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Abstract and Figures

Global rapeseed production has undergone sustained growth over the past 20 years. Having surpassed cottonseed production in the early 2000's, it is now the second most produced oilseed behind soybeans. The major producers are China, India, Canada and European Union (27). During this same period, rapeseed crushing has risen strongly, Europe being the major player in this expansion (development of biodiesel) followed to a lesser extent by Canada and China. World exports of rapeseeds are dominated by Canada, by far the largest exporter. Japan is a traditional importer, while China and the EU (27) are less regular buyers. Although less spectacular than palm oil growth, rapeseed oil growth is also remarkable. Its consumption occurs mainly in the crushing countries, the EU being the principal consumer. Rapeseed meal is the second major oilseed meal produced worldwide (after soybean meal). It has been following broadly the same trends as seeds and oils, this evolution was marked a short period of stagnation in the early 2000's. Consumption of rapeseed meal has grown strongly in the EU (which is deficient in protein feed), in China (due to its extraordinary economic development), and in the USA (due to milk producers' demand for feed). The main exporters of rapeseed meals are Canada and India. Oilseed prices spiked in 2008 and since 2010 are remaining at historically high levels: whilst prices fell sharply following the 2013 harvest, they remain well above the lows of 2009. Rape seed meal, however, will remain a secondary meal with known drawbacks; there is little prospect of its price going higher than 65-70% of that of soybean meal.
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OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
c
P. Carré, A. Pouzet, Published by EDP Sciences 2014
DOI: 10.1051/ocl/2013054
Available online at:
www.ocl-journal.org
Oilseeds & fats Crops and Lipids
OCL
Research Arti cl e –Dossier Open Access
RAPESEED - TREMENDOUS POTENTIAL FOR ADDED VALUE GENERATION?
Colza :haut potentiel de valeur ajout ´
ee
Rapeseed market, worldwide and in Europe
Patrick Carré1,and André Pouzet2
1CREOL, 11 rue G. Monge, 33600 Pessac, France
2CETIOM, 11 rue Monceau, CS 60003, 75378 PARIS cedex 08, France
Received 4 November 2013 – Accepted 13 November 2013
Abstract – Global