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Teacher–Child Relationship Quality and Academic Achievement in Elementary School: Does Gender Matter?

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Abstract

Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) and 2-level hierarchical linear models with site fixed effects, we examined between- and within-child associations between teacher-child relationship closeness and conflict and standardized measures of children's math and reading achievement from 1st through 5th grades. In addition, we tested whether longitudinal effects varied by gender. Results revealed a between-child effect of conflict and a within-child effect of closeness on reading achievement for the full sample. In addition, there were moderated between- and within-child effects of conflict on math achievement: Girls with more conflictual relationships showed lower overall levels of math achievement and less growth in math achievement than did boys with similar levels of conflict. Implications are discussed.

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... Preschool children's relationships with their teachers play an important role in their learning and development. Positive teacher-child relationships, characterized by warm and supportive interactions, are linked to better school adjustment and academic achievement (Ly et al., 2012;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;McCormick et al., 2013;Pakarinen et al., 2021), while conflictual and dependent teacher-child relationships are negatively associated with children's school readiness and their participation in school activities and positive classroom behavior (Lippard et al., 2018;Pakarinen et al., 2021). Although significant associations of teacher-child relationships with child developmental outcomes are well-documented, studies to date primarily focus on the teachers' views of these relationships. ...
... It is well-documented that teacher-child relationship quality plays a critical role in children's academic achievement and school adjustment in preschool, early grades, and beyond (Choi & Dobbs-Oates, 2013;Lippard et al., 2018;Ly et al., 2012;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;McKinnon & Blair, 2019;Rucinski et al., 2018;Stephanou, 2014). Close teacher-child relationships are positively linked with children's school readiness, such as decoding skills and reading comprehension, as well as children's positive attitudes towards school (McKinnon & Blair, 2019;Silva et al., 2011). ...
... Some variation between teacher-child relationship constructs and academic outcomes by developmental domain has been noted in the literature (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;McKinnon & Blair, 2019;Spilt et al., 2012). Teacher-child relationship quality may be differentially related to literacy and math due to the fact that literacy events require children to emotionally engage with, and have positive feelings toward, the teacher (Stephanou, 2014). ...
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Preschool children’s relationships with their teachers play an important role in their learning and development. Despite this importance, extant research mostly relies on teachers’ perceptions about the relationships with children limiting our understanding of the bidirectional nature of these relationships. The present study aimed to explore teacher–child relationships reported by both teachers and preschool children and their associations with children’s math and literacy skills. Additionally, the moderating role of the teacher–child relationship on the association between children’s socioeconomic status and their math and literacy skills were examined. One hundred seventy nine preschoolers were interviewed about their relationships with teachers and directly assessed on their math and literacy skills. Their teachers reported on their relationships with each child on a survey, while parents provided demographic information. Structural equation modeling was conducted to examine associations between teacher–child relationships and academic outcomes. Findings revealed limited concordance between teachers’ and children’s perception of the quality of the teacher–child relationship, with only teachers’ perceptions of children’s dependency being positively correlated to children’s perception of teacher negativity. Teachers’ perceptions of children’s dependency and children’s perception of teacher negativity were negatively associated with children’s academic achievement. Teachers’ perceptions of children’s dependency moderated the association between children’s socioeconomic background and math outcomes. We offer implications for teachers about how teacher–child relationships improve children’s academic achievement.
... In Furlong et al.'s study (2013), it was found that girls scored higher than males on average for gratitude, zest, and persistence. Studies also show that on average, girls tended to have a higher quality relationship with their teacher than boys do, suggesting that girls benefit more from classroom-based education (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). However, girls improve the most in their math outcomes from a high-quality relationship with their teachers and boys improve the most in their reading outcomes from a high-quality relationship with their teachers (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). ...
... Studies also show that on average, girls tended to have a higher quality relationship with their teacher than boys do, suggesting that girls benefit more from classroom-based education (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). However, girls improve the most in their math outcomes from a high-quality relationship with their teachers and boys improve the most in their reading outcomes from a high-quality relationship with their teachers (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). In addition, it was found that gender moderated associations between perceived school support and youth academic engagement in a longitudinal study of recently immigrated Latin American adolescents (Green et al. 2008). ...
... As students in middle school can conform to behaviors that are seen as normal to their gender, and these behaviors influence the quality of relationships in the classroom (Kreiger & Kochenderferd-Ladd, 2013), gender may moderate the extent to which students' perceptions of positive homeroom practices influence their concurrent and longitudinal perceptions of school climate. The previous research shows that although teacher relationships benefit boys and girls, girls tend to have more positive relationships with their teachers (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). Thus, I hypothesized that female students will recognize teachers' positive homeroom practices more easily through their relationship, and therefore the female students will have more positive perceptions of the school climate than the male students. ...
Thesis
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... Aligned with this theoretical perspective, Baker (2006) and Ewing and Taylor (2009) found that close relationships with teachers were more strongly related to girls' academic outcomes. In contrast, McCormick and O'Connor (2015) and Ly, Zhou, Chu, and Chen (2012) indicated that teacher-perceived conflict was negatively related to girls' math achievement. ...
... Yet, boys continue to outperform girls on standardized math assessments across elementary school (Robinson & Lubienski, 2011). Furthermore, researchers have found that links between teacher-child relationship quality and achievement were moderated by gender, with girls displaying stronger associations between teacherperceived conflict and math achievement (Ly et al., 2012;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015), while boys demonstrated a stronger link between the overall quality of the teacher-child relationship and reading achievement (Ly et al., 2012). However, in a sample of kindergarteners from low-income urban schools, gender was not a significant moderator in the association between teacher-child relationship quality and early school adjustment (Murray, Waas, & Murray, 2008). ...
... Gender sensitivity is also essential in teachers' and parents' meetings when making an individually tailored kindergarten plan for each child in the beginning of the kindergarten year. While a child-centered approach is also valued in the education system in the United States along with an increased awareness of gender equity and equality, teachers struggle with establishing an environment that deconstructs traditional gender roles (Ewing & Taylor, 2009;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). Although gender stereotyping in the classroom has decreased over the past years, studies from the United States continue to show that teachers have gender-typed expectations for children's behavior in the classroom that are, for example, reflected in their relationships with children (Ewing & Taylor, 2009;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). ...
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This study investigated bidirectional links between the quality of teacher-child relationships and children's interest and pre-academic skills in literacy and math. Furthermore, differences in the patterns of bidirectionality between boys and girls were explored. Participants were 461 Finnish kindergarteners (6-year-olds) and their teachers (n = 48). Teachers reported their closeness and conflict with each child twice throughout the kindergarten year. Children rated their interest in literacy and math, and were tested on their pre-academic skills. Cross-lagged path models indicated that teacher-perceived conflict predicted lower interest and pre-academic skills in both literacy and math. Results were similar for boys and girls. Implications for reducing conflictual patterns of relationships, together with promoting other factors, are discussed.
... Recent quantitative studies, mainly from the field of educational psychology, have found evidence regarding gender differences in teacher-student relationships in terms of proximity 2 and conflict 3 , measured through the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale -STRS (Pianta, 1992). In these studies, teachers consistently report that they have closer relationships with girls and more conflictive relationships with boys (Hajovsky, Mason, & McCune, 2017;Jerome, Hamre, & Pianta, 2008;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). ...
... The recent literature also suggests that these differences disproportionately affect girls. Specifically, a longitudinal study in the United States conducted by McCormick and O'Connor (2015) analyses the learning trajectories of children during the first five years of elementary school. Their results suggest that progress in mathematics achievement is slower for girls when they have a conflictive relationship with their teachers (based on the STRS scale), compared to boys who have conflictive relationships with teachers and girls who have non-conflictive relationships with them. ...
... They also expand it, as it is shown that the differences according to gender not only occur in pedagogical or behaviour management interactions, but that they are transversal, and are also expressed in administrative and task instruction interactions. This implies one step forward compared to previous international research which analysed interactions based on teachers' self-reports and only considered teacher affect (that is, closeness and conflict) in teacher-student relationships (e.g., Hajovsky et al., 2017;Jerome et al., 2008;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). Furthermore, the results of this study are robust as they consider third or confounding variables, such as student performance and their sitting location in the classroom. ...
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The gender gap in mathematics outcomes, where women are most affected, is well documented internationally and is particularly high in Chilean secondary education. This study explores the educational inclusion of girls in mathematics classrooms. The coding of videos from 79 school lessons, involving 2,295 students, allowed us to compare how and how much teachers interact with male and female students, analyse the moderating effect of academic achievement in these interactions and explore the differences among classrooms with regard to the inclusion of girls. Teacher-student interaction networks were represented via sociograms and modelled with multilevel Poisson regression. We found that girls interact less frequently with their mathematics teachers in interactions of diverse content, and this is the case in interactions initiated by the teacher as well as those initiated by the student. Academic achievement moderates these differences only in pedagogical interactions initiated by students. There is also significant variation in the inclusion of girls among classrooms, which is not consistently explained by the gender of the teacher or the gender composition of the class.
... Despite changes in the nature of the teacher-student relationship, recent studies suggest that the quality of the relationship still plays a crucial role in the adjustment of children up until the middle school years. For example, improvement in the teacherstudent relationship (measured as an increase in the teacher rating of closeness) was found to be associated with an increase in reading skills (McCormick and O'Connor 2015), the display of fewer psychosocial problems, such as depressive symptoms and socially withdrawn behaviors (Maldonado-Carreno and Votruba-Drzal 2011), and less engagement in rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors (Maldonado-Carreno and Votruba-Drzal 2011; Rudasill et al. 2010). Together, these findings suggest that, when students form good relationships with their teachers, such relationships may boost their academic commitment and well-being, and protect them from engaging in risky behaviors during childhood. ...
... The existing literature provides mixed evidence regarding how relationships with teachers might be related to the academic adjustment of girls and boys. Some studies show that girls are at greater risk of developing adjustment problems and showing poor academic performance when they have conflictual relationships with teachers (e.g., McCormick and O'Connor 2015). Likewise, they may benefit more from close and supportive relationships with teachers than boys (e.g., Ewing and Taylor 2009). ...
... Likewise, they may benefit more from close and supportive relationships with teachers than boys (e.g., Ewing and Taylor 2009). Relying on the gender socialization hypothesis, these studies argue that girls are expected to follow more traditional roles, such as being compliant and responsible, and relatedly to establish a close relationship with teachers (e.g., Ewing and Taylor 2009;McCormick and O'Connor 2015). Breaking up traditional gender norms (e.g., having less close relationship with teachers) might induce stress in girls, and thereby they might experience school adjustment problems to a greater extent than boys. ...
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The student-teacher relationship has mostly been assumed to be static. This approach is limited in providing information on how relationships with teachers evolve over time, and how possible changes affect young people’s adjustment. To address this gap in knowledge, the present study examined whether adolescents follow different trajectories in their perceptions of relationship with teachers and whether students on different trajectories differ from each other in their adjustment. The sample included 829 students residing in Sweden (Mage = 13.43, SD = 0.55, 51% girls). Three distinct teacher-relationship trajectories were identified. More than half (66%) of the adolescents (average-stable trajectory) reported an average level of positive relationships with teachers at grade 7, and did not change significantly over the three years. About 24% of the adolescents (high-increasing trajectory) reported a high level of fair and supportive teacher-relationships at T1, and continued to increase in their positive views from grade 7 to grade 9. Ten percent of the adolescents (average-declining trajectory) reported an average level of positive relationships with teachers at grade 7, but showed a decline in their positive views towards teachers over time. Relative to adolescents on an average-stable trajectory, adolescents on a high-increasing trajectory reported greater school satisfaction, higher achievement values, and lower failure anticipation. By contrast, adolescents in the average-declining group reported worsening school adjustment. No significant moderating effects of immigrant status and gender were found. These findings highlight the importance of the association between the continuous experience of supportive and fair teacher treatment and youth adjustment.
... A consideration of student sex is necessitated by previous studies illuminating potential sex differences in student-teacher relationships and sense of school belonging. For instance, not only do girls tend to have better A SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL PATHWAY relationships with their teachers as compared with boys (Hughes & Im, 2016;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015), but they also tend to report a greater sense of school belonging (Huyge, Van Maele, & Van Houtte, 2015;Witherspoon & Ennett, 2011). Further, sex differences might interact with student-teacher relationships (Ly, Zhou, Chu, & Chen, 2012;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015) and sense of school belonging (Hughes, Im, & Allee, 2015) in different ways in their relations to student outcomes (e.g., achievement). ...
... For instance, not only do girls tend to have better A SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL PATHWAY relationships with their teachers as compared with boys (Hughes & Im, 2016;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015), but they also tend to report a greater sense of school belonging (Huyge, Van Maele, & Van Houtte, 2015;Witherspoon & Ennett, 2011). Further, sex differences might interact with student-teacher relationships (Ly, Zhou, Chu, & Chen, 2012;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015) and sense of school belonging (Hughes, Im, & Allee, 2015) in different ways in their relations to student outcomes (e.g., achievement). For example, previous studies suggest that girls suffering from conflictual student-teacher relationships are more likely to have poorer math achievement compared with boys experiencing similar levels of conflict (Ly et al., 2012;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). ...
... Further, sex differences might interact with student-teacher relationships (Ly, Zhou, Chu, & Chen, 2012;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015) and sense of school belonging (Hughes, Im, & Allee, 2015) in different ways in their relations to student outcomes (e.g., achievement). For example, previous studies suggest that girls suffering from conflictual student-teacher relationships are more likely to have poorer math achievement compared with boys experiencing similar levels of conflict (Ly et al., 2012;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). Nonetheless, given that other studies failed to support the moderating effects of sex on different school-related factors and student outcomes (Hughes & Im, 2016;Wang & Eccles, 2012), further research is necessary. ...
Article
Guided by the school climate and social-emotional learning literature, this study explored math self-concept in relation to student-teacher relationships and students’ sense of school belonging while accounting for sex differences. Participants included two random subsamples (Ns = 532; 558) of 15-year-old Canadian students who participated in the 2012 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). Results indicated that while student-teacher relationships were positively associated with math self-concept among boys, sense of school belonging was positively associated with math self-concept among girls. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that the indirect association between student-teacher relationships and math self-concept via the sense of school belonging was significant only among girls; the total effects model was only significant among boys. These findings were evidenced in both subsamples. Findings suggest the importance to not only enhance student-teacher relationships and students’ sense of school belonging, but also to recognize how intervention efforts might vary depending on students’ sex.
... Changes in proximal processes to support education during the COVID-19 pandemic included increased use of technologies, like Learning Management Systems (LMS) and instructional and assessment technologies, and packets of work completed by students at home. Findings revealed changes in proximal processes affected formative assessment, teacher confidence, teacher and student relationships, and differentiated instruction, all factors that support student achievement (e.g., Black and Wiliam, 1998;Hattie, 2008;McCormick and O'Connor, 2015;Grosas et al., 2016;Andersson and Palm, 2017;Engels et al., 2021), and potentially reduce gaps between high achieving and low achieving students (Salar and Turgut, 2021). Formative assessment refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course (Glossary of Education Reform, 2014). ...
... Concerns over the extent to which students autonomously completed homework also disrupted teachers' ability to assess content mastery. Much research supports the role of positive relationships in school settings, either in person (McCormick and O'Connor, 2015;Engels et al., 2021) or online (Lai and Xue, 2012;Hebebci et al., 2020). By revealing formative assessment as a relationshipbuilding tool, this research contributes to those findings. ...
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In 2020, schools around the United States and globally closed to in-person instruction in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study, embedded in ongoing research supported by a United States Department of Education Jacob K. Javits Gifted and Talented Education Award, investigated changes in roles, relationships, and educational activities resulting from the pandemic as perceived by educators in one rural and low SES Appalachian primary school. Using Bronfenbrenner’s (1977 ; 1979 ; 2001 ) Bioecological Theory of Human Development, this study examined instructional modifications (proximal processes) resulting from the pandemic (chronosystem) in the school and home (microsystem context) and the development of teachers, parents, and students (persons) in response to those changes. Survey data were collected pre- and post-pandemic onset. Results of this mixed-methods study indicated teachers perceived the pandemic as influencing what they taught, how they taught, and the roles of and relationships between teachers, parents, and students. Teachers adapted to the changing educational environment developing proficiency in online tools and skills to enhance communication. Parents assumed a more prominent role in their K-2 student’s schooling to ensure students logged in and were active online, paid attention while in class, and completed their assignments at home. These remote learning environments, which naturally distanced teachers from their students, coupled with uncertain parental involvement, challenged teachers in their formative assessments of student knowledge. While some students thrived with increased support from attentive parents—many students, particularly those already at-risk or in homes where internet or parental support were lacking—were adversely affected, thus widening the achievement gap.
... Nonetheless, little attention has been given to the relative contributions of teacher-child and parent-child relationships to children's mathematical learning at the beginning of school life. Since positive relationships with parents and teachers foster early language and literacy development (Downer & Pianta, 2006;Harmeyer et al., 2016;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;Pianta et al., 1997), and such abilities are crucial for mathematical development (LeFevre et al., 2010;Purpura et al., 2011), the present study investigated whether very young children's language and literacy abilities mediated the relations of parent-child and teacher-child relationship quality to their mathematical ability. ...
... In the study of Pianta and Stuhlman (2004), first graders' academic performance was positively associated with teacher-child closeness and negatively associated with teacher-child conflict. McCormick and O'Connor (2015) also showed that teacher-child conflict had a negative correlation with reading achievement in elementary school. Moreover, trajectories of teacher-child closeness over elementary school years were related to improvement in reading achievement. ...
Article
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High-quality caregiver-child relationships are critical to healthy development, including the acquisition of language and literacy skills. However, their potential benefits to early mathematical development and its underlying mechanisms have been minimally explored. In view that language and literacy development play prominent roles in mathematical development, this study investigated whether very young children’s relationship quality with parents and teachers were linked with their mathematical ability through language and literacy abilities. One hundred and thirty two-year-olds from pre-nursery classes in Hong Kong were tested on their early academic abilities. Furthermore, their parents and teachers evaluated on questionnaires the quality of their relationships with the children. Results of path analyses indicated that after controlling for children’s age, parent–child closeness was associated with children’s mathematical ability via language ability. Teacher–child closeness had a direct link to children’s mathematical ability, as well as indirect links through language and literacy abilities. Parent–child conflict and teacher–child conflict had neither direct nor indirect relations with children’s mathematical ability. These results suggest that mathematical development is interwoven with language and literacy development beginning in the early years. Also, parents and teachers should be reminded the importance of building close and affectionate relationships with very young children when nurturing the foundation for academic development.
... This framework extends to the teacher-child relationship where relationships marked with high closeness and low conflict provide a secure base for the child to explore the school environment (Pianta, 1999;Verschueren & Koomen, 2012). Teacher-student relationships that consist of a pattern of warmth and positive support with low levels of conflict have been positively associated with reading and math achievement (Mason, Hajovsky, McCune, & Turek, 2017;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;Rimm-Kaufman, Baroody, Larsen, Curby, & Abry, 2015), and are especially critical during the early years of schooling when children develop achievement patterns that tend to persist over time (Entwisle & Alexander, 1993;. ...
... It is theorized that the manner in which teachers relate to and treat their students may reflect broader socialization patterns and stereotypes, where girls are expected to be model students and demonstrate more compliant and desirable classroom-based behaviors (e.g., following directions, paying attention; Ewing & Taylor, 2009;Koch, 2003;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015), and White and Asian students are expected to be more compliant and less aggressive than their African American peers (Bates & Glick, 2013;Chang & Demyan, 2007;Yates & Marcelo, 2014). Stereotypes about groups of individuals commonly guides teachers' responses to students from these groups, which may in turn reinforce those stereotypes and ultimately lead to self-fulfilling prophecies (Aronson, 2002;Osborne, Tillman, & Holland, 2010;Reyna, 2000). ...
Article
Prior literature has suggested that teachers who are confident in their abilities to teach, assess, and manage classroom behavior may be more likely to engage in practices that lead to supportive and secure relationships with students. The current study investigated the trajectories of teacher-student relationships, examining the extent that teacher self-efficacy beliefs predicted ratings of conflict and closeness for 885 students from second to sixth grade. The trends of teacher-student closeness and conflict were modeled using a parallel curve of factors approach, controlling for student demographics and teacher-student racial and gender alignment prior to examining the extent that teacher self-efficacy beliefs influenced closeness and conflict across grades. Results from the parallel trajectories suggested that teacher-student conflict was stable from second to sixth grade, whereas teacher-student closeness demonstrated a declining curvilinear trend. The relationship between teacher-student conflict and closeness suggests that students with relatively high levels of conflict in second grade were likely to exhibit sharper declines in closeness over time. Across grades, teachers rated closer and less conflictual relationships with females but after controlling for gender and race (β = .083 to .328 for closeness; β = -.118 to -.238 for conflict), teacher-student racial and gender alignment associations with teacher-student relationship quality were less consistent. Teachers who reported higher self-efficacy beliefs were more likely to report higher ratings of closeness and lower ratings of conflict with students across all grades (β = .195 to .280 for closeness; β = -.053 to -.097 for conflict). These findings contribute to the literature regarding the role of teacher self-efficacy in teacher-student relationships. We discuss how teacher self-efficacy beliefs can be developed and leveraged to improve relationship quality in the classroom from a social cognitive perspective.
... The importance of teacher supportiveness during early childhood and lower elementary school for a host of behavioral and academic outcomes is well documented (e.g., Buckrop, Roberts, & LoCasale-Crouch, 2016;Burchinal et al., 2008). However, the quality of teacher-student relationships can decline during the upper elementary school years, possibly because class time grows increasingly devoted to instruction and less oriented toward purposefully engendering positive teacher-student interactions (Jerome, Hamre, & Pianta, 2009;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). Despite the drop in quality, the importance of supportive teacher-student interactions outcomes persists during upper elementary school (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). ...
... However, the quality of teacher-student relationships can decline during the upper elementary school years, possibly because class time grows increasingly devoted to instruction and less oriented toward purposefully engendering positive teacher-student interactions (Jerome, Hamre, & Pianta, 2009;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). Despite the drop in quality, the importance of supportive teacher-student interactions outcomes persists during upper elementary school (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). For instance, teacher supportiveness continues to be positively associated with academic outcomes (Baker, 2006). ...
