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Abstract

Introduction Based on both international and national health statistics, accidents from various mechanisms are among the most common causes of death in childhood. Our aim was to examine the first aid and accident prevention knowledge and attitudes of parents. Materials and methods In this study, parents of 3-7 years old children were involved in six kindergartens located in Hungary. A self-fill-in questionnaire applying standardized items was used to collect data. In the investigation, 307 parents (N = 307) were included. Out of them, 234 persons filled out the questionnaire correctly (n = 234). The statistical analysis was made with SPSS 20.0 statistical software. For analysis descriptive statistics, Chi-square-test and ANOVA were used. Results Three-quarters of the children have suffered at least one accident in their past life (74.3%). A total number of 174 parents attended first aid courses earlier (74.4%). The previous knowledge is based mainly on the personal information on their driving license (81.6%). Based on parent's results, there is a need for teaching first aid (70.5%) and accident prevention (89.7%) to children in kindergarten. There were only 10 parents, who answered all the featured first aid situations correctly (4.3%). Between the subjective judgment of the financial status and the correct answers we found a significant correlation (p = 0.03). The previously accomplished first aid training (p < 0.05) and the educational attainment (p = 0.029) had a positive impact regarding the correct answers. Conclusion The level of first aid knowledge among the parents of kindergarten children was lower than expected. With an offer to participate in a first aid course the level of knowledge from both sides (children and parents) could be increased. This could contribute to a better accident prevention and first aid practice among parents. © 2015 Faculty of Health and Social Studies of University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice.

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... The current study finding also showed that less than half of orphaned children were exposed to electric shock, while less than one-third to food poisoning, these results are corresponding with that of Ahmed (2016) [1], who in a descriptive study on "Home Accidents and Associated Factors among Children Less Than Five Years Old in Sudan". In this respect, Bánfai et al. (2015) [14], studied "Accident prevention and first aid knowledge among preschool children's parents" in Hungary, and Mohammed et al. (2013) [17], who studied "Supportive Strategies Regarding Accidents' Prevention for Mothers of Children under Five Years Old", all of them their results showed that less than half of children was exposed to electric shock and food poisoning. From the researchers' opinions, these findings may be due to the environment which isn't safe for children and caregivers who are not supervising them well or it might be attributed to the number of children which is not suitable to that of the caregivers so, they cannot follow up well all children. ...
... The current study finding also showed that less than half of orphaned children were exposed to electric shock, while less than one-third to food poisoning, these results are corresponding with that of Ahmed (2016) [1], who in a descriptive study on "Home Accidents and Associated Factors among Children Less Than Five Years Old in Sudan". In this respect, Bánfai et al. (2015) [14], studied "Accident prevention and first aid knowledge among preschool children's parents" in Hungary, and Mohammed et al. (2013) [17], who studied "Supportive Strategies Regarding Accidents' Prevention for Mothers of Children under Five Years Old", all of them their results showed that less than half of children was exposed to electric shock and food poisoning. From the researchers' opinions, these findings may be due to the environment which isn't safe for children and caregivers who are not supervising them well or it might be attributed to the number of children which is not suitable to that of the caregivers so, they cannot follow up well all children. ...
... Regarding informal caregivers' knowledge concerning home accidents, the current study results revealed that, majority of caregivers had an incorrect or correct incomplete answer at pretest about meaning, causes, types, and prevention of home accidents, while their knowledge related the same items were improved post program. These results are consistent with those of Bánfai et al. (2015) [14], who found that, mothers' knowledge related to home accidents improved post program than pre. At the same line, Hassan et al. (2017) [15] showed that, and majority of caregivers had poor knowledge regarding home accidents preprogram, but their knowledge was improved post program. . ...
