Introduction Based on both international and national health statistics, accidents from various mechanisms are among the most common causes of death in childhood. Our aim was to examine the first aid and accident prevention knowledge and attitudes of parents. Materials and methods In this study, parents of 3-7 years old children were involved in six kindergartens located in Hungary. A self-fill-in questionnaire applying standardized items was used to collect data. In the investigation, 307 parents (N = 307) were included. Out of them, 234 persons filled out the questionnaire correctly (n = 234). The statistical analysis was made with SPSS 20.0 statistical software. For analysis descriptive statistics, Chi-square-test and ANOVA were used. Results Three-quarters of the children have suffered at least one accident in their past life (74.3%). A total number of 174 parents attended first aid courses earlier (74.4%). The previous knowledge is based mainly on the personal information on their driving license (81.6%). Based on parent's results, there is a need for teaching first aid (70.5%) and accident prevention (89.7%) to children in kindergarten. There were only 10 parents, who answered all the featured first aid situations correctly (4.3%). Between the subjective judgment of the financial status and the correct answers we found a significant correlation (p = 0.03). The previously accomplished first aid training (p < 0.05) and the educational attainment (p = 0.029) had a positive impact regarding the correct answers. Conclusion The level of first aid knowledge among the parents of kindergarten children was lower than expected. With an offer to participate in a first aid course the level of knowledge from both sides (children and parents) could be increased. This could contribute to a better accident prevention and first aid practice among parents. © 2015 Faculty of Health and Social Studies of University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice.