We analyzed the dynamics of pollutant emissions from wildfires in mainland China from 2001 to 2019 using MODIS fire products combined with the measurements of emission factors of different vegetation types. The biomass distribution in Mainland China has heterogeneous temporal and spatial pattern, with inter-year variations and a decreasing trend from east to west. Overall, from 2001 to 2019, biomass combustion in Mainland China reached 479.59 Tg (25.24 Tg·a-1), in which northeast, north, east, south, central, northwest, and southwest regions accounted for 20.95%, 31.14%, 8.89%, 9.06%, 3.98%, 0.33% and 25.64% of total biomass combustion, respectively. The emissions of CO, CO2, CxHy, NOx, PM2.5, TC, OC and EC were 47.30, 288.05, 12.90, 0.40, 1.43, 0.83, 0.70, and 0.12 Tg (1 Tg = 1012g), respectively. PM2.5, TC and OC emissions increased in the southwest, while all pollutant emissions declined significantly in the southern region. For particulate matter from wildfires, both the ratio of its emissions to total dust and the ratio of its concentration to atmospheric PM2.5 showed an increasing trend, implying that the relative environmental impacts of particulate emissions from wildfires may be rising. In addition, our results show that the current Chinese wildfire management has successfully reduced on average more than 80% of pollutant emissions from wildfire from 2001 to 2019 compared to the natural wildfire regime (no strict wildfire management). This research on the temporal-spatial changes of pollutant emissions from wildfires in Mainland China provides support for further exploration of wildfire impacts on regional environments, and indicates the effectiveness of Chinese current wildfire policy on the pollutant emission mitigation.