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Background: Home accidents are a major problem among children which cause injuries and death in young children. Many home accidents are preventable through increasing caregivers´ awareness and safe the home condition. Aim: To evaluate the effect of an educational program for informal caregivers about home accident prevention. Design: A quasi-experimental design was used. Setting: The study was conducted at all orphan homes in Helwan District, these were (El Sayeda Nafessa Orphan Home; Coptic Ladies' House for Orphans Care; Evangelical Care Foundation; Dar Al Wafaa and Shefaa Orphans Care; and Al-Ma'sara Marine Society Development. Sample: All the informal caregivers working in previously mentioned settings were included in the study (32 persons). Tools of data collection: Two tools were used to collect data: The first tool was a constructed interviewing questionnaire for assessing the demographic characteristics of informal caregivers and their knowledge, attitudes, and reported practices related to accident prevention among preschool children. The second tool was an observation checklist to assess hazards in an indoor environment of orphanage home. Results: Knowledge total score pre educational program was 9.19±3.458, while post educational program it was 16.17±2.373, and reported practice total score was 15.5748±4.523 preprogram, while post educational program, it was 39.8542±3.111, as well, attitude total score before the program was 19.2348±6.18010, while after program, it was 37.5223±4.88085 with highly statistically significant differences between pre–and post-educational program. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the educational program improved the informal caregivers´ knowledge, reported practices and attitudes, regarding home accident prevention among preschool children in orphanages. Recommendation: there is need for further educational programs about home accidents prevention for caregivers in different community settings in order to generalize the results
... Both children and adults are susceptible to and affected by injuries. However, children and infants are a higher risk of experiencing injuries due to their age characteristics (Banfai et al, 2015). Injury is one of the leading causes of death and disability among children worldwide (Peden et al, 2008). ...
... Understanding the risk factors of injury is one the primary goals in helping prevent it. Unintentional injuries are highly preventable, and caregivers therefore have a great responsibility to protect children from injury due to accidents (Banfai et al, 2015). The most common types of unintentional injuries that occur in homes or day-care centres include falls, burns, drowning and poisoning (Peden et al, 2008;Banfai et al, 2015). ...
... Unintentional injuries are highly preventable, and caregivers therefore have a great responsibility to protect children from injury due to accidents (Banfai et al, 2015). The most common types of unintentional injuries that occur in homes or day-care centres include falls, burns, drowning and poisoning (Peden et al, 2008;Banfai et al, 2015). ...
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Injuries among children are one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The need for out-of-home care for children has increased substantially due to the recent increase of female participation in the work force. All children deserve the right to a safe environment and therefore caregivers given the task of caring for children in day-care centres must be qualified and able to protect them from injury. This study is aimed to identify the knowledge of caregivers that affect safety and injury prevention in licensed day-care centres in Malaysia. A cross-sectional study design was carried out among 399 participants in licensed day-care centres in a total of 12 districts across Putrajaya and Selangor. Stratified random sampling method was used to collect information on socio-demographic, socioeconomic factors through the use of validated self-constructed, self-administered questionnaires between September 2015 and May 2016. Only caregivers who were in direct contact with children were eligible to participate in the study. Data was analyzed using, descriptive, bivariate and multivariate data analysis by SPSS™ (version 21). The analysis was carried out using Chi-square test and Multiple Logistic Regression. The study response rate was 89.47%. Caregivers were found to have a mean knowledge score of 66.33 ± 0.57. Significant predictors of knowledge were caregivers who had an education level of SPM or less (AOR=3.487, 95% CI 2.19-5.55), caregivers under the age of 25 (AOR=0.119, 95% CI 1.19-4.67), and caregivers who were unmarried (AOR= 2.077, 95% CI 1.126-3.828). In conclusion, we can increase awareness of the factors that affect knowledge for the prevention of injury among caregivers in day-care centres. This information can help us hire well-equipped caregivers and build safer day-care centres for children.
... The significance of variation in our research is thought to be higher as we collect the research from different groups of the population, including parents, siblings, etc., not only parents (i.e., mother and father) as the Hungarian study. [18] Second, regarding the accommodation, although villas, in general, have more hazards than flats and thus need to be more secure, we find that people who live in villas have a lower knowledge and practice score than those who live in flats (P value < 0.001). It might be due to parents' busy lifestyle which affects the quality of their knowledge or time spent checking the safety measures at their homes thus the practice of safety measures, or maybe due to limited hazards in flats, which make it easier to be aware of all hazards and take the proper measures of prevention. ...
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Background: Unintentional injury to children at home is a public health problem and it is a significant cause of death and disabilities. It accounts for 40% of all child deaths. To our knowledge, there have been no similar studies done on Arabic countries that show the prevalence of home injuries among children. Aim: We aimed to assess the adults' knowledge and attitude toward child safety at home in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,301 participants, during August 2017, who are older than 18 years old and have at least one child in the family. Data were collected by an online questionnaire assessing the believes, knowledge, and behavior of the participants. Analysis was carried out using IBM SPSS Software version 21, using descriptive analysis, t-test, and one-way ANOVA. Results: It was found that gender, age, marital status, employment status, and the type of accommodation played key roles in the awareness of children safety at home, the study showed that females and age group above 25, married, employees, and those who lived in flats had more awareness than the other groups, respectively. Conclusion: The majority of the population had good awareness about children's safety at home. Despite the good level of awareness, more public health education is recommended to improve the awareness and the prevention methods of these injuries.
... Most simulation studies included healthcare providers and did not address the infant OHCA cardiac arrest. However, some studies have shown that knowledge of first aid management was a predictor of parents' self-efficacy in infant CPR skills (25,26). The present study showed the benefits of SBT combined with didactics corresponding to mastery training as previously reported (27) and demonstrated the ability of SBT to improve CPR performance even in lay people such as nursery assistants (13,21,(28)(29)(30). ...
Article
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Background: Child cardiac arrest is rare, but more frequent among infants, requiring immediate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Many studies have reported that simulation-based training (SBT) increased CPR performance of healthcare providers. However, the CPR performance of laypeople using basic life support remains poorly known. The aim of this study was to assess nursery assistants' (non-healthcare providers) CPR performance and knowledge, before and after SBT. Methods: The study was carried out from January to June 2018 in the city of Poitiers, France. Two teaching sessions (T1 and T2) and two evaluation sessions (E1 and E2) were performed. Performance in infant CPR on a manikin at E1 and E2 were videotaped and assessed automatically with Resusci Baby QCPR® and a SimPad PLUS SkillReporter (QCPR Global Score and skills) and by an observer using an original CPR performance checklist (MCPR Global-Score and skills). Nursery assistant's CPR knowledge was assessed by a questionnaire at the beginning and the end of the session T1, E1, and E2. Results: Twenty-Seven nursery assistants over 30 contacted were included. There was an improvement between E1 and E2 in QCPR Global-Score (E1: 42.4 ± 23.6 vs. E2: 55.1 ± 23.7%, p = 0.032), MCPR Global-Score (E1: 50.0+11.9 vs. E2: 72.3+8.5%; p < 0.001) and theoretical knowledge with score (over 45) of 16.9+5.4 before T1 and 35.2+2.7 after E2, respectively (p < 0.001). The improvement mainly concerned QCPR and MCPR compression steps scores. MCPR Global-Score was strongly correlated to QCPR Global-Score (r = 0.61; p < 0.01) and predictive to CPR quality determined by QCPR Global-Score (AUC = 0.77; p < 0.01) with a high sensitivity and negative predictive values. Moreover, these improvements were maintained 2 months after training with no difference between scores obtained by the three groups 15, 30, or 60 days after simulation-based training session T2. Conclusion: SBT could significantly improve knowledge and skills in infant CPR management by nursery assistants especially for chest compression. CPR performance checklist appeared as an interesting tool to assess CPR performance quality.
... One of the most important functions of the family is the preventive role. This role is highlighted by the family's provision of a comprehensive and viable education and nurturing (Bánfai et al., 2015). The preventive role of the family is to detect imbalances that can affect one of its children, as early as possible, and assist them in future treatment and prevention (Townsend & Choi, 2014). ...
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The aim of this study was to identify the impact of family adherence to preventive measures on protecting children aged 2 to 4 years from accidents inside and outside the home in the southern governorates of Jordan. The researcher was used descriptive approach design, as the sample of the study was 1200 mothers who have children aged 2-4 years in the southern governorates of Jordan (Karak, Tafilah, Ma'an and Aqaba). The study discussed the main accidents that a child may be exposed to including burning, suffocation, fall, poisoning, drowning, electrical, and other accidents such as road traffic accidents, glass-related accidents, sharp tools accidents, and strangulation including blind cords. The results revealed that most women were found to have poor knowledge regarding children accidents prevention. In addition, the result showed that there were a significant differences between the training course and the mother education on the protection of children aged 2 to 4 years from accidents in the southern governorates. Moreover, the results showed that the age of mother has an impact difference were the younger mothers were more follow the prevention measures in the protection of children. The resulte revealed that "Other Accidents (road traffic, glass-related, sharp tools and strangulation including blind cords)" was high scour between the seven accidents among the mothers on the southern governorates of Jordan. The researcher recommended that the importance of educating mothers about the need to adhere to preventive measures to protect children from accidents that may occur inside and outside the home.
... [5] Recent literature reported that the home accidents, incidents, and injuries can be successfully prevented or at least became less serious. [5][6][7] As there is no clear view regarding the level of awareness and knowledge about first aid measures among parents in Al-Madinah city, this study was carried out to assess the knowledge and practice of first aid among parents attending PHCs in Al-Madinah city, 2017. ...
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BACKGROUND: Rapid and right intervention of parents can limit disability and increase the chances of survival of the injured child and make a big difference in the outcome. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge and practice of first aid among parents attending PHCs in Al-Madinah city, 2017. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in governmental primary healthcare centers in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah city (Saudi Arabia) during the year 2017. A representative sample of Saudi parents who live in Madinah and came to family medicine clinic in PHC was included. A pre-validated and self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. RESULTS: The study included 390 parents. More than half of them (55.6%) were males. The age of 40% of them ranged between 31 and 40 years whereas that of 31.5% ranged between 20 and 30 years. Majority of the parents (97.2%) were aware of first aid. The most commonly reported source of information about first aid was mass media (59%). Majority of the parents (93.3%) believe there must be training in first aid, and only 34.6% of them claimed that they attended a training course in first aid. The highest average knowledge percentage was observed regarding the first aid of diabetes mellitus (68.8%), followed by epilepsy (49.7%), incidents (37.5%) and finally injuries/fractures (36.7%). Higher educated parents, those with a moderate number of children (4-6), those reported nurses as the main source of information, those previously attended training in first aid, and those who had experience with incidents among their children expressed higher significantly first aid knowledge compared to their counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: First aid of various illnesses among parents in Al-Madinah city is not satisfactory, particularly regarding incidents, injuries, and fractures. However, the majority of them were willing to attend training courses in first aid at primary healthcare centers.
... [5] Recent literature reported that the home accidents, incidents, and injuries can be successfully prevented or at least became less serious. [5][6][7] As there is no clear view regarding the level of awareness and knowledge about first aid measures among parents in Al-Madinah city, this study was carried out to assess the knowledge and practice of first aid among parents attending PHCs in Al-Madinah city, 2017. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Rapid and right intervention of parents can limit disability and increase the chances of survival of the injured child and make a big difference in the outcome. Objectives The objective of this study is to assess the knowledge and practice of first aid among parents attending PHCs in Al-Madinah city, 2017. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in governmental primary healthcare centers in Al-Madinah Al-Munawwarah city (Saudi Arabia) during the year 2017. A representative sample of Saudi parents who live in Madinah and came to family medicine clinic in PHC was included. A pre-validated and self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Results The study included 390 parents. More than half of them (55.6%) were males. The age of 40% of them ranged between 31 and 40 years whereas that of 31.5% ranged between 20 and 30 years. Majority of the parents (97.2%) were aware of first aid. The most commonly reported source of information about first aid was mass media (59%). Majority of the parents (93.3%) believe there must be training in first aid, and only 34.6% of them claimed that they attended a training course in first aid. The highest average knowledge percentage was observed regarding the first aid of diabetes mellitus (68.8%), followed by epilepsy (49.7%), incidents (37.5%) and finally injuries/fractures (36.7%). Higher educated parents, those with a moderate number of children (4–6), those reported nurses as the main source of information, those previously attended training in first aid, and those who had experience with incidents among their children expressed higher significantly first aid knowledge compared to their counterparts. Conclusions First aid of various illnesses among parents in Al-Madinah city is not satisfactory, particularly regarding incidents, injuries, and fractures. However, the majority of them were willing to attend training courses in first aid at primary healthcare centers.
... In countries with high-quality first aid education outcomes are better (Wissenberg et al., 2013). The majority of the Hungarian population attend first aid training only when acquiring a driver's licence (Bánfai et al., 2015). ...
