkinos, 2007;Miner, 2007;Schaufeli, & Enzmann, 1998;Storm, & Rothmann, 2003;Zellars, Perrewe, & Hochwarter, 2000). ...
... In sum, although there are variable findings(Armon et al., 2012;Morgan, & Bruin, 2010;Reinke, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014), the main results between burnout and personality traits are the high positive correlation of neuroticism with exhaustion and depersonalization, as well as neuroticism and extraversion being strong predictors of burnout.The studies contributing opposing results to the literature(Armon et al., 2012;Reinke, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Zysberg, Orenshtein, Gimmon, & Robinson 2017) have had some noteworthy limitations. ...
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The purpose of this research is to explore similarities and differences of student burnout and student depression through educational (engagement in studying) and personal (personality traits) perspective. Due to the claims in literature considering burnout a popular word for depression, the main research question was whether burnout can be considered an independent nosological entity. The study included 135 undergraduate students in a Midwestern university, who filled out self-report questionnaires to measure burnout, depression, engagement, and Big Five personality traits. Correlational analyses showed moderate correlation between burnout and depression, and a similar correlation pattern of burnout and depression with engagement and personality traits. However, several regressional analyses indicated major burnout-depression differences in predicting engagement and personality. Based on these findings, the moderate relationship between the two constructs assumes that burnout belongs to the category of depressive disorders. At the same time, however, it was concluded that the significant differences in the way burnout and depression relate to engagement and personality may suggest that burnout can be differentiated from depression.
... quantity, quality) and associated user behaviours (e.g. overuse, misuse) were also implicated in burnout (e.g. Brown et al., 2014;Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Estévez-Mujica and Quintane, 2018) as were technology-mediated interruptions (e.g. Chen & Karahanna, 2018;Ter Hoeven et al., 2016). ...
... Srivastava, Chandra and Shirish (2015) found differential moderating effects for certain personality traits on the relationship between technostress and work burnout/engagement; for instance, agreeableness was found to positively moderate between technostress creators and burnout, while neuroticism was found to negatively moderate their relationship to engagement (and was strongly related to burnout). Neuroticism was also found to be associated with e-mail overload (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014) and shorter online focus duration (Mark et al., 2016b), to make individuals more stressed when batching e-mails (Akbar et al., 2019), and to contribute to smartphone addiction in young people (Zhitomirsky-Geffet & Blau, 2016). It was also positively correlated with computer anxiety (Powell, 2013). ...
... It was also positively correlated with computer anxiety (Powell, 2013). Conscientious individuals also suffer e-mail overload (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014) and may tend towards checking e-mail constantly rather than batching it , although in her review Waldhauser (2019) suggested they may actually be more resistant to reacting to e-mail alerts. Reinke and Chamorro-Premuzic (2014) suggested that individuals with more positive self-evaluations are less likely to feel overloaded by e-mail, and that this construct is a better predictor of overload than individual personality traits such as neuroticism and conscientiousness. ...
Article
An intensification of digital working driven by Covid-19 has brought into sharp focus both the beneficial nature of digital workplace technologies and their potential dark side. Research has burgeoned in this area in recent years, but an integrated view across fields, technologies, dark side effects and outcomes is lacking. There are potential insights to be gained from compiling and comparing results and theoretical approaches. Following integrative review procedures, 194 studies were analysed to understand unintended negative consequences of a range of workplace technologies across disciplines and methodologies. The results demonstrate that considerable insight has been uncovered regarding certain dark side effects, stress in particular, in relation to e-mail and smartphones. However, a broader view of how they might manifest in relation to employees' holistic digital experience of work beyond certain information and communication technologies (ICTs) is lacking, including a clear picture of objective demands of the technology with which these effects are associated. Much remains to be understood across the full range of dark side effects in relation to the digital workplace including the associations between them and how they relate to cognitive and affective outcomes. The importance of both theoretical rigour and diversity is highlighted.
... For example, it would not necessarily be the e-mail workload (i.e. e-mail volume or time spent dealing with e-mail) that triggers exhaustion (Kushlev & Dunn, 2015), but rather the individual's perception of e-mail overload (Brown et al., 2014;Dabbish & Kraut, 2006;Day et al., 2019;Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). ...
... In line with these notions, hindrance appraisal (e.g. Webster et al., 2011), and particularly perceived e-mail overload (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014), has been found to be positively related to exhaustion. To sum up, having to deal with too high stressors, for example generally intensified work or too many e-mails on a given day, will result in hindrance appraisal such as feeling overwhelmed by the amount of e-mail (i.e. ...
... We also suggest that e-mail overload appraisal will be positively related to exhaustion at the between-person level (e.g. Brown et al., 2014;Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). Drawing on the transactional stress model, which poses appraisal as mediator in the stress process (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; see also Searle & Auton, 2015), we consequently hypothesise that e-mail overload appraisal will mediate the relationship between perceived COVID-19-related work intensification (i.e. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 crisis brought numerous challenges to work life. One of the most notable may be the acceleration of digital transformation, accompanied by an intensification of e-mail usage and related demands such as high e-mail workload. While research quickly started to examine the implications of these changes for employees, another important group of stakeholders has been overlooked: leaders. We focus on leaders during the COVID-19 crisis and examine how COVID-19 related work intensification links to leaders’ e-mail overload appraisal and finally exhaustion and transformational leadership, a leader behavior especially needed in times of crisis. In a five-day diary study in September 2020, 84 leaders responded to daily surveys on 343 days. Results of multilevel analysis showed that perceived COVID-19 related work intensification was positively linked to worktime spent dealing with e-mail and appraised e-mail overload. E-mail overload appraisal was positively related to leaders’ exhaustion, but unrelated to their transformational behavior. Day-specific time spent dealing with e-mail, however, was negatively related to transformational leadership. E-mail overload appraisal mediated the relationship between COVID-19 related work intensification and exhaustion. Turning the focus on leaders during the COVID-19 crisis, our study has important implications for the design of work of leaders in times of crisis and beyond.
... Hoy en día Internet está presente en la vida cotidiana de las personas 1 , observándose beneficios del uso de las redes sociales para la salud y el bienestar psicológico. Sin embargo, también existe el riesgo de generar dependencia a los usuarios 2,3 . En el lugar de trabajo han producido efectos contradictorios al facilitar el acceso y la eficiencia al mismo tiempo, lo cual pudiera considerarse una paradoja 4 . ...
... Respecto al uso de smartphones y dispositivos móviles, en el análisis de medias se observó que los médicos residentes muy frecuentemente utilizan dispositivos móviles durante el horario laboral (5,04). Además, con frecuencia usan redes sociales (3,97). ...
... En burnout resaltó que, respecto al agotamiento emocional, los médicos residentes unas pocas veces al mes consideran: estar agotados en su trabajo (3,98), fatigados cuando se enfrentan a otra jornada de trabajo (3,89), pasan demasiado tiempo en su trabajo (3,09) y se sienten frustrados (3,01). Respecto a la realización personal, pocas veces a la semana los residentes consideran: influir positivamente en la vida de otras personas a través de su trabajo (5,04), que sus pacientes los estiman (4,98) y que son empáticos con ellos (4,92) (tabla 1). ...
Article
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Resumen Introducción Existen vacíos de información respecto a la relación entre las tecnologías y el burnout en los médicos residentes. Objetivo Evaluar el uso de dispositivos móviles y redes sociales, y su incidencia en el burnout. Material y métodos Estudio transversal multicéntrico. La muestra integró 212 residentes de 15 especialidades médicas. Se aplicó un cuestionario, validado mediante juicio de expertos y análisis de consistencia interna, obteniéndose un α de Cronbach de 0,94. El instrumento integró 28 variables simples: 6 respecto al uso de dispositivos móviles y redes sociales, y 22 del burnout (agotamiento emocional, despersonalización y baja realización personal) obtenidas del Maslach Burnout Inventory. Se evaluaron con escala Likert 0-6. La información se analizó mediante 3 análisis estadísticos: descriptivo, correlacional y prueba T, utilizando SPSS v.22. Resultados Los médicos residentes muy frecuentemente utilizan dispositivos móviles durante el horario laboral (5,04), y con frecuencia redes sociales (3,97). Respecto al burnout, los residentes presentan una puntuación de 23,51 en agotamiento emocional, 7,7 en despersonalización y 32,79 en realización personal. Asimismo, se observó correlación significativa (p ≤ 0,01) entre el uso de redes sociales, agotamiento emocional (22,2%) y despersonalización (20%). El uso de dispositivos móviles mostró una relación significativa con la realización personal (50%). La prueba T respecto a género mostró diferencias significativas (p ≤ 0,05) en endurecimiento emocional (despersonalización) (t = 1,99). Los hombres lo presentan más. Discusión Existe una correlación significativa entre el uso de redes sociales y la presencia de sintomatología de burnout. También, entre el uso de dispositivos móviles y una alta realización personal, lo cual pudiera ser una paradoja.
... These are stressors appraised by the individual as damaging. Overload from the use of IS, techno-overload, forces the user to do more to use the technology (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Tarafdar et al., 2007), to adhere to extra organizational security requirements regarding its use (D'Arcy et al., 2014), to attend to expectations of others when using applications such as social media (Maier et al., 2014) or to deal with excess information and features . Techno-invasion is the stressor where the user feels non-work time to be invaded by work demands (Tarafdar et al., 2007), is faced with expectations of constant availability and immediate response, and has privacy invaded by surveillance and monitoring (Barber & Santuzzi, 2015;Day et al., 2012;Sprigg & Jackson, 2006). ...
... They have also been referred to as "strain." Job-related outcomes include lack of job Barley et al., 2011Chen, Westman, & Eden, 2009Korunka & Vitouch, 1999Tarafdar, Tu, & Ragu-Nathan, 2010 Outcomes (also referred to as "strain") Barley et al., 2011Brown, Duck, & Jimmieson, 2014Chen et al., 2009Day et al., 2012Galluch et al., 2015Korunka & Vitouch, 1999Maier et al., 2015Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014Srivastava, Chandra, & Shirish, 2015Sykes, 2015Zhang et al., 2016 Physiological outcomes, eg, stress hormones Galluch et al., 2015Tams, Hill, de Guinea, Thatcher, & Grover, 2014 satisfaction and organizational commitment, turnover intentions, role overload, role conflict (Ragu-Nathan et al., 2008;Tarafdar et al., 2007), job-related anxiety, and depression (Sprigg & Jackson, 2006). Outcomes relating to use of IS include lack of IS-enabled innovation and productivity, low end user satisfaction (Tarafdar et al., 2010(Tarafdar et al., , 2015Zhang et al., 2016), resigned or unwilling compliance with use requirements such as quick response to e-mail (Barber & Santuzzi, 2015), and nonadherence to IS use requirements (D'Arcy et al., 2014). ...
