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Total Phenolic, Flavonoid Distribution and Antioxidant Capacity in Skin, Pulp and Fruit Extracts of Plum Cultivars

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Abstract

Total phenolic, total flavonoid distribution and antioxidant activity in skin, pulp and fruit extracts of 12 plum cultivars were investigated. The results showed that the levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds changed depending on cultivars and fruit parts. The total phenolic content in skin was 4.5 times higher than that in pulp and 3.2 times higher than that in the whole fruit. The total flavonoid content in skin was 18.7 times higher than that in pulp and 9.6 times higher than that in the whole fruit. As the trend observed for antioxidant activity, a positive relationship (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.83–0.92) was presented between total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity. The results confirm that plum is a good source of natural phenolic antioxidants.Practical ApplicationsThe present study indicated that plum can contribute to the dietary intake of antioxidants, depending on cultivars and fruit parts. It is among the few studies investigating the distribution of total phenolic, total flavonoids and total antioxidant capacity in the skin, pulp and fruit of plum cultivars. It was observed that the highest values of total phenolic and flavonoid content were obtained from skin extracts. The study highlighted that phenolics and flavonoids in plums may play an important role as radical-scavenging agents that could be used for a healthy human life. This fact may open new perspectives for plum – besides its traditional uses – to be used in assuring a wholesome diet and a healthy life.
TOTAL PHENOLIC, FLAVONOID DISTRIBUTION AND
ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN SKIN, PULP AND FRUIT EXTRACTS
OF PLUM CULTIVARS
S. COSMULESCU1,3, I. TRANDAFIR2, V. NOUR1and M. BOTU1
1Department of Horticulture & Food Science, Agriculture & Horticulture Faculty, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza Street 13, Craiova 200585,
Romania
2Department of Chemistry, Sciences Faculty, University of Craiova, Craiova, Romania
3Corresponding author.
TEL: 0040251414541;
FAX: 0040251414541;
EMAIL: sinacosmulescu@hotmail.com
Received for Publication August 2, 2014
Accepted for Publication November 21, 2014
doi:10.1111/jfbc.12112
ABSTRACT
Total phenolic, total flavonoid distribution and antioxidant activity in skin, pulp
and fruit extracts of 12 plum cultivars were investigated. The results showed that
the levels of total phenolic and flavonoid compounds changed depending on cul-
tivars and fruit parts. The total phenolic content in skin was 4.5 times higher than
that in pulp and 3.2 times higher than that in the whole fruit. The total flavonoid
content in skin was 18.7 times higher than that in pulp and 9.6 times higher than
that in the whole fruit. As the trend observed for antioxidant activity, a positive
relationship (correlation coefficient r2=0.83–0.92) was presented between total
phenolics and total antioxidant capacity. The results confirm that plum is a good
source of natural phenolic antioxidants.
PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS
The present study indicated that plum can contribute to the dietary intake of
antioxidants, depending on cultivars and fruit parts. It is among the few studies
investigating the distribution of total phenolic, total flavonoids and total
antioxidant capacity in the skin, pulp and fruit of plum cultivars. It was
observed that the highest values of total phenolic and flavonoid content were
obtained from skin extracts. The study highlighted that phenolics and flavonoids
in plums may play an important role as radical-scavenging agents that could be
used for a healthy human life. This fact may open new perspectives for plum –
besides its traditional uses – to be used in assuring a wholesome diet and a
healthy life.
INTRODUCTION
Plums (Prunus domestica L.) are stone fruits that offer ben-
eficial nutrients and can be eaten fresh, dried or processed.
Every cultivar has its own typical chemical composition.
Plum fruits contain natural phenolic phytochemicals, which
may function as effective natural antioxidants in our daily
diet (Cevallos-Casals et al. 2006; Družic´ et al. 2007; Kristl
et al. 2011). Phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in plants, are
an essential part of human diet and are of considerable
interest due to their antioxidant properties (Balasundram
et al. 2006). According to Kim et al. (2003a), the total phe-
nolic contents (TPCs) of various cultivars of plums widely
varied from 125.0 to 372.6 mg/100 g expressed as gallic acid
equivalents, and the level of total flavonoids in fresh plums
ranged between 64.8 and 257.5 mg/100 g expressed as cat-
echin equivalents. Gil et al. (2002) found a total phenolic
variation in plum genotypes between 42 and 109 mg/100 g
fresh weight (FW), and Vasantha Rupasinghe et al. (2006)
found between 86 and 413 mg/100 g FW expressed as
gallic acid equivalents. In Stanley cultivar, Miletic´et al.
(2012) found that TPC was within the range of 70–214 mg/
100 g FW gallic acid equivalents, at different maturity
stages. Comparing the nutrient content and antioxidant
molecules in yellow plums from conventional and organic
products, Lombardi-Boca et al. (2004) showed that the
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64 Journal of Food Biochemistry 39 (2015) 64–69 © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
highest phenolic acid content was detected in plums grown
on soil covered with trifolium, and total polyphenolic
content was higher in conventional plums. Neochlorogenic
acid was found to be the most important phenolic acid in
six European plum cultivars grown in Norway (Slimestad
et al. 2009).
Plum is one of the oldest cultivated species with a high
genetic diversity due to the long historic cultivation and
suitable climatic conditions of Romania. There are numer-
ous different plum cultivars available for fresh and process-
ing market (Botu et al. 2010) and with physical and
chemical properties, which make them suitable to be grown
in Romania (Ionica et al. 2013). The combined selection of
optimal cultivars and agricultural practices can optimize
health benefits of plums.
The objective of this study was to determine and compare
the total phenolic compounds, total flavonoid content
(TFC) and antioxidant capacity in skin, pulp and fruit of 12
plum cultivars grown in Romania in integrated production.
Skin, pulp and fruit tissues were studied to estimate the
relative contribution of these tissues to medicinal and nutri-
tional value of plum cultivars.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Plant Material
Preparation of Samples. In this research, the fruit
composition of 12 plum cultivars from trees grafted on
Mirobolan was analyzed. The material of study (fruits)
comes from the experimental orchard of University of
Craiova (SCDP Valcea), located in Sub-Carpathian area
in Oltenia Region, Romania (45°617N, 24°2232E).
Fruits were harvested in August and September, in full
maturity stage. Fruits were harvested during the period of
August–September at commercial maturity. Samples
(approximately 60 fruits) were collected from three trees.
After harvest, the fruits were immediately stored at
20 ±0.2C until further use. Plums were halved, and skin
and seeds were manually removed. Analyses were per-
formed on fresh plums mashed to pulp, skin and whole
fruit tissue.