Article
Objectives First aid programmes should include not only the transfer of knowledge and skills but also improve participants’ helping attitudes. The aim of this study was to evalute the immediate and long-term effects of a 3-day first aid programme for kindergarten children. Methods One hundred and eighteen kindergarten children (5–7 years old) from an inner-city kindergarten located in Pécs, Hungary, were involved in this study between January 2016 and June 2017. Training consisted of three 45-minute sessions involving the transfer of theoretical knowledge and practical skills about first aid. Knowledge, skills and attitudes were assessed by means of a questionnaire developed for the study and through observation. Participants were tested before and immediately after the programme and at 4 and 15 months. Results The majority of children had no prior knowledge in first aid. Knowledge and skills significantly improved immediately after training and remained significantly higher at 4 and 15 months when compared to baseline – calling the ambulance ( p < 0.01), performing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; p < .01), using an automated external defibrillator (AED; p < .01), handling an unconscious patient ( p < .01) and managing bleeding ( p < .01). Attitudes towards first aid improved significantly after the programme ( p < .01) and remained improved after 4 and 15 months when compared to baseline ( p < .01). Conclusion Beginning first aid education in kindergarten can be useful. Children cannot become professional bystanders immediately following training, but the programme can offer an introduction of first aid. However, the results decreased substantially after 15 months so regular refreshing training should be recommended.
... First aid knowledge is influenced by the age of the mothers and on their educational attainment. In a Hungarian study, similar results were found [10]. Unfortunately, plenty of the parents would choose the incorrect treatment for burns (for example putting sour cream on the wound); only a few people knew the correct treatment, which is cooling with cold water [11]. ...
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Objective Basic lifesaving activities should be taught in early childhood to develop helping attitude. Our goal was to teach up-to-date theoretical and practical basic first aid using the method of play for kindergarten children. Methods 51 children visiting kindergarten in two areas of Hungary were involved in the survey, which took place between September and November 2011. The training consisted of two sessions with theoretical and practical games about first aid. As well as the first steps, which concerned how to examine and handle an unconscious patient and how to call an ambulance, the most frequently occurring injuries were also performed in different playful situations. In the third session, children were tested on their skills and a month later they were re-tested. The tests measured the children's problem-solving skills and their basic knowledge about different scenarios requiring first aid. The statistical analysis was made with the SPSS 17.0 software using the Chi-square test and t-test. Results The maximum point score of the test was 38 points. The average point score of the first test was 16.94 points and the second resulted in higher scores (17.5 points). The difference between the results was significant (p < 0.05). The results showed attitudinal differences between boys and girls (p < 0.05). Conclusions 5 and 6 year old kindergarten children can learn the basic concepts, but fewer children are able to act adequately in complex situations. A playful method of teaching first aid can improve children's knowledge and helping attitude.
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INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to teach the risks of home accidents to preschool children (aged 3-5 years old) using a painting method. METHODS: This study was a semi-experimental, single group, pre-test/post-test model. This study was conducted in an institution of preschool education. A total of 87 students were selected from the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old age groups in kindergarten using a simple random sampling method. The "Home environment risk determination form" and home environment "Home picture showing risky situations at home" were used to teach the children in the study. RESULTS: After training, children were found to be significantly more likely to recognize accident risk in their home environment (p<0.001). Generally, recognition of accident risks in all rooms was found to be higher after education. DISCUSSION and CONCLUSION: After training, children are more likely to recognize the risk of home accidents. Information may not always lead to behaviour change, but children’s ability to recognize the risks of accidents was good. To teach children younger than 6 years about protection from home accidents effectively, educational methods appropriate to their cognitive skills should be used.
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One of the most common complaints in Hungary is low back pain, which typically occurs in adulthood, but affects professional dancers as early as during their dance studies. In most cases this is caused by the degenerative deformities of intervertebral discs, decreasing of the intervertebral gap, and dislocations in smaller joints. These issues could also mean the end of a dancer’s career.
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Injuries to children arising from home accidents are an increasing community health concern. The aim of this cross-sectional study in Qalubeya governorate, Egypt was to measure the incidence and types of home injuries affecting rural children aged up to 12 years and to assess their mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) about first aid and its associated factors. An interview questionnaire was completed by 1450 rural mothers. The incidence of home injuries in the previous 4 weeks was 38.3% (57.5% were boys). Cut wounds, falls and fractures, burns, poisoning and foreign body aspiration were the common forms of home injuries. Mothers answered an average of 11.0 (SD 5.3) out of 29 KAP questions correctly. Younger age of mother, higher level of education, higher socioeconomic status, being in paid employment, source of knowledge about first aid and having attended a training course on first aid were significant predictors of better KAP among mothers.