... Outcomes relating to use of IS include lack of IS-enabled innovation and productivity, low end user satisfaction (Tarafdar et al., 2010(Tarafdar et al., , 2015Zhang et al., 2016), resigned or unwilling compliance with use requirements such as quick response to e-mail (Barber & Santuzzi, 2015), and nonadherence to IS use requirements (D'Arcy et al., 2014). Well-being related outcomes include exhaustion, burnout, and strain (Aiello & Kolb, 1995;Ayyagari et al., 2011;Barber & Santuzzi, 2015;Barley et al., 2011;Brown et al., 2014;Chen et al., 2009;Day et al., 2012;Galluch et al., 2015;Korunka & Vitouch, 1999;Maier et al., 2015;Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Srivastava et al., 2015;Sykes, 2015;Zhang et al., 2016). ...
Article
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Technostress—defined as stress that individuals experience due to their use of Information Systems—represents an emerging phenomenon of scholarly investigation. It examines how and why the use of IS causes individuals to experience various demands that they find stressful. This paper develops a framework for guiding future research in technostress experienced by individuals in organizations. We first review and critically analyse the state of current research on technostress reported in journals from the IS discipline and the non‐IS disciplines that study stress in organizations (eg, organizational behaviour and psychological stress). We then develop our framework in the form of the “technostress trifecta”—techno‐eustress, techno‐distress, and Information Systems design principles for technostress. The paper challenges 3 key ideas imbued in the existing technostress literature. First, it develops the argument that, in contrast to negative outcomes, technostress can lead to positive outcomes such as greater effectiveness and innovation at work. Second, it suggests that instead of limiting the role of IS to that of being a stress creator in the technostress phenomenon, it should be expanded to that of enhancing the positive and mitigating the negative effects of technostress through appropriate design. Third, it lays the groundwork for guiding future research in technostress through an interdisciplinary framing that enriches both the IS and the psychological stress literatures through a potential discourse of disciplinary exchange.
... Both kinds of tasks are essential in healthy, multi-developer software projects, and they both count toward the work done per unit of time, or work-rate of developers. It is well-known that if the developer work-rate gets too high, it can contribute to work-related stress and lead to negative effects [3]- [5]. ...
... Still, despite the benefit of instant communication regardless of distance or time, such quick methods of communication can lead to communication overload, which has been associated with stress and diminishing productivity [3], [4], [15]. Communication load accumulates through the increasing number of messages sent and received over online communication tools like email and social media. ...
... Reinecke et al., [4] found that the social pressure to respond to online messages leads to high levels of Internet multitasking (users concurrently respond to online messages while engaging in other activities) and communication overload, both of which are associated with burnout and anxiety [4]. Studies of communication overload in the workplace also show that people with stronger perceived notions of communication overload are likelier to experience burnout and to be less productive [3]. ...
... Hoy en día Internet está presente en la vida cotidiana de las personas 1 , observándose beneficios del uso de las redes sociales para la salud y el bienestar psicológico. Sin embargo, también existe el riesgo de generar dependencia a los usuarios 2,3 . En el lugar de trabajo han producido efectos contradictorios al facilitar el acceso y la eficiencia al mismo tiempo, lo cual pudiera considerarse una paradoja 4 . ...
... Respecto al uso de smartphones y dispositivos móviles, en el análisis de medias se observó que los médicos residentes muy frecuentemente utilizan dispositivos móviles durante el horario laboral (5,04). Además, con frecuencia usan redes sociales (3,97). ...
... En burnout resaltó que, respecto al agotamiento emocional, los médicos residentes unas pocas veces al mes consideran: estar agotados en su trabajo (3,98), fatigados cuando se enfrentan a otra jornada de trabajo (3,89), pasan demasiado tiempo en su trabajo (3,09) y se sienten frustrados (3,01). Respecto a la realización personal, pocas veces a la semana los residentes consideran: influir positivamente en la vida de otras personas a través de su trabajo (5,04), que sus pacientes los estiman (4,98) y que son empáticos con ellos (4,92) (tabla 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introducción: Existen vacíos de información respecto a la relación entre las tecnologías y el burnout en los médicos residentes.Objetivo: Evaluar el uso de dispositivos móviles y redes sociales, y su incidencia en el burnout.Material y métodos: Estudio transversal multicéntrico. La muestra integró 212 residentes de15 especialidades médicas. Se aplicó un cuestionario, validado mediante juicio de expertos y análisis de consistencia interna, obteniéndose un � de Cronbach de 0,94. El instrumento integró28 variables simples: 6 respecto al uso de dispositivos móviles y redes sociales, y 22 del burnout (agotamiento emocional, despersonalización y baja realización personal) obtenidas del Maslach Burnout Inventory. Se evaluaron con escala Likert 0-6. La información se analizó mediante 3análisis estadísticos: descriptivo, correlacional y prueba T, utilizando SPSS v.22.Resultados: Los médicos residentes muy frecuentemente utilizan dispositivos móviles durante el horario laboral (5,04), y con frecuencia redes sociales (3,97). Respecto al burnout, los residen-tes presentan una puntuación de 23,51 en agotamiento emocional, 7,7 en des personalización y32,79 en realización personal. Asimismo, se observó correlación significativa (p ≤ 0,01) entre el uso de redes sociales, agotamiento emocional (22,2%) y des personalización (20%). El uso de dispositivos móviles mostró una relación significativa con la realización personal (50%). La prueba T respecto a género mostró diferencias significativas (p ≤ 0,05) en endurecimiento emocional(des personalización) (t = 1,99). Los hombres lo presentan más.Discusión: Existe una correlación significativa entre el uso de redes sociales y la presencia de sintomatología de burnout. También, entre el uso de dispositivos móviles y una alta realización personal, lo cual pudiera ser una paradoja.
... The P-E Fit Model postulates that it is a misfit between a person's individual needs and their environment that causes emotional exhaustion. In this respect, the same number of incoming e-mails can be perceived as e-mail overload that cause emotional exhaustion to some employees, but not to others (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). ...
... The negative effect of technology use on employees' subjective energy at work and at home is however dependent on the individual. For example, Reinke and Chamorro-Premuzic (2014) have shown that the relationship between perceived e-mail overload and emotional exhaustion has more to do with the employee's personality than the actual number of received e-mails. Some employees have better coping strategies with stress caused by technology (Gaudioso et al., 2017), others prefer to integrate their work into their personal life (Xie, Ma, Zhou, & Tang, 2018). ...
Preprint
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Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are generally assumed to save time and energy, yet user fatigue due to ICT use is assumed to be on the rise. The question about the effects of ICT use on human energy has sparked increased research interest in recent years. however, the course is complicated by the fact that the conceptualization of human energy is extremely diverse. The aim of this paper is therefore twofold. First, we provide a conceptual framework and classification for subjective energy concepts and reflect on the theoretical embedding of technology within the theories on subjective energy. Second, we review the leading empirical literature on the relationship between ICT use and eight different subjective energy concepts prominent in different disciplines. We also include the new phenomena of social networking sites (SNS) exhaustion and SNS fatigue. With this, we aim to consolidate the existing research, illuminate the gaps and provide a conceptual baseline for future research on the relationship between ICT use and subjective energy of ICT users. We show that ICT use has predominantly negative effect on users' energy, especially in organizational contexts, and show the main patterns and mechanisms through which technology drains as well as energizes users.
... In terms of emotional stability or neuroticism, research demonstrates that employees scoring high in emotional stability have a more prominent possibility of experiencing job engagement than employees low in emotional stability (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Woods & Sofat, 2013). They find it less demanding and more characteristic to put terrible past encounters and pay attention to their present performance positively. ...
... Neuroticism was found to be negatively correlated to job engagement. The study results are consistent with studies conducted by Reinke and Chamorro-Premuzic (2014) and Woods and Sofat (2013) who also found a negative correlation between neuroticism and job engagement. This may be because people high in neuroticism are likely to be distracted and put more energy into worrying about personal issues that are irrelevant to the task at hand. ...
Article
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Orientation: Although researchers have discovered many of the beneficial and positive consequences of job engagement, little is known about the multitude of antecedent factors that lead to employee engagement such as personality. Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the big five personality traits and job engagement among municipal workers. Motivation for the study: The motivation of this study is to examine the relationship between personality and psychological conditions. It was premised on previous research that personality is associated with many employees’ behaviours. Research approach/design and method: The present study employed a quantitative, cross-sectional research design by using a questionnaire on a sample of 403 district municipal workers in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. Main findings: The study findings show that openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion and agreeableness had a positive relationship with job engagement, whereas neuroticism has a negative relationship with job engagement. Municipalities and educational qualifications had an impact of job engagement. Practical/managerial implications: The study recommends managers to switch from an intervention-based focus to a selection-based focus as municipalities can maximise their resources by being able to better predict job success early in the selection process as opposed to trying to maximise the performance on a continual basis through interventions. Contribution/value-add: This study adds to an understanding of the influences of personality on work outcomes such as job engagement, giving areas for exploration in coaching or feedback interviews based on personality assessment.
... First, we start by identifying profiles of teleworkers according to the evolution of their use of the four digital tools comparing before and during the lockdown and the frequency of use during. We focus on digital profiles and not on the use of a specific digital tool in order to take into account the effects of a cumulative use of digital tools on teleworkers' well-being and productivity and the digital overload that could result [85][86][87][88]. In order to classify teleworkers usages, we use a Multiple Correspondence Analyses (MCA) followed by a hierarchical cluster analysis. ...
... Nevertheless, teleworkers' productivity gains are at the expense of their job satisfaction mainly due to the lack of a social interaction-oriented strategy of use [49]. Second, on the contrary, the use of the four studied collaborative and communication digital tools during the lockdown, associated with an increase in the frequency of use, seems to generate too much information flow to deal with and the teleworkers may be subject to information overload that increases their job stress and reduces their job satisfaction and job productivity [85,86]. Third, the habit of using the four digital tools on a daily basis already before the lockdown appears to protect teleworkers from most of the adverse effects, except for an increase in their job stress during the lockdown. ...
Article
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In these times of successive lockdown periods due to the health crisis induced by COVID-19, this paper investigates how the usages of collaborative and communication digital tools (groupware, workflow, instant messaging and web conference) are related to the evolution of teleworkers’ subjective well-being (job satisfaction, job stress) and job productivity comparing during and before the first lockdown in spring 2020. Using a sample of 438 employees working for firms located in Luxembourg, this analysis enables, first, to highlight different profiles of teleworkers regarding the evolution of usages of these tools during the lockdown compared to before and the frequency of use during. Second, the analysis highlights that these profiles are linked to the evolution of job satisfaction, job stress and job productivity. Our main results show that (1) the profile that generates an increase in job productivity is the one with a combined mastered daily or weekly use of all of the four studied digital tools but at the expense of job satisfaction. On the contrary, (2) the use of the four digital tools both before and during the lockdown, associated with an increase in the frequency of use, appears to generate too much information flow to deal with and teleworkers may suffer from information overload that increases their stress and reduces their job satisfaction and job productivity. (3) The habit of using the four tools on a daily basis before the lockdown appears to protect teleworkers from most of the adverse effects, except for an increase in their job stress. Our results have theoretical and managerial implications for the future of the digitally transformed home office.
... As suggested, one of these personal skills is referred to as cognitive absorption, a state of deep involvement that gig workers experience with IT [4]. However, the rapidly changing demands on digital work platforms require too many different IT solutions or work tools via technology from gig workers, leading to higher technology dependency and acceleration of data entry for processing, which is referred to as techno-overload [127,145]. ...
... In IS research, technology overload has generally been associated with a range of undesirable workplace outcomes, such as higher stress levels, burnouts, work interruptions, and lower productivity and creative thinking ( [2], 2018; Chandra et al., 2019; [41,82,127,155]). Mahapatra and Pati [99] and Yu et al. [175] confirmed the positive relationship between technology overload and burnout. ...
Article
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Technology has facilitated platform-mediated work, and individuals are often encouraged to engage with technology using various digital solutions. However, for platform workers, the use of technology can lead to digital overload, which may negatively impact their burnout and performance. In this paper, we examine the interplay between individuals’ cognitive absorption in technology and technology overload in predicting gig workers’ creative output. Using empirical data from 263 Amazon Mechanical Turk platform workers, we show that cognitive absorption positively predicts gig workers’ creativity. However, moderated-mediation analysis shows that in the case of high technology overload, cognitive absorption with technology leads to burnout and reduces creativity levels of the workers
... This may result in individuals feeling obliged to check and respond to the device (Kanjo, Kuss, & Ang, 2017;Kuss, Harkin, Kanjo, & Billieux, 2018). Smartphones impact individuals' ability to separate work from home life, contributing to work burnout, and detrimentally impacting well-being (Derks & Bakker, 2014;Mellner, 2016;Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). Such negative impacts on personal, professional, and social spheres add growing credence to the argument that negative emerging smartphone experiences are indicative of problematic use and behavioral addictions (Billieux et al., 2015). ...
... This finding is in line with proponents of the present-absent paradox and the freeing-enslaving paradox (David & Roberts, 2017;Turkle, 2017). That is, individuals are burdened by obligations to check and respond to the device , which may lead to work burnout, detrimentally impacting well-being (Derks & Bakker, 2014;Mellner, 2016;Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014) and leading to displacement (Valkenburg & Peter, 2007). This may explain why smartphone overuse has been linked to depression, increased stress, and lowered self-esteem (Elhai, Dvorak, Levine, & Hall, 2017;Lup, Trub, & Rosenthal, 2015). ...
... As soon as IO is experienced, the frame model of IO of as well as the IFS describe that IO leads to both behavioral and experiential consequences, e.g., stress, inefficient work processes and reduced performance. This is consistent with studies that show relationships of IO with negative affect, anxiety states (Swar et al., 2017) or burnout symptoms (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). Misra and Stokols (2012) describe IO as a form of psychological stress, which is caused by the demands of information processing, in particular by the tasks that arise in connection with it, e.g., keeping track of multiple email accounts; manage, organize, and store information etc. (Misra & Stokols, 2012). ...
... Also the strengths of the positive relationship between IO and burnout might be influenced by personal characteristics, as not every person might have the resources or abilities to handle high information load and resulting IO (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Rutkowski & Saunders, 2010). Especially under high IO situations, personal factors could influence how strongly burnout is perceived, for example, conscientious individuals may have well-structured coping mechanisms to deal with IO. ...
... Such interventions are easy to access and cover a considerable portion of the target audience at a lower cost than face-to-face interventions, without neglecting, ethical and procedural considerations of the medical field (Torniainen-Holm et al., 2016). They can also support people-management actions within organizations to reduce the amount of e-mail messages, as overhead can affect both productivity and engagement, and thus the exhaustion of workers (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). ...
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Objective: Based on social cognitive theory, this study has three objectives: i) identify receivers’ attitudes regarding the decision to read or delete a message sent via e-mail; ii) discuss the perceived intrusiveness in the intentions of receivers to respond to the appeals of the message; and iii) identify cognitive factors that predict receivers’ intention, after deciding to read, toward compliance with an e-mail appeal. Methodology: It is quantitative, cross-sectional research with students from a higher education institution, in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil. The data were interpreted through three analyses: structural equation modeling, Probit and cross-frequency. Originality / relevance: This research advances the exploratory study of Wilson et al. (2015) by analyzing the attitudes of email recipients based on permission, in addition to considering the perceived intrusive aspect. Results: Evidence show that, although half of the respondents chose to read the e-mail message, their perception of little utility, relevance, and familiarity with the subject may have contributed to negative attitudes towards e-mail. This perception may be interfering with the respondents’ social cognitive factors, preventing them from changing and maintaining new attitudes, especially in regions with low per capita income. Theoretical contributions: The focus of downstream social marketing lies in changing individual behaviour, therefore, reliance on communication strategy is based on sending a social marketing message via e-mail only and may limit its effectiveness to change behaviour, especially to help people in other continents. Management contributions: Results can also act as contributory factors for the formulation of more effective social marketing strategic actions to instigate new attitudes and behaviours, regarding the help of strangers. Keywords: Attitudes. Behaviour change. Social cognitive theory. Downstream marketing. Decision to read the e-mail.
... The conceptualization of e-mail-related job demands to date has mainly focused on types and frequency of interruptions (e.g., Addas & Pinsonneault, 2018;Chen & Karahanna, 2018;Freitas, Maçada, Brinkhues, & Montesdioca, 2016) and e-mail use (e.g., Boswell & Olson-Buchanan, 2007;Derks, van Duin, Tims, & Bakker, 2015;Diaz et al., 2012;Fenner & Renn, 2010;Ferguson et al., 2016;Ragsdale & Hoover, 2016;Tennakoon, Da Silveira, & Taras, 2013). Even though this literature has established e-mail as a unique job demand (Brown, Duck, & Jimmieson, 2014;Ferguson et al., 2016;Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Rosen, Simon, Gajendran, Johnson, Lee, & Lin, 2018), it has not separated actual work-related e-mail use during nonwork hours from work e-mail-related normative expectations and monitoring. We also show that our subjective measure of employee perceptions regarding OEEM is related to employee monitoring behavior and actual managerial expectations for employee availability. ...
Article
This paper tests the relationship between organizational expectations to monitor work-related electronic communication during nonwork hours and the health and relationship satisfaction of employees and their significant others. We integrate resource-based theories with research on interruptions to position organizational expectations for e-mail monitoring (OEEM) during nonwork time as a psychological stressor that elicits anxiety due to employee attention allocation conflict. E-mail–triggered anxiety, in turn, negatively affects the health and relationship quality of employees and their significant others. We conducted three studies to test our propositions. Using the experience sampling method with 108 working U.S. adults, Study 1 established within-employee effects of OEEM on anxiety, employee health, and relationship conflict. Study 2 used a sample of 138 dyads of full-time employees and their significant others to replicate detrimental health and relationship effects of OEEM through anxiety. It also showed crossover effects of OEEM on partner health and relationship satisfaction. Finally, Study 3 employed a two-wave data collection method with an online sample of 162 U.S. working adults to provide additional support for the OEEM construct as a distinct and reliable job stressor and replicated findings from Studies 1 and 2. Taken together, our research extends the literature on work-related electronic communication at the interface of work and nonwork boundaries, deepening our understanding of the impact of OEEM on employees and their families’ health and well-being.
... Taken together, these findings suggest that technostress negatively impacts employee measures the extent to which ICT forces the user to do more (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). We argue that this dimension is conceptually similar to role overload, which occurs when work demands exceed the resources available to perform them. ...
Article
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the impact of techno-overload and techno-invasion on work and family. Specifically, we focus on intention to turnover in the work domain, work-family conflict in the work-family domain, and family burnout in the family domain. Further, our study examines the moderating role of entitlement, a personality variable, in this process. Design/methodology: Using a sample of 253 people who were using technology to complete their work over two time periods, the relationships were examined using hierarchical moderated regression analysis. Findings: The results revealed that both techno-overload and techno-invasion were significantly related to greater turnover intentions, higher work-family conflict, and greater family burnout. In addition, entitlement played a moderating role such that those who were higher in entitlement had stronger techno-overload-outcome and technostress invasion-outcome relationships. Practical implications: These findings may provide managers key insights to help manage employees, especially those with an inflated sense of entitlement, to mitigate the serious negative outcomes associated with techno-overload and techno-invasion. In particular, both techno- overload and techno-invasion had minimal impact on negative outcomes when employee entitlement was lower. However, when employee entitlement was higher, techno-overload and techno-invasion had considerable negative effects. Originality/value: Due to the ubiquitous nature of information-communication technology (ICT) in organizations today, individuals often experience techno-overload and techno-invasion. This research utilized conservation of resources theory to examine these relationships. This study established the relationships of both techno-overload and techno-invasion with key organizational and family outcomes and points to the critical role of the personality variable, entitlement, in this process. The results provide theoretical and practical advancement in the role of technology with people in organizations today.
... The original email application was designed for asynchronous communication, document delivery and archiving only. However, it is development, delegation and tracking tasks, storing personal names and addresses, sending reminders, requesting assistance, scheduling appointments and handling other technical support requests, giving rise to data overload (overload email uncontrolled) [6] [7]. On the other hand, Indonesia is an archipelagic country that is geographically part of the land dominated by hills, valleys, and mountains so that information dissemination is not optimal and uneven despite utilizing satellite technology with a good real-time data queue mechanism [8]" . ...
Article
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Indonesia is an archipelagic country that is geographically unique, where most of the land has uneven land contours because it consists of mountains and valleys. This condition is one of the causes of the inequality of information dissemination even though the ICT infrastructure has supported and internet services are also available. Topographical factors and inequality of information dissemination pose digital deviations in the community, especially border areas in Riau Province which have not been able to enjoy internet services in some of the regions. Even though the process of data transmission to other regions is needed by both government agencies placed in border areas and the general public who need internet services for data transmission (text, audio, and video). Delay Tolerant Network (DTN) technology is a network protocol that allows communication networks to be applied in extreme environments that have long delay characteristics, high loss rates, and low connectivity levels. With DTN, internet services can be implemented and presented cheaply using only DTN Router which will move to areas that are not reachable by the internet and collect email data digitally. Furthermore, DTN Router and processes every transmission request from/to the border regions with extreme topography. By using the Flooding method applied to the DTN protocol, testing of e-mail data packet transmission from simulations at several locations in Riau is considered to have high data loss. Testing modeled by several computers with DTN, doing a bundle of data packages, transmitting to destinations and assessing the efficiency of their success. The test results show that the data transmission process in extreme areas using DTN protocol, Indicates that the larger the size of the file sent. So, the greater the time needed for data transmission. Approximate of time is needed of transmission data of the 95MB file that is 4,1 second..