Article
Background/Context: Latino English language learners (ELLs) comprise a rapidly growing portion of the student population, and much empirical attention has been devoted to supporting their English language and literacy proficiency. Less is known about how to support Latino ELLs’ social-emotional needs. Latino ELLs face the dual challenge of learning English and academic content simultaneously; they also may face stigma, anti-immigration sentiment, and deficit perspectives from teachers and peers. Consequently, they may be in especial need of support from their teachers. Research Question: This study addresses the following question--how do effective teachers show support within upper elementary classrooms with varying levels of English language proficiency? Research Design: We employed a multiple and comparative case study approach to answer this question, using videotaped English language arts lessons from the Measures of Effective Teaching data set. We compared how teachers demonstrate supportiveness in three types of fourth- and fifth-grade classrooms: (1) high-ELL and high-gains; (2) no-ELL and high-gains; and (3) high-ELL and low-gains. Conclusion/Recommendations: We observed that only high-ELL, high-gains teachers showed supportiveness in the following distinct ways: through contingent and effusive praise, by describing the relevance of content, and by advancing relationships with students. We discussed why these demonstrations of supportiveness may be important, particularly for Latino ELLs. We conclude with ideas for future research and practical implications for teachers and teacher preparation programs.
... Hamre and Pianta 2001) linked more closeness and less conflict to higher academic achievement, results of recent studies have been mixed. McCormick and O'Connor (2015) found higher levels of teacher-student conflict to be correlated with poorer reading performance even after a number of family, child, and teacher variables were taken into account. However, Hernandez et al. (2017) failed to find significant links between teacher-student conflict and academic performance. ...
... While some recent longitudinal studies (e.g. Košir and Sara 2014;McCormick and O'Connor 2015;Sointu et al. 2017) reported significant longitudinal links between teacher-student relationships and academic achievement, others found no such links, particularly in relation to teacher-student conflict (Hajovsky et al. 2017;Hernandez et al. 2017). It may be that Lithuanian elementary school teachers have had less training in conflict management skills than their colleagues in Western countries. ...
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This longitudinal study investigated the links between school anxiety, social competence, and teacher–student relationship in the 1st grade and academic achievement in the 3rd grade. The sample consisted of 389 Lithuanian school children who at the time of the study started their 1st year in elementary school. Regression analyses indicated that while the learning-related aspect of social competence at the 1st grade strongly predicted academic achievement in the 3rd grade, interpersonal aspect of social competence did not add any extra variance to the prediction. Both teacher–student conflict and social school anxiety at school entry made small but significant contributions towards prediction of academic achievement in the 3rd grade.
... Gender differences may lead to varying degrees of perceived relatedness support. Studies have suggested that girls are more influenced by relationship factors, such as teachers' expectations and support (Goodenow, 1993;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;Ryan et al., 1994). Bru et al. (2021) found that the association between the structuring of learning activities and engagement was stronger for male students, whereas the association between learning process support and emotional engagement was stronger for female students. ...
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Artificial intelligence (AI) has the potential to support self-regulated learning (SRL) because of its strong anthropomorphic characteristics. However, most studies of AI in education have focused on cognitive outcomes in higher education, and little research has examined how psychological needs affect SRL with AI in the K–12 setting. SRL is a self-directed process driven by psychological factors that can be explained by the three basic needs of self-determination theory (SDT), i.e., autonomy, competence, and relatedness. This study fills a research gap by examining the moderating effects of need satisfaction and gender in predicting SRL among Grade 9 students. The results indicate that girls perceive more need support than boys. In predicting SRL, satisfaction of the need for autonomy and competence is moderated by both gender and AI knowledge, whereas satisfaction of the need for relatedness is moderated by gender only. Particularly among girls, the effects of autonomy and competence more strongly predict SRL when AI knowledge is low. These findings confirm the gender differences in need satisfaction when predicting SRL with a chatbot. The findings have implications for both teacher instruction and the design and development of intelligent learning environments.
... The perception teachers have of their relationship with their students plays an important role for children's emotional and academic functioning (Sabol and Pianta, 2012;McCormick and O'Connor, 2015;Horn et al., 2021;Li et al., 2022). More specifically, teachers' perception regarding relationship quality with their students (e.g., the degree of closeness and conflict) can affect the nature of child-teacher interaction within the classroom (e.g., engagement, communication) which can further impact children's emotional experiences. ...
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Although, in the last years several studies have moved beyond analyzing the role of mother–child relationship in the association between child temperament and child emotional functioning, our knowledge is still limited about which fine-grained temperamental components of child reactivity and self-regulation are associated with child-teacher relationship quality. Also, fewer studies have looked at the moderating role of child-teacher relationship in the association between child temperament and child internalizing/externalizing problems during early childhood. The present study examined the relation between components of child temperamental Negative Affectivity, Surgency, and Effortful Control and child-teacher relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict) in preschool children. In addition, our aim was to test the moderating effect of the child-teacher relationship on the association between temperament and internalizing and externalizing problems. One hundred Romanian preschoolers (55 boys, mean age = 4.04 years) participated in this study. Mothers assessed their child’s temperament by completing the Children’s Behavior Questionnaire and externalizing and internalizing problems with the Child Behavior Checklist. Child-teacher relationship quality was evaluated by children’s teachers using the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale. Our results revealed that teachers rated their relationship as less conflictual with children who were assessed by their mothers as better in shifting and focusing attention, enjoying situations involving low stimulus intensity and displaying higher levels of Shyness, Sadness and Activity Level. Moreover, higher levels of Discomfort were associated with more conflict and less closeness while emotional reactivity such as Sadness, Fearfulness, and Activity Level were positively associated with closeness. Teacher-child closeness was associated with three temperamental self-regulation factors in the expected direction, except inhibitory control. Furthermore, results revealed a statistically significant interaction between child temperamental Shyness and child-teacher closeness in the prediction of child internalizing problems. Thus, when child-teacher closeness was low, there was a significant and positive relationship between child temperamental Shyness and child internalizing problems. Results highlight the importance of child-teacher relationship quality in relation to child temperament and social–emotional development during preschool period.
... On the principle of effective student-lecturer relationship and contact, Rimm-Kaufman and Sandilos (2019) highlight that improving student teacher's relationships with lecturers go a long to impact positively on the student teachers' academic and social development. Student teachers who to students' academic and social-emotional development (McCormick & O'Connor, 2014). ...
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This study assesses the principles of good practice in the teaching and learning processes at the Faculty of Education in the University for Development Studies, Ghana. Student teachers are seemingly seen talking about the state of the culture of teaching and learning and the manner in which the principles governing good practice of teaching and learning in the faculty are inadequately realised. A qualitative approach using case study design was employed in the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select twelve (12) Level 100 student teachers and twelve (12) Level 400 student teachers at the end of the 2016/ 2017 academic year. Data collected through face-to-face interviews were analysed thematically. Findings revealed the following as the factors hindering the realization of the principles governing good practice of teaching and learning in the faculty: inadequate student-lecturer contacts, lack of concerns for student teachers' educational and personal needs, ineffective collaboration and cooperation among student teachers in their learning experiences, ineffective feedback on student teachers' assignments and quizzes, inadequate time on task in the faculty and inadequate attention to students' diverse talents and ways of learning. Some recommendations made include: Heads of Departments organizing seminars on the principles governing good practice of teaching and learning for all lecturers, lecturers ensuring adequate contact sessions among student teachers in and outside the lecture halls, lecturers ensuring individual student teacher attention in class, Heads of Departments monitoring lecturers' feedback on students' assignments and quizzes and the faculty guidance and counseling coordinator organizing seminars for students on collaboration and cooperation in the learning process and experience.
... The first research aim was to examine differences in closeness and conflict in the fall and spring for children who speak multiple languages and children who speak English only. We controlled for two factors that have been linked to teacher-child relationships, child gender and grade (Baker, 2006;Hamre & Pianta, 2001;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). Due to the limited number of children who speak multiple languages in our sample, we opted to transform grade into a dichotomous variable (preschool student = 0, attending kindergarten through 3 rd grade = 1). ...
... Teacher-child relationships are associated with academic achievement and socioemotional outcomes for all children. Close teacher-child relationships are associated with greater literacy achievement (Lee & Bierman, 2015;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015) and school competence (Ewing & Taylor, 2009), while conflictual teacher-child relationships may be related to lower literacy achievement and more externalizing problems (Varghese et al., 2019;Iruka et al., 2010). Given the intersectional identities of boys of color, it is important to understand the extent to which gender and race moderate the association between teacher-child relationships and boys' gains in cognitive, social, and developmental skills in Pre-K. ...
Article
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The present study examined boys’ race in moderating the association between teacher–child relationship quality, measured by closeness and conflict, and boys’ language gains and conduct problems change scores during Pre-K. The study was conducted using data from the National Center for Early Development and Learning’s (NCEDL) Multi-State Study of Pre-Kindergarten and the NCEDL-NIEER State-Wide Early Education Programs Study (SWEEP Study). Participants were 1,228 boys in 660 pre-K classrooms. On average, pre-K teachers had closer relationships with White boys than Latino boys and more conflictual relationships with Black boys than boys of other races. The results from the moderation analyses suggest that close teacher–child relationships serve as a promotive factor for Latino and Black boys’ teacher-reported language gains. Simultaneously, teacher–child relationships characterized by high levels of conflict predicted larger change scores in conduct problems for Black boys compared to boys of other races. The findings from this study highlight the impact of teacher–child relationships for the development and learning of boys of color. The present study may inform future professional development efforts to enhance positive teacher–child relationships for children of color in early childhood settings.
... Available research from education and developmental psychology suggests that teachers may influence outcomes on many dimensions in childhood and adolescent development (McNally & Slutsky, 2018;Sabol & Pianta, 2012). The quality of teacher-child relationships has been associated with a variety of developmental outcomes, including socio-cognitive skills (Eccles & Roeser, 2011), moral beliefs (Nucci, 2001), academic achievement (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;Wentzel, 2002), and lower aggressive and delinquent behaviors (Obsuth et al., 2017(Obsuth et al., , 2021O'Connor et al., 2011;Wang et al., 2015). Drawing from this research, this study focuses on two developmental mechanisms that may explain the link between teacher-child relationships and perceptions of police: moral norms about deviant behavior and low self-control. ...
Article
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Existing research has shown that the quality of the relationship between teacher and child is associated with more positive perceptions of school authorities. There has been relatively less attention to the processes that connect attitudes towards different sources of authority, such as between teachers and police. The current study uses a counterfactual approach to estimate the direct and indirect effects of teacher–child relationships on children’s later perceptions of police legitimacy. Using data from a longitudinal study of youth in Zurich, Switzerland, this study applies non-bipartite propensity score matching to identify matched pairs (n = 232 pairs, 55% male) of children with better versus worse relationships with their teacher at age 11 following a teacher change. Matched pairs were then compared on potential mediators (moral norms about deviant behavior and low self-control) at age 13 and perceptions of police legitimacy at age 15. The results demonstrate the importance of the quality of the relationships between students and teachers in shaping young people’s interpersonal characteristics as well as perceptions of the world around them. Namely, if young people feel that they are being treated fairly by their teachers, they are more likely to distinguish behaviors that are right or wrong (moral norms) and control their actions (self-control). Moreover, as a result they are also more likely to perceive authorities such as police as legitimate agents that facilitate societal order.
... One possibility is that girls may experience worse mental health outcomes related to victimization (Hamilton et al., 2015) and thus benefit more from protective buffers than boys. Girls may also have stronger relationships with their teachers (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015), and these relationships could be particularly beneficial if teachers are of the same gender. ...
Article
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Although authoritative school climate—strict, yet fair enforcement of rules alongside strong adult support—is associated with lower rates of bullying victimization, less is known about whether it influences how negatively adolescents feel after being victimized at school. Further, it is unclear whether boys and girls respond differently to an authoritative climate. Identifying ways that schools can reduce negative feelings after being bullied is important given the long term psychological ramifications of bullying that, if left unaddressed, can extend into adulthood. To address these gaps, this study examined whether authoritative school climate related to how negatively adolescents felt about their schoolwork, relationships, physical health and self-perception after being bullied. Differences between boys and girls were also investigated. Analyses were conducting using national data from the 2017 School Crime Supplement on a sample of 1,331 adolescents aged 12 to 18 years ( M age = 14.3 years; 59% girls). Findings from a set of ordinal regression models with a robust set of student, parent and school controls demonstrated that adolescents in more supportive schools were less likely to report that bullying victimization negatively impacted their schoolwork and feelings about themselves. Similar results were found for girls but not boys. By investing in supportive school climates, schools can be potentially transformative places where adolescents, especially girls, can feel more positively about themselves despite being bullied.
... Several studies consider the age of a teacher, a significant factor which influences the method of their preparation for lessons and teaching (Wang et al., 2013;Campbell, 2015;Guglielmi, 2016). Another stream of literature deals with the teacher's gender as a mediating factor (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;Hajovsky et al., 2017;Lim & Meer, 2018). Another factor influencing the methods and forms of teaching (and the implementation of development strategies in teaching) are a teacher's professional characteristics. ...
Article
This research study examines the issue of the implementation of strategies for developing students’ critical thinking skills in technical subjects at primary and secondary vocational schools, with a focus on cognitive, interpersonal, technical, and communication skills. Multivariate significance tests identified several significant factors — personal and professional teacher characteristics and characteristics of a school (age, gender, length of teaching experience, education degree, work position, establisher, location, and stage of education) — that influence the implementation of developmental strategies. The study focuses on Slovakia, whose education system is typical of post-communist countries, so its results are applicable to other education systems with the same context.
... The closeness and conflict subscales of the STRS-SF have demonstrated acceptable levels of internal consistency for their use (see also Taber, 2018;Vaske et al., 2017), with reliability estimates generally exceeding 0.85 (e.g., Hajovsky et al., 2021;Koomen et al., 2012;Mason et al., 2017). Although some researchers have used a total score derived from all the items of the STRS-SF (e.g., O'Connor & McCartney, 2007), researchers often use separate conflict and closeness subscale scores (Hajovsky et al., 2021;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;Zee et al., 2017). Conflict and closeness subscale scores have consistently demonstrated large negative correlations (e.g., Keith, 2019). ...
Article
The current study aimed to develop a measure of anticipated teacher-student relationship quality to be used with preservice teacher populations that is operationally similar to a measure commonly used with inservice teachers (i.e., short-form of the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale). To date, teacher-student relationship quality has been a construct studied solely with inservice teacher populations. Two hundred and thirteen preservice teachers participated in the current study. Results suggest that the developed measure of anticipated teacher-student relationship with preservice teachers demonstrated response trends similar to the measure used with inservice teachers except that preservice teachers anticipate more conflict with future students than inservice teachers report with current students. Additionally, results show the developed measure fits the two factor structure of the original scale and exhibits concurrent validity via associations with teacher self-efficacy beliefs. Implications for measuring anticipated teacher-student relationship quality within teacher education programs and future directions for research are discussed.
... School is an important context for children's emotional and relational development (Aviles et al., 2006;Gastaldi et al., 2019;Pianta et al., 1997). Based on attachment theory, several authors highlight the importance of a positive student-teacher relationships in supporting a better cognitive development, greater academic achievement, and school adjustment (Hamre & Pianta, 2001Longobardi et al., 2020;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015), as well as increasing students' psychological well-being (Baker, 2006;Wang et al., 2020). ...
Article
A close student–teacher relationship is a protective factor for students’ psychological well-being, and it is associated with students’ internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but the mechanism underlying this association is unclear. To address this issue, this study investigated the role of children’s hope in the relationship between teachers’ perceived closeness in the student–teacher relationship and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Participants included 562 Italian students aged from 4 to 9 years and 48 Italian teachers aged from 26 to 60 years. Results indicated that the children’s hope played the mediating role between closeness and children’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Findings, limitations, and suggestions for future research were discussed.
... Gender was considered a factor in the occurrence of test anxiety. In a study conducted by McCormick and O'Connor [17], it was found that women who had conflicts showed lower learning abilities and achievements when compared to boys who had conflicts. Lack of ability caused an individual female to worry about the tests they would face. ...
... In some studies, girls are more susceptible to the quality of teacher-child relationships. For example, a close relationship with a teacher was a stronger predictor of higher behavioural competence for girls than boys (Ewing & Taylor, 2009) and a poor quality relationship was more predictive of poor Maths achievement among girls (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). On the other hand, some studies found a stronger effect of teacher-child relationship quality on child outcomes among boys. ...
Conference Paper
Callous-unemotional (CU) traits have been shown to be a temperamental risk factor identifying a subgroup of antisocial children with more severe and persistent antisocial behaviour. While existing research has demonstrated that antisocial children with CU traits show particularly severe impairment across multiple domains, much of this research has focused on the family context. Therefore, the current thesis aimed to explore CU traits in the school context. The four empirical studies included in this thesis use longitudinal data collected in South Korean primary schools (N = 218, aged 10–12 years; 52% boys) to examine questions regarding: 1) the validity of the CU traits measure in South Korean children; 2) unique associations of CU traits in predicting the trajectories of school-related outcomes; 3) the moderating effect of CU traits on teacher classroom strategies; and 4) associations between CU traits and social affiliation in school. The results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the revised CU traits scale in the current sample. Furthermore, the results of latent growth curve modelling showed that CU traits are a unique predictor of a stable pattern of school disengagement across the school year. There was a significant interaction effect between CU traits and teacher strategies in predicting child engagement, such that harsh discipline predicted lower engagement only among children with low CU traits. A cross-lagged model analysis showed significant longitudinal associations between CU traits and social affiliation, such that CU traits predicted decreased teacher affiliation, and in turn, increased CU traits. The current thesis also includes a cross-sectional study examining the indirect effect of CU traits on academic grades via punishment insensitivity in secondary school students in the United Kingdom (N = 437, aged 11–14 years; 51% boys). The results of the mediation analysis showed that CU traits had a significant indirect effect on the association between CU traits and poor Maths and Science but not English grades via punishment insensitivity. The findings from this thesis support the validity of a measure of CU traits in South Korean primary schools in relation to a wide range of school-related outcomes, highlighting the importance of considering CU traits in the school context to identify at-risk children and targets for intervention.
... For example, support from teachers has been identified as a protective factor among students (Stadler et al., 2010), as has components of the teacher-student relationship such as "closeness, conflict, and negative expectations" (Longobardi et al., 2016, p. 4#). Teacher support is also linked to student academic achievement (Chen, 2005), similar to the closeness and conflict dimensions of the teacher-student relationship (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). ...
Article
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Bullying-related behaviors have been a problem in schools for decades. Unfortunately, engagement in such behavior is associated with a variety of poor outcomes, and thus, it is important to understand the mechanisms behind this phenomenon as well as associated variables, such as perceived teacher support and classmate support. Importantly, research has shown that both types of support are associated with engagement in bullying situations. The current study posits that teacher support will partially explain the association between classmate support and engagement in bullying participant role behaviors. Specifically, the aim of the current study was to investigate the longitudinal associations between bullying participant role behavior and perceived support from teachers and classmates. This study examined direct associations as well as the mediating effect of teacher social support on the association of classmate social support and five bullying participant role behaviors. Data were gathered in the fall of 2015 and the spring of 2016 at a midwestern middle school from 631 students. Analyses indicated that teacher support significantly mediated the association of classmate support and bullying, assisting, and outsider behavior.
... Although shy children tend to be anxious and wary about social evaluative situations, their constructive, solution-oriented strategies when in conflict with peers are likely to be perceived as being prosocial and well-behaved, which are highly encouraged in Chinese schools (Chen and French, 2008). As such, these shy preschoolers are likely to establish close relationships with teachers, which would prevent them from having academic difficulties (Hamre and Pianta, 2001;McCormick and O'Connor, 2015). Also, positive relationships with peers and teachers may lower their tendency in concentrating on anxiety and worry in response to potential social interactions at school (e.g., group assignments), but rather motivate them to focus on improving school performance. ...
Article
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The massive social change in urban China today has led to a decline in the adaptive implications of shyness for child adjustment, yet evidence of this trend in young children is limited. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms that help to explain the associations between shyness and maladjustment remains poorly understood. The primary goal of the present study was to explore the moderating role of conflict resolution skills in the links between shyness and socio-emotional and school adjustment among urban Chinese preschoolers. Data were collected from 360 children (44.4% girls, Mage = 4.72 years, SD = 0.63) in kindergartens using parent ratings, teacher ratings, and child interviews. The analyses indicated that the relations between shyness and adjustment were moderated by child conflict resolution skills, which served to buffer shy children from adjustment problems. The results were discussed in terms of the implications of conflict resolution skills for early adjustment of shy preschoolers in the Chinese context.
... Indeed, the emerging literature on school climate suggests that students have better achievement in subjects such as math and reading when they learn in a classroom that is characterized by nurturing student-teacher relationship, high levels of teacher sensitivity to student needs, and activities that encourage self-expressions and opinions (Reyes, Brackett, Rivers, White, & Salovey, 2012;Rudasill et al., 2010). In other words, it is important for school practitioners to embed emotionally supportive relationships into academic support so as to facilitate better math achievement (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). This is especially critical considering that secondary students tend to have less opportunities to establish affective relationships with their teacher due to larger student-teacher ratio. ...
Article
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This study explored the moderating roles of teacher instrumental and emotional support on the association between students’ math anxiety/math self-concept and math achievement. Participants included 21,544 Canadian students aged 15 years (10,943 girls) who participated in the 2012 Program for International Student Assessment. Results indicated that instrument support and emotional support were positively associated with math achievement. A significant moderation effect was evident between instrumental support and math anxiety; higher levels of instrumental support were associated with higher math achievement at low levels of math anxiety. Emotional support did not interact with math anxiety or math self-concept. The present findings highlight the importance to consider not only individual factors (i.e., math anxiety and math self-concept) but also the role of teacher support in supporting math achievement.
... , and academic development (McCormick and O'connor 2015;Spilt et al. 2012). For this reason, teachers' work engagement is important not only for teachers' performance, but also for the pupils they work and interact with (Roth et al. 2007). ...
Article
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The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether there is a crossover effect from teacher’s general (trait-level) work engagement to their pupils’ weekly positive affect in school and to examine whether pupils’ weekly autonomous motivation for school functions as an underlying mechanism that may explain this crossover effect. Building upon the self-determination theory and the emotion contagion theory, we argue that teachers’ general work engagement can be a strong resource for pupils, which can foster their psychological investment and interest in school-related activities, skills, and tasks (i.e. autonomous motivation), and, in turn, their positive affect. To test our hypotheses, we employed a weekly diary methodology by following 50 teachers and their 916 pupils in six different countries for three consecutive work weeks, which yielded 2735 reports from pupils and their teachers. The results of multilevel modeling provided support for the hypothesised research model. When teachers were generally more engaged in their work, their pupils reported more weekly positive affect in school, and this positive crossover effect was mediated by pupils’ weekly autonomous motivation for school. These findings extend current literature by revealing the potential underlying mechanism that can explain how teachers’ work engagement transmits to pupils’ positive affect in school.