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Children can be the only persons present in an emergency situation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a first aid course for 4-5-year-old kindergarten children given by a first aid instructor and kindergarten teachers. A mixed methods approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods was used to investigate the effects of teaching first aid in the kindergarten in the present study. 10 kindergarten children at the age of 4-5 years were included in a pilot-study, 5 girls and 5 boys. Three of them were four years and seven were five years old. Two months after completion of the first aid course children were tested in a scenario where the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The next seven months the children were followed by participant observation. The findings suggest that 4-5-year-old children are able to learn and apply basic first aid. Tested two months after course completion 70% of the children assessed consciousness correctly and knew the correct emergency telephone number; 60% showed correct assessment of breathing and 40% of the participants accomplished the other tasks (giving correct emergency call information, knowledge of correct recovery position, correct airway management) correctly. Many of the children showed their capabilities to do so in a first aid scenario although some participants showed fear of failure in the test scenario. In an informal group testing most of these children could perform first aid measures, too. Teaching first aid also lead to more active helping behaviour and increased empathy in the children. Kindergarten children aged 4-5 years can learn basic fist aid. First aid training should start in the kindergarten.
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This study was designed and carried out to determine the factors effective on the home safety measures taken by mothers with children in the 0-6 age group and to detect the frequency of home accidents among children in this group. The study was carried out with the participation of 514 mothers who were registered at the H. Ulgen Health Center affiliated with the Directorate of Mamak Health Group. The study data were collected through a questionnaire form and the "Scale for Identification by Mothers of the Safety Measures Taken by Mothers to Prevent Home Accidents in Children in the 0-6 Age Group". It was found that 37.9% of the 0-6 age group children had had a home accident, with "fall" the most common (75.4%). A statistically significant difference was recorded in the mother's total mean score from the scale with respect to the factors of educational status, age, family type, and number of children (p < 0.05).
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Injury is the leading cause of death for children 0- 19 years of age in Europe, accounting for 3.1 deaths per 10 000 children per year. The youngest children of the ages 0-4 years require the most protection in this age group, with 2.5 injury-related deaths per 10 000 children in Europe annually. As parents are the primary caregivers of children, it is necessary to learn more about parents' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours towards child safety. This study presents the findings of a 14-country study in Europe on this theme. A quantitative survey of parents of children aged 5 years or under was performed in 14 EU member states in order to enable better targeting of prevention efforts aimed at educating parents. The total sample size was 2088. The results show that 95% of parents reported that they personally take measures to avoid accidental injury to their children. Their top concern with regard to safety of their children was children being hit by a car. The most common response, when asked why some parents find it difficult to protect their children from accidental injury, was not being able to watch their children constantly. Lack of awareness or knowledge about the causes of accidents was the second response. Two-thirds of parents would like to see more help from the government to prevent childhood injuries. Three-quarters of parents agreed that child injuries can be avoided. It was concluded that parents want to be better informed about the causes of child accidents and about actions they and society can take to reduce injury-related risks to children.
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Although accidental injury is the main factor involved in the death of young children in many countries, few studies have focused on parents' competence with regard to self-efficacy of first aid for their children following injuries occurring at home. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate parental self-sufficiency of first aid for home accidents in children aged 0-4 years. The study is a cross-sectional designed. Data from 445 parents recruited were collected by purposive sampling at eight metropolitan community health centers in central Taiwan. Measurements were taken from a self-developed questionnaire that included 37 questions. Logistic regression analysis was applied to explore the associations between factors and parents' self-efficacy of first aid at home accident. Our findings show that parents' overall rate of knowledge of first aid was 72%. The mean score for 100% certainty in parents' self-efficacy of first aid was 26.6%. The lowest scores for self-efficacy were with regard to choking and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). There was a significantly positive correlation between parents' knowledge and self-efficacy of first aid (p<0.01), and thus knowledge of first aid is a predictor of parents' self-efficacy. Knowledge of first aid is also a partly mediator between participants' attending first aid program, participants' first aid information obtained from health personnel and self-efficacy of first aid. Our findings suggest that medical services should provide first aid resources to help manage accidental injuries involving children, particularly information on how to deal with choking and CPR. With an appropriate program provided by health professionals, parents' self-efficacy of first aid for home accidents will be positively enhanced.