Extraction Procedure. Skin (1 g), pulp and whole fruit
tissues (2 g) from each cultivar were finely chopped and
then they were homogenized with 5 mL of 70% MeOH and
kept at 25C in an ultrasonic bath for 30 min. The samples
were filtered and the precipitate was subjected to a stripper
with 5 mL of 70% MeOH in an ultrasonic bath for 30 min.
The supernatant was filtered through a 0.45-μm polyamide
membrane and stored at 20C.
TPC
Chemicals and Reagent. Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (2 N,
Sigma-Aldrich, Germany), gallic acid (Sigma-Aldrich,
Germany) and anhydrous sodium carbonate (Sigma-
Aldrich, Germany) were used in this experiment.
Methods. Both TPC in plum fruit extracts were measured
using an Evolution 600 UV-visible spectrophotometer
(Thermo Scientific, Madison, WI) computer controlled by
VISION Pro-software (Thermo Scientific). TPC assay was
conducted using the Folin–Ciocalteu reaction (Cosmulescu
and Trandafir 2012) with gallic acid as standard. A 1.0 mL
of sample of each fruit extract (1:10 diluted with ultrapure
water) or 1.0 mL of double-distilled water (blank) or
1.0 mL of each standard gallic acid solution was placed in a
25-mL flask, and 5 mL of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent was
added (diluted 1:10 with ultrapure water). After 2 min,
4 mL of 7.5% (w/v) sodium carbonate was added and the
flasks were kept at room temperature (24–26C) for 2 h. The
absorbance was measured at 765 nm. A standard curve was
prepared using 50, 100, 150, 200 or 250 ppm gallic acid.
TPCs were expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalents
per 100 g fresh weight (mg GAE/100 g FW).
TFC
Chemicals and Reagent. Methanol (Merck, Germany),
aluminum nitrate (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) and potas-
sium acetate (Sigma-Aldrich, Germany) were used in this
experiment.
Methods. Total flavonoids were determined using the
spectrophotometric method based on color reaction time
of the class of compounds ion Al (III), by using the
method described by Rahimipanah et al. (2010) and
Mohammadzadeh et al. (2007). Briefly, 0.5 mL of extract was
diluted with methanol (1:10) and they were added to test
tubes and mixed with 0.1 mL of 10% aluminum nitrate,
0.1 mL of 1 M aqueous potassium acetate and 4.3 mL of
methanol. After keeping it for 40 min at room temperature,
the absorbance of the reaction mixture was measured at
415 nm. Quercetin was used for preparing the standard curve
(0–100 mg/L). The results were expressed as milligrams of
quercetin equivalents per 100 g FW (mg QE/100 g FW).
Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) Assays
Chemicals and Reagent. Methanol (Merck, Germany),
2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH; Merck, Germany),
S. COSMULESCU ET AL.PHENOLIC, FLAVONOIDS, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN PLUM
65Journal of Food Biochemistry 39 (2015) 64–69 © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
ascorbic acid(Merck, Germany) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-
tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox; Merck,
Germany) were used in this experiment.
Methods. Scavenging activities of methanolic extracts of
plum samples against DPPH radicals were measured
according to Hatano et al. (1988), with some modifications
(Cosmulescu and Trandafir 2012). The absorbance was
measured at 517 nm. Standards of various concentrations
were used: Trolox (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.5 mM) and
ascorbic acid (25–200 ppm). Each methanolic fruit extract
(50 μL of diluted samples: 1:5 for skin extracts and 1:10 for
pulp and fruit extracts) was mixed with 3 mL of 0.004%
(v/v) DPPH in methanol. Each reaction mixture was incu-
bated in the dark for 30 min at room temperature (24–
26C). Antioxidant capacity was expressed in milligrams of
ascorbic acid equivalent per 100 g (mg AAE/100 g FW) or
in mmol Trolox/100 g FW.
Statistical Analysis
Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using
Statgraphics Centurion XVI software (StatPoint Technolo-
gies, Warrenton, VA). Differences were estimated with a
multiple range test using the least significant difference at
P<0.05.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
TPC
The results obtained indicated significant differences in
phenolic contents between the 12 cultivars analyzed
(Table 1). The TPC ranged from 249.91 to 773.31 mg GAE/
100 g FW in skin of fruit, from 61.34 to 180.82 mg GAE/
100 g FW in pulp and from 76.5 to 363.34 mg GAE/100 g
FW in fruit, in methanolic extracts of 12 cultivars tested. All
12 plum cultivars used in this study were grown in the same
location under similar horticultural practices. These differ-
ences may be due to genetic factors and different ability to
synthesize secondary metabolites of cultivars. Differences
between cultivars in terms of TPC in plum were observed
by other authors: between 174 and 375 mg GAE/100 g FW
in six cultivars (Cevallos-Casals et al. 2006), between 86 and
413 mg GAE/100 g FW in 20 genotypes (Vasantha
Rupasinghe et al. 2006) and between 348 and 495 mg GAE/
100 g FW in 12 cultivars (Rop et al. 2009). Of all plum culti-
vars studied, “Alutus” and “Valcean” had the highest and
lowest TPCs in total fruit, respectively. The plum cultivars
ranked in the following decreasing order: Alutus >Flora >
Carpatin >Oltenal >Tuleu timpuriu >Andreea >Minerva
>Tuleu gras >Tuleugrascl14>Centenar >Silvia >
Valcean.
Phenolic content is different in different parts of the
plum fruit. The results indicated that plum skin displayed
the highest amount of fruit TPC (mean 484.15 mg GAE/
100g FW) followed by fruit (148.31 mg GAE/100 g FW) and
pulp (105.61 mg GAE/100 g FW). The TPC in skin was 4.5
times higher than that in pulp and 3.2 times higher than
that in the whole fruit. This is due to the anthocyanins
present in the skin. “Alutus” skin color is violet dark, and
“Tuleu gras cl.14” skin color is violet blue (Botu et al. 2010).