... Sadly, the lack of or insufficient teacher support can have negative consequences on student success, his/ her attitudes, sense of satisfaction with school and life in general. Many researches talk about the consequences of negative and poor relationships between students and teachers (Jennings & Greenberg, 2009;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). Positive studentteacher relationships are equally important in all school subjects because students have a constant need for social and emotional support, regardless of the teaching contents (McCombs & Miller, 2006). ...
Article
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Cooperation between students realises quality peer relationships while teachersupport encompasses the relations between students and adults. Abundant researchstresses the importance of both relationships. Not all students possess the skillsthat enable them to cooperate with others, so teachers have the role of helpingthem develop and perfect these skills. Teacher support significantly influences notonly students’ academic achievements but also their emotional, social and moraldevelopment. The research goal was to describe how students perceive their mutualcooperation and the support from teachers in different school subjects.The research included 650 students from the seventh and eighth forms of 11primary schools from Sisak-Moslavina County in the Republic of Croatia. Averageage of the participants is 13.4 years, and their subject teachers’ 69 years. The appliedquestionnaire consisted of two scales. Cooperation and Teacher Support. Thementioned scales were taken from the modified questionnaire What Is Happeningin This Class (Fraser et al., 1996). Both scales were implemented in three schoolsubjects: Croatian, maths and geography.The obtained results point to the fact that teachers are more directed to ensuringcooperation between students during lessons than to giving support in the work.Furthermore, teachers during whose class students realise better cooperation at thesame time give higher level of support. Students assess that they cooperate the mostin geography class, whereas at the same time they receive the least teacher supportin this class. The correlation between education degree and years in service was notfound when considering the results of the Cooperation and Teacher Support scales.Key words: cooperation; support; students; teachers.-Suradnjom među učenicima ostvaruju se kvalitetni međuvršnjački odnosi, dokpružanjem učiteljske podrške zahvaćamo u odnos učenika i odraslih osoba. Brojnaistraživanja ističu važnost oba odnosa. Svi učenici ne posjeduju vještine koje imomogućuju suradnju s drugima te je na učiteljima da im pomognu razvijati ih iusavršavati. Podrška koju učitelji pružaju učenicima značajno utječe ne samo nanjihova akademska postignuća, već i na njihov emocionalni, socijalni i moralnirazvoj. Cilj istraživanja bio je opisati kako učenici doživljavaju svoju međusobnusuradnju te podršku koju primaju od učitelja na različitim nastavnim predmetima.Istraživanjem je obuhvaćeno 650 učenika šestih i osmih razreda iz 11 osnovnih školaSisačko-moslavačke županije, Republika Hrvatska, prosječne starosti 13,4 godinate njihovih 69 predmetnih učitelja. Primijenjeni upitnik sastojao se od dviju skala,Suradnja i Podrška učitelja. Navedene skale preuzete su iz modificiranoga upitnikaWhat Is Happening In This Class (Fraser, Fisher i McRobbie, 1996). Obje skaleprimijenjene su na tri nastavna predmeta: Hrvatski jezik, Matematiku i Geografiju.Dobiveni rezultati ukazuju na to da su učitelji usmjereniji na osiguravanje suradnjemeđu učenicima tijekom nastave nego na pružanje podrške u radu. Nadalje, učitelji načijim se nastavnim satima ostvaruje bolja suradnja među učenicima, ujedno pružajui višu razinu podrške. Učenici procjenjuju da najviše surađuju u nastavi Geografije,ali istovremeno, na toj nastavi dobivaju najmanju podršku učitelja. Nije dobivenapovezanost stručne spreme i godina staža učitelja s rezultatima skale Suradnja i skalePodrška učitelja.Ključne riječi: podrška; suradnja; učenici; učitelji.
... Various other studies bring arguments to show the value of a close relationship in the school environment by pinpointing the effects of a conflictual relation for specific disciplines. McCormick and O'Connor (2014) show that higher levels of teacher-child conflict are related to lower levels of reading achievement in elementary school, over and above a wide host of child, family, and teacher control variables; when teacher-child closeness across elementary school improves, this is then related to gains in reading achievement. After testing, as well, whether effects differed by gender, McCormick & OConnor (2014) found that girls who had conflictual relationships with teachers experienced lower average levels of math achievement than did boys with conflictual relationships with teachers. ...
Chapter
http://press.insciencepress.org/index.php/press/catalog/view/12/24/328-1 When in danger, either we refer to menaces or just novel situations, the brain needsfirstly to connect to another human brain in order to coregulate; onlyafter, can that brain continue process/ learn, regulate behaviors and thus adjust to the environment. The purpose of thisstudy was to explore the connection betweenthe quality of the pupil-teacher relationship, assessed from theattachmentperspectiveanddifferentschool adjustmentaspects. A sample of 40 educators were invited toevaluate their attachmentstrategies and thenassess at least 3children from theircurrentclasses(primary school); results for a total of 121pupils were collected. First of all, educators assessedthepupil’s attachment needs usingthe Student-TeacherRelationship Scale; then, they were askedto assesssocial competencies using the Social Competence Scaleand the Engagementversus Disaffection with Learning Scale, as facets of school adjustment. Results show that the strengthof thepupil-teacherrelationship is influenced by the particularitiesof the attachmentstrategiesof both parties, and, in turn, this relationship, with its 3 dimensions (closeness, conflict and dependence)impacts adjustment. Results are discussed in the light of theDyadicExpansion of Consciousnesshypothesis–in a safe relationship, both the teacherand the pupil significantly expand the learning possibilities.
... In terms of reading, research has indicated that student-perceived teacher support is positively linked with their reading literacy (Guay et al., 2019). McCormick and O'Connor (2015) indicated positive links between teacher-student relationship with students' reading literacy in Grade 1, 3 and 5. In the above research, teacher support was evaluated as student-perceived teacher support for the class as a whole (e.g. ...
Article
Based on expectancy-value theory, this research examined the link between student-perceived teacher-support and reading literacy via multiple mediation effect of reading self-concept and reading enjoyment with a Chinese sample of PISA 2018. Student-reported measures of teacher support, reading enjoyment and reading self-concept, and standardized tests of reading literacy were adopted. Multilevel mediation analysis showed that the direct effect of student-perceived teacher support on reading literacy is not significant at the school level, but significant at the student level, and the indirect effect of student-perceived teacher support on reading literacy through reading enjoyment, reading self-concept, first reading self-concept and then reading enjoyment is significant both at the student level and at the school level with SES and gender controlled. The present results indicate that perceived teacher support is beneficial to student learning by fostering academic self-concept and academic enjoyment. The current results have significant practical implications for teaching practices.
... Given that student social-emotional competence can be improve by social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions (Wang & Holcombe, 2010), we hypothesized that SEL approach (RULER) can foster additional indisputable developmental path for students, particularly those at risk for understanding one-self, self-identity and understanding others (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). To inform this hypothesis, the current paper studied the impact of SEL approach (RULER) on classroom setting to enhance more explicit developmental paths to improve social-emotional competence, which has to do with understanding of one-self and that of others and draw upon them as a means of understanding and managing student's behaviour. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of social and emotional learning approach on student social-emotional competence. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test non-equivalent design conducted with 207 Junior Secondary School students enrolled in form 3. The students divided into two groups: an experimental and a control group. The experimental group was taught through social-emotional learning approach, while the control group taught via traditional teaching approach. The development of social-emotional competence measured through a questionnaire at the beginning and the end of the classes. The results obtained from the analysis of covariance revealed that students in social and emotional learning approach classroom had positively demonstrated significant social-emotional competence compared to students in the traditional teaching approach group. Therefore, the utilized (social and emotional learning- RULER) has provided substantial procedures on how students can integrate and apply RULER's strategies in enhancing their social emotional competence. The implication for introducing social and emotional learning approach into teaching and learning was discussed.
... Semakin positif hubungan antara siswa dengan guru, maka akan meningkatkan ikatan antara siswa dan guru sehingga meningkatkan tingkat keterlibatan siswa dalam proses pembelajaran (Hughes & Kwok, 2007). Hubungan antara guru dengan siswa dapat memengaruhi prestasi akademik siswa (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;Tennant et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Character building education in Indonesia has officially become a new regulation in the aspect of education therefore several state-owned schools have implemented a full-day system. The school system and the presence of student are complementary components, students' perspective upon themselves and the school environment as part of well-being fulfillment. The purpose of this study was to determine the state of school well-being of elementary school students and junior high school students who implemented the full-day system. This research was a comparative quantitative study with accidental sampling technique. This research was conducted in Malang, involving 285 students from five elementary schools and 275 students from three junior high schools as participants. The research instrument used was the School Well-being Profile (SWP). The data analysis using independent two-sample t-test with Welchs t-test method. The results showed there were differences in school well-being in elementary and junior high school students in full-day systems. Elementary students have higher school well-being compared to junior high school students. Furthermore, the results of this study can be used as a reference to provide counseling services in improving school well-being of full day school students, especially junior high school students. Abstrak: Pendidikan pembangunan karakter di Indonesia telah resmi menjadi peraturan baru bagi dunia pendidikan sehingga beberapa sekolah negeri memberlakukan sistem full day. Sistem sekolah dan eksistensi siswa merupakan komponen yang saling melengkapi, pandangan siswa terhadap diri dan lingkungan sekolah sebagai bagian dari terpenuhinya well-being. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keadaan school well-being siswa Sekolah Dasar (SD) dan siswa Sekolah Menengah Pertama (SMP) yang menerapkan sistem full day. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif komparatif dengan teknik sampling accidental sampling. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kota Malang, dengan melibatkan 285 siswa dari lima SD dan 275 siswa dari tiga SMP sebagai partisipan. Instrumen penelitian yang digunakan yaitu School Well-being Profile (SWP). Analisis data menggunakan independent two-sample t-test dengan metode Welchs t-test. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan terdapat perbedaan school well-being pada siswa SD dan SMP sistem full day. Siswa SD memiliki school well-being yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan siswa SMP. Hasil penelitian ini dapat dijadikan acuan untuk memberikan layanan konseling dalam meningkatkan school well-being siswa sekolah full day khususnya siswa jenjang SMP.
... The correlations of teacher-student relationships with achievement were generally weak to moderate, even after controlling for methodological biases. Other recent studies have identified stronger positive links between supportive teacher-student relationships and mathematics and reading achievement (Hajovsky, Mason, & McCune, 2017;Ma et al., 2018;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015). In congruence with these results, we postulated a positive association between the teacher-student relationship and students' mathematics achievement. ...
Article
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This study investigated the mediating roles of self-efficacy and anxiety on the effects of teacher–student relationship on mathematical problem-solving ability. A total of 1667 fifth graders from central China participated in the large-scale survey. The findings indicated that (1) teacher–student relationship had a direct and positive effect on students’ mathematical problem-solving ability; (2) the positive link between teacher–student relationship and mathematical problem-solving ability was partially mediated through self-efficacy; (3) the teacher–student relationship affected students’ mathematical problem-solving ability through self-efficacy and maths anxiety, but the effect of self-efficacy on mathematical anxiety was smaller. Implications for the importance of teacher–student relationships in education as well as suggestions for future research are discussed.