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First aid measures can be life-saving. Starting first aid education early may strengthen interest, motivation and ability to provide first aid. To determine if a first aid teaching program including 5 lessons (45 min each) of theoretical and practical training for 6-7-year-old children can influence their performance in a first aid scenario. 228 primary school children at the age of 6-7 years were included in the study, 102 girls and 126 boys. One child was 5 years old. 117 children were taught basic first aid measures and 111 without training served as control group. In the test scenario the children had to provide first aid to an unconscious victim after a cycle accident. The course participants were retested after 6 months. Statistically significant differences between course participants compared to those without training could be shown for all tested subjects, including correct assessment of consciousness (p<0.001), correct assessment of breathing (p<0.001), knowledge of the correct emergency telephone number (p<0.001), giving correct emergency call information (p<0.001), knowledge of correct recovery position (p<0.001), correct airway management (p<0.001). Retesting after 6 months showed statistically significant differences for 5 of 6 tested items. 6-7-Year-old children can give basic first aid to an unconscious patient. A course with 5 lessons leads to a significant increase in first aid knowledge and skills. Knowledge retention is good after 6 months. All primary school children should receive first aid training starting in first grade.
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If accidents cannot be prevented or ameliorated by protective devices, good first aid is essential to reduce the further effects of an injury. This paper highlights deficiencies in first aid knowledge among a random selection of the general population in Edinburgh. The results of this study indicate that first aid knowledge is generally deficient, with only 13% of people able to correctly treat all paediatric emergencies described. Recognised first aid courses, such as those run by voluntary agencies, focus their training on adult injuries, adapting care for children from this. There is no specific paediatric first aid course run by a recognised authority. Recommendations to improve this are made.
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Life-supporting first-aid (LFSA) training in primary schools might prove a useful means of increasing cardiac arrest survival rates. We thus studied the feasibility of introducing first-aid training to 6-7-year old primary school children. During 1 week medical students and emergency physicians provided LSFA training to 47 first- and second-year pupils, including semi-automatic defibrillation. A course assessment was made using cartoon-style questionnaires for the pupils, video tapes of the training and telephone interviews with the children's parents. Prior to training, only eight pupils (17%) were able to place in the correct sequence a series of pictures illustrating the various stages of the procedure of semi-automatic defibrillation. After training that figure rose to 24 (51%). Using a semi-automatic defibrillator, excellent performances were recorded by video camera in eight pupils. Post-training telephone interviews were conducted with 34 parents (79%), 28 (82%) of whom now considered their children capable of reacting properly in an emergency situation. The children had been given stickers displaying the European Emergency Call Number 112 together with a set of brochures. In 25 cases (74%), the children applied the stickers to their parents phones at home. LSFA training is a feasible proposition for 6-7-year olds who might well be in a position to save the lives of cardiac-arrest victims. Future training sessions should determine the impact of repeat courses and the findings should be used to convince politicians and administrators of the need of LSFA training as a mandatory subject in schools.
Article
It has been calculated that, on average, 20% of the population should be trained to provide first aid, if a significant reduction of mortality is to be achieved. However, wide dissemination of the principles of emergency care poses a series of difficulties. As a partial solution, we have designed a first aid training course for children aged 8–11 years in their last three courses at primary school. According to the Italian school system, classes in primary school are indicated as I through V, from start to ending. The course addresses three issues: the broken tooth, nose bleeding and paediatric basic life support (PBLS). The course is divided into 17 didactic modules: each module contains a theoretical lecture, a practical demonstration by the trainer and a session for the trainees to practice under supervision. The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefit of teaching emergency procedures including practical sessions for pupils in primary schools. Four hundred and sixty-nine children were enrolled: the evaluation consisted of a 13 question multiple-choice written test taken at the end of the theoretical session and a semi-structured test at one month. Two hundred and seventy-one children attended to the theoretical lesson only, without going through the practical session (Group A), while the remaining 189 children completed the practical training (Group B). The outcome of the evaluation demonstrates that older children (in their V school class) score better than those in their IV and III class (p < 0.001). However, when comparing Group A and Group B in each class, the children that had also been exposed to the practical training (Group B) scored significantly better (VB versus VA p < 0.001; IVB versus IVA p < 0.001; IIIB versus IIIA p < 0.01).
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