... Unlike prior studies that reported only negative consequences of information/news overload, such as a loss of control (Reinke, Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014), psychological stress (Misra & Stokols, 2012), and anxiety (Bawden & Robinson, 2009), this research also finds that news overload does not always keep users from seeking news from social media. Some users are likely to rely on "social filtering" as a way to relieve perceived news overload. ...
Article
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Drawing upon Bandura’s self-efficacy theory, this study conceptualizes “social media news efficacy” and examines how news efficacy connects perceived news overload on social media to news avoidance and social filtering. Findings from a two-wave panel survey of South Korean adults show that news overload is significantly related to a decrease of news efficacy, which in turn increases news avoidance on social media. The analysis also finds that news efficacy mediates the positive link between perceived news overload and social filtering over time.
... Alhough the emails have brought access and comfort, they have been maligned for enslaving workers. 26 Several European governments had to legislate requiring that employees have uninterrupted rest by "disconnecting communication tools". WFH for a physicist with no defined start and end times would upset the delicate work-life balance, taking us back to serfdom. ...
Article
The impact of recent outbreak of novel coronavirus disease, COVID‐19, to the global healthcare systems is unprecedently enormous. Like many other clinical disciplines, medical physics has encountered unique challenges during this special period in wider aspects from clinical practice, research, administration to education. As hospitals implement various preventive and control measures to contain the virus, medical physicists are asked to perform non‐essential activities by telecommuting or work‐from‐home (WFH) in many places.
... Some findings indicate that women experience higher IO than men (Harris et al., 2015;Williamson et al., 2012), whereas others do not (Harris et al., 2015;Holton & Chyi, 2012;Misra & Stokols, 2012). Also, some findings indicate a positive relation between age and IO (Williamson et al., 2012;Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic 2014), while others do not (Harris et al., 2015;Holton & Chyi, 2012;Misra & Stokols, 2012). A quantitative meta-analysis could clarify these questions, as well as national differences in IO (Klausegger et al., 2007;Kock et al., 2008), because the consideration of various studies from different backgrounds and nations can provide a valid basis for comparison. ...
Article
Information overload (IO) is described as a stress condition caused by the characteristics of information. Empirical primary studies support this relation. Based on existing primary research it is the aim of this meta-analysis to analyse which characteristics of information influence IO, to identify moderating factors influencing these relationships, and to estimate their average strength. A standardized literature search with the bibliographic database psycINFO was conducted for this purpose. Of a total of 193 studies, 24 fulfilled the criteria for inclusion in the quantitative analysis. Averaged over 40 effect sizes, a multi-level meta-analysis was carried out and resulted in a correlation of r =.22 [CI .166, .282] for the relation between overall information characteristics and IO. Quantitative characteristics of information confirmed a low correlation with IO (r =.15 [CI .071, .229]). Qualitative characteristics confirmed medium correlations (r =.26 [CI .189, .332]). Based on these results we argue for a more precise definition of IO and its causes. Furthermore, results indicated the moderating influence of information technologies on the relationship between information characteristics and IO, which is why further research on moderating factors might be promising.
... Bundling education interventions, for example, between lectures and workshops could have proven more effective. While we utilized read-receipt to ensure the providers open an email with the education slides, the use of conventional email messaging with a slide-set attachment could have also decreased provider engagement and subsequent implementation of the intervention [33]. ...
Article
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Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in women in every major developed country and in most emerging nations. Complications of pregnancy, including preeclampsia, indicate a subsequent increase in cardiovascular risk. There may be a primary care provider knowledge gap regarding preeclampsia as a risk factor for CVD. The objective of our study is to determine how often internists at an academic institution inquire about a history of preeclampsia, as compared to a history of smoking, hypertension and diabetes, when assessing CVD risk factors at well-woman visits. Additional aims were (1) to educate internal medicine primary care providers on the significance of preeclampsia as a risk factor for CVD disease and (2) to assess the impact of education interventions on obstetric history documentation and screening for CVD in women with prior preeclampsia. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed to identify women ages 18-48 with at least one prior obstetric delivery. We evaluated the frequency of documentation of preeclampsia compared to traditional risk factors for CVD (smoking, diabetes, and chronic hypertension) by reviewing the well-woman visit notes, past medical history, obstetric history, and the problem list in the electronic medical record. For intervention, educational teaching sessions (presentation with Q&A session) and education slide presentations were given to internal medicine physicians at clinic sites. Changes in documentation were evaluated post-intervention. Results: When assessment of relevant pregnancy history was obtained, 23.6% of women were asked about a history preeclampsia while 98.9% were asked about diabetes or smoking and 100% were asked about chronic hypertension (p < 0.001). Education interventions did not significantly change rates of screening documentation (p = 0.36). Conclusion: Our study adds to the growing body of literature that women with a history of preeclampsia might not be identified as having increased CVD risk in the outpatient primary care setting. Novel educational programming may be required to increase provider documentation of preeclampsia history in screening.
... Research with white-collar workers has found associations between email quantity, email overload (Dabbish & Kraut, 2006), and stress (Jerejian, Reid, & Rees, 2013). Furthermore, email overload is associated with decreased work engagement (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Stich et al., 2019). Previous work questions whether more reminders are not necessarily better. ...
Article
Over 1.5 million students in the United States experience homelessness. These students are entitled to educational support through the Education for Homeless Children and Youth program. However, many homeless students are not identified and therefore never receive this support. Across 1,732 local education agencies in New Jersey, New Mexico, and New York, we conducted a randomized controlled trial of increased email communication incorporating behavioral insights targeting homeless liaison staff in order to increase the identification of homeless students. The intervention had an impact on the mean number of identified homeless students among the treatment local education agencies (3.62, 90% CI [0.32, 6.92], p = .07). The impact remained when outliers with high leverage were removed (1.51 CI [0.24, 2.79], p = .05). Within this sample, our analysis indicates that more than 3,000 additional homeless students were identified with a low-cost, low-intensity, behavioral intervention during the second semester.
... 5 It refers to users' perceptions that their own e-mail use has gotten out of control because they receive and send more e-mails than they can handle and/or process effectively. 6 The introduction of the smartphone has made e-mail even more accessible, with 84% of physicians using smartphones for their job-both during work hours and during off-hours. 7 The ability to access e-mails throughout the 7-day week has potential benefits and disadvantages. ...
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This article presents an editorial perspective on the challenges associated with e-mail management for academic physicians. We include 2-week analysis of our own e-mails as illustrations of the e-mail volume and content. We discuss the contributors to high e-mail volumes, focusing especially on unsolicited e-mails from medical/scientific conferences and open-access journals (sometimes termed “academic spam emails”), as these e-mails comprise a significant volume and are targeted to physicians and scientists. Our 2-person sample is consistent with studies showing that journals that use mass e-mail advertising have low rates of inclusion in recognized journal databases/resources. Strategies for managing e-mail are discussed and include unsubscribing, blocking senders or domains, filtering e-mails, managing one’s inbox, limiting e-mail access, and e-mail etiquette. Academic institutions should focus on decreasing the volume of unsolicited e-mails, fostering tools to manage e-mail overload, and educating physicians including trainees about e-mail practices, predatory journals, and scholarly database/resources.
... Despite these findings, other research suggests that what is good for the organization is not always good for the individual employee, as there are often unintended, negative consequences felt by individuals that arise from organizations' reliance on email. For example, research has found that email can disrupt employees' workflow (Jackson et al., 2003), decrease work engagement (Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014), or lead to the blurring of work and non-work boundaries (Butts et al., 2015). These negative consequences are receiving ever-increasing amounts of consideration, and have no doubt contributed to legislation being passed in countries such as France, Germany, and Spain that requires employers to uphold their employees' rights to disconnect from their workplace (Brin, 2019). ...
Article
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Email represents a useful organizational tool that can facilitate rapid and flexible communication between organizations, managers, and employees regardless of their physical location (e.g., office, home, on vacation). However, despite the potential benefits of email, its usage is a double-edged sword that also has the potential to negatively affect its users. To advance knowledge and inform both researchers and practitioners of such negative outcomes, we integrate the job demands-resources model with spillover theory to investigate email as a potential job demand and explore how it may relate to employees’ job tension and work-family conflict. Using an interval-contingent experience sampling methodology with respondents from two separate organizations (n = 134) providing 704 observations across 6 days of surveys, we hypothesize that, as a job demand, email can have negative consequences on the job that can spill over into the home. Furthermore, we also examine an individual trait (i.e., trait self-regulation) as a potential boundary condition that moderates the extent to which experienced tension from email demands spills over into home life. Finally, theoretical and practical implications are also discussed.
... Our study takes a different focus by addressing the "dark side," the potential cost, of boundary-spanning in ESM, and demonstrating that BS in ESM contributes to incidences of cyberbullying against external members. And in terms of email, extant research on email has uncovered many potential negative effects of email such as lowered work engagement, increased work stress, and disrupted work-life balance (Barley et al., 2011;Reinke and Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Waller and Ragsdell, 2012). Our study extends this research by showing that the potential negative consequences of email extend to cyberbullying, in particular, by those who engage in proactive email checking. ...
Article
Extant research on the antecedents of workplace cyberbullying pays little attention to the role of perpetrator traits in influencing workplace cyberbullying, as well as the unique occurrence context that distinguishes workplace cyberbullying with juvenile cyberbullying, workplace bullying, and adult cyberbullying in general. To fill these gaps, we consider the antecedents of workplace cyberbullying under the theoretical lens of the general theory of crime and routine activities theory. We build a model incorporating low self-control, a widely discussed perpetrator trait in criminology theories, with three types of routine activities representing the unique occurrence context for workplace cyberbullying--mWork, boundary spanning in ESM, and proactive email checking. We tested our model with 2025 employees in the U.S.. Our findings demonstrate that low self-control and the three routine activities are strong motivators for workplace cyberbullying. Our findings further show that the effect of low self-control on workplace cyberbullying is amplified by the three routine activities. The study contributes to our understanding of why workplace cyberbullying occurs and offers potential implications for managers interested in reducing incidences of workplace cyberbullying in their organization.
... For example, email user behaviors (e.g. overuse, misuse; e.g. Brown et al., 2014;Reinke & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014;Estévez-Mujica & Quintane, 2018), technology-mediated interruptions (e.g. Chen & Karahanna, 2018;Ter Hoeven et al., 2016), ICT demands (Day et al., 2012), and smartphone use (Derks & Bakker, 2014) are all predictors of burnout at the workplace (Marsh et al., 2022). ...