In terms of different TPC in skin, pulp and fruit tissues,
these results are in agreement with the literature
(Tomás-Barberán et al. 2001). A direct correlation between
skin color intensity and TPC was observed in plum fruit by
Vasantha Rupasinghe et al. (2006). The highest TPC of
TABLE 1. TOTAL PHENOLIC* DISTRIBUTION IN
THE SKIN, PULP AND FRUIT IN 12 CULTIVARS
OF PLUM
No. Cultivar
Total phenolic content (mg GAE/100 g FW)
Skin Pulp Fruit
1 Tuleu timpuriu 562.14 ±10.39g88.04 ±2.33c160.37 ±7.39f
2 Valcean 482.22 ±6.98d89.23 ±3.11c90.62 ±5.18b
3 Centenar 519.37 ±9.45e66.89 ±1.68a93.82 ±4.75bc
4 Alutus 773.31 ±12.66h180.82 ±5.22g363.34 ±13.46i
5 Oltenal 545.16 ±10.22f149.73 ±4.98f166.21 ±6.61f
6 Minerva 490.18 ±8.87d77.77 ±3.44b114.49 ±6.08d
7 Tuleu gras 432.44 ±6.88c80.43 ±3.77b103.43 ±4.58cd
8 Silvia 443.70 ±7.72c61.34 ±2.42a76.5 ±3.72a
9 Carpatin 383.91 ±8.66b135.94 ±4.88e181.07 ±8.55g
10 Flora 491.89 ±11.32d134.66 ±5.56e195.6 ±10.33h
11 Tuleu gras cl.14 249.91 ±6.85a91.20 ±3.19c96.07 ±6.94bc
12 Andreea 435.61 ±9.56c111.22 ±4.32d138.25 ±6.44e
Mean 484.15 ±119.65 105.61 ±36.06 148.31 ±76.29
Note: Different superscript letters within the same column indicate significant differences
(P0.05) among cultivars.
* Each value in the table is represented as mean ±SE (n=3).
GAE, gallic acid equivalent; FW, fresh weight.
PHENOLIC, FLAVONOIDS, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN PLUM S. COSMULESCU ET AL.
66 Journal of Food Biochemistry 39 (2015) 64–69 © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
773.31 mg GAE/100 g FW was found in the skin of “Alutus”
followed by the skin of “Tuleu timpuriu” (562.14 mg GAE/
100 g FW) and “Oltenal” (545.16 mg GAE/100 g FW). The
highest TPC for fruit (363.34 mg GAE/100 g FW) was
found in “Alutus. There were significant statistical differ-
ences between cultivars and different parts of the plum
fruit. Even though skin is a concentrated source of phenolic
compounds, it only represents 3.21–8.38% of fruit weight,
while pulp is 86.17–92.86% of fruit weight.
TFC
The results of flavonoid content, expressed as milligrams of
quercetin equivalents per 100 g, are presented in Table 2. In
methanolic extracts of 12 genotypes tested, TFC ranged
from 33.61 to 160.67 mg QE/100 g FW in skin of fruit, from
2.22 to 12.48 mg QE/100 g FW in pulp and from 5.4 to
20.43 mg QE/100 g FW in fruit. In the research made by
Kim et al. (2003b), the TFC ranged from 118 to 237 mg cat-
echin equivalents (CE)/100 g FW in various cultivars of
plum. Many significant differences in individual phenolic
compounds were observed among cultivars (P<0.05). The
highest TFC of 160.67 mg QE/100 g FW was found in the
skin of “Alutus” followed by the skin of “Flora” (133.03 mg
QE/100 g FW) and “Tuleu timpuriu” (114.35 mg QE/100 g
FW). The highest TFC value for fruit (20.43 mg QE/100 g
FW) was found in “Alutus”.
A similar trend in phenolic contents was observed for
total flavonoids in different parts of the plum fruit. The
TFC in the skin (mean 98.18 mg QE/100 g FW) was consid-
erably higher than those in pulp and fruit. It was 18.7 times
higher than that in pulp and 9.6 times higher than that in
the whole fruit.
TAC Assays
The TAC, against DPPH radicals, is shown as quantities in
mg AAE/100 g FW and mmol Trolox/100 g FW (Table 3).
The TAC was determined for skin, pulp and fruit. Antioxi-
dant capacities varied among different plum genotypes and
in different parts of fruits. For example, from 163.62 to
972.74 mg AAE/100 g FW in skin, from 10.49 to 38.17 mg
AAE/100 g FW in pulp and from 22.17 to 92.65 mg AAE/
100 g FW in fruit. The results showed that removal of
skin from plum fruit results in a significant loss of TAC.
The order of TAC (in fruit) is as follows: Alutus >Andreea
>Carpatin >Flora >Oltenal >Valcean >Tuleu timpuriu >
Centenar >Minerva >Tuleugrasclon14>Tuleu gras >
Silvia. Antioxidant capacity, expressed as vitamin C equiva-
lent found by Kim et al. (2003a), ranged from 204.9 to
567.0 mg/100 g, with an average of 290.9 mg/100 g FW,
and from 266 to 559 mg/100 g FW found by Kim et al.
(2003b). TAC ranged from 105 to 424 mg AAE/100 g FW in
studies made by Vasantha Rupasinghe et al. (2006) among
20 genotypes.
The TAC expressed in mmol Trolox/100 g FW varied
among different plum genotypes and in different parts of
the fruits: from 2.54 to 6 mmol Trolox/100 g FW in skin,
from 0.24 to 0.46 mmol Trolox/100 g FW in pulp and from
0.48 to 1.02 mmol Trolox/100 g FW in fruit. The results are
similar to those found by Slimestad et al. (2009) in six Nor-
wegian plum cultivars (where TAC varied from 0.814 to
0.290 mmol Trolox/100 g of FW).
Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of plums were
highly correlated to the antioxidant capacity of fresh fruit
plums. This suggests that phenolics and flavonoids in plums
may play an important role in scavenging free radicals.
TABLE 2. TOTAL FLAVONOID* DISTRIBUTION
IN THE SKIN, PULP AND FRUIT IN 12
CULTIVARS OF PLUM No. Cultivar
Total flavonoid content (mg QE/100 g FW)
Skin Pulp Fruit
1 Tuleu timpuriu 114.35 ±5.34h5.78 ±0.26f15.48 ±0.88e
2 Valcean 96.97 ±4.56e5.97 ±0.31f11.21 ±0.54d
3 Centenar 106.45 ±5.57fg 4.04 ±0.21de 5.71 ±0.32ab
4 Alutus 160.67 ±5.98j12.48 ±0.48h20.43 ±1.02f
5 Oltenal 109.97 ±3.78gh 3.45 ±0.18c7.74 ±0.41c
6 Minerva 101.16 ±4.21ef 7.62 ±0.39g11.04 ±0.59d
7 Tuleu gras 86.12 ±3.12d5.96 ±0.28f10.41 ±0.63d
8 Silvia 113.01 ±5.14gh 4.49 ±0.22e10.83 ±0.54d
9 Carpatin 70.79 ±3.55c2.22 ±0.11a5.64 ±0.26ab
10 Flora 133.03 ±4.67i4.46 ±0.32e11.23 ±0.66d
11 Tuleu gras cl.14 52.00 ±2.66b3.71 ±0.29cd 6.40 ±0.29b
12 Andreea 33.61 ±2.21a2.87 ±0.23b5.40 ±0.31a
Mean 98.18 ±33.59 5.25 ±2.66 10.13 ±4.37
Note: Different superscript letters within the same column indicate significant differences
(P0.05) among cultivars.
