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The Effect of Game-Based Learning on Students’ Learning Performance in Science Learning – A Case of “Conveyance Go”


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Many previous studies have demonstrated that learning motivation and efficiency can be enhanced through educational games, and the recent introduction of enriched gaming elements has made such games increasingly popular. The main purpose of this study was to help elementary school student learn science-related concepts by participating in an educational card game, named Conveyance Go. We then investigated the perceptions of students regarding the integration of the game into science learning as well as the educational benefits of the game with regard to learning performance. A one-group pretest- posttest design was used with eighteen 5th grade students from a single elementary school in northern Taiwan. The students demonstrated positive attitudes toward the use of the educational card game in science learning. Our results also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed education card game in improving the students’ scientific knowledge of transport and energy.
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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 103 ( 2013 ) 1044 – 1051
1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Association of Science, Education and Technology-TASET, Sakarya
Universitesi, Turkey.
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.10.430
The Effect of Game-Based Learning on Students’ Learning
Performance in Science Learning – A Case of "Conveyance Go"
Eric Zhi Feng Liu
, Po-Kuang Chen
Graduate Institute of Learning and Insruction, National Central University, No.300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County
32001, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
Center of Teacher Education, National Central University, No.300, Jhongda Rd., Jhongli City, Taoyuan County 32001, Taiwan
Many previous studies have demonstrated that learning motivation and efficiency can be
enhanced through educational games, and the recent introduction of enriched gaming elements has made
such games increasingly popular. The main purpose of this study was to help elementary school student
learn science-related concepts by participating in an educational card game, named Conveyance Go. We
then investigated the perceptions of students regarding the integration of the game into science learning as
well as the educational benefits of the game with regard to learning performance. A one-group pretest-
posttest design was used with eighteen 5th grade students from a single elementary school in northern
Taiwan. The students demonstrated positive attitudes toward the use of the educational card game in
science learning. Our results also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed education card game in
improving the students’ scientific knowledge of transport and energy.
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Association of Science, Education and Technology-TASET,
Sakarya Universitesi, Turkey.
Keywords: game-based learning; educational card game; science learning; game design
Papert (1991) advocated the promotion of learning through real-life situations and the shaping of
concepts through making. In recent years, many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of digital
technology in the promotion of learning, the process of which is often conducted using games. The
Corresponding author.
e-mail address.
Available online at
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Association of Science, Education and Technology-TASET, Sakarya
Universitesi, Turkey.
Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Eric Zhi Feng Liu and Po-Kuang Chen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 103 ( 2013 ) 1044 – 1051
incorporation of games into education is often more effective than traditional teaching methods in
enhancing learning motivation, active participation, and concentration among students. Furthermore,
games can enhance the social skills of students as well as improve their skills in understanding and
solving problems (Kirikkaya, Iseri, & Vurkaya, 2010).
Game-based learning has recently become an important domain of research. In a review of
articles in seven major SSCI journals associated with technology and learning between 2001 and 2010,
Hwang and Wu (2012) discovered that Taiwanese researchers published 22 articles on game-based
learning, second only to researchers in the US (30 articles) and followed by researchers from the UK (20
articles). These studies focused primarily on the achievements, motivation, and attitude of students
involved in learning various subjects and most of the researchers in Taiwan investigated the issue of
learning achievements (Liu, Lin, Hsiao, Chen et al., 2009). Game-based learning has been applied in
many science-related school subjects. Yien, Hung, Hwang, & Lin (2011) used game-based learning in a
nutrition course, discovering that this approach was more effective in enhancing the learning
effectiveness and attitudes of students than traditional PPT teaching and even influenced their dietary
habits. Using a game similar to Monopoly to teach students about the area of circles (Lin, Liu, Chen,
Liou, Chang, Wu, & Yuan, 2013) and obtained similar results. Through game-based learning, participants
learn more actively and with greater interest, enabling the learned content to leave a deeper impression
than would be possible using conventional methods (Papastergiou, 2009).
Most studies on game-based learning have focused on digital game-based learning. Digital
games provide animated graphics and audio effects as well as immersive stimulation. Lin and Liu (2009)
included game mechanisms in typing practice, inviting learners to beat their rivals. Although the progress
of these learners was not significantly greater than that of learners using conventional teaching
techniques, their typing skills were significantly better than before the experiment. Lin and Liu also
observed that learners in the game mechanism group spent considerably more time practicing typing than
their counterparts in the regular class, thereby demonstrating that multimedia can influence the learning
motivation of students. Chiang, Lin, Cheng, and Liu (2011) explored the influence of various computer
games on the flow experience and positive emotions of students and discovered that violent games did not
induce violent emotions or conduct in students. Moreover, they found that both violent and non-violent
games were capable of eliciting flow experience and positive emotions. As shown in these studies, digital
games can enhance learning motivation and arouse positive emotions in students; however, a digital game
environment cannot provide face-to-face interaction.
In a classroom situation, teacher-student interactions and student-student interactions exert a
profound impact on learning. Unlike interactions in digital games via computers, face-to-face interaction
exposes people to human expressions, physical action, and verbal tones (Billinghurst & Kato, 2002).
Thus, using educational card games as a medium for game-based learning could enhance the direct
interpersonal interaction between teachers and students as well as among students to a degree unmatched
by the sound and audio effects of digital games. This study designed a science lesson using an educational
card game. By handling the cards and moving the character pieces themselves and competing or
cooperating with peers through direct verbal communication, students can interact with one another and
learn happily from within.
In recent years, research on learning with card games has made a substantial contribution to the
discipline. Siegler and Ramani (2008) speculated that a lack of skills in the use of numbers among
children from low-income households might be due to their limited opportunities to play number games
during their childhood. Thus, a series of number card games for children from low-income households
was designed to narrow the differences between poor children and those from middle-income households.
Their results demonstrate that the learning effectiveness of high-priced equipment for digital games can
be matched by using inexpensive or even self-handmade card games. Alexander, Sevcik, Hicks, and
Schultz (2008) designed a card game to teach students the symbols of chemical elements and gain subject
knowledge. Kirikkaya, Iseri, and Vurkaya (2010) designed a card game to assess one’s knowledge of
1046 Eric Zhi Feng Liu and Po-Kuang Chen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 103 ( 2013 ) 1044 – 1051
galaxies and space; the game is also applicable in areas other than learning. Through semi-structured
interviews, they discovered that this educational card game not only increased the learning motivation of
students but also assisted them in the formation of higher conceptual abstractions. The use of such a card
game for assessment purposes could help to reduce test anxiety and promote better learning effectiveness.
Using thematic cooperative learning, Huang, Liu, Liu, and Lin (2012) had participants in a teacher
education program divide into groups to design card games with subject knowledge for secondary level
students. Their results showed that the process of designing educational card games significantly
increased self-efficacy.
Few Taiwanese studies have explored game-based learning in the form of educational card
games. It is hoped that the achievements of this study will demonstrate the effectiveness of card games in
promoting interpersonal interaction during the process of learning.
2. Methodology
2.1. Research participants
This study recruited 18 students from an elementary school in northern Taiwan, of which 10
were male and 8 were female. In age distribution, the participants comprise 3 third graders, 2 fourth
graders, 7 fifth graders, and 6 sixth graders.
2.2. Procedure
The total duration of the teaching experiment was 120 minutes. Prior to the formal learning activity,
a 20 minute pre-test was administered to assess science knowledge according to a standard assembled by
the authors. Following the pretest, the participants were randomly divided into groups of 4 or 5 students.
The rules of the game, Conveyance Go, were outlined in a 10 minute explanation. The formal learning
activity with educational card game then proceeded for 60 minutes. After the learning activity, a a post-
test (containing the same questions as the pre-test but reordered) as well as a learning satisfaction
questionnaire were administered. The post-test and questionnaire required 30 minutes for completion.