Article
Recently, there has been growing interest in how individual differences in FOMO affect personal and individual outcomes. However, there is a lack of understanding regarding the impact of FOMO in the workplace. The current study examined whether individual differences in fear of missing out (FOMO) affect employee job performance. This was accomplished by investigating the mediating role of burnout and social media engagement (SME). Furthermore, we also examined whether amotivation moderates the mediation process. Data were gathered from 214 Israeli employees by using the following scales: Fear of Missing Out (FOMOs), Burnout, Social Media Engagement (SME), Multidimensional Work Motivation (MWMS), and Job Performance. The results indicated that individual differences in FOMO are associated with relatively low levels of job performance. The relationship is mediated by burnout but not by SME. Amotivation was found to moderate the mediation effect of burnout. Interpretation of these results and practical implications are discussed.
... It could be that the positive interruption-reducing effects of email batching are cancelled out by the distress that not attending an overflowing inbox brings (Dabbish and Kraut, 2006) and the discomfort associated to disrupting habits (Gardner, 2015;Wood et al., 2005). Alternatively, it may be that the relevance of email batching depends on individual differences (Akbar et al., 2019), the importance of emailing to get work done (Mark et al., 2016), or the organizational expectations regarding responsiveness (Barley et al., 2011;Reinke and Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). Therefore, we used data collected during a top-down HR intervention within a Dutch financial services organization in a quasi-experiment to investigate for whom and under what circumstances email batching is effective for reducing email interruptions and supporting well-being. ...
Article
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Email plays an essential role in organizational communication but can also serve as pertinent source of work interruption and an impediment to well-being. Scholars have proposed email batching, processing emails only at certain times of the day, as a strategy to mitigate the negative consequences of email at work. As empirical evidence is mixed and applications in natural organizational contexts are lacking, we used survey data collected during a quasi-experimental top-down intervention in a Dutch financial services organization to investigate for whom and under what circumstances email batching is effective for reducing email interruptions and ameliorating well-being. We found that participants in the intervention group encountered less email interruptions than participants in the control group. Moreover, email batching reduced emotional exhaustion captured right after the intervention ended, especially for workers dealing with high email volumes and workers believing that instantaneous response was not expected in their organization. The effects of email batching wore off after two weeks and no significant effects on work engagement were found. We conclude that email batching should not be regarded as panacea for enhancing well-being and should only encouraged if it fits with workers' job tasks and organizational expectations regarding email response times more generally.
... Results are consistent with those of logit models and indicate that managers who are slower in answering e-mails, and have low Gini entanglement, are more likely to leave the company. Low Gini entanglement means that they show constant levels of entanglement, either being entangled with almost nobody or everyonea situation that might be stressful to maintain, especially when associated with email overload (Reinke and Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). Average/high levels of Gini entanglement, on the other hand, have a positive impact on the prediction of staying in the company. ...
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We introduce "entanglement", a novel metric to measure how synchronized communication between team members is. This measure calculates the Euclidean distance among team members' social network metrics timeseries. We validate the metric with four case studies. The first case study uses entanglement of 11 medical innovation teams to predict team performance and learning behavior. The second case looks at the e-mail communication of 113 senior executives of an international services firm, predicting employee turnover through lack of entanglement of an employee. The third case analyzes the individual employee performance of 81 managers. The fourth case study predicts performance of 13 customer-dedicated teams at a big international company by comparing entanglement in the e-mail interactions with satisfaction of their customers measured through Net Promoter Score (NPS). While we can only speculate about what is causing the entanglement effect, we find that it is a new and versatile indicator for the analysis of employees' communication, analyzing the hitherto underused temporal dimension of online social networks which could be used as a powerful predictor of employee and team performance, employee turnover, and customer satisfaction.
... Results are consistent with those of logit models and indicate that managers who are slower in answering e-mails, and have low Gini entanglement, are more likely to leave the company. Low Gini entanglement means that they show constant levels of entanglement, either being entangled with almost nobody or everyonea situation that might be stressful to maintain, especially when associated with email overload (Reinke and Chamorro-Premuzic, 2014). Average/high levels of Gini entanglement, on the other hand, have a positive impact on the prediction of staying in the company. ...
Article
We introduce “entanglement”, a novel metric to measure how synchronized communication between team members is. This measure calculates the Euclidean distance among team members’ social network metrics timeseries. We validate the metric with four case studies. The first case study uses entanglement of 11 medical innovation teams to predict team performance and learning behavior. The second case looks at the e-mail communication of 113 senior executives of an international services firm, predicting employee turnover through lack of entanglement of an employee. The third case analyzes the individual employee performance of 81 managers. The fourth case study predicts performance of 13 customer-dedicated teams at a big international company by comparing entanglement in the e-mail interactions with satisfaction of their customers measured through Net Promoter Score (NPS). While we can only speculate about what is causing the entanglement effect, we find that it is a new and versatile indicator for the analysis of employees’ communication, analyzing the hitherto underused temporal dimension of online social networks which could be used as a powerful predictor of employee and team performance, employee turnover, and customer satisfaction.
Article
Employees who feel the urge and preoccupation to respond to workplace asynchronous communication quickly may be suffering from workplace telepressure. Although information and communication technologies have many organizational benefits, it is imperative to understand the cost of blurring work and family roles. Using the Job Demands-Resources model, the relationship between workplace telepressure and key outcomes, such as strain, work-family conflict, family-work conflict, and burnout was examined. In Study 1, a sample of 220 working students supported the mediation of strain in the workplace telepressure and work-family and family-work relationship. Additionally, Study 2 expanded this model using a sample of 269 working individuals. Specifically, the relationship between workplace telepressure and burnout was sequentially mediated by strain and either work-family or family-work conflict. Implications are discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The role of national professional qualifications and recognition of non-formal education and training in a chosen institution On complementation of the project concerning the status of contract coworkers, the public institute of RTV Slovenia encountered a difficulty, because many coworkers could not get an employment. The main reason for this was their insufficient formal education. A certain degree of formal education is crucial for a particular working place as well as for the conclusion of an employment relationship. Introduction of a professional qualification, which individuals could formally confirm their non-formal education with, has also given them a chance to get suitable working places. We have to emphasize that National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ) represents a new process that is still being developed and adjusted to the needs of the labour market, that is why in our institute we encountered a difficulty. We did a quality research based on questions given to different individuals. The main difficulties concerned different titles between working places and NVQ, the lack of a suitable NVQ, which is crucial for the institute, ambitious qualification standards of NVQ, the rigidity of entering conditions and after all also the recognition of NVQ as an alternative education. The reasons for this are hidden in the systematization of working places, because it was prepared before the start of NVQ activities. Consequently, as an alternative education NVQ in the public institute represents one of crucial conditions needed for concluding a working relationship, but unfortunately it has been accidently omitted. Because of this reason we wanted to find out how the difficulties we have already mentioned decide on the outcome of NVQs procedure. Furthermore, we also tried to find out what the views of our interviewees were like when talking about formal and non-formal knowledge (education). At the same time, we wanted to highlight the advantages offered to individuals and employers by NPK. Key words: management of human capital, management of education organizational culture, organizational learning/studying, motivation, national vocational qualification. Povzetek Prispevek prikazuje študijo primera javnega zavoda RTV Slovenija, ki se osredotoča na pridobivanje nacionalne poklicne kvalifikacije (NPK) znotraj zavoda. V okviru kvalitativne raziskave so bile izluščene težave, kot so različna poimenovanja med delovnim mestom in NPK, pomanjkanje ustreznih NPK, ki so ključnega pomena za zavod, preširoko zastavljeni poklicni standardi NPK, togost vstopnih pogojev ter nenazadnje priznavanje NPK kot alternativne izobrazbe. Ugotovljeno je bilo, da NPK v svoji celovitosti povezuje različne deležnike, ki so povezani v nek ciklični krog soodvisnosti. Posamezniku, ki se odloči za potrjevanje svojih neformalnih znanj, ponuja NPK možnost vstopanja v delovna razmerja kjer določena izobrazba predstavlja pogoj za zaposlitev ali pa napredovanje na delovnem mestu. Organizacija na tak način ureja delovnopravna vprašanja ter zmanjšuje prekarno delo. Razhajanja v poimenovanju med delovnim mesom in NPK ne vplivajo na negativen izid. Poklicni standardi v postopku določajo pozitiven rezultat. Glede na to, da formalna izobrazba v javnem sektorju predstavlja pogoj za zaposlitev, je v zaključku podan predlog, da se v delovno mesto vnese NPK kot alternativna izobrazba. Ponujene rešitve predstavljene v prispevku so lahko v pomoč vsem podjetjem, ki želijo s pomočjo NPK zmanjšati prekarno delo. Ključne besede: management človeškega kapitala, management znanja, organizacijska kultura, organizacijsko učenje, motivacija, nacionalna poklicna kvalifikacija.
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We explore the use of text message reminders to improve student performance. The effectiveness of text messaging reminders is examined by comparing two large sections of a course where students focused on personal branding. One section received deadline reminders by email, while the other section received opt-in text reminders. The results of the study provide empirical support that text reminders are positively related to assignments turned in on time, perceived task mastery orientation, perceived confidence with course material, and overall performance in the class. In addition, a description of how the text service can be employed in a marketing course is provided.
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A career in academia can provide a long-lasting, stimulating and fulfilling experience. It is an opportunity for professional growth, teaching, generating knowledge, and personal fulfillment. Many academic institutions experience challenges with low faculty retention and professional engagement. Increased awareness of early career challenges and development of onboarding programs can facilitate the transition into academia and help increase short- and long-term job satisfaction. In this article, we review challenges that radiologists are likely to encounter in academic careers, and how they can maximize opportunities for professional development. We provide practical tips based on literature review as well as personal experience with the hope that they may have a positive impact on attrition rate.
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Bu kesitsel çalışma, üniversite öğrencilerinin bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri aşırı yükleme ve sosyal ağ tükenmişlik durumlarını incelemeyi amaçlayan nicel bir araştırmadır. Çalışma grubu toplam 416 lisans öğrencisinden oluşmaktadır. Araştırma verileri “Information and Communication Technology Overload & Social Networking Service Fatigue Scale”nin Türkçe formu kullanılarak çevrimiçi olarak toplanmıştır. Betimleyici istatistiklere ek olarak, veri analizi prosedürü, t-testi, tek yönlü ANOVA sonuçları ve Pearson momentler çarpımı korelasyon katsayısı değerlerinin incelenmesini içermektedir. Bulgular, kadınların sistem değişim hızından ve aşırı iletişimden etkilenmeye eğilimli olduklarını ortaya koymuştur. Öte yandan günlük sosyal ağ tüketimi ve akıllı telefon kullanım süresine göre iletişim aşırı yüklenmesinin istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılığa sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca aşırı iletişim ile günlük sosyal ağ tüketimi ve akıllı telefon kullanım süresi arasında pozitif yönde ve istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir.