* Each value in the table is represented as mean ±SE (n=3).
FW, fresh weight; QE, quercetin equivalent.
S. COSMULESCU ET AL.PHENOLIC, FLAVONOIDS, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN PLUM
67Journal of Food Biochemistry 39 (2015) 64–69 © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A significant linear relationship was observed between TPC
and TAC (r2=0.83–0.92).
A positive relationship (correlation coefficient r2=0.977)
was presented between total phenolics and antioxidant
capacity in skin, suggesting that polyphenolics could play an
important role in free radical scavenging found by Kim
et al. (2003a). Good correlation was observed by Gil et al.
(2002) and Chun et al. (2003) between total phenolics and
antioxidant capacity in fresh plums. Gil et al. (2002) showed
that contributions of phenolic compounds to antioxidant
activity were much greater than those of vitamin C and
carotenoids, and there was a strong correlation (0.93–0.96)
between total phenolics and antioxidant activity of nectar-
ines, peaches and plums. Vasantha Rupasinghe et al. (2006)
also observed a strong correlation (r2=0.96) between TAC
and TPC. Similar observations were made by Chun et al.
(2003) – good linear relationship between the amount of
total phenolics and TAC (r2=0.9887), and by Rop et al.
(2009) – total content of phenolic substances was highly
correlated with TAC of fruit (r2=0.893).
CONCLUSION
The results showed that the levels of total phenolic and fla-
vonoid compounds changed depending on cultivars and
fruit parts. The highest values of total phenolic and flavo-
noid content were obtained from skin extracts, in all culti-
vars. The whole fruit and pulp of plum have valuable
antioxidant activities, with the largest amounts found in
skin. This study confirms that plum is a source of natural
phenolic antioxidants. Further research will be considered
to determine the fruit content under different ecological
conditions and to identify phenolic compounds.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was partially supported by Grant No. 11C/2014,
awarded in the internal grant competition of the University
of Craiova.
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No. Cultivar
Total antioxidant capacity mg AAE/100 g FW Total antioxidant capacity mmol Trolox/100 g FW
Skin Pulp Fruit Skin Pulp Fruit
1 Tuleu timpuriu 731.96 ±12.44g10.76 ±0.34ab 34.93 ±1.33ab 4.74 ±0.28de 0.27 ±0.01bc 0.64 ±0.03d
2 Valcean 715.85 ±9.68g14.08 ±0.48c40.61 ±2.24c4.54 ±0.18cd 0.31 ±0.02d0.65 ±0.02d
3 Centenar 809.68 ±15.59h10.38 ±0.28a34.08 ±1.19a5.12 ±0.23ef 0.25 ±0.01ab 0.63 ±0.03cd
4 Alutus 972.74 ±13.36i38.17 ±0.82g92.65 ±3.56g6.0 ±0.32g0.46 ±0.03f1.02 ±0.05g
5 Oltenal 659.38 ±10.66ef 36.25 ±1.23f43.23 ±2.02f4.2 ±0.15c0.44 ±0.02f0.73 ±0.03e
6 Minerva 669.69 ±8.89f14.63 ±0.42c32.86 ±1.66c4.27 ±0.13c0.31 ±0.01d0.64 ±0.02d
7 Tuleu gras 502.38 ±9.98c11.83 ±0.56b22.87 ±0.98b3.25 ±0.09b0.29 ±0.01cd 0.59 ±0.02bc
8 Silvia 573.32 ±11.33d10.49 ±0.52a22.17 ±1.67a3.61 ±0.21b0.28 ±0.01c0.61 ±0.03bcd
9 Carpatin 580.92 ±8.97d30.49 ±1.08e67.42 ±2.01e5.16 ±0.44ef 0.34 ±0.02e0.70 ±0.04e
10 Flora 650.94 ±12.51e23.59 ±0.98d48.67 ±1.55d5.47 ±0.37f0.28 ±0.01c0.58 ±0.02b
11 Tuleu gras cl 14 163.62 ±5.22a13.50 ±0.40c29.75 ±0.95c2.54 ±0.24a0.23 ±0.01a0.48 ±0.01a
12 Andreea 445.03 ±10.32b36.68 ±1.33f80.77 ±2.66f4.2 ±0.28c0.24 ±0.01a0.81 ±0.03f
Mean 622.95 ±195.17 20.90 ±11.08 45.83 ±22.14 4.42 ±0.97 0.31 ±0.07 0.67 ±0.13
Note: Different superscript letters within the same column indicate significant differences (P0.05) among cultivars.
* Each value in the table is represented as mean ±SE (n=3).
AAE, ascorbic acid equivalent; FW, fresh weight.
PHENOLIC, FLAVONOIDS, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN PLUM S. COSMULESCU ET AL.
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S. COSMULESCU ET AL.PHENOLIC, FLAVONOIDS, ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN PLUM
69Journal of Food Biochemistry 39 (2015) 64–69 © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Walnut is a monoecious plant and wind pollinated with male and female reproductive organs on separate flowers on the same tree. Walnut trees produce pistil inflorescences of one to three flowers which are carried laterally on 1 year old branches (Lu et al., 2020;Polito et al., 2005;Gun et al., 2010;Cosmulescu et al., 2015a). Total pollen grain production of walnut tree is estimated between 5 and 100 billion in some studies. ...
... Recent epidemiological reports showed that many phytochemical compounds present in fruits such as nuts are partially responsible for beneficial health effects. Recently, some health-related phytochemical compounds in walnuts have been identified (Fukuda et al., 2003;Oliveira et al., 2008;Cosmulescu et al., 2015a;Kafkas et al., 2017). Walnut kernel is a rich source of proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and polyphenols which makes the fruit indispensable for human nutrition. ...