2.3 Design of science educational card game Conveyance Go
This study referred to the revised Bloom’s Taxonomy established by Anderson and Krathwohl
(2001) as the design standard for the educational card game. In the knowledge dimension of the revised
Taxonomy, knowledge is divided into four levels from concrete to abstract: factual knowledge,
conceptual knowledge, procedural knowledge, and meta-cognitive knowledge. Cognitive processes are
divided into six levels from low complexity to high: remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and
create. The primary scientific concepts selected for development in the card game were found in the
“Means of Transport and Energy” unit of a fourth grade science text. The subject knowledge was divided
as follows (Chen, Liu, Lin, Chang, Hsin, & Shih, 2012):
1. Remember – Factual knowledge: Pictures and text on the game cards present the appearances and
names of various forms of transport.
2. Remember – Conceptual knowledge: Game cards explain the amount of energy required by each type
of transport.
3. Understand – Conceptual knowledge:
Eric Zhi Feng Liu and Po-Kuang Chen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 103 ( 2013 ) 1044 – 1051
(1) If a given form of transport consumes petroleum products (oil), then the game card will also show a
pollution value, demonstrating the principle that the use of oil produces pollution. Transport modes that
use electricity, wind power, or solar power, do not produce pollution.
(2) Solar power energy cards can be used to replace other energy cards such as oil to demonstrate the
convenience and wide applicability of solar power.
(3) Two types of terrain are included in the game (land and sea) and three forms of transport travel by
land, sea, or air. This helps students to understand the differences among various modes of transport with
regard to their appearance and the environment in which they operate. In the game, ship transports can
only travel by sea, land transports can only travel by land, and aviation transport is not limited by terrain.
This helps students to understand the limitations of each form of transport.
(4) Problem cards require that students group transport modes according to energy source, appearance, or
function. Based on the answers provided by the students, appropriate feedback may be given.
4. Understand – Meta-cognitive knowledge:
(1) Event cards integrate daily environmental concerns (such as vehicle emissions testing) into
the content of the game.
(2) The event cards also include an ‘Oil Crisis’ card. When this card appears, all oil energy cards
are useless, demonstrating that oil depletion will occur someday.
5. Apply – Procedural knowledge: Once the students understand the rules of the game, they can play the
game smoothly according to a given procedure.
6. Analyze – Procedural knowledge: Two strategies are provided to score the games and students may
adjust their tactics according to the circumstances of the game.
7. Evaluate – Meta-cognitive knowledge: During the game, students learn via self-discovery by
evaluating the pros and cons of each transport mode.
In designing the educational card game in this study, we referred to the seven design principles
proposed by Liu (2011): Analyze the traits of the learners and understand their prior knowledge; establish
clear teaching objectives and select appropriate gaming equipment, combine the teaching objectives with
the game content; remember that teaching is the primary goal and that the game is a supplementary tool;
take advantage of game characteristics to arouse student interest; enable students to enjoy learning while
they take control of learning; and periodically assess learning effectiveness and improve teaching.
We also evaluated the game design according to the five indices proposed by Liu and Lin (2009):
Whether the game information is in accordance with the game descriptions of the learners and the game
includes a learning theme; whether the pictures in the game are associated with the learning theme and
can arouse student interest; whether the structure of the game is simple and operations are easy to learn;
whether the overall content of the game is interesting, and include many pictures for presentation; and
whether the game provides instant feedback. By referring to these principles, we ensured that the card
game designed in this study is capable of conveying subject knowledge that is easy to learn and elicits the
interest of participants.
1048 Eric Zhi Feng Liu and Po-Kuang Chen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 103 ( 2013 ) 1044 – 1051
2.4 Learning satisfaction scale
We developed a satisfaction scale according to the structure of the technology acceptance model
(TAM) to evaluate the degree to which students accepted the educational card game according to four
constructs: Perceived usefulness, perceived ease-of-use, attitude towards usage, and intention to use
(Davis, Bagozzi, & Warshaw, 1989). Each construct included five question items. To improve scale
validity, we enlisted the aid of three experts (two elementary school science teachers and a scale
development expert), to revise the descriptions in the question items. A pilot test was administered to
twenty students. Reliability analysis of the pilot test results returned a Cronbach's
and remaining
number of question items in each construct after item elimination were
=.84 and 4 items in perceived
=.66 and 3 items in perceived ease-of-use, =.78 and 4 items in attitude towards usage, and
=.63 and 3 items in intention to use. The questionnaire included 14 question items after item elimination,
with a reliability of
=.82. We employed a five-point Likert scale in which the students answered strongly
agree (5 points), mostly agree (4 points), agree (3 points), disagree (2 points), or strongly disagree (1
point) based on their learning satisfaction.