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This study examines not only the relationship between work-related smartphone use after work and job burnout but also the 3-way interaction effect of social support and perceived organizational politics (POPs) on this relationship. The findings of an analysis of 387 Korean workers provide various significant implications. The 3-way interaction effect of POPs was identified, while the interaction effect of social support between work-related smartphone use after work and job burnout was not confirmed. Specifically, the negative impact of work-related smartphone use after work, which induces job burnout, was found to be mitigated when supervisor support was high in a negative political work environment. However, in a positive political work environment, greater supervisor support was actually found to increase the negative impact of work-related smartphone use after work, while strong peer support reduced the negative impact of work-related smartphone use after work. This study contributes to research by providing an extended research model of how work-related smartphone use after work affects job burnout and how social support and political work environment moderate this relationship. Additional longitudinal studies including other factors of job demands and resources will facilitate more academic and practical discussions.
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An understanding of the overall relationship between the work-related use of information and communication technology (ICT) and employees’ well-being is lacking as the rising number of studies has produced mixed results. We meta-analytically synthesize and integrate existing literature on the consequences of ICT use based on the job demands-resources model. By using meta-analytical structural equation modeling based on 63 independent studies ( N = 26,295), we shed light on the relationship between ICT use and employees’ well-being (operationalized as burnout and engagement) in a model that incorporates the mediating role of ICT-related resources and demands. Results show that ICT use is opposingly related to burnout and engagement through autonomy, availability, and work-life conflict. Our study brings clarity into the contradictory results and highlights the importance of a simultaneous consideration of both positive and negative effects for a comprehensive understanding of the relationship. We further show that the time of use and managerial position, and methodological moderators can clarify heterogeneity in previous results.
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This study investigated the Technological Assisted Supplemental Work (TASW) on the Work Family Conflict (WFC) and the Work Life Enrichment (WLE) with the moderating role of Time Management Skills (TMS). It reflects on how an individual is using the technological devices to communicate in their daily work routine to manage the workload, and how it is affecting an individual’s life positively or negatively at work and at home. This study was conducted on 300 employees of software houses. Convenience based sampling technique had been used because employees in the software house who use technology-assisted work and work from home. There is a direct positive relationship between Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Life Enrichment. Also, there is a direct positive relationship between Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Family Conflict. It was also found that Time Management Skills moderate the relationship between Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Life Enrichment but it does not moderate the relationship between Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Family Conflict. Managers need to understand the importance of the balance between work and family and recognize that technology can deteriorate personal relationships instead of harmonizing them. Thus, there needs to be a balance of HR policies for this mandate where people have to work from home additionally. This study has contributed in the literature of Technology Assisted Supplemental Work and Work Family Conflict and Work Life Enrichment as there has been no study conducted on software house employees along with the moderating role of Time Management Skills.
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Workplaces increasingly use response speed as a proxy for hard work, signaling to employees that the only way to succeed is to be “always on.” Drawing on boundary theory and egocentrism, we examine a problematic bias around expectations of response speed for work emails, namely that receivers overestimate senders’ response speed expectations to non-urgent emails sent outside normative work hours (e.g., on the weekend). We label this phenomenon the email urgency bias and document it across eight pre-registered experimental studies (N = 4,004). This bias led to discrepancies in perceived stress of receiving emails, and was associated with lower subjective well-being via greater experienced stress. A small adjustment on the sender’s side alleviated the email urgency bias (a brief note senders can add in their emails to clarify their response expectations). This paper demonstrates the importance of perspective differences in email exchanges and the need to explicitly communicate non-urgent expectations.
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Virtual offices give employees the ability to work anytime, anywhere, using information and communication technologies, thereby blurring the temporal and geographical boundaries of work. Workplace stress is thus allowed to spill over from traditional offices to virtual offices, and vice versa. This review article presents key research from work psychology and information systems on workplace stress experienced in virtual offices (interruptions, workload and the work-home interface). It further discusses the main threats faced by organizations and office managers: reduced social interactions, poor communication, and deviant behaviors. Suggestions are also offered to practitioners seeking to design virtual offices in which employees can feel and work well, and to academics seeking to research this phenomenon in a transdisciplinary way.
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The present research examined how the use of different email functions impact dynamics between team members. We first illustrate that it is not so uncommon for employees to find out that the Bcc option has been used in email communications at work. Building on this insight, we then demonstrate that senders using the Bcc option are evaluated by recipients as less moral and consequently as less fitting to be the team leader compared to senders who use the Cc option. Interestingly, this effect occurred regardless of whether or not the sender provided a commonly cited reason for Bcc use. Next, we show that deciding to forward an email reveals an equally negative effect on morality perceptions and rated leadership emergence as using the Bcc option. Finally, we illustrate that although participants perceived the act of rewriting an email message as more moral than Bcc usage, rewriting an email message nevertheless produced similar negative consequences for the sender as the use of the Bcc or the forward option on whether or not the sender is considered fit to be team leader. The present findings complement previous research by showing that secretly communicating information through email can negatively impact team dynamics.
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Purpose Individuals can improve their task performance by using information and communications technology (ICT). However, individuals who use ICT may also suffer from negative outcomes, such as burnout and anxiety, which lead to poorer performance and well-being. While researchers have studied the positive outcomes of ICT use in the aggregate, the same has not been done for negative outcomes. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a meta-analysis of 52 studies to examine the relationship between ICT use and negative outcomes, and the influence of job autonomy on ICT use and the negative outcomes of ICT use. Job autonomy is relevant because a higher level of job autonomy allows individuals to decide how, how often and when they will use ICT that is causing negative outcomes for their work. Findings The results of the meta-analysis revealed that ICT use increased negative job outcomes and that, unexpectedly, autonomy exacerbated this effect. Research limitations/implications The results of this study point to the prevalence of negative outcomes from ICT use among individuals. Researchers should study how users may potentially restrict the value that organizations may be able to obtain from the implementation of new systems, especially whether individual-level negative outcomes could coalesce into a collective resistance. There also needs to be further research into the motivating and inhibiting roles of autonomy in enhancing ICT use, while mitigating its negative impacts simultaneously. Originality/value The study provides an aggregate analysis of the negative impacts of ICT use among individuals and the role of autonomy in the relationship.
Article
Purpose This study measured between-groups differences in perceived speech skills and personality characteristics of a 12-year-old male child who stutters (CWS) as a function of a written factual stuttering disclosure statement, delivered by the CWS, his “mother,” or his “teacher.” Method Four hundred twenty-four college-age adults were assigned to one of four groups, including three experimental groups (i.e., written self-disclosure, mother-written disclosure, and teacher-written disclosure) and a control group (no written disclosure). Participants in the control conditions viewed a brief video of the CWS. In the experimental conditions, participants read a brief written disclosure statement for 30 s, followed by the same video used in the control condition. After viewing the video, all participants completed surveys relative to their perceptions of the CWS speech skills and personality characteristics. Results Results reveal that a written stuttering disclosure statement provided by the mother correlated with select significant desirable perceptual differences of the CWS, while a written disclosure statement provided by the CWS yielded insignificant or even undesirable perceptual differences of the CWS. Written stuttering disclosures provided by a “teacher” did not yield any significant between-groups differences in the perception of a CWS. Gender affiliation was found to be a source of covariance in a number of perceived speech skills and personality characteristics. Conclusions Written stuttering disclosure statements provided by the “mother” correlated with select favorable perceptual differences of speech skills and personal characteristics of a CWS. Clinically, the application of novel methods (written and oral disclosure statements) and sources (i.e., CWS advocates such as “mother” and “teacher”) of stuttering disclosure statement can be integrated into a systematic therapeutic program, creating an innovative approach of scaffolding self-advocacy via stuttering disclosure in CWS. Supplemental Material https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.15505857
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The use of information and communications technology (ICT) in organizations is a global phenomenon. Their benefits: providing companies with efficiency and productivity, are well-known. Even so, there is growing worry over the stress that workers experience due to technology—technostress—and its negative consequences for organizations and workers. Technostress has not been studied much in a Latin American setting. As a starting point, it is necessary to possess valid and reliable instruments to measure the factors that generate it and the organizational mechanisms that have the potential to reduce its effects. The purpose of this study is to adapt and validate the Technostress Creators and Technostress Inhibitors Inventories in Peru, a Spanish-speaking Latin American country. A linguistic and cultural adaptation was carried out in order to evaluate the psychometric properties of the instruments in a sample of 360 employee ICT end-users. The results indicate the validity of the construct and high reliability for the Technostress Creators Inventory but not for the Technostress Inhibitors Inventory. This study demonstrates that the factors generating technostress are the same in different regions but that the suitability of different organizational practices to address it varies. It is necessary to identify mechanisms best suited to the cultural context of Latin America.
Thesis
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In a time characterized by growing uncertainty, e.g. because of the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective leadership is more important than ever. In addition, employee well-being has been named one of the critical drivers of business success. In this dissertation, we therefore answer the following overarching question: Exactly how can leaders contribute to employee well-being? In order to answer this question, we execute several theoretical and empirical studies, and we also develop new ways of investigating leader (communication) behavior itself. In the first part of this dissertation, we look into the main ways in which positive leadership styles influence employee work engagement. In the first theoretical study, we argue why certain leader behaviors are shared across positive leadership styles, and we identify several theory-driven processes and pathways through which leaders can influence employee work engagement. In the second study, a moderated meta-analysis, we investigate the meta-correlation of positive leadership styles and work engagement, as well as provide an empirically-driven overview of categories of mediating and moderating mechanisms, to end up with an overarching research model. In the second part of this dissertation, we look into the role of leaders’ own well-being, for both their own leadership as well as for employee well-being. In the first study, we test a moderated mediation and find that 1) mindfulness is an antecedent of positive leadership (here: transformational leadership), 2) leaders’ psychological need satisfaction mediates the relationship between mindfulness and transformational leadership and 3) neuroticism moderates the relationship between mindfulness and relatedness need satisfaction. In the second study, with multilevel and multisource data, we investigate the trickle-down effect of leaders’ psychological need satisfaction. We find that psychological need satisfaction indeed trickles down to employees, mediated by (employee-rated) levels of LMX. We also find a direct positive association between leader competence and employee competence, as well as a negative one between leader autonomy and employee competence. In the last part of this dissertation, we look into how we can improve leader communication to increase employee well-being. In the first study we develop a new construct and validate a new 10-item questionnaire for leader attentive communication (LAC), i.e. an open-minded, attentive demeanor while in a conversation with an employee. We also find that psychological need satisfaction and Kahn’s conditions for engagement mediate the relationship between LAC and work engagement. In the second study, we devise and test a two-day training protocol to improve leader communication. Despite an interference by the pandemic in the data-collection, we find small increases in employee-rated outcomes after the training. We also find that employee-rated LAC is related to employee well-being, and that this is mediated by both psychological need satisfaction and Kahn’s conditions for engagement.
