The placenta is the active interface between mother and foetus, bearing the molecular marks of rapid development and exposures in utero. The placenta is routinely discarded at delivery, providing a valuable resource to explore maternal-offspring health and disease in pregnancy. Genome-wide profiling of the human placental transcriptome provides an unbiased approach to study normal maternal-placental-foetal physiology and pathologies.
Objective and rationale:
To date, many studies have examined the human placental transcriptome, but often within a narrow focus. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of human placental transcriptome studies, encompassing those from the cellular to tissue levels and contextualize current findings from a broader perspective. We have consolidated studies into overarching themes, summarized key research findings and addressed important considerations in study design, as a means to promote wider data sharing and support larger meta-analysis of already available data and greater collaboration between researchers in order to fully capitalize on the potential of transcript profiling in future studies.
The PubMed database, National Center for Biotechnology Information and European Bioinformatics Institute dataset repositories were searched, to identify all relevant human studies using 'placenta', 'decidua', 'trophoblast', 'transcriptome', 'microarray' and 'RNA sequencing' as search terms until May 2019. Additional studies were found from bibliographies of identified studies.
The 179 identified studies were classifiable into four broad themes: healthy placental development, pregnancy complications, exposures during pregnancy and in vitro placental cultures. The median sample size was 13 (interquartile range 8-29). Transcriptome studies prior to 2015 were predominantly performed using microarrays, while RNA sequencing became the preferred choice in more recent studies. Development of fluidics technology, combined with RNA sequencing, has enabled transcript profiles to be generated of single cells throughout pregnancy, in contrast to previous studies relying on isolated cells. There are several key study aspects, such as sample selection criteria, sample processing and data analysis methods that may represent pitfalls and limitations, which need to be carefully considered as they influence interpretation of findings and conclusions. Furthermore, several areas of growing importance, such as maternal mental health and maternal obesity are understudied and the profiling of placentas from these conditions should be prioritized.
Integrative analysis of placental transcriptomics with other 'omics' (methylome, proteome and metabolome) and linkage with future outcomes from longitudinal studies is crucial in enhancing knowledge of healthy placental development and function, and in enabling the underlying causal mechanisms of pregnancy complications to be identified. Such understanding could help in predicting risk of future adversity and in designing interventions that can improve the health outcomes of both mothers and their offspring. Wider collaboration and sharing of placental transcriptome data, overcoming the challenges in obtaining sufficient numbers of quality samples with well-defined clinical characteristics, and dedication of resources to understudied areas of pregnancy will undoubtedly help drive the field forward.