... The most important result of the research on the teaching process and the quality of teaching is the correlation between the academic success of students and the quality of teaching. Indeed, studies have found a significant positive correlation between the quality of teaching and the academic success of students in the last decade (Allen & Fraser, 2007;Allen, Pianta, Gregory, Mikami, & Lun, 2011;Hattie, 2009;Lam, Wong, Yang, & Liu, 2012;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;Rivkin & Schiman, 2015). Again, the quality of teaching increases students' motivation levels (Fauth, Decristan, Rieser, Klieme, & Büttner, 2014;Skinner & Belmont, 1993), student participation in the course, and the level of engagement (Patrick, Ryan, & Kaplan, 2007). ...
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... More specifically, girls experiencing higher discrimination and/or IBB had worse mental health, regardless of TSR quality, and despite results indicating a very strong relationship between TSR positivity and autonomy and mental health outcomes. These results are consistent with research indicating that girls tend to have better TSR compared to boys (McCormick & O'Connor, 2015), and are more vulnerable to adversity compared to boys, and thus tend to exhibit higher rates of mental health difficulties when faced with stressors (Hamilton, Stange, Abramson, & Alloy, 2015). In addition, adolescents of Color experiencing high levels of discrimination had higher levels of depression and lower levels of well-being, regardless of TSR quality. ...
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... Research shows that good school adjustment is related to academic achievement (Baker, 2006;McCormick & O'Connor, 2015;Pianta, 1999;Quaglia et al., 2013;Rudasill, 2011), positive attitudes toward school (Birch & Ladd, 1997), being accepted at school, and participation in school activities (Runions, 2014). Many studies also link adolescents' school adjustment to several variables related to individual, family, and social domains. ...
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Chapter
This chapter describes the theoretical basis for and implementation of a kindergarten-transition-focused home visiting program, the connection-focused home-visiting intervention program (CHIP). CHIP was designed to support children and their families during the kindergarten transition through development of strong connections between parents, children, teachers, schools, and communities. In this chapter, the authors explain the theoretical framework that guided the development of CHIP and key features of the program design, including connection development, the use of transition coordinators, and individualization. In addition, this chapter includes descriptions of scenarios encountered during CHIP that exemplify the nature of the program and design decisions. Finally, this chapter provides a summary of early evidence of program effectiveness and directions for continued research.
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The goal of this study was to investigate the transactional link between the affective quality of teacher-student relations and students' externalizing behavior in upper elementary education. We studied teacher support and conflict separately and examined whether associations differed for boys and girls. Data were collected from 1452 Dutch fifth graders (Mage = 10.60 years) at three time points within one school year, including peer nominations of teacher-student relationships and external observations of teacher-student interactions. We used random-intercept cross-lagged panel models to examine the associations within the school year. Student behavior and teacher conflict and support were clearly interrelated within measurement moments. That is, within each time point, deviations from students' typical level of externalizing behavior were associated with deviations in teacher conflict and support in teacher-student relations. In contrast to earlier work, we found no transactional link between students' externalizing behavior and their relationships and interactions with their teacher over time, neither for teacher conflict nor for support. However, for boys, an association was found between externalizing behavior and later increased teacher conflict. We concluded that it remains important to invest in supportive teacher-student relations to prevent increasing conflict and that transactionality may occur within shorter time intervals.
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This study examined early childhood paternal incarceration (PI; birth to Age 6) effects on children's elementary reading achievement (i.e., Ages 8–10) as mediated by mothers' supportive caregiving and moderated by child gender. Extant research on PI has primarily focused on child behavioral problems. However, less is known about specific relations between PI and academic achievement. Participants were drawn from an ongoing, longitudinal study of development using a subsample of 180 children and their maternal caregivers (51.5% female children; 48.9% Latinx; 26.7% experienced PI). Study variables were assessed using semi‐structured incarceration interviews, observational parenting tasks, and standardized achievement tests. A moderated mediation analysis evaluated the hypothesized model by child gender. PI predicted decreased maternal supportive caregiving, which, in turn, predicted lower reading achievement, even when family socioeconomic status, child ethnicity‐race, prior supportive caregiving, prior reading achievement, and maternal psychopathology were held constant. Further, a moderation analysis indicated that the relation between maternal supportive caregiving and reading achievement was moderated by child gender. This investigation revealed a significant and negative indirect effect of early childhood PI on children's reading achievement via changes in maternal supportive caregiving. However, this indirect effect was significant for boys only. These findings highlight the potential for interventions and resources that promote supportive maternal caregiving to mitigate the deleterious effects of PI on children's reading achievement, especially for boys.
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Our goal was to identify trajectories in students’ relationships with their kindergarten, first, and second grade teachers, and to test whether the trajectories predict students’ achievement. To address this goal, each year, as students (N = 291) progressed from kindergarten to second grade, we assessed teachers’ reports on student-teacher-relationship closeness and conflict. We assessed achievement in second grade. We used latent class growth analyses to identify separate distinct trajectory classes of change for boys and girls in closeness and conflict. Boys were classified into 4 classes (stable-moderate, high-decreasing, decreasers, or increasers) for closeness and into 4 similar classes for conflict. Girls were classified into 3 classes (stable-high, decreasers, and increasers) for closeness, whereas only 2 classes (stable-low and decreasers) emerged for conflict. In general, girls benefited academically from a close student-teacher relationship in kindergarten, whereas boys benefited academically when they moved into a close, and away from a conflictual, relationship across kindergarten to second grade. The findings have implications for teacher trainings and programs designed to help children succeed in school.
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The purpose of this study was to examine how teachers’ relatedness with students is linked to academic achievement in reading for elementary students transitioning from kindergarten (five years old) to first grade (six years old). Intrinsic motivation and self-concept in reading were examined as potential mediators of this relation. While data were collected from 820 kindergarten students (441 boys, 379 girls), their teachers also answered questions regarding their relatedness with the students and the students’ reading abilities. One year later, the students completed items measuring their intrinsic motivation and self-concept for reading, while the teachers rated the students’ reading achievement. Structural equation modeling analysis was used to test a sequential mediational model. Overall, the results showed that kindergarten teachers’ relatedness with students predicts intrinsic motivation for reading and that self-concept for reading positively mediates the relation between intrinsic motivation and reading achievement (all relations are significant at p < .01). These results may have implications for educators aiming to improve reading achievement, strengthen students’ academic self-concept, and encourage intrinsic motivation.
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We examined whether teacher–child racial congruence and child race moderated the association between children's emotion situation knowledge and the dimensions of teacher–child relationship quality (i.e., closeness, conflict, and dependency). We also investigated these dimensions as mediators linking emotion situation knowledge and later school readiness. Participants were 303 White and African American preschoolers and their teachers who were also racially diverse. For White preschoolers, teacher–child closeness was more likely and teacher–child conflict and dependency were less likely when their teachers matched them in race. For African American children, teacher–child conflict and dependency were more likely when their teachers matched them in race. Emotion situation knowledge and teacher–child closeness were positively related to later school readiness. Findings are discussed in the context of recommendations for policies and practices encouraging culturally responsive, equitable, and positive social–emotional instructional approaches that motivate, support, and sustain positive teacher–child relationships in early childhood classrooms. Highlights • Findings from the current study highlight the interaction between teacher-child racial congruence and child race in predicting teacher-child relationship quality among preschoolers. • For White preschoolers, teacher-child closeness was more likely and teacher-child conflict and dependency were less likely when their teachers matched them in race. • For African American children, teacher-child conflict and dependency were more likely when their teachers matched them in race. • This work holds implications for policies and practices encouraging culturally responsive, equitable, and positive social-emotional instructional approaches to support and sustain positive teacher-child relationships in early childhood classrooms.
Chapter
This chapter describes the theoretical basis for and implementation of a kindergarten-transition-focused home visiting program, the connection-focused home-visiting intervention program (CHIP). CHIP was designed to support children and their families during the kindergarten transition through development of strong connections between parents, children, teachers, schools, and communities. In this chapter, the authors explain the theoretical framework that guided the development of CHIP and key features of the program design, including connection development, the use of transition coordinators, and individualization. In addition, this chapter includes descriptions of scenarios encountered during CHIP that exemplify the nature of the program and design decisions. Finally, this chapter provides a summary of early evidence of program effectiveness and directions for continued research.
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The present study examined whether teacher–child closeness and conflict across kindergarten and first grade varied by gender and disruptive behavior at kindergarten entry within a sample of 324 predominantly Black children from low-income, urban households. Three main findings emerged from the analyses. First, contrary to findings from previous work that revealed stability in closeness and conflict across the first few years of elementary school, this study identified significant changes in closeness across the kindergarten and first grade years. Second, girls experienced more closeness with teachers than boys across both kindergarten and first grade, and the rate of change in teacher–child closeness differed by child gender across time. Finally, across both school years, associations between gender and teacher–child conflict varied by level of disruptive behavior at the beginning of kindergarten, such that boys with high levels of disruptive behavior experienced more overall conflict with teachers than girls with high levels of disruptive behavior.
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Despite the significance of teacher–student relationships during the early years of school, questions remain about its long-term importance and whether the timing and variability of relationship quality matter. To address these gaps, data from the NICHD SECCYD were used to determine whether teacher-student relationships between kindergarten and sixth grade were associated with the achievement, social-behavior, and educational beliefs and aspirations of 1364 ninth graders (52% male, 80% White). Multivariate regression analyses revealed that when teachers reported closer relationships with students, in turn, students demonstrated modestly stronger outcomes across all domains. In contrast, more conflictual relationships were largely associated with underachievement and variability in relationship quality was not consistently associated with adolescent outcomes. Finally, although the benefits of teacher-student closeness were largely cumulative, teacher-student conflict in the later years was more strongly associated with student outcomes than earlier conflict. Collectively, results affirm the importance of teacher-student relationships for students' long-term development.
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The goal of this study was to apply aspects of the heuristic model advanced by Eisenberg, Cumberland, and Spinrad (1998) to the study of socialization that takes place in preschool and elementary school classrooms. Investigating socialization in this context is important given the number of hours students spend in school, the emotional nature of social interactions that take place involving teachers and students, and the emotions students often experience in the context of academic work. Guided by Eisenberg, Cumberland, et al.'s (1998) call to consider complex socialization pathways, we focus our discussion on ways teachers, peers, and the classroom context can shape students' emotion-related outcomes (e.g., self-regulation, adjustment) and academic-related outcomes (e.g., school engagement, achievement) indirectly and differentially (e.g., as a function of student or classroom characteristics). Our illustrative review of the intervention literature demonstrates that the proposed classroom-based socialization processes have clear applied implications, and efforts to improve socialization in the classroom can promote students' emotional and academic competence. We conclude our discussion by outlining areas that require additional study. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
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In early education contexts, shy children are prone to experiencing difficulties in their relationships with peer and teachers. These negative social experiences may, in turn, reinforce shy children’s feelings of self-consciousness. The aim of the present study was to test a complex model linking shyness with self-conscious emotions (i.e., guilt, shame) through negative social experiences at preschool (i.e., peer difficulties, non-supportive teacher–child relationships). Participants were 131 (64 boys) preschool children (M = 55.89 months, SD = 9.75) and their teachers (two for each classroom). Multi-source assessment was employed, with parents rating children’s shyness and self-conscious emotions (i.e., guilt, shame) and teachers evaluating children’s peer difficulties (i.e., rejection, victimization) and the quality (i.e., closeness) of their relationship with each child. Results from path analysis revealed an indirect effect between shyness and self-conscious emotions through negative peer experiences (but not via close teacher–child relationships). More specifically, shyness predicted peer difficulties, which in turn predicted feelings of guilt and shame. This study highlights the potential role of negative experiences with peers in helping to account for the link between shyness and children’s negative feelings about themselves. Shy children’s positive experiences with peers should be enhanced at preschool in order to help reduce their feelings of guilt and shame.
