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Abstract

“Otherness” is one of the main challenges for European Union project that aims to bring different cultures together in a war thorn continent. To achieve these goals, the Union had developed and implemented various programmes, like the Lifelong Learning and Youth in Action. These programmes bring the pupils, students, teachers and trainers within a multinational context. In the case of Turkish - European relations, each side had always been at the edge of the spectrum of otherness. In that case as a full member to the EU education and youth programmes, Turkey has become a prominent example of how well defined educational and social activities can help to close the gap of the spectrum.
P r o c e d i a - S o c i a l a n d B e h a v i o r a l S c i e n c e s 1 0 6 ( 2 0 1 3 ) 1 4 1 8 1 4 2 7
1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Association of Science, Education and Technology-TASET, Sakarya Universitesi, Turkey.
doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.158
ScienceDirect
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%'#.+.*D;EF:GA*D;E::::.
"$*$.,'#H$.$
Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license.
Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Association of Science, Education and Technology-TASET, Sakarya Universitesi,
Turkey.
1419
Mehmet Nurettin Alabay and Melih Rü ş Çalikoğlu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 ( 2013 ) 1418 – 1427
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 ' . K  $  3   '2   # A%   
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A%$%#A.'#%$#
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#3 1  %$2 $'! %%3  12#
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''3,#'22
$2#$%'2.NA$%3
$% $ #$$$#2#' 231 1'1
11'12#$'#'.
N  ,  1  ,   $2    %  ##. N
A$%32$21#1#3#1',#%'%2$%
,     #$ 2 # $. +2  $ $2 $%   $
#$#1#1'#$'#'%*JJ.,%.'J,JNT.+#31'%
$$#2$>'#2.
1420 Mehmet Nurettin Alabay and Melih Rü ş Çalikoğlu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 ( 2013 ) 1418 – 1427
  #3  '#%  $$#      . +
# 1 3 ,31 '#%3 .  # 1
%##.
2R#23'3'#%#%%
$$. $221$# '"#%%#1
1'2%1$"#%2,'.#
2  3 '#%    #   #   "&   2C N  % 
21''!$'%#Q.#2'#%#%
%$#"&2C"3;
$ 1'22'1' '!  12.U#, 
# 23 ()  %2 $%   1$   .    
$$#2"#%&',"#%2.
    2 #  '#% ! 1  ' 
 3 #   ##   3 ' 3  3   . +
'%#1#,31123'#%
1'.
 $2      2      2  
1''.$$A#2.U#$2>#1'!3
 $$1% % #% #'    .  >#  %%  #   2
#  3  12    '#%. 0 # VP  1'  2 '#% #
V2P%%1'V#P'#%.'##2$'
1#'1'V#'#%P2%%%#
2 %*JJ'.$J#. (=)   ,2  #  
1.
.=
..##"#%
"K2$31#$##%#$.0%#$
().+1,'#.0#'"#%
0''%2' 3$$##1,'# 
''%  %*JJ.,%.'J,J"#. -'  "#% %#3  1'' 
3%#1'1$("#%)
2. N  #'   $  "#%3 0  ?12 0  1,  # E
#2...
"#%&#1%%>'1.&'"#%#
 #$1     . '23    +#,3  $'     2
#   #  #'   '  $$ $2 ( ). +  
'  "#% & %>3 '   E #2 $2    .   
%, () %2  %#1 ### %.
+2%()#1$%"#%'
%.
"#%& 1  2#R#$ % %% 12
"#%#' $# .%$
#.-'#%'()#23#1%2.
0#'## #  % 1## ' "&
1421
Mehmet Nurettin Alabay and Melih Rü ş Çalikoğlu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 ( 2013 ) 1418 – 1427
.N2!"&##$'.'("#%)1
## 23    %  # $ . "& ! 2   2
%2$2.
     $$#  '3   2 1 2 #$.  
'%'$$#12#3#1##
 2. $ ;;L   2   %#  1 (#) #2  #
$%#. # ;;L $ %%  2  $'# #3 ,'
 #$  $  . 0'  $ ;;L # #2 $' $
%A'2 $$#2G# $%# $$$3'23
 2$1$.   '  # 1  1  # "#% 2  
2##"#%2.
0'"#1$LL%'33EW!"&$2$
121'"#%.W%%#$"#%#
$'.:W"#%$2
2$'1'"#%.&<!'#%%FW'$
22"#1$3LL.=2'#2
$;32W+#,,2"#%"#1$3L.
..1
"#%   '    %%# A'   1 %%. +  !  3
3 13 #1##   ,   '#% '  "#% $$#2. #' 
$%A21  %23 2#   
'#%. 23"#%1'###1#3113'##''3
$>.+#'"#%12.#E
#2#'+#,3!$.#1K
K1$2%$.NF23#$'$$$,3
#'   % #.   $%'         &3  
''2$2.
"#% 2   $%'    .  "&     % 
1'$#2$,'1%%1#%2.
+ "&  1 ,'  ' ## '#  "#% '  #
%'$$2%#2.
(=),$#$3'%%'#%.$$'
1   $ $' 1     %#$.   1   ()
"&.1'$$$1$$#"&3
"3,.+! $#(#$1)
.
0>"#%#E$0$/,12$,
#'    ?O"A%* X 2# 23  O 1'   $2  K *  
11. A23    $ %  N 1 '$.X " #'  
'N%31$'%#12#$3
#   $ $A%'  $ 12  #  $ "  
##$1A$'"& $$112N
$2$$1%'3.
1422 Mehmet Nurettin Alabay and Melih Rü ş Çalikoğlu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 ( 2013 ) 1418 – 1427
=  %#$  ()   "#% $$#    3 /#$
$$#2%%.0#'"#%&$%3"#%
$$#$2%%21$/#$.
0Y$$'"#%#%2"#%3
   "#%3   $  .  $2   $%   "#%  
##2#12#3##2.4$"#%P'
  94$ !3 23      "'$3 3 43
'-$2$$"#%'2.+#1A
## #$3 %#2    $. "#% R#    
%'.K"#%$%!3 $#2
2Y3.
'2####%A/#$$$#"#%
  1''   : #2 0.-   1#   1  $ "#%3 $ 
21 (=).    %%  "#% 2. /#$ %%# 
 "#% A : $   F $  # "& ! $  L W
%*JJ.,%.'J,J$TT"#%.  $   %   %   $%2
"#%##."#%'$$%%%%#:$3
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+#,21''/#$$$#"#%3212%%#L$1#
$;$$$'+#,'#"&#.31''$2
"#%23+#,2"#%$$#1,.'
     %#$ +#,    ,  $# %%   %12  ''
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#$'23$3$23R#23#%#$'.+
 #   "&3    #   1''   +2  ?1. +2  $$  
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%*JJ#%.#J1T2J'J'T#JAT.$.  "#% $$#  
#23#%%.
+   1    1  # 2  "#% % 12  23 
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%2.,'9&2$1%%1$'
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9,3 $ 2 '  1' % % %*JJ1'.$
.$J#,#2$JJJJ#%%J.
3%1$()#$%'+#,2%%
%  '#C   %1  % ''     %  # #%%
%'$$,$#3?M"$#C
1423
Mehmet Nurettin Alabay and Melih Rü ş Çalikoğlu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 ( 2013 ) 1418 – 1427
.$'(=)
'#32,.+21'.0
N#,#2$#%'##321#1$$
"#% 2 #  1 . % $%          $
"#%231#212%22.
+#,23$%'#2%1$"#%.0#'
  $ 1  # 23  +#,2   1$  %   "#% 2$3 ' 
().%$+#,2%"#%$#2.+'
()1$1%#$.01$'
#2"&3#"#%.+#,2%
<%'/''321$%"&.
"#%2%+#,,%#'.
+R#A1$12$A$
 ' %%   (=)3   1 #1  '  '    
1"&+#,2.
"&$$1%'L$/#$+#,2'2"#%.+
2 % #%  $ + K   "#%3   2#2.3  /#$
%%#1$'"#%3%'2#'
 :E %  "#%P  %%# '  E %*JJ1%.'.#,J;JJ1,#1$
$#$L$$#$#,J.
+%23$'1%A$A$%.#
$1'+#,2"&3$'21%(#)
($).
+$+#,."#%32%$(3
3A%%') !331';J.
$,$$%#1%K$#($%1
V$P#.3$$=2#1'%%1
#"#%2N3L.
N3 #'3,/!#K$N
'%2$>'$#$()"#%.+'#'#12
$#$%$*
. +31$$.#%1#'31#.
. +%.#%%.
E. +.#%2.
F. +$$##'.##$%N3L.
4#!U$!  +1 '#  +#,2P    "#% &     $
   %  "& . &'  %2  $  "#%
'$     +#,2 # 1$  $$1   2   %1$ 
1>'      %%  #3   % 2%
4#!U$Z!+13L.+2##%%+#,$2
#$' ,   ' %   "&3 +#,
"&P#%.23'+#,$,2
1%'$2'#$.K#$$%
$1+#,%#14#!U$Z!
+13L.
1424 Mehmet Nurettin Alabay and Melih Rü ş Çalikoğlu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 ( 2013 ) 1418 – 1427
##$##3$21##'%.
+#'%%#12###$'%$
###2.+%1$#'1#
%%#$.
E.""&'$$(=)
E."&'$$+#,2
"#%&$$#2 %'$$ 1$   %#%  '%
  $$1      #   $$1    $$#2. ?'
?''$$3   '  "&3 %1>'  '
'  '    "#% !% 1 #'  %  #$ ' 
$23  #''   %   %%  ## ' 3 .
K##1#$%##''3'''$3$A%1
%2$"#%#2##.
'  %  ##     1     1
$212'%1$#'%1  #
%.0#'+#,2$$1&3$$1$"&
'$$,?'?'??@#0@0'$$.+#,21$
'#21$'1''%'$$#2$1#'#$1
1. + #  $,1    #23     $$1 #  
$$#2 %'$$   L  $  "& $$1 . 0     2 LE.
+#,#3%1$%'$$##
"#%#% $."#%'+#,2$## 
+#,#%7I,8#3.
K % , ''  $3 %'  1$   "#% 2 
'"&!%$3''2#%'$$1$$%
 ''  ()   #   "&. K $,  $$#2 '$$  #R#
  %'   1  ##       $3 %% $ 
    ()3 $ 'C +3 %#%3 #   % # 
,'###3'3"#%.+2
'2'21#'()."&%'$$3
1+#,"#%$21$$#$3,
#$ . /   "#% %%  2   $$' %%#  
#23()'.
 +#,1 $' $%:.E%># 1?? 
@0%'$$.>#32$'#.%%$"#%.=
LE. +#, 1  W   1  # $2 1   "$#
%'$$3W$ 2#'%%$21@0%'$$3;W
3EW$W$%.7I,8#3.
1425
Mehmet Nurettin Alabay and Melih Rü ş Çalikoğlu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 ( 2013 ) 1418 – 1427
E..$%(=)
+#,231'3"&%'$$'%%#21
      ()  . + ' A$%   $ 
%%??@0.+2$1%2
1#'%>#1,.
( $# 1  $$'   "#...)    2#' ' $ 3 % #' 
#$$2% $# %>.+2 ,'1#  ''%2 "#%.
+  '#%    #  ' $ E  "#% # 9$23
#'23%3 N 2#' "#% 2. + %> ("#%*
+2"#%).12$$A# $
  "& #  #$1   $$#2 %'$$. +   $   $#
+#, ' . -. " 95'[   '   <2   A %  
%>. + %%   $'  +#,2     '   '
%#2"#%.0$$2'()
"#% $ #  . +2  #    #   
#11''"#%%#.
/3%2#12+#,$2A%
###,3$.-#'#%
A%+#,'#'%>.+##,#31#
%###.
0#'##%%$'$%%#F$3
%A%$%3%12%%'.1#
$#2"&3$$%3#'%%'.
+,'31$$#3#%
%#2#.
?? @0  ' %  , %% ##3 2 . 0 2#'
'31$#+#,2#"#%M#2"M#'1#
     +#, 2   $'  ;.  2   !   
1$$#%%1$+#,2.
(&#2   , 2  1# +#,2  2     01 #2 
$2 ,   $     $' 1 2,'.
0#22,21#01##.)
$#%%()"&$$#.()
>#,"#%$+#,3+#,$2.?2
 # $ 1#  $%  $ 12 ' N    12 ,' % 
?M>.
(+(+'$),%$'$22$23#
,"#%213131#.2
$%12$$%%#2$%#1.
,'1$'R#3$,'$,$13#%212
1#%N$0"#%3L.
+$'()2%#31#$2#$%%.+$'
%  ()'2%% . ' 3 3 
1,+#,$#'2I3+#,2.
1426 Mehmet Nurettin Alabay and Melih Rü ş Çalikoğlu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 ( 2013 ) 1418 – 1427
$'$2$23$23$2'#$212$1#2#.%##%%
1# I3  2# '  $3  $2    $2 . +2  ,    %   
$.1'A%>#2.+2,$N$
0"#%3L..
<!I$3 +#,3     ' #  N   $'
$#"#%*
02$3,2L232122'J11%
 . + '12   #   1' 1#. =# 2  ''  
2'.##$#1$2'.
K'#%#1'. %11##1'%>#:2C
>#,...N$0"#%3L.+%%%2#
1(=).
F.##''
+  ' #'  1$   $### &  $#    ''
$3 A%1    . + #1>   # #  1  .
'  $###3 $#'# 2   $#  ,3   $  1 . "&
$$#2%'$$$12$,3$$%
'#.
0$1''3##,#'2
. +   '  "#% &   1' ' $ % #,    
1''%>#$,.$%2%'$32'#!#$,'
## $      $ "#% 2 1  # # ,
$23'23$.'#.
(=)#1$>#"&##."#%&%##
%'$$"#%2.+##%###
%'$$ , ??  @0  ''  1 %2'  $%    #''  A%1 3
$3 A#    (). =#  A%      1  2
    ## %'$$   #    $%   %% 
$    ## '#.   #2  # 12 40@ 0 , 1 12 @0
 0'3 FF. W  2#' %%   2  $ "#%  %%'  
%>@#0$,3.
01##"#%##$%.+
$21#"#%21#';
#. -%  %   $%A  1 !  3  
1# "#%23# "#%23"#%()
#1#.
+$#1###%$%%%%$.-
A'2#$(2).0$#
##2A#$C0,%'$$#1#%%
$#$%"#%2C
4
0"#%'#..3"#%.#34U#2E33$
%*JJ#%.#J1T2J'J'T#JAT.$
1427
Mehmet Nurettin Alabay and Melih Rü ş Çalikoğlu / Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 ( 2013 ) 1418 – 1427
7I,8#3/.4.33K%1'+#,%%??@0
'$$3+#,0'2.
%'30.33+#$1$'"K- #'2
4$3#&12.#"#%3
#<.0.3;;L32#*#3-30#.4..*:E;
"<.3;3(0+22/,'-1V"#%2P)3
"#%U#+23$13..LL3'#1*?0'3
-3'%#1K'-.
"#..3K,%.4U#233$%*JJ.,%.'J,J"#
"#1$L3%';3"#%$$3#1=%3%.E
"#1$LL3%'3"#%$$3#1=%3%.
"#%3NN#,#2$34U#2E33$%*JJ1'.$
.$J#,#2$JJJJ#%%J
N....K,%.4-$133$%*JJ.,%.'J,JNT
N.3 #'.3, .3/!9.3L3"#%2$=3
N4#+M3&0"L0#43
&2$#3E%$13%.
N$0"#%L3#1+#,0'239*3%.:E
9\,'$IN,@I23402@0,.
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0###4.?*3:.
21.3K4.33$$#'"23/9 .
$"#%..3K,%.4U#233$
%*JJ.,%.'J,J$TT"#%
=1?.3$''=*+&"$%'34
:.F.3$%*JJ.$$.J$>$J.$.
4#!U$Z!0./.3+1U..3L"#%#1=%+#,2P033".
'.3;;L3#-*0M #$N##%3,G
,.
$0-.3;;3234*&.
'33?'?''$$9N%3-9"03%.
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+2.
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... Understanding "otherness" between different political societies, may help us understand the interaction between them which is again an external function of that political society. Otherness might be a measurement tool to define Europe as the land of democracy with attributed values such as freedom, justice and security (Alabay & Çalikoğlu, 2013). . ...
... It is not a coincidence that far right movements manifest their revival by feeding the society with fears of the return of Turkey as the most "other" following countries acceptance as a candidate to the European Union in 2004. The same candidacy, now seems to be getting more and more impossible, considering the struggles within EU to create and establish a supranational identity and Turkish counter-reformation against Westernization, can be studied as a benchmark to understand what are the European values and where they hold and how sustainable they are (Alabay & Çalikoğlu, 2013). On the other hand EU as a political entity is also changing cause by external events such as migration. ...
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There is an overall apprehension about a wide spread trend for de-democratization around the globe. Much is said by many about the retreat of democracies not only in the late adopting political societies, but also in Western societies known to have well established democratic culture. There have been many proposed names to title this sort of regimes and movements such populism, totalitarianism, sultanism, Putinism ie. have been used to define and con- ceptualize not only the “other” of democracy, but also the universalized values of the West. There are many studies to explain the modern phenomenon of de-democratization. We might say that most of these efforts are focusing on the internal dynamics of each respective polit- ical society. With this letter, we will be trying to bring another perspective for the case, an external perspective, that allows us to observe each political society as an intangible entity. And all these separate entities interact with each other all the time, similar to what we see in the physical world. As a defence for us choosing this perspective, we can claim that embodi- ment of constructed social structures such as society, nation, state etc. as separate entities, or differentiating them dichotomised such as “us” and “others” or “West” and “East” is quite a common practice. But less is told about how this constructed entities interact with each other externally. In that respect the reader shall not be suprised with our conceptualization with words such as “fracture” or “external”, recalling the physical world. On the other hand we think that there might be an analogy between the de-democratization trends around the globe and the phenomenon of diminishing power of Western socio-political and cultural hegemony.
... Intercultural programs and educational activities like seminars, conferences and workshops can also be introduced to help people (such as teachers, students and other professionals) come together to learn and discuss on social and cultural issues. Intercultural programs can have a sound effect and social impact on people in terms of intercultural dialogue, and respect for other peoples and cultures -Such programs can create a great synergy between identities and raise new understanding of the Other (Alabay & Çalikoğlu, 2013). On the institutional level, there is also a need to adopt and implement policies on belonging that foster new identities and provide space not only for accommodation of difference, but that ultimately support the generation of stories of inclusion that reframe individual and group identities while rejecting or challenging narratives that stereotype or pit 'us' against 'them' (Powell & Menendian, 2016). ...
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This paper aims to contribute to understanding of difference and knowledge on the analysis of the concepts of identity, Othering and belonging not only from a theoretical perspective, but more importantly by relating them empirically to the Australian context in a way that sheds a better light on the experiences of African immigrants to Australia. It draws on data from interviews conducted with 30 black Africans living in South East Queensland. Their racialized identities impacted on how they felt, were defined, related to and constructed, in Australia. Their accounts suggest that Othering practices can marginalize, exclude and affect migrants and refugees’ ideas and sense of belonging. The findings indicate the need for a more inclusive Australia, the accommodation of difference, the fostering of new identities, the rejection of negative representations and stereotypes of the Other, and the recognition that Othering is one of the important factors to understanding the marginalization, exclusion and challenges of ethnically and racially marked people in Australia.
... Appiah also distinguished between two dimensions of identity: personal and collective. Whereas personal identities are often formed by defining oneself in relation to other persons, collective identities reflect how individuals and groups internalise established social categories, such as cultural, ethnic, gender and class identities (Appiah, 2005;Alabay & Çalikoğlu, 2013). For Appiah (2005), the collective dimensions of someone's identity refer to the social categories they identify with and are identified with by others, for example: men, women; straights, gays; Catholics, Protestants; but also blacks, whites, teachers, citizens, migrants, refugees. ...