... In literature, there are various studies related to the phytochemical and antioxidant characteristics potential of walnut kernel (Chevallier et al., 2009;Rahimipanah et al., 2010;Bujdosó et al., 2014). Some study reports on the phenolic profiles of walnut trees describe the total phenolic content in different parts of walnut shoots Cosmulescu et al., 2010a), leaves, and green husk Jakopic et al., 2009;Cosmulescu et al., 2010b;Cosmulescu et al., 2015a). But these chemical contents of walnuts can vary by variety, genotype, ecology, climate, soil conditions and cultural practices (Beyhan et al., 2016;Bernard et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to determine the biochemical composition and antioxidant activity in pollens collected from ten different walnut cultivars. Pollen samples of walnut cultivars ("Aslan", "Chandler", "Fernette", "Fernor", "Franquet", "Kaman", "Oguzlar", "Pedro", "Sebin"and"Yalova")were collected during flowering of catkins in Uşak Province of Turkey. Identification and quantification of total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, antioxidant activity, pH, organic acids and phenolic compounds (gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, vanilic acid, caffeic acid and syringic acid) were individually analyzed for each cultivar. The results of observed parameters are significantly varying among the cultivars (p<0.05) and wide range of biochemical compounds were identified from the walnut pollens. Results showed that total phenolic contents varied from 5.050 to 11.030 mg GAE/g and total flavonoids content ranged from 1.530 to 4.123 mgQE/g. Furthermore, the antioxidant capacity of pollen extracts was found to range from 1.510 to 2.003 mg AAE g-1. Among the identified phenolic compounds, gallic acid (10.610-13.410 mg/100g-1) and protocatechuic acid (1.410-3.623 mg/100g-1) were found in highest amounts. Moreover, oxalic acid and citric acid were identified as the dominant organic acids for all cultivars. Results of present study showed that the walnut pollens have high antioxidant capacity which is very beneficial for human health.
... The TPs and antioxidant contents were also calculated per serving portion, with 100 g FW consisting of 5.8 g peel and 89.5 g flesh. This was based on a significant positive correlation (r = 0.840) found between the TPs measured in the total fruit vs. the TPs estimated from peel and flesh measurements in 12 European plum cvs [11]. A similar peel and flesh fresh weight contribution was found in the Japanese plum cv 'Angeleno' in the present study (data not shown). ...
... The highest TPs-peel values were found in the European 'Asvestochoriou' and Skopelou' and in the Japanese plums 'Black Amber', 'Red Ace', and 'Florentia'. Relatively few studies have conducted separate measurements of TPs in the peel and flesh tissue, and similar or lower values have been reported for European (250-773 mg GAE/100 g FW in Cosmulescu et al. [11]) and Japanese plum cvs (72-656 in Wolf et al. [18]; 163.3-332.3 in Gil et al. [8]). The TPs-flesh content was much lower compared to that in the peels of the European (55.9-220.9 ...
... The highest values of TPs-flesh content were measured in the European 'Tuley Dulce', 'Bluefre', and 'Asvestochoriou' and the Japanese cvs 'Red Ace' and 'Black Amber'. Similar values of TPs-flesh content have been found in other European (61-181 in Cosmulescu et al. [11]) and Japanese plum cvs (38-313 in Wolf et al. [18]; 22.0-76.9 in Gil et al. [8]). ...
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Herein, we studied the variation in leaf and fruit morphological traits and antioxidant contents in 43 local and foreign cultivars (cvs) grown under the same experimental conditions in the widely cultivated plum species Prunus domestica and Prunus salicina. The peel contribution of fruit bioactive compounds in a serving portion, correlations among the examined parameters, and group patterns in each plum species were also studied. The species and cvs were sufficiently separated. Compared to Japanese cvs, European cvs had less elongated leaves and smaller and sweeter fruit with less total phenol and antioxidant capacities. The Japanese cvs ‘Red ace’ and the widely grown ‘Black Amber’, together with the European ‘Tuleu Dulce’, ‘BlueFre’, and the landrace ‘Asvestochoriou’ make up groups with rich dietary sources of phytochemicals. The peel tissue contained higher total phenols and antioxidant capacities compared to the flesh, while the peel/flesh ratios varied widely among the cvs (6.6-fold). The variation in the antioxidant contents was lower among the cvs calculated per serving portion (3.7-fold); yet the peel tissue contribution was equal to that of the flesh (48.6%), signifying its high nutritive value. We observed increased sweetness in the fruit in the later-harvested cultivars, while cvs with more blue- and red-colored peel generally contained higher antioxidant contents mainly in the European plums. Moreover, larger fruit sizes were positively correlated with larger and more elliptic leaf shapes. In conclusion, the significant role of the genotype and the peel tissue as a source of bioactive compounds in plums were outlined with prospects of utilization in future breeding programs.
... Several works demonstrated that they are rich in natural bioactive compounds. It is found that walnut husk has high phenolic content (Cosmulescu et al. 2015) [3] . With the increase demand of bioactive compounds in plants influences the use of novel extraction methods. ...
... Several works demonstrated that they are rich in natural bioactive compounds. It is found that walnut husk has high phenolic content (Cosmulescu et al. 2015) [3] . With the increase demand of bioactive compounds in plants influences the use of novel extraction methods. ...
Article
Walnut hull is considered as agricultural waste which is considered as the rich sources of bio colorant and bio active compounds. Bio colorant can be used as food additive to replace synthectic dyes and colorants. At present, colorant extraction is done by utilizing hot water for a long duration of time which is a time-consuming process. However, it is verified that Ultrasonication lessens the extraction time and maximize yield as compared to the traditional method in use. Identifying the capability of Ultrasound assistance in extraction, this research emphasizes on bio colorant extraction using walnut hull as raw material. Walnut hull converted into the powdered form was utilized for extraction of biocolorant. It was extracted with different combinations of Ultrasound Power (150, 200,250 W), treatment time (10, 20, 30 mins), solvent volume (20, 30, 40 ml/g) and particle size (150, 300, 450 µm).As a result, the highest yield of 49.76% was attained at the Ultrasound power of 200 W Ultrasound Time of 20 Minutes, solvent volume 1:20 and particle size 150µm. The research confirms that utilizing Ultrasound enhanced yield and also saves sufficient amount of time and energy.
... These fruits are commonly consumed as edible fruits and have a relatively high demand in the market [1][2][3][4][5]. These fruits are rich sources of polyphenols, carotenoids, vitamins (A, E, C, and folate), and dietary fiber, which are considered vital constituents responsible for their positive health properties [6][7][8][9]. Polyphenols are one of the main groups of phytochemicals and are present in a diverse range of plants including fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, among others [10]. Previously, many studies have characterized the polyphenolic composition of peaches, pears, and plums and reported numerous phenolic and flavonoid classes [9][10][11][12][13]. ...
... The concentrations of TTC in our 3Ps (pears, plums, and peaches) samples were less than many fruits and vegetables. In addition, most of the previous studies have not reported any TTC in these fruits [7,9,[27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35]. One of the reasons might be attributed to the different fruit cultivars, extraction methods, type of material (fresh or dry), seasons, varying cultivation, harvesting, and processing conditions, etc. ...