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El tipo de relación o interacción entre el profesor y sus alumnos, ha sido identificado en añosrecientes como un aspecto que presenta una importante asociación con los distintos procesos que tienen lugar dentro del aula (Kikas y Magi, 2017; Pianta, Downer y Hamre, 2016; Rucinski, Brown y Downer, 2018). En este póster se presenta una revisión del estado de la cuestión sobre los hallazgos en la investigación de los últimos 5 años, relativos al tipo de apego que establece el profesor con sus alumnos y los efectos de esta relación sobre el proceso de aprendizaje de los niños y su desarrollo socioemocional. Para ello, se han revisado diversas publicaciones sobre el tema en las principales bases de datos: SCOPUS, EBSCO, PsycINFO, Pubmed, Dialnet y Redalyc.Los resultados observados en los estudios consultados, apuntan a que la relación profesoralumno:1) juega un rol importante, en términos del aprendizaje de contenidos propios de la etapa escolar de educación primaria y en el desempeño académico; y 2) está asociada con el ajuste de los niños en el contexto escolar; negativamente con los problemas de comportamiento y positivamente con las habilidades sociales.Se constata, por tanto, la relevancia de estos hallazgos en el campo de la enseñanza, y algunosvacíos en la investigación reciente, respecto al papel del tipo de apego que tiende a establecer el profesor con otros y cómo esto puede estar asociado a la calidad de la relación que establece con sus alumnos.
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Research Findings: Data on more than 900 children participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were analyzed to examine the effect of age of entry to kindergarten on children's functioning in early elementary school. Children's academic achievement and socioemotional development were measured repeatedly from the age of 54 months through 3rd grade. With family background factors and experience in child care in the first 54 months of life controlled, hierarchical linear modeling (growth curve) analysis revealed that children who entered kindergarten at younger ages had higher (estimated) scores in kindergarten on the Woodcock-Johnson (W-J) Letter-Word Recognition subtest but received lower ratings from kindergarten teachers on Language and Literacy and Mathematical Thinking scales. Furthermore, children who entered kindergarten at older ages evinced greater increases over time on 4 W-J subtests (i.e., Letter-Word Recognition, Applied Problems, Memory for Sentences, Picture Vocab-ulary) and outperformed children who started kindergarten at younger ages on 2 W-J subtests in 3rd grade (i.e., Applied Problems, Picture Vocabulary). Age of entry proved unrelated to socioemotional functioning. Practice: The fact that age-of-entry effects were small in magnitude and dwarfed by other aspects of children's family and child care experiences suggests that age at starting school should not be regarded as a major determinant of children's school achievement, but that it may merit consideration in context with other probably more important factors (e.g., child's behavior and abilities).
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This article reviews popular and social scientific perspectives on the academic gender gap in education, specifically the finding that boys underperform compared to girls. The article highlights the utility of sociology in analyzing the gender gap and in guiding how educators respond to students’ gender. It suggests that contemporary gender theories ‘doing gender’ and ‘hegemonic masculinity’ offer the best lenses through which to view academic gender differences. These perspectives can frame boys’ academic troubles as an important social problem, but one that is rooted in the social construction of masculinity rather than institutional discrimination against boys.
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Children's interactions with peers in early childhood have been consistently linked to their academic and social outcomes. Although both child and classroom characteristics have been implicated as contributors to children's success, there has been scant research linking child temperament, teacher-child relationship quality, and peer interactions in the same study. The purpose of this study is to examine children's early temperament, rated at preschool age, as a predictor of interactions with peers (i.e., aggression, relational aggression, victimization, and prosociality) in third grade while considering teacher-child relationship quality in kindergarten through second grades as a moderator and mediator of this association. The sample (N=1364) was drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Results from structural equation models indicated that teacher-child conflict in early elementary grades mediated links between children's temperament and later peer interactions. Findings underscore the importance of considering children's temperament traits and teacher-child relationship quality when examining the mechanisms of the development of peer interactions.
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Using K—8 national longitudinal data, the authors investigate males’ and females’ achievement in math and reading, including when gender gaps first appear, whether the appearance of gaps depends on the metric used, and where on the achievement distribution gaps are most prevalent. Additionally, teachers’ assessments of males and females are compared. The authors find no math gender gap in kindergarten, except at the top of the distribution; however, females throughout the distribution lose ground in elementary school and regain some in middle school. In reading, gaps favoring females generally narrow but widen among low-achieving students. However, teachers consistently rate females higher than males in both subjects, even when cognitive assessments suggest that males have an advantage. Implications for policy and further research are discussed.
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Missing data are a common occurrence in real datasets. For epidemiological and prognostic factors studies in medicine, multiple imputation is becoming the standard route to estimating models with missing covariate data under a missing-at-random assumption. We describe ice, an implementation in Stata of the MICE approach to multiple imputation. Real data from an observational study in ovarian cancer are used to illustrate the most important of the many options available with ice. We remark briefly on the new database architecture and procedures for multiple imputation introduced in releases 11 and 12 of Stata.
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The authors use nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) to identify variables measured in the fall of 1998 (when the sample’s students were in kindergarten) that predict special education placement by the spring of 2004 (when most students were finishing fifth grade). Placement’s strongest kindergarten predictor is a student’s level of academic achievement. Also important is the student’s frequency of classroom task engagement. There is a “frog-pond” contextual effect—attending an elementary school with high levels of overall student academic ability and behavior increases a student’s likelihood of special education placement. This is the case even after statistically controlling for a wide range of individual-, family-, and school-level characteristics. Social class background displayed a weak or statistically nonsignificant relation with special education placement. However, girls are placed less frequently than boys. African American, Hispanic, and Asian students are placed less frequently than non-Hispanic whites. The under- or equal-placement rates for racial/ethnic minorities are partially explained by their concentration in high-minority schools.
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A meta-analytic approach was used to investigate the associations between affective qualities of teacher–student relationships (TSRs) and students’ school engagement and achievement. Results were based on 99 studies, including students from preschool to high school. Separate analyses were conducted for positive relationships and engagement (k = 61 studies, N = 88,417 students), negative relationships and engagement (k = 18, N = 5,847), positive relationships and achievement (k = 61, N = 52,718), and negative relationships and achievement (k = 28, N = 18,944). Overall, associations of both positive and negative relationships with engagement were medium to large, whereas associations with achievement were small to medium. Some of these associations were weaker, but still statistically significant, after correction for methodological biases. Overall, stronger effects were found in the higher grades. Nevertheless, the effects of negative relationships were stronger in primary than in secondary school.
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Children with significant behavior problems are at risk for poor school adaptation and a host of deleterious school outcomes. Given the time children spend in school, there is a need to better understand the normative contexts and processes within schools that may enhance the positive adaptation of children with significant behavior problems. This study evaluated one such context, the teacher-student relationship, specifically, the degree of closeness and conflict in the relationship, between urban, American elementary schoolchildren with significant externalizing or internalizing behavior problems and their teachers. The results suggest that the qualities of the teacher-student relationship predict children's successful school adjustment. Having a relationship with a teacher characterized by warmth, trust, and low degrees of conflict was associated with positive school outcomes. Some moderation effects were noted, including differential effects for warmth on the reading achievement of children with externalizing distress, and conflict on the school adaptation of children with internalizing problems. Results are discussed in light of theory and school-based intervention and prevention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The quality of children's relationships with teachers in early elementary grades has implications for their academic and behavioral outcomes in later grades (e.g., Hamre & Pianta, 2001). The current study uses data from the NICHD SECCYD to extend work from a recent study of first grade (Rudasill & Rimm-Kaufman, 2009) by examining connections between child shyness, effortful control, and gender and teacher–child relationship quality in third grade directly and indirectly through the frequency of teacher- and child-initiated interactions in third grade, and teacher–child relationship quality in first grade. Path analyses using structural equation models were used to test two different models, one for conflict and one for closeness. Findings reveal five main points: (a) Children's characteristics (i.e., shyness and effortful control) were related to the frequency of interactions they initiated with their third grade teachers; (b) The number of teacher-initiated interactions with a child in third grade was positively related to teacher perception of conflict, but not closeness, with that child; (c) Teachers’ perceptions of relationship quality and the number of teacher-initiated interactions in first grade predicted teachers’ perceptions of relationship quality and the number of teacher-initiated interactions in third grade; (d) Children's gender predicted the number of teacher-initiated interactions and teachers’ perceptions of relationship quality in third grade; (e) Teacher–child relationship quality in first grade, and the number of teacher and child-initiated interactions in third grade, mediated associations between children's characteristics and teacher–child relationship quality in third grade. Findings have implications for future research and training for preservice and practicing teachers.
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This study modeled teacher-student relationship trajectories throughout elementary school to predict gains in achievement in an ethnic-diverse sample of 657 academically at-risk students (mean age = 6.57 years, SD = .39). Teacher reports of warmth and conflict were collected in Grades 1-5. Achievement was tested in Grades 1 and 6. For conflict, low-stable (normative), low-increasing, high-declining, and high-stable trajectories were found. For warmth, high-declining (normative) and low-increasing patterns were found. Children with early behavioral, academic, or social risks were underrepresented in the normative trajectory groups. Chronic conflict was most strongly associated with underachievement. Rising conflict but not declining Conflict coincided with underachievement. The probability of school failure increased as a function of the timing and length of time children were exposed to relational adversity.
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The shared and unique effects of teacher and student reports of teacher student relationship quality (TSRQ) in second and third grade on academic self views, behavioral engagement, and achievement the following year were investigated in a sample of 714 academically at-risk students. Teacher and student reports of teacher-student support and conflict showed low correspondence. As a block, teacher and student reports of TSRQ predicted all outcomes, above prior performance on that outcome and background variables. Student reports uniquely predicted school belonging, perceived academic competence, and math achievement. Teacher reports uniquely predicted behavioral engagement and child perceived academic competence. Teacher and student reports of the teacher-student relationship assess largely different constructs that predict different outcomes. Implications of findings for practice and research are discussed.
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This study examines the mediating role of student-teacher relationship quality (conflict and closeness) in grades 4, 5, and 6 on the relation between background characteristics, difficult temperament at age 4 1/2 and risky behavior in 6th grade. The longitudinal sample of participants (N=1156) was from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. Structural equation modeling was used to estimate paths from (a) background characteristics to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, (b) temperament to student-teacher relationship quality and risky behavior, and (c) student-teacher relationship quality to risky behavior. Findings indicate that students' family income, gender, receipt of special services, and more difficult temperament were associated with risky behavior. In addition, student-teacher conflict was a mediator. Students with more difficult temperaments were more likely to report risky behavior and to have conflict in their relationships with teachers. More conflict predicted more risky behavior. Closer student-teacher relationships were associated with less risky behavior. Results suggest negative relationships, specifically student-teacher relationships, may increase the risk that certain adolescents will engage in risky behavior.
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Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Childcare and Youth Development (N = 1,364) were used to investigate children's trajectories of academic and social development across 1st, 3rd, and 5th grades. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine within- and between-child associations among maternal and teacher reports of parent involvement and children's standardized achievement scores, social skills, and problem behaviors. Findings suggest that within-child improvements in parent involvement predict declines in problem behaviors and improvements in social skills but do not predict changes in achievement. Between-child analyses demonstrated that children with highly involved parents had enhanced social functioning and fewer behavior problems. Similar patterns of findings emerged for teacher and parent reports of parent involvement. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.
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Measures of teacher-student relationship quality (TSRQ), effortful engagement, and achievement in reading and math were collected once each year for 3 consecutive years, beginning when participants were in 1st grade, for a sample of 671 (53.1% male) academically at-risk children attending 1 of 3 school districts in Texas. In separate latent variable structural equation models, the authors tested the hypothesized model, in which Year 2 effortful engagement mediated the association between Year 1 TSRQ and Year 3 reading and math skills. Conduct engagement was entered as a covariate in these analyses to disentangle the effects of effortful engagement and conduct engagement. Reciprocal effects of effortful engagement on TSRQ and of achievement on effortful engagement were also modeled. Results generally supported the hypothesized model. Year 1 variables had a direct effect on Year 3 variables, above year-to-year stability. Findings suggest that achievement, effortful engagement, and TSRQ form part of a dynamic system of influences in the early grades, such that intervening at any point in this nexus may alter children's school trajectories.
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This longitudinal study evaluated the impact of dyadic and classroom-level teacher-child relationship quality in first grade on children's psychosocial and academic adjustment in first (N = 3,784), second (N = 3,666), and third (N = 3,582) grade, controlling for several child features, namely, child demographics and children's initial levels of adjustment in kindergarten. Results of multilevel hierarchical regression analyses showed that first-grade dyadic relationship variables (i.e., teacher-child conflict and closeness) as well as classroom relational climate variables (i.e., the average level of teacher-child conflict and closeness in the classroom) were associated with children's psychosocial adjustment in the first years of primary school. Associations between first-grade dyadic relationship quality and classroom relational climate, on the one hand, and academic achievement on the other, however, were negligible.
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This work examines associations between closeness and conflict in teacher-child relationships and children's social and academic skills in first grade in a sample of 490 children. Assessments of teacher-child relationships were obtained in preschool, kindergarten, and first grade. Results demonstrate moderate correlations among teachers' ratings of conflict and slightly lower correlations among teachers' ratings of closeness across years. Hierarchical regression analyses predicted children's skills in first grade from teacher-child relationship quality. Child gender, socioeconomic status, and preschool estimates of outcomes of interest were controlled statistically. Although preschool assessments of social and academic skills were closely associated with individual skill differences at first grade, teacher-child relationship quality also was associated with changes in skill levels. Findings generally confirm that teacher-child relationships play a role in children's ability to acquire the skills necessary for success in school.
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Pourquoi, en depit de moins bonnes gratifications sur le plan professionnel (discriminations de statuts et de salaires) les femmes continuent-elles de s'investir dans les etudes et a obtenir de meilleurs resultats que les hommes ? Faisant reference aux travaux de Bourdieu, l'A. tente de repondre a cette question en termes d'habitus
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Previously, the nature of teacher-child relationships (TCRs) has been explored through dimensions of close, conflicted, and dependent. However, this variable-centred approach is limited, as many relationships can be characterized by more than one characteristic or trait. A person-centred approach would allow for a greater understanding of the types of relationships that are formed and improved interpretation of the students' socio-emotional outcomes associated with that relationship. The primary goal of this study was to examine the socio-emotional functioning of young children who formed distinct types of TCRs. Participants were n = 202 kindergarten children (98 girls, 104 boys, Mage = 64.12 months, SD = 4.86). Multi-source assessment was employed with data collected from parent ratings, teacher reports, child interviews, and naturalistic observations in the classroom. Using quartile cut-offs, we identified children who formed conflicted, dependent, and 'combined' (conflicted and dependent) TCRs. Results indicated distinct patterns of socio-emotional functioning for each TCR group. For example, whereas children in conflicted TCRs evidenced greater externalizing difficulties, children with dependent TCRs had greater internalizing difficulties. Children who evidenced high levels of both conflicted and dependent TCRs displayed the most pervasive socio-emotional difficulties. Children who form TCRs characterized by high levels of both conflict and dependency displayed the most pervasive adjustment difficulties. Further investigation is needed to improve our understanding of this group and to assess the plausibility of early intervention strategies.
Article
A robust body of research finds positive cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between teacher-child relationships and children's academic achievement in elementary school. Estimating the causal effect of teacher-child relationships on children's academic achievement, however, is challenged by selection bias at the individual and school level. To address these issues, we used two multilevel propensity score matching approaches to estimate the effect of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math and reading achievement during children's transition to first grade. Multi-informant data were collected on 324 low-income, Black and Hispanic students, and 112 kindergarten and first-grade teachers. Results revealed significant effects of high-quality teacher-child relationships in kindergarten on math achievement in first grade. No significant effects of teacher-child relationships were detected for reading achievement. Implications for intervention development and public policy are discussed.
Article
Amid debates about the continued salience of gender in mathematics, this report summarizes an IES-funded investigation of gender-related patterns in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study—Kindergarten Class of 1998–99 (ECLS-K). Girls' and boys' mathematics achievement, confidence, and interest were examined, along with experiences at home and school. Teacher-reported instructional practices shed little light on gender gaps in mathematics performance; however, teachers' perceptions of girls and boys could play a role.
Article
This nonexperimental, longitudinal field study examines the extent to which variation in observed classroom supports (quality of emotional and instructional interactions and amount of exposure to literacy and math activities) predicts trajectories of achievement in reading and math from 54 months to fifth grade. Growth mixture modeling detected two latent classes of readers: fast readers whose skills developed rapidly and leveled off, and a typical group for which reading growth was somewhat less rapid. Only one latent class was identified for math achievement. For reading, there were small positive associations between observed emotional quality of teacher-child interactions and growth. Growth in math achievement showed small positive relations with observed emotional interactions and exposure to math activities. There was a significant interaction between quality and quantity of instruction for reading such that at higher levels of emotional quality there was less of a negative association between amount of literacy exposure and reading growth.
Article
The present study examined the role of child gender, child ethnicity, and teacher–child ethnic match in moderating the association between teacher–child relationship quality and children's classroom behavioral adjustment. The study was conducted using data from an ethnically diverse sample of 301 Head Start children and their teachers. Teacher–child conflict was found to be a stronger predictor of hostile–aggressive behavior for boys than girls. In contrast, teacher–child closeness was found to be more predictive of school competence for girls than boys. Similar patterns of association were found between teacher–child relationship quality and school behavioral adjustment for Non-Hispanic, white children and those of Mexican-origin. Results also revealed that teacher–child ethnic match did not moderate the association between teacher–child relationship quality and child behavioral adjustment.
Article
The purpose of the present study is to examine associations between quality of teacher–child relationships from preschool through third grade and children’s third-grade achievement using Phases I, II, and III data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Care and Education, a prospective study of 1,364 children from birth through sixth grade. There are three main findings. First, positive associations were found between quality of teacher–child relationships and achievement. Second, high quality teacher–child relationships buffered children from the negative effects of insecure or other maternal attachment on achievement. Third, the effect of quality of teacher–child relationships on achievement was mediated through child and teacher behaviors in the classroom. In sum, high quality teacher–child relationships fostered children’s achievement. Implications for educational practice are discussed.
Article
In extending our understanding of how the social climate of schools can affect academic outcomes, this study examined the relationship between school bullying, student— teacher (S-T) connectedness, and academic performance. Using data collected in Canada as part of a larger international study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, participants included 27,217 students aged 15 years and 1,087 school principals. Results of multilevel analyses revealed that math achievement was negatively related to school bullying and positively related to S-T connectedness. For boys, there was a significant interaction between bullying and S-T connectedness, suggesting a buffering effect of S-T connectedness on the relationship between school bullying and math achievement. Similar results were evident for reading achievement.
Article
This article reports the results of a study using a measure of the relationship between teachers and students: the Student-Teacher Relationship Scale (STRS). In a sample of 72 kindergarten children the STRS was found to have three factors: Secure, Improved, and Dependent. The total scale as well as subscales based on the factor analysis all had alpha reliabilities exceeding .60. Boys and girls did not differ on STRS scores. Relationships characterized by security were related to child affection toward mothers, and competence behaviors in the home and in kindergarten and first grade. Dependent relationships between teachers and children were related to child negativity with mothers, acting-out behaviors in the home, and behavior problems in school. Relationships showing improvement in kindergarten were related to positive adjustment in first grade. The results are discussed in terms of research on adult-child relationships and implications for applied questions.
Article
This article examined general trends in teacher-reported conflict and closeness among 878 children from kindergarten through sixth grade, and examined early childhood characteristics that predict differences in initial levels and growth of conflict and closeness over time. Results indicated modest stability of teacher-perceived conflict and closeness through sixth grade, with relatively greater stability in perceptions of conflict. Levels of conflict at kindergarten were higher for children who were male, Black, had greater mean hours of childcare, had lower academic achievement scores, and had greater externalizing behavior. Children identified as Black and those with less sensitive mothers were at greater risk for increased conflict with teachers over time. Levels of teacher-reported closeness were lower when children were male, had lower quality home environments, and had lower academic achievement scores. The gap in closeness ratings between males and females increased in the middle elementary school years. Additional analyses were conduced to explore differences in teacher ratings of conflict between Black and White students.
Article
Today, boys generally under-perform relative to girls in schools throughout the industrialized world. Building on theories about gender identity and reports from prior ethnographic classroom observations, we argue that the school environment channels the conception of masculinity in the peer culture, and thereby either fosters or inhibits the development of anti-school attitudes and behavior among boys. Girls' peer groups, in contrast, do not vary as strongly with the social environment in the extent to which school engagement is stigmatized as “un-feminine.” As a consequence, boys are more sensitive to school resources that create a learning oriented environment than are girls. Our analyses use a quasi-experimental research design to estimate the gender difference in the causal effect on test scores, and focus on peer SES as an important school resource. We argue that assignment to 5th grade classrooms within Berlin schools is practically random, and we evaluate this selection process by an examination of Berlin's school regulations, by simulation analysis, and by qualitative interviews with school principles. Estimates of the effect of SES composition on male and female performance strongly support our central hypothesis, and other analyses support our proposed mechanism as the likely explanation of the gender differences in the causal effect. Download The paper is available on the SAGE - American Sociological Review website. For some reason, SSRN keeps removing my links to this page...
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This article reviews empirical and theoretical contributions to a multidisciplinary understanding of peer influence processes in adolescence over the past decade. Five themes of peer influence research from this decade were identified, including a broadening of the range of behaviors for which peer influence occurs, distinguishing the sources of influence, probing the conditions under which influence is amplified/attenuated (moderators), testing theoretically based models of peer influence processes (mechanisms), and preliminary exploration of behavioral neuroscience perspectives on peer influence. This review highlights advances in each of these areas, underscores gaps in current knowledge of peer influence processes, and outlines important challenges for future research.
Article
This study examined the cross-sectional relations between teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) and math and reading achievement in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N=207). Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions including closeness, conflict, and intimacy, and children completed a questionnaire measuring overall TCRQ. Standardized tests were used to assess children's math and reading skills.