Chapter
Agile working practices involve connecting with new technologies in order to operate more flexibly, efficiently and responsively. Electronic mail (or email) is one technology that particularly enables this, owing to its anywhere, anytime, anyplace functionality. However, there is a paradox in the way that workers use work-email, with research reporting as many benefits as drawbacks to this ubiquitous tool. In this chapter, it is suggested that individual differences in personality, resources and goal-preferences can explain why such a paradox has emerged, and guidance is given as to how to tailor agile working to allow individuals to more effectively use work-email.
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The present study examined the configurations, or profiles, taken by distinct global and specific facets of job engagement and burnout (by relying on a bifactor operationalization of these constructs) among a nationally representative sample of Canadian Defence employees ( n = 13,088; nested within 65 work units). The present study also adopted a multilevel perspective to investigate the role of job demands (work overload and role ambiguity), as well as individual (psychological empowerment), workgroup (interpersonal justice), supervisor (transformational leadership), and organizational (organizational support) resources in the prediction of profile membership. Latent profile analyses revealed five profiles of employees: Burned-Out/Disengaged (7.13%) , Burned-Out/Involved (12.13%), Engaged (18.14%), Engaged/Exhausted (15.50%), and Normative (47.10%). The highest turnover intentions were observed in the Burned-Out/Disengaged profile, and the lowest in the Engaged profile. Employees’ perceptions of job demands and resources were also associated with profile membership across both levels, although the effects of psychological empowerment were more pronounced than the effects of job demands and resources related to the workgroup, supervisor, and organization. Individual-level effects were also more pronounced than effects occurring at the work unit level, where shared perceptions of work overload and organizational support proved to be the key shared drivers of profile membership.
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
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The following paper presents current thinking and research on fit indices for structural equation modelling. The paper presents a selection of fit indices that are widely regarded as the most informative indices available to researchers. As well as outlining each of these indices, guidelines are presented on their use. The paper also provides reporting strategies of these indices and concludes with a discussion on the future of fit indices.
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People engage in technology-assisted supplemental work (TASW) when they perform role-prescribed tasks at home after regular work hours with the aid of technological tools such as laptops, cell phones, BlackBerries®, and PDAs. Drawing from the technology acceptance model, we hypothesized and found that instrumentality beliefs (perceived usefulness) and organizational expectations (psychological climate) were positively related to TASW. In addition, we hypothesized and found that TASW was positively related to work-to-family conflict. However, time management (setting goals and priorities) moderated the relationship such that people who apply certain time management strategies may reduce the negative influence of TASW on their lives at home.
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Communication technologies have made it increasingly feasible for employees to stay connected to work when not in the office. Yet we have little understanding of the implications for important aspects of work and work life. This study investigates how the use of communication technologies beyond normal work hours relates to work-related attitudes and work-to-life conflict. Results found that employees with higher ambition and job involvement were more likely to use communication technologies after hours. Furthermore, use of communication technologies after hours was associated with the employee's work-to-life conflict as reported by the employee and a significant other of the employee.
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We report on an empirical study where we cut off email usage for five workdays for 13 information workers in an organization. We employed both quantitative measures such as computer log data and ethnographic methods to compare a baseline condition (normal email usage) with our experimental manipulation (email cutoff). Our results show that without email, people multitasked less and had a longer task focus, as measured by a lower frequency of shifting between windows and a longer duration of time spent working in each computer window. Further, we directly measured stress using wearable heart rate monitors and found that stress, as measured by heart rate variability, was lower without email. Interview data were consistent with our quantitative measures, as participants reported being able to focus more on their tasks. We discuss the implications for managing email better in organizations.
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In this edition of Work & Stress, Kristensen and his colleagues critically discuss the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and present an alternative, more general instrument to measure burnout that exclusively focuses on exhaustion. Here we critically examine their reasons for developing a new burnout measure, as well as the theoretical foundations of this measure. Whereas we agree with Kristensen et al.'s remarks concerning the availability and item wording of the MBI, we do not share their concerns regarding its theoretical underpinnings. In our view, burnout should be conceptualized as a primarily work-related syndrome of (at least) exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The MBI would seem to fit that conceptualization very well.
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The authors empirically examined two operationalizations of the core self-evaluation construct: (a) the Judge, Erez, Bono, and Thoresen 12-item scale and (b) a composite measure of self-esteem, self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism.The study found that the composite scale relates more strongly than the shorter scale to performance, perceived job complexity, positive affectivity, personal trust, and belief in a just world. However, the short scale performed well and may be more practical in organizational research. The authors conclude that the 12-item measure is better used in research when participant time is limited and that a composite index is better when time is not a constraining factor in the data-collection process.
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Burnout is a prolonged response to chronic emotional and interpersonal stressors on the job, and is defined by the three dimensions of exhaustion, cynicism, and inefficacy. The past 25 years of research has established the complexity of the construct, and places the individual stress experience within a larger organizational context of people's relation to their work. Recently, the work on burnout has expanded internationally and has led to new conceptual models. The focus on engagement, the positive antithesis of burnout, promises to yield new perspectives on interventions to alleviate burnout. The social focus of burnout, the solid research basis concerning the syndrome, and its specific ties to the work domain make a distinct and valuable contribution to people's health and well-being.
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The job demands-resources (JD-R) model was used to examine the relationship between job characteristics, burnout, and (other-ratings of) performance (N = 146). We hypothesized that job demands (e.g., work pressure and emotional demands) would be the most important antecedents of the exhaustion component of burnout, which, in turn, would predict in-role performance (hypothesis 1). In contrast, job resources (e.g., autonomy and social support) were hypothesized to be the most important predictors of extra-role performance, through their relationship with the disengagement component of burnout (hypothesis 2). In addition, we predicted that job resources would buffer the relationship between job demands and exhaustion (hypothesis 3), and that exhaustion would be positively related to disengagement (hypothesis 4). The results of structural equation modeling analyses provided strong support for hypotheses 1, 2, and 4, but rejected hypothesis 3. These findings support the JD-R model's claim that job demands and job resources initiate two psychological processes, which eventually affect organizational outcomes. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Conference Paper
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Almost every office worker can relate to feelings of email overload and stress, but in reality the concept of email strain is not well understood. In this paper, we describe a large-scale nationwide organizational survey examining the relationship between email use and feelings of email overload and task coordination. We found that higher email volume was associated with increased feelings of email overload, but this relationship was moderated by certain email management strategies. The contribution to the field of CSCW is a better understanding of the concept of email related stress, and initial scale development for the assessment of email-related overload and perceptions of the work-importance of email.
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The increasing volume of e-mail and other technologically enabled communications are widely regarded as a growing source of stress in people's lives. Yet research also suggests that new media afford people additional flexibility and control by enabling them to communicate from anywhere at any time. Using a combination of quantitative and qualitative data, this paper builds theory that unravels this apparent contradiction. As the literature would predict, we found that the more time people spent handling e-mail, the greater was their sense of being overloaded, and the more e-mail they processed, the greater their perceived ability to cope. Contrary to assumptions of prior studies, we found no evidence that time spent working mediates e-mail-related overload. Instead, e-mail's material properties entwined with social norms and interpretations in a way that led informants to single out e-mail as a cultural symbol of the overload they experience in their lives. Moreover, by serving as a symbol, e-mail distracted people from recognizing other sources of overload in their work lives. Our study deepens our understanding of the impact of communication technologies on people's lives and helps untangle those technologies' seemingly contradictory influences.
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To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R(2)=0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (βNRCWO=-0.30; βcRCWO=-0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (β=0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (β=-0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout.
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This study among 528 South African employees working in the construction industry examined the dimensionality of burnout and work engagement, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory, and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. On the basis of the literature, we predicted that cynicism and dedication are opposite ends of one underlying attitude dimension (called "identification"), and that exhaustion and vigor are opposite ends of one "energy" dimension. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that while the attitude constructs represent opposite ends of one continuum, the energy constructs do not-although they are highly correlated. These findings are also supported by the pattern of relationships between burnout and work engagement on the one hand, and predictors (i.e., work pressure, autonomy) and outcomes (i.e., organizational commitment, mental health) on the other hand. Implications for the measurement and conceptualization of burnout and work engagement are discussed.
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The use of email by employees at the Danwood Group was studied and it was found that the interrupt effect from emails is more than generally believed. Employees allowed themselves to be interrupted almost as frequently as telephone calls and the common reaction to the arrival of an email is to react almost as quickly as they would respond to telephone calls. This means the interrupt effect is comparable with that of a telephone call. The recovery time from an email interruption was found to be significantly less than the published recovery time for telephone calls. It is to be concluded, therefore, that while Email is still less disruptive than the telephone, the way the majority of users handle their incoming email has been shown to give far more interruption than expected. By analysing the data captured the authors have been able to create recommendations for a set of guidelines for email usage within the workplace that will increase employee efficiency by reducing the prominence of interruptions, restricting the use of email-to-all messages, setting-up the email application to display three lines of the email and to check for email less frequently. It is recommended that training should be given to staff on how to use email more effectively to increase employee productivity.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators.
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This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
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The job demands-resources (JD-R) model proposes that working conditions can be categorized into 2 broad categories, job demands and job resources. that are differentially related to specific outcomes. A series of LISREL analyses using self-reports as well as observer ratings of the working conditions provided strong evidence for the JD-R model: Job demands are primarily related to the exhaustion component of burnout, whereas (lack of) job resources are primarily related to disengagement. Highly similar patterns were observed in each of 3 occupational groups: human services, industry, and transport (total N = 374). In addition, results confirmed the 2-factor structure (exhaustion and disengagement) of a new burnout instrument--the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory--and suggested that this structure is essentially invariant across occupational groups.
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Research on job burnout has traditionally focused on contextual antecedent conditions, although a theoretically appropriate conception implicates person-environment relationships. The authors tested several models featuring various combinations of personal and contextual influences on burnout and job satisfaction. Measures of core self-evaluations, organizational constraints, burnout, and job satisfaction were collected from 859 health care employees. Results from structural equations modeling analyses revealed an influence of core self-evaluations and perceived organizational constraints on job burnout and satisfaction, suggesting personal and contextual contributions. These results favor a broadening of current thinking about the impact of situational constraints on the expression of job burnout, as well as for the role of disposition for affective responding to effectively address occupational health problems.