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The present research presents a comprehensive characterization of polyphenols from peach, pear, and plum using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS), followed by the determination of their antioxidant potential. Plums showed the highest total phenolic content (TPC; 0.62 mg GAE/g), while peaches showed the highest total flavonoid content (TFC; 0.29 mg QE/g), also corresponding to their high scavenging activities (i.e., DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and TAC). In all three fruit samples, a total of 51 polyphenolic compounds were tentatively identified and were mainly characterized from hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, hydroxyphenylpentanoic acids, flavanols, flavonols, and isoflavonoids subclasses. Twenty targeted phenolic compounds were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA). The plum cultivar showed the highest content of phenolic acids (chlorogenic acid, 11.86 mg/100 g), whereas peach samples showed the highest concentration of flavonoids (catechin, 7.31 mg/100 g), as compared to pear. Based on these findings, the present research contributes and complements the current characterization data of these fruits presented in the literature, as well as ensures and encourages the utilization of these fruits in different food, feed, and nutraceutical industries.
... On the other hand, previous literature reports on the total phenolic contents for plums indicated values for the whole fruits varying between 18.82 to 25.58 mg GAE/g DW for French cultivars [10], and from 1.38 to 7.61 mg GAE/g FW [11,12] for Japanese and European cultivars. Other studies showed TPC values ranging between 85.2 and 773 mg GAE/100 g FW [13][14][15] for the skins of Spanish and Romanian plum cultivars, while our results indicate values between 161 and 631 mg GAE/100 g FW, which are within the range when comparing them with these studies. In respect to the flesh, previous reports have shown TPC values varying from 36.4 to 180.8 mg GAE/100 g FW for European cultivars [13,14], while Costa Rican plum values are higher, ranging from 91.1 to 323 mg GAE/100 g FW. ...
... Other studies showed TPC values ranging between 85.2 and 773 mg GAE/100 g FW [13][14][15] for the skins of Spanish and Romanian plum cultivars, while our results indicate values between 161 and 631 mg GAE/100 g FW, which are within the range when comparing them with these studies. In respect to the flesh, previous reports have shown TPC values varying from 36.4 to 180.8 mg GAE/100 g FW for European cultivars [13,14], while Costa Rican plum values are higher, ranging from 91.1 to 323 mg GAE/100 g FW. Finally, a report for plum leaf extracts from Romanian cultivars showed values from 82.84-139.67 mg GAE/g extract [16], which is lower than our results for the skin and flesh of Costa Rican plum fruits extracted under neutral PLE conditions ranging between 319.9 and 801.6 mg GAE/g extract. ...
Article
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There is an increased interest in plum research because of their metabolites’ potential bioactivities. In this study, the phenolic profiles of Prunus domestica commercial cultivars (Methley, Pisardii and Satsuma) in Costa Rica were determined by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with High Resolution Mass Spectrometry using a quadrupole-time-of-flight analyzer (UPLC-ESI-QTOF MS) on enriched phenolic extracts obtained through Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) under acidic and neutral extraction conditions. In total, 41 different phenolic compounds were identified in the skin and flesh extracts, comprising 11 flavan-3-ols, 14 flavonoids and 16 hydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives. Neutral extractions for the skins and flesh from all of the cultivars yielded a larger number of compounds, and were particularly rich in the number of procyanidin trimers and tetramers when compared to the acid extractions. The total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant potential using the DPPH and ORAC methods exhibited better results for neutral extracts with Satsuma skins and Methley flesh, which showed the best values (685.0 and 801.6 mg GAE/g extract; IC50 = 4.85 and 4.39 µg/mL; and 12.55 and 12.22 mmol TE/g extract, respectively). A Two-Way ANOVA for cytotoxicity towards AGS gastric adenocarcinoma and SW620 colon adenocarcinoma indicated a significant difference (p < 0.05) for PLE conditions, with better results for neutral extractions, with Satsuma skin delivering the best results (IC50 = 60.7 and 46.7 µg/mL respectively) along with Methley flesh (IC50 = 76.3 and 60.9 µg/mL, respectively). In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between TPC and ORAC (r = 0.929, p < 0.05), as well as a significant negative correlation (p < 0.05) between TPC and cytotoxicity towards AGS and SW620 cell lines (r = −0.776, and −0.751, respectively). A particularly high, significant, negative correlation (p < 0.05) was found between the number of procyanidins and cytotoxicity against the AGS (r = −0.868) and SW620 (r = −0.855) cell lines. Finally, the PCA clearly corroborated that neutral extracts are a more homogenous group exhibiting higher antioxidant and cytotoxic results regardless of the part or cultivar; therefore, our findings suggest that PLE extracts under neutral conditions would be of interest for further studies on their potential health benefits.
... Another way to exploit chokeberry benefits is the introduction of mashes or powders obtained from dehydrated fruits into pastry or dairy products [17][18][19][20][21][22]. A series of studies [2,23] has shown that the epicarp of fruits represents an antioxidant source. Moreover, according to Ahmed et al. [24], the epicarp of fruits represents a richer antioxidant source compared to their mesocarp and, through the pressing process of chokeberry fruits, the pomace, rich in active principles, is obtained [25]. ...
Article
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This paper’s aim was to study how the antioxidant activity and the level of certain phenolic complexes and carotenoids vary in the pomace obtained from the fruits of two cultivars of chokeberry at different times of harvest after reaching the stage of maturity. The influence of the cultivar, harvest moment, and the combined effect of these two factors on the antioxidant activity and the dehydrated pomace content in components with antioxidant potentials, such as total phenolics, total tannins, total flavonoids, lycopene, and β-carotene was analyzed. The methanolic extract from the pomace obtained from the ‘Melrom’ cultivar had the highest efficiency (92.14 ± 5.02%). The antiradical activity of the pomace was maximal (93.27 ± 4.32%) after the middle of the harvest season (3 September). The pomace obtained from the ‘Nero’ cultivar displayed superior levels of phenolic content (13,030.16 ± 1414.46 mg/100 g), flavonoids (4627.83 ± 509.63 mg CE/100 g), tannins (7458.56 ± 529.43 mg/100 g), and lycopene (1.171 ± 0.388 mg/100 g). The ‘Melrom’ cultivar presented superior content of β-carotene (0.313 ± 0.07 mg/100 g). On average, a positive significant correlation between radical scavenging activity with total phenolic content and β-carotene was observed. The combined cultivar × harvest moment effect was reflected in the variations in the total tannins content and the total flavonoid content, but also in the antiradical activity of the methanolic extracts. Dehydrated pomace from chokeberry fruit can be an important source of antioxidant biological compounds and can be used to make innovative foods.
... For example, the level of TFC in fresh plums ranged between 64.8 and 257.5 mg 100 g -1 expressed as catechin equivalents (Kim et al. 2003b) or between 118 and 237 mg CE 100 g -1 fresh sample for European plums (Kim et al. 2003a). In addition, Cosmulescu et al. (2015) reported that the TFC in skin was 18.7 times higher than that in pulp and 9.6 times higher than that in the whole fruit. ...
Article
Vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality attributes and antioxidant activity of ‘Angeleno’, ‘T.C. Sun’ and ‘Black Amber’ Japanese plum cultivars were studied over a 7-year period after planting. The experiment was performed in the Prislonica village (Cˇ acˇak, Serbia), on a sandy-loam and acidic soil and moderate climate. The cultivars were grafted on Myrobalan rootstock and grown under a high density planting system with 1250 trees ha–1. Significant differences in parameters evaluated such as tree vigour, productivity, fruit physical traits, chemical composition and antioxidant activity were examined between cultivars. The highest tree vigour (TCSA) was observed in ‘Angeleno’, final yield per tree in ‘Black Amber’ and cumulative yield and yield efficiency in ‘T.C. Sun’. In general, the best physical properties were found in ‘Black Amber’ and ‘T.C. Sun’. ‘Angeleno’ showed the highest soluble solids content (SSC), whereas ‘Black Amber’ had the highest titratable acidity (TA). ‘Angeleno’ and ‘T.C. Sun’ had similar and better ripening index than ‘Black Amber’. However, ‘Black Amber’ was the cultivar with the statistically higher total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity (TAC) compared to the other two plums. The flesh rate (FRa) significantly and positively correlated with TA and TAC, whereas negative correlation was observed between SSC and TFC. The most important variables integrated in the first principal component (PC1) were yield per tree, FRa, flesh firmness, SSC, TA, ripening index, TPC, TFC and TAC, whereas PC2 explains TCSA, fruit weight and fruit shape index (sphericity).
... For example, the level of TFC in fresh plums ranged between 64.8 and 257.5 mg 100 g -1 expressed as catechin equivalents (Kim et al. 2003b) or between 118 and 237 mg CE 100 g -1 fresh sample for European plums (Kim et al. 2003a). In addition, Cosmulescu et al. (2015) reported that the TFC in skin was 18.7 times higher than that in pulp and 9.6 times higher than that in the whole fruit. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vegetative growth, yield, fruit quality attributes and antioxidant activity of ‘Angeleno’, ‘T.C. Sun’ and ‘Black Amber’ Japanese plum cultivars were studied over a 7‑year period after planting. The experiment was performed in the Prislonica village (Čačak, Serbia), on a sandy-loam and acidic soil and moderate climate. The cultivars were grafted on Myrobalan rootstock and grown under a high density planting system with 1250 trees ha⁻¹. Significant differences in parameters evaluated such as tree vigour, productivity, fruit physical traits, chemical composition and antioxidant activity were examined between cultivars. The highest tree vigour (TCSA) was observed in ‘Angeleno’, final yield per tree in ‘Black Amber’ and cumulative yield and yield efficiency in ‘T.C. Sun’. In general, the best physical properties were found in ‘Black Amber’ and ‘T.C. Sun’. ‘Angeleno’ showed the highest soluble solids content (SSC), whereas ‘Black Amber’ had the highest titratable acidity (TA). ‘Angeleno’ and ‘T.C. Sun’ had similar and better ripening index than ‘Black Amber’. However, ‘Black Amber’ was the cultivar with the statistically higher total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity (TAC) compared to the other two plums. The flesh rate (FRa) significantly and positively correlated with TA and TAC, whereas negative correlation was observed between SSC and TFC. The most important variables integrated in the first principal component (PC1) were yield per tree, FRa, flesh firmness, SSC, TA, ripening index, TPC, TFC and TAC, whereas PC2 explains TCSA, fruit weight and fruit shape index (sphericity).
... [25] As a consequence, the antiradical potency of I. graveolens extracts correlated to the concentration of total polyphenols. [22,26] The results obtained for the inhibition of β-carotene oxidation were moderate to weak and there was no correlation with the high polyphenols contents. This may be explained by the nonpolar nature of β-carotene/linoleic acid system showing higher reactivity with lipophilic compounds. ...
Article
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The biological activities of the Inula graveolens salt marsh coast flora in the region of Chebba (Tunisia) salt marsh were screened. Total polyphenols (TPP), flavonoids (TF), and proanthocyanidins (TPC) contents were determined and the correlation between the phytochemistry with the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-enzymatic activities was assessed. The polyphenols in the solvent extracts suggested that salinity stress enhance the production of bioactive compounds. Antiradical activities and a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitory power were observed.
Article
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Suitability of ecological factors is the most important factor affecting the productivity of agricultural activities. Sensitivity of the phytochemical characteristics that are direct the product quality to the changing environmental conditions is very high. In the present study, how climate change depending on the altitude change affects phytochemical properties in plum cultivars ‘Friar’ and ‘Fortune’ fruits which were harvested at two different altitudes (200 m and 800 m a.b.s.), during two consecutive years (2017 and 2018) was investigated. In addition, under environmental and genotype modeling, genetic parameters of the properties were determined. In line with the obtained results from the study, it was determined that the phytochemical characteristics varied parallel to the altitude change within the same latitude. Generally, amount of individual phenolic compounds and organic acids were increased with altitude increase while general phytochemical characteristics such as total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were decreased. Heritabilities of general characteristics were found lower, due to high difference between genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV) and phenotypic coefficient of variation (PCV) than organic and phenolic acids. Ranking of organic acids in both altitudes was found as malic acid> acetic acid> oxalic acid> ascorbic acid in both cultivars. In terms of phenolic acids, a stable order could not be determined while chlorogenic acid has come to the front in both cultivars. Since cultivar/location interactions found significant according to bi-plot segregation, investigating the changes at genotype level would be more accurate.
Article
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Fruits from twelve plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L.), were analyzed in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. The fruits trees were grown in a trial at University of Craiova - Fruit Growing Research Station (SCDP) Valcea, which is located in Bujoreni, an important Romanian plum production area. Fruits were picked at harvest maturity. Several analyzes were performed, such as fruit linear dimensions, size index, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanins, malic, tartaric and citric acids content. The best features in terms of physical and chemical properties proved to be found in 'Alina', 'Alutus', 'Tuleu Timpuriu', 'Oltenal' and 'Renclod Althan'.
Article
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Walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husk is a by-product of the walnut production that has many phytochemicals, but there is little information about its antioxidative capacity. In this study Antioxidant activity and protective effects in stabilizing sunflower oil of methanolic extract of Persian walnut (Juglans regia L.) green husk were studied. Total flavonoids and phenolics also were determined by using aluminum nitrate and Folin–Ciocalteu colorimetric methods and their amount were 144.65±2.1 mg quercetin and 3428.11±135.80 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 gram of dry sample respectively. The antioxidant capacity of sample was assessed through reducing power assay, DPPH-scavenging effect, FRAP assay and oven test in sunflower oil. EC50 values of extract in reducing power and DPPH assays were 0.19 and 0.18 mg/mL respectively. The FRAP values of extract and Trolox at concentration of 100 μg/mL didn’t show any significant difference (P>0.05). The 400 ppm extract was as effective as 200 ppm BHA in retarding sunflower oil deterioration at 600C. The results indicated that Persian walnut green husk as a noticeable source of antioxidant compounds can usefully add to food.