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This article looks at the everyday life and realities of some of Australia’s most recent immigrant communities, by shedding light on the experiences of black Africans in Queensland. Particularly, this article examines the experiences of black African migrants and refugees living in South East Queensland, to better understand how race, skin colour and immigration status interact to shape their everyday lives and social location in Australia. Data were collected from 30 participants using qualitative research methods. The theoretical approach employed synthesises concepts from identity, blackness, race and racism, whiteness and critical race theory. The subjective experiences of the participants interviewed indicate that skin colour still matters in determining life chances for black Africans in Australia. While the empirical focus is specific to Australia, this article contributes to the research literature in valuable ways, both from a theoretical perspective and in terms of a comparative contextualisation of racism.
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Turkey’s accession to the European Union is one of the most controversial and divisive topics the EU faces. Both EU governments and citizens are deeply divided on whether Turkey should become a member or not. This paper takes an in-depth look at European citizens’ attitudes towards Turkey’s accession to the EU and explains which elements are key in determining support for or opposition to Turkish membership. We use new data, derived from the new questions measuring citizens’ attitudes towards Turkey that have recently been introduced in Eurobarometer questionnaires. We prove that views for and against Turkish membership are multidimensional and that citizens use different arguments for both positions. In particular, we show that the likelihood of supporting or opposing Turkey’s membership depends on whether citizens adopt a perspective that is utilitarian (resting on costs and benefits), identity-based (founded on Turkey being part of Europe) or post-national (linked to the view of a rights-based EU emphasising democracy and human rights). The main findings are as follows: first, support for Turkey’s membership is mostly based on post-national arguments; second, opposition to Turkey’s accession is mainly connected with identity-related arguments; and third, instrumental reasons (costs/benefits) play a less relevant role. Turkey’s future membership in the EU, we conclude, will thus not be won or lost at the public opinion level on the material plane (costs/benefits) but on the relative weight of post-national visions of the EU vis-à-vis more essentialist visions of Europe. The key to Turkish EU membership, we suggest, may well lie in the way accession is argued and justified, and not wholly in the way it is negotiated.
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This article argues for a robust notion of collective identity which is not reduced to a psychological conception of identity. In the first part, the debate on the concept of identity raised by several authors is taken up critically with the intention of defending a strong sociological conception of identity which by definition is a collective identity. The basic assumption is that collective identities are narrative constructions which permit the control of the boundaries of a network of actors. This theory is then applied to the case of Europe, showing how identity markers are used to control the boundaries of a common space of communication. These markers are bound to stories which those within such a space of communication share. Stories that hold in their narrative structures social relations provide projects of control. National identities are based on strong and exclusive stories. Europeanization (among other parallel processes at the global level) opens this space of boundary constructions and offers opportunities for national as well as sub-national as well as transnational stories competing with each other to shape European identity projects. The EU — this is the hypothesis — provides a case in which different sites offer competing opportunities to continue old stories, to start new stories or to import old stories from other sites, thus creating a narrative network on top of the network of social relations that bind the people in Europe together. European identity is therefore to be conceived as a narrative network embedded in an emerging network of social relations among the people living in Europe.
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The study of identity forms a critical cornerstone within modern sociological thought. Introduced by the works of Cooley and Mead, identity studies have evolved and grown central to current sociological discourse. Microsociological perspectives dominated work published through the 1970s. Sociologists focused primarily on the formation of the "me," exploring the ways in which interpersonal interactions mold an individual's sense of self. Recent literature constitutes an antithesis to such concerns. Many works refocus attention from the individual to the collective; others prioritize discourse over the systematic scrutiny of behavior; some researchers approach identity as a source of mobilization rather than a product of it; and the analysis of virtual identities now competes with research on identities established in the copresent world. This essay explores all such agenda as raised in key works published since 1980. I close with a look toward the future, suggesting trajectories aimed at synthesizing traditional and current concerns.
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For Sam, another wanderer, May your generation see wonders undreamt.
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