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In the present study of 80 volunteer counselors who cared for terminally ill patients, the authors examined the relationship between burnout as measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (C. Maslach, S. E. Jackson, & M. P. Leiter, 1996) and the 5 basic (Big Five) personality factors (A. A. J. Hendriks, 1997): extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and intellect/autonomy. The results of 3 separate stepwise multiple regression analyses showed that (a) emotional exhaustion is uniquely predicted by emotional stability; (b) depersonalization is predicted by emotional stability, extraversion, and intellect/autonomy; and (c) personal accomplishment is predicted by extraversion and emotional stability. In addition, some of the basic personality factors moderated the relationship between relative number of negative experiences and burnout, suggesting that personality may help to protect against known risks of developing burnout in volunteer human service work.
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While the subject of interruptions has received considerable attention among organizational researchers, the pervasive presence of information and communication technologies has not been adequately conceptualized. Here we consider the way knowledge workers interact with these technologies. We present fine-grained data that reveal the crucial role of mediated communication in the fragmentation of the working day. These mediated interactions, which are both frequent and short, have been commonly viewed as interruptions - as if the issue is the frequency of these single, isolated events. In contrast, we argue that knowledge workers inhabit an environment where communication technologies are ubiquitous, presenting simultaneous, multiple and ever-present calls on their attention. Such a framing employs a sociomaterial approach which reveals how contemporary knowledge work is itself a complex entanglement of social practices and the materiality of technical artefacts. Our findings show that employees engage in new work strategies as they negotiate the constant connectivity of communication media.
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The present study explored the contribution of email volume, email management and worry in predicting email stress among a sample of Australian academics. The sample comprised 114 academic staff from Curtin University in Perth, Australia. An online survey was conducted to gather data on the target variables. A moderated hierarchical regression indicated that the combined model accounted for a significant 11.90% of the variance in email stress (p = .008, f2 = .135). Worry individually accounted for a significant proportion of the variance (p = .010, f2 = .06, 95% CI [.028, .202]). Email volume also significantly predicted email stress (p = .00, f2 = .057, 95% CI [.011, .079]). Email management did not moderate the email volume and stress relationship. The findings suggest that email stress is impacting upon academic teaching staff and that research on mitigating this stress needs to be undertaken.
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The present study further examined the relations between neuroticism, rumination, and worry, on the one hand, and anxiety and depression, on the other hand, in a sample of 73 undergraduate students. The results indicated that there were significant correlations among neuroticism, rumination, and worry. Further, neuroticism, rumination, and worry were all positively linked to both anxiety and depression. Finally, support was found for a mediational model in which neuroticism was associated with the cognitive factors of worry and rumination, which in turn were related to anxiety and depression. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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This study investigated the relation of the "Big Five" personality di- mensions (Extraversion, Emotional Stability, Agreeableness, Consci- entiousness, and Openness to Experience) to three job performance criteria (job proficiency, training proficiency, and personnel data) for five occupational groups (professionals, police, managers, sales, and skilled/semi-skilled). Results indicated that one dimension of person- ality. Conscientiousness, showed consistent relations with all job per- formance criteria for all occupational groups. For the remaining per- sonality dimensions, the estimated true score correlations varied by occupational group and criterion type. Extraversion was a valid pre- dictor for two occupations involving social interaction, managers and sales (across criterion types). Also, both Openness to Experience and Extraversion were valid predictors of the training proficiency criterion (across occupations). Other personality dimensions were also found to be valid predictors for some occupations and some criterion types, but the magnitude of the estimated true score correlations was small (p < .10). Overall, the results illustrate the benefits of using the 5- factor model of personality to accumulate and communicate empirical findings. The findings have numerous implications for research and practice in personnel psychology, especially in the subfields of person- nel selection, training and development, and performance appraisal.
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A meta-analysis was conducted on job demands, resources, and attitudes and their relation with burnout in regard to the COR theory. The version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory used was explored as a moderator of the aforementioned variables. Results suggest that higher demands, lower resources, and lower adaptive organizational attitudes are associated with burnout. In particular, results of the current study show stronger relations than previous meta-analysis (Lee & Ashforth, 1996) have suggested. The scale type also provided some evidence of moderation, with stronger effects found in samples that utilized the MBI-HSS. Implications of the findings in relation to the COR theory and future research directions to clarify the relation between job demands, job resources, organizational attitudes and burnout are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This article examines the adequacy of the “rules of thumb” conventional cutoff criteria and several new alternatives for various fit indexes used to evaluate model fit in practice. Using a 2‐index presentation strategy, which includes using the maximum likelihood (ML)‐based standardized root mean squared residual (SRMR) and supplementing it with either Tucker‐Lewis Index (TLI), Bollen's (1989) Fit Index (BL89), Relative Noncentrality Index (RNI), Comparative Fit Index (CFI), Gamma Hat, McDonald's Centrality Index (Mc), or root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA), various combinations of cutoff values from selected ranges of cutoff criteria for the ML‐based SRMR and a given supplemental fit index were used to calculate rejection rates for various types of true‐population and misspecified models; that is, models with misspecified factor covariance(s) and models with misspecified factor loading(s). The results suggest that, for the ML method, a cutoff value close to .95 for TLI, BL89, CFI, RNI, and Gamma Hat; a cutoff value close to .90 for Mc; a cutoff value close to .08 for SRMR; and a cutoff value close to .06 for RMSEA are needed before we can conclude that there is a relatively good fit between the hypothesized model and the observed data. Furthermore, the 2‐index presentation strategy is required to reject reasonable proportions of various types of true‐population and misspecified models. Finally, using the proposed cutoff criteria, the ML‐based TLI, Mc, and RMSEA tend to overreject true‐population models at small sample size and thus are less preferable when sample size is small.
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Although the dispositional approach to job satisfaction has garnered considerable research attention in recent years, this perspective often has lacked theoretical concepts that explain how dispositions affect job satisfaction. Because job satisfaction is an affective experience formed through a process of evaluation, an especially promising theoretical approach is to focus on individuals&apos; fundamental (metaphysical) value judgments or &apos;&apos;core evaluations.&apos;&apos; We propose a dispositional model based on core evaluations individuals make about themselves, the world. and other people. We also show how this model helps integrate the dispositional perspective with more traditional models of job satisfaction.
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To assess stress — the demands placed on the individual by his or her environment — life-event checklists and lists of daily hassles have been widely used. Such instruments are intended to reflect harmful, threatening, or challenging aspects of the environment, but they are likely to be strongly influenced by characteristics of the respondent, especially the personality disposition of neuroticism. Individuals high on this dimension perceive life as stressful, cope poorly, are dissatisfied with social supports, have low psychological well-being, and make more somatic complaints. Relations among these variables may be due to the common influence of neuroticism rather than processes of stress and coping. Longitudinal designs and objective outcome measures can reduced the confounding effect of neuroticism. By including measures of neuroticism in their designs, researchers can increase their understanding of the mutual roles of stress and personality in determining mental and physical health. By measuring neuroticism in their clients, stress management practitioners can gain insight into the reports of stressful events and conditions their clients make.
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This study focuses on burnout and its positive antipode—engagement. A model is tested in which burnout and engagement have different predictors and different possible consequences. Structural equation modeling was used to simultaneously analyze data from four independent occupational samples (total N = 1698). Results confirm the hypothesized model indicating that: (1) burnout and engagement are negatively related, sharing between 10 per cent and 25 per cent of their variances; (2) burnout is mainly predicted by job demands but also by lack of job resources, whereas engagement is exclusively predicted by available job resources; (3) burnout is related to health problems as well as to turnover intention, whereas engagement is related only to the latter; (4) burnout mediates the relationship between job demands and health problems, whereas engagement mediates the relationship between job resources and turnover intention. The fact that burnout and engagement exhibit different patterns of possible causes and consequences implies that different intervention strategies should be used when burnout is to be reduced or engagement is to be enhanced. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Over the past five years there has been a growing body of literature that examines the relationships among some of psychology's most studied traits (Neuroticism, self-esteem, and locus of control). Core self-evaluation theory posits a conceptual and empirical relationship between these traits and job satisfaction. After briefly reviewing core self-evaluation theory, we examine the empirical evidence documenting a relationship between these traits and the two central criteria of interest to I/O psychologists—job satisfaction and job performance. We then examine the relationship between core self-evaluation traits and the Big Five personality traits. We conclude with a discussion of the contributions and limitations of core self-evaluation research and opportunities for future research. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Despite an emerging body of research on a personality trait termed core self-evaluations, the trait continues to be measured indirectly. The present study reported the results of a series of studies that developed and tested the validity of the Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES), a direct and relatively brief measure of the trait. Results indicated that the 12-item CSES was reliable, displayed a unitary factor structure, correlated significantly with job satisfaction, job performance, and life satisfaction, and had validity equal to that of an optimal weighting of the 4 specific core traits (self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, neuroti-cism, and locus of control), and incremental validity over the 5-factor model. Overall, results suggest that the CSES is a valid measure that should prove useful in applied psychology research.
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Individuals within organizations are beginning to make an important realization: more information technology (IT) usage in the workplace can, at times, lead to productivity losses. We conceptualize this frequently observed, but largely ignored phenomenon as technology overload, when additional technology tools begin to crowd out one’s productivity instead of enhancing it. We found support for three main factors contributing technology-based productivity losses through information overload, communication overload, and system feature overload. Interestingly, these factors are a function of the individuals who use the technology, not the technology itself. In this paper, we present the results from three studies that (1) develop and pre-test a scale measurement for technology overload and its distinct dimensions, (2) validate the instrument, and (3) explore the relationship between technology overload and knowledge worker productivity. Our findings demonstrate the relationship between information technology usage and knowledge worker productivity, and they suggest how tradeoffs can be managed to ameliorate technology overload.
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When time is limited, researchers may be faced with the choice of using an extremely brief measure of the Big-Five personality dimensions or using no measure at all. To meet the need for a very brief measure, 5 and 10-item inventories were developed and evaluated. Although somewhat inferior to standard multi-item instruments, the instruments reached adequate levels in terms of: (a) convergence with widely used Big-Five measures in self, observer, and peer reports, (b) test–retest reliability, (c) patterns of predicted external correlates, and (d) convergence between self and observer ratings. On the basis of these tests, a 10-item measure of the Big-Five dimensions is offered for situations where very short measures are needed, personality is not the primary topic of interest, or researchers can tolerate the somewhat diminished psychometric properties associated with very brief measures.
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The central aim of the present study among 572 Dutch employees was to examine whether burnout and its positive antipode—work engagement—could be differentiated on the basis of personality and temperament. We expected burnout to be characterized by high neuroticism and low extraversion, and engagement by low neuroticism and high extraversion. Additionally, we predicted that burnout would correlate negatively with the temperament traits (strength of excitation, strength of inhibition, and mobility), whereas work engagement would correlate positively. Discriminant analyses were used to distinguish burned-out and engaged employees from their non-burned-out and non-engaged counterparts, respectively. Results showed that high neuroticism is the core characteris