Article
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Fruits of plum 'Stanley' were analysed for total anthocyanins, total phenolics and antioxidant capacity over three successive harvest years. Fresh fruits were harvested five times per year. The total anthocyanins content ranged from 5 to 57 mg/100 g, expressed as cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents, on a fresh-weight basis. The anthocyanin concentrations were higher in fruits of successive harvesting dates, meaning that anthocyanin accumulation seemed to occur constantly during fruit development and ripening. The total phenolic content was within the range of 70 to 214 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh weight. The highest concentrations of anthocyanins and phenolics were observed in plum fruits harvested in 2009, which is most likely due to the favourable weather conditions. The free radical galvinoxyl was used to evaluate antioxidant capacity of plum fruits. The total antioxidant capacity of fresh fruits, expressed as the rate constant k1', ranged from 0.950 to 3.010 s-1. Antioxidant capacity also strongly depended on ripening stage, showing completely opposite trend compared to that of total phenolics. Since total phenolics and antioxidant capacity performed nearly 'object and its reflection in the mirror' trend, consequently the lowest antioxidant capacity was observed in plum fruits harvested in 2009.
Article
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In this research dry matter, total acids (TA),total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, pH, vitamin C, total phenols, flavonoids, non-flavanoids, natural and total invert, in fresh and dried plums, of two plum cultivar's 'Elena' and 'Bistrica', were investigated. There was significant difference between selected cultivars in fresh and dried fruit. 'Elena' showed higher values of dry matter, TSS, TSS/TA ratio, pH and total invert, while 'Bistrica' had higher values of vitamin C, total phenols, flavonoids and non-flavonoids, total acids and natural invert in fresh and dried fruit. It can be concluded that although 'Elena' obviously has some favorable characteristics, cultivar Bistrica has higher content of antioxidant compounds.
Article
Walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves provide a source of healthy compounds, phenolics, which could be useful for the prevention of diseases in which free radicals are involved. In this study, walnut leaves from 14 different cultivars were studied for their total phenolics contents and anti-oxidant activities. Anti-oxidant activities were evaluated by measuring the scavenging activities of leaf extracts against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The total phenolics contents of the cultivars ranged from 17.7 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) g-1 FW to 39.6 mg GAE g-1 FW. The highest scavenging activities were found in methanol extracts of walnut leaves. Total phenolics contents were highly correlated with anti-oxidant activity (R2= 0.94 - 0.92).
Article
Our objective was to determine the amount of variation in total phenolics and antioxidants present in European plum fruits, so that it can be utilized in breeding programs to enhance the health benefits. Total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of the fruit, and the fruit skin color were determined in 20 genotypes, comprising of released varieties and advanced selections of European plums. Among the 20 genotypes, the total antioxidant capacity ranged from 105 to 424mg ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/100g fresh weight (FW) while the total phenolic content was 86–413mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100g FW. The two parameters had a strong correlation of r2=0.96. A direct correlation between skin color intensity and total phenolic content could also be observed. This study demonstrates that there is adequate variation in total phenolic compounds and antioxidants within European plums and hence there is potential for improvement towards enhancing these health-promoting phytochemicals in this fruit.
Article
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of extractable antioxidants and non-extractable phenolics to the total antioxidant activity (TAA) of plums. Therefore, the antioxidant activity was determined (ABTS assay) in aqueous–organic extracts, as well as in the extraction residues which were a subject of two different acidic treatments to release hydrolysable tannins and non-extractable proanthocyanidins (NEPA). In addition, the changes in TAA during the last week of ripening were investigated. Extractable antioxidants contributed less than 18% to the TAA, considerably higher values of antioxidant activity were associated with hydrolysable tannins and NEPA, suggesting that the antioxidant activity of plums may be underestimated in the literature. The ripening resulted in an increase of TAA up to 38% in excess of the value determined on the first sampling date. TAA showed a similar pattern over the ripening period for all cultivars studied.
Article
The phenolic compounds of 25 peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars were studied and quantified by HPLC−DAD−ESIMS. Hydroxycinnamates, procyanidins, flavonols, and anthocyanins were detected and quantified. White and yellow flesh nectarines and peaches, and yellow and red plums, were analyzed at two different maturity stages with consideration of both peel and flesh tissues. HPLC−MS analyses allowed the identification of procyanidin dimers of the B- and A-types, as well as the presence of procyanidin trimers in plums. As a general rule, the peel tissues contained higher amounts of phenolics, and anthocyanins and flavonols were almost exclusively located in this tissue. No clear differences in the phenolic content of nectarines and peaches were detected or between white flesh and yellow flesh cultivars. There was no clear trend in phenolic content with ripening of the different cultivars. Some cultivars, however, had a very high phenolic content. For example, the white flesh nectarine cultivar Brite Pearl (350−460 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 430−550 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and the yellow flesh cv. Red Jim (180−190 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 210−330 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh), contained 10 times more phenolics than cultivars such as Fire Pearl (38−50 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 23−30 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh). Among white flesh peaches, cultivars Snow King (300−320 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 660−695 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) and Snow Giant (125−130 mg/kg hydroxycinnamates and 520−540 mg/kg procyanidins in flesh) showed the highest content. The plum cultivars Black Beaut and Angeleno were especially rich in phenolics. Keywords: Nectarine; peach; plum; Prunus persica; P. salicina; Rosaceae; phenolics; polyphenols; flavan-3-ols, hydroxycinnamates; flavonols; anthocyanins; HPLC−MS
Article
The paper presents a description of chemical characteristics of selected cultivars and subspecies of plum trees (Prunus domestica L.). Traditional commercial cultivars were compared with typical regional cultivars originating from the same locality of the White Carpathian Mountains. In this region, growing and use of specific local cultivars, and processing of fruit for alimentary purposes are a traditional activity which has been performed there for centuries. Regional cultivars showed outstanding nutritional properties, especially as far as the total content of phenolic substances was concerned (3.48–4.95 mg GAE g−1 FM); this parameter was highly correlated with the total antioxidant capacity of the fruit (r2 = 0.893). A higher content of minerals and pectins in some local cultivars was also of interest. This paper demonstrates beneficial properties of some less known but regionally typical European cultivars of plums and contributes to their wider use in breeding practice and also as a potential source of nutrients for human diet.