2.5 Science assessment
The primary objective of the science assessment tool was to gauge the comprehension of
elementary school students with regard to scientific concepts associated with transport modes and energy.
The content of the assessment was based on the learning content in the unit. In the development of the
assessment, we referred to problems and questions in textbooks compiled by Ministry of Education and
made revisions according to suggestions provided by three elementary school science teachers. The
assessment included eight true or false problems, six multiple choice problems, and six matching
problems, each contributing points for a total score of 100 points. The assessment was given to the
participants before and after the learning activity, with the problems from the pretest reordered in the
posttest to reduce the effects of repeated exercise.
3. Results
3.1 Acceptance of elementary school students towards educational card game
Mean and standard deviation derived for each construct of the satisfaction scale are presented in
Table 1. The results show that the students exhibited consistently positive responses for all constructs.
Perceived usefulness and intention to use received particularly high scores, indicating that the students
felt they could gain scientific knowledge by learning with the card game and that it was useful to the
learning of science knowledge. These results also show that game-based learning aroused student interest.
The results in future intention to use and perceived ease-of-use show that the students readily accepted
this learning method, felt that it facilitated learning, and hoped to continue using this method in the future.
Table 1 Mean and standard deviation of scores in the student satisfaction scale
Mean Standard deviation
Perceived usefulness
4.14 1.08
Perceived ease-of-use
3.85 1.16
Eric Zhi Feng Liu and Po-Kuang Chen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 103 ( 2013 ) 1044 – 1051
Attitude towards usage
4.00 1.10
Intention to use
3.85 1.21
3.2 Influence of educational card game on science learning achievement among elementary school
We performed a dependent sample t-test to examine whether the participants improved in the
science assessment after playing the educational card game. The results indicate that the posttest scores of
the students (M=92.13, SD=8.80) were significantly higher than the pretest scores (M=83.33, SD=11.43)
(t=-3.319, p<0.01), as shown in Table 2. According to these results, we can infer that the scientific card
game designed in this study, Conveyance Go, can assist students in gaining knowledge regarding
transport modes and energy.
Table 2 Results of paired sample t-test on science assessment for elementary students
deviation t
Pretest 83.33 11.43
Posttest 92.13 8.80
** p<0.01
4. Discussion
The purpose of this study was to determine whether game-based learning using cards could
assist elementary school students in the acquisition of knowledge related to energy and transport. The
participants displayed positive attitudes toward the use of the science card game and felt that the approach
contributed to learning. The majority of students accepted this learning method and hoped to continue
using this approach in the future. The students also expressed that learning with the educational card
game could assist them to gain scientific knowledge and that the game-based learning method increased
their interest in modes of transport and energy. The pretest and posttest results demonstrate that the card
game significantly increased the student’s scientific knowledge related to energy and means of transport.
These results correspond to the use of digital games in game-based learning in previous studies (Lin et al.,
2013; Papastergiou, 2009; Siegler & Ramani, 2008; Yien et al., 2011). Moreover, the use of the card
game to promote game-based learning also enhanced learning motivation and learning effectiveness.
We suggest that future studies conduct in-depth surveys on student attitudes towards learning
using card games to identify the elements that arouse interest and how knowledge is acquired from
playing games. The authors and the homeroom teachers discovered that following the interactions elicited
by the card game, the students became closer to their teacher and their peers. The students also preferred a
grouped arrangement rather than single separated arrangement in rows. Thus, future studies could conduct
further analysis on the learning process and student-student interaction during educational card games and
1050 Eric Zhi Feng Liu and Po-Kuang Chen / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 103 ( 2013 ) 1044 – 1051
investigate how they influence game-based learning. Finally, this study focused on science; we suggest
that future researchers create educational card games for other subjects such as English and mathematics.
We greatly appreciate the Department of Science Education in the National Science Council for
funding these projects (project no.: NSC 100-2511-S-008-017-MY2, NSC-100-2511-S-008 -006 -MY2,
and NSC-100-2631-S-008-001).
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... For this result, it was seen that the students developed a positive attitude towards the science course. When the relevant literature is examined, it is seen that there are studies showing similar results to the results of this study (Akça & Topsakal, 2020;Aksoy, 2014;Aygün, 2019;Can, 2010;Can, 2017;Çelik, 2017;Çetin, 2016;Demir, 2012;Eltem, 2018;Gürbüz, 2019;Gürpınar, 2017;Korkmaz, 2018;Liu & Chen, 2013;Özkan & Şentürk, 2020;Şahin, 2016;Tok, 2016;Tokgöz, 2017;Tortop, 2007;Torun, 2011;Turanlı, 2012;Yeşilkaya, 2013). Özkan, Akça & Topsakal (2020), seventh grade "Cells and Divisions" unit in the study carried out within the scope of the seventh grade "Cells and Divisions" unit, where the students developed a positive attitude towards the science course after the application, Aksoy (2014), the students within the scope of the sixth grade mathematics course had a meaningful effect by increasing their attitude scores, Can (2010), eighth grade "Structure of Substance and Features" unit. ...
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... In this study, authors used an educational board game named ''Conveyance GO'' to explore its effectiveness in teaching Chinese language. Conveyance GO was developed by E. Z. F. Liu and Chen (2013) and used in our previous study (2020) to compare its effectiveness with that of flashcards for learning Chinese. The rules were the same as those used in the previous study, except for the use of the cards ''?'' and ''!'' that contained questions for players. ...
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... Furthermore, the possibility to include learners in the building of their own knowledge is also pointed as a pillar of analog GBL by the different studies (Gilliam et al., 2016;Sousa, 2020b,c;Vasconcelos and Seingyai, 2021), which will address such crucial aspects of this premise as freedom of experimentation (Rosa et al., 2021b). More positive attitudes toward the learning process as a whole also seem to result from the use of board games in the educational context (Liu and Chen, 2013;Sardone and Devlin-Scherer, 2016). ...
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The unique characteristics of games have led scientific research to increasingly focus on their potential role in learning processes. Currently, their effectiveness in fostering experiential learning and skill acquisition in several areas is already supported by the existing evidence, mainly about the potential of digital games. Paradoxically, the current post-digital era seems to have led to a growing popularity of analog games. The present Systematic Literature Review aimed to map the existing literature on the potential of board, tabletop, or other analog games in learning processes. It intended to systematize the contemporary state of the art (2012–2022) around the pedagogical role of these games, their effectiveness, the promoted learning outcomes, the methodological aspects of the interventions, the used games—including mechanics and other characteristics—and the current discussions around inclusion and accessibility in analog game-based learning. Adopting the PRISMA methodology, we searched ACM Digital Library, EBSCO, ERIC, Scopus—Elsevier, and Web of Science databases, as well as other peer-reviewed “grey literature” sources. The search resulted in an initial sample of 2,741 articles that was then screened by inclusion and exclusion criteria previously defined according to the research objectives. We obtained a final sample of 45 articles. To formulate the mapping of existing research, these studies were analyzed using a combination of statistical, content, and critical analysis procedures. The obtained results support the role of board, tabletop, and other analog games in educational contexts—based on their educational potential—with a broad range of knowledge, cognitive, and psychological outcomes. The study also emphasized the relevance of these games in the promotion of soft skills and other aspects typically associated with meaningful learning, such as engagement, satisfaction, flexibility, and freedom of experimentation. However, important limitations were found in a fair amount of the pedagogical approaches studied, which can be mostly attributed to the low prevalence of modern board games that relate what is intended to be learned to aspects of game design and have little to no consideration of accessibility and inclusion aspects in these studies.
... In the study conducted by Gülsoy and Uçgun (2013), it was concluded that educational games were effective in the development of students' vocabulary. In the study conducted by Liu and Chen (2013), it was determined that educational card games increased students' knowledge. Rachman, et al. (2019) concluded that Android-based educational games used to explain fruits and vitamins were effective in understanding the types of vitamins in fruits. ...
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This research was conducted to determine the effect of educational games developed on “Household Wastes and Recycling” on raising awareness of this issue. In the research, a quasi-experimental design with a pre-test-post-test control group was used. The study group consisted of ninety-six 7th-grade students in total from two secondary schools located in the province of Rize and the district of Çayeli of Rize province. In the province experimental and control group, 29 students were included while the district experimental and control group comprised of 19 students. In teaching the subject of Household Wastes and Recycling, instructional plays called “Who Won the Cup?”, “I Got it?”, “Reflection” and “Ring!” developed by the researcher were played with the experimental groups while instructional program activities of the science lessons were used with the control groups. The quantitative data of the research were collected with the "Household Wastes and Recycling Knowledge Test" administered to all groups as the pre-test and post-test, and the qualitative data were collected with the “Semi-structured Interview Form” administered to the experimental groups. Quantitative data were analyzed using parametric and non-parametric techniques, while qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. It was determined that the instructional plays used in teaching the subject of household waste and recycling are effective in enhancing the knowledge level and awareness of the students regarding household waste, recycling, the advantages of recycling, and what needs to be done for effective recycling and reuse. Instructional plays were determined to be evaluated as an effective tool in cognitive and affective aspects by students. In this regard, it was concluded that instructional plays facilitate learning, ensure effective learning, inform, raise awareness, develop affirmative emotions for the subject or lesson, hinder the boringness in the course of the lesson or subject, and help assure concentration.
... The game-based learning model is a learning model using games in this case students are required to learn, but with a play approach, because the game has a goal, which is to have fun (Liu, 2013). ...
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This paper is development research that aims to determine the process, feasibility, and students’ response to game-based learning models as an effort to increase learning motivation in entrepreneurship learning subjects for class XI students of SMK Negeri 1 Bangko. The instruments used in the research were validation sheets and questionnaires, and the data that had been collected were analyzed. Data analysis used descriptive statistical analysis obtained from data collection of material expert validation and model experts sheets, while data collected from questionnaires were used to analyze as an effort to increase students’ learning motivation. The results of the research in the first stage were validated by material experts at 3.00 with a good category of content aspects and at 3.66 with a very good category of several revisions and not feasible testing presentation. In the second stage of material expert validation, the content aspect was 3.5 with a very good category and presenting several suggestions and feasible testing aspects was 3.83 with a very good category. In the first stage of validation by model experts, there were 2.8 with a good category of several revisions and not feasible testing, In stage II, the validation average by model experts was 3.3 with a very good category and feasible testing. Based on the results of the game-based learning model development, the result indicates that it was feasible to be tested in order to find out how students respond to game-based learning models as an effort to increase student learning motivation, which involved 32 students of class XI at SMK Negeri 1 Bangko as research subjects. An assessment score of 2.54 indicates that aspects of students' learning motivation before applying the game-based learning model are in a high category. The assessment score of 3.02 indicates that the aspect of students’ learning motivation after applying the game-based learning model is in the very high category.
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Resumo Recorrer a atividades motivadoras e inovadoras no ensino da Geologia, utilizando o quotidiano para evidenciar a sua presença no dia-a-dia dos cidadãos, são fatores potenciadores da literacia geológica dos alunos. O jogo fomenta mudanças de conceções quanto à relevância desta Ciência, frequentemente desvalorizada pelos estudantes. Promove, ainda, a melhoria dos processos de ensino e de aprendizagem da Geologia, contribuindo para o objetivo 4 da Agenda 2030 das Nações Unidas. O presente estudo descritivo recorreu a uma amostra constituída por alunos de duas turmas (A e B) do 7º ano de escolaridade (n=37), que frequentavam uma escola pública portuguesa. Pretendeu-se verificar o impacto do ensino contextualizado baseado num jogo na aquisição das aprendizagens essenciais definidas no currículo. Na turma A, a abordagem do conteúdo Rochas e Minerais desenvolveu-se com o jogo, enquanto que, na turma B, ocorreu sem este recurso. No final da intervenção foi aplicado às duas turmas o mesmo instrumento de avaliação. Os resultados da investigação sugerem que o jogo contribuiu, de forma significativa, para a aquisição das aprendizagens essenciais, por parte dos alunos que o realizaram. Palavras-chave: 3º Ciclo do Ensino Básico; Currículo das Ciências; Ensino Baseado em Jogos; Ensino Contextualizado; Sistema Terra.
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Dua masalah utama untuk mengajar di kelas heterogen adalah penentuan materi dan cara mengajarkannya. Untuk itu pengajar harus kreatif dalam mendesain pembelajaran. Pembelajaran berbasis game (game-based learning) telah menjadi pilihan yang populer sebagai bagian dari lingkungan belajar dengan berkembangnya teknologi komputer dan smartphone. Namun pada kondisi kelas yang heterogen dan tanpa dukungan gawai, game-based learning diarahkan ke bentuk non-digital. Pengabdian melalui penerapan pembelajaran berbasis game (game-based learning) diharapkan dapat menjadi alternatif solusi mengajar di kelas heterogen. Kegiatan pengabdian berbasis pada kebutuhan dari suatu komunitas (Community-Based Research, CBR). Komunitasnya terdiri dari pengurus pesantren dan santri Pesantren Tahfidz. Populasinya adalah 1 kelas heterogen yang terdiri dari 19 orang santri. Kelas ini bersifat heterogen karena yang terdiri dari 6 orang santri tingkat SD, 9 orang tingkat SMP, dan 4 orang tingkat SMA. Pengabdian dilakukan sebanyak enam pertemuan pembelajaran, dimana empat pertemuan untuk pembelajaran berbasis game dan dua pertemuan untuk evaluasi. Untuk materi pecahan, diperoleh rata-rata nilai yang cukup tinggi secara keseluruhan adalah 86,98. Nilai ini mengindikasikan bahwa pembelajaran berbasis game dapat membantu siswa dalam belajar dan meningkatkan kemampuan matematis siswa. Untuk materi koordinat, rata-rata nilai secara keseluruhan jauh lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan rata-rata pada materi pecahan, yaitu 65,79. Lebih lanjut pembelajaran berbasis game juga dapat meningkatkan motivasi, keaktifan, keberanian berpendapat, dan pemahaman materi. Melalui penerapan pembelajaran berbasis game ditemukan satu fakta menarik terkait proses pembelajaran, yaitu situasi pembelajaran yang dapat menjangkau santri dengan berbagai tingkatan. Jadi pembelajaran berbasis game dapat menjadi alternatif solusi mengajar di kelas heterogen.
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The aim of this study was to explore the influence of applying a game-based learning approach to nutrition education. The quasi-experimental nonequivalent-control group design was adopted in a four-week learning activity. The participants included sixty-six third graders in two classes of an elementary school. One of the classes was assigned to be the experimental group and the other was the control group. The experimental group learned with computer games, while the control group learned with the traditional teaching approach. The result showed that the learning achievement of the students in the experimental group was significantly better than that of the students in the control group. Similar results were obtained in terms of the learning interest of the students. Moreover, most of the students revealed quite positive attitudes toward the use of the game-based learning approach in nutrition education. An in-depth analysis showed that there was no significant difference between genders in terms of nutrition knowledge and learning attitudes.
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The study examines the effectiveness of using computer games for after-school remedial mastery learning. We incorporated instructional materials related to "area of a circle" into the popular Monopoly game to enhance the performance of sixth-grade students learning mathematics. The program requires that students enter the answers to avoid the shortcomings of multiple-choice questions. Throughout the game, whenever students are unable to answer questions correctly they receive immediate remedial instruction specifically for that question. This study sought to compare the effectiveness of game-based and video-based remedial instruction incorporated with elements of mastery learning. The results demonstrate that (a) both instructional videos and the proposed Monopoly game enhance the learning of mathematical concepts; and (b) the Monopoly game is more effective than instructional videos at leveraging the benefits of mastery learning. The goal of the research was to integrate games and mastery learning into after-school remedial instruction and design a game to practice the steps of mastery learning. © International Forum of Educational Technology & Society (IFETS).
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The aim in this study was to integrate the flow experience and instructional design by incorporating digital games into the school curriculum using the following 7 principles: 1) analyze learners, 2) set clear teaching objectives and select appropriate gaming materials, 3) design teaching instructions according to teaching objectives and game content, 4) consider teaching as the primary goal and use games as supplementary tools, 5) make good use of the characteristics of computer games, 6) place students at the center of the process and help them enjoy studying, and 7) periodically assess students' learning and constantly improve teaching. Ultimately, digital games in which appropriate instructional design principles are incorporated will facilitate the development of educational digital games and related investments.
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The authors conducted two studies to explore online game players' flow experiences and positive affect. Our findings indicated that online game are capable of evoking flow experiences and positive affect, and games of violent or nonviolent type may not arouse players' aggression. The players could be placed into four flow conditions: Flow, boredom, anxiety, and apathy, as determined by level of perceived challenges and skills. The majority of players entered the flow condition when playing violent or non-violent online game. The path analysis results suggested that violent online games may have a significant but indirect effect on positive affect via flow experience mediation.
A review of publications regarding advancements and trends in digital game-based learning (DGBL) in selected journals from 2001 to 2010 is discussed. The selected articles were categorized into 'Elementary school,' 'Junior and Senior high school,' 'Higher education,' 'Teachers,' 'Working Adults,' and 'Non-specified,' and the learning domains were categorized into 'Science,' 'Mathematics,' 'Language & Art,' 'Social Science,' 'Engineering,' 'Others,' and 'Non-specified.' It is found that most studies did not involve specific learning domains; instead, they mainly focused on the investigation of students' motivations, perceptions and attitudes toward digital games in the decade, followed by 'Engineering (including computers)' (20), 'Language and Art' (15) and 'Science'. In the first 5 years, British authors contributed the most publications (8), followed by American authors (3), Taiwanese authors (3) and Australian authors (3). In the second 5 years, American authors contributed the most (27), followed by Taiwanese authors (19) and British authors (12).
Children actively build knowledge through experiences when they play games. Along with the development of technology, there has been more research on digital game-based leaning in recent years. Digital games contain better pictures and sound effects, but on the other hand, traditional games such as board games and card games can increase social interactions among people through playing games face to face. This study designed a card game for learning science knowledge about transportation and energy. Six fourth-grade elementary school students were tested for this game by methods of observations and interviews. The result showed that these students were all very interested in the game and would be willing to learn through the game again.
This study employs cooperative learning to create an Educational Board Game Design Course. The curriculum of activities required pre-service teachers to work cooperatively in learning-groups to complete a prototype of a board game. Group discussion via an Online Interactive Platform supported the process of the participants as they carried out the curriculum of activities. A questionnaire enabled an understanding of the pre-service teachers¡¦ learning performances. The results showed that each group could completely design games that operate smoothly and have relevance to academic subjects. Pre-service teachers¡¦ self-efficacy enhanced after the cooperative learning process. Control over game difficulty levels and the skill of teaching game directions need strengthening in the future. Besides, providing more specific learning content is necessary for any future course.
"Elements" is a competitive card game designed to help middle school students recognize and correlate the names and symbols of the most significant chemical elements. Each student is required to construct his or her own decks of playing cards--one with the names of the chemical elements and one with their corresponding symbols--and compete against classmates in a mini-tournament. Scores are based on students successfully matching the names and chemical symbols of the elements. Suitable for both classroom and summer camp use, "Elements" works best as a two-day activity.
The indicators for evaluating educational computer games were developed through a content analysis of existing games and the use of the Delphi technique. The Delphi technique is a systematic interactive forecasting method for obtaining forecasts from a variety of independent experts. Six educational technology experts, six educational psychology experts, six game design experts, six elementary school students were invited to serve as experts in the Delphi survey. In this study, 196 educational computer games were analyzed. The results revealed that there are many different genres of educational computer games; puzzle games comprise the most common genre. Based on the results of the content analysis and Delphi survey, 43 indicators were obtained and classified into five categories for evaluating educational computer games, including game information, multimedia, interface design and structure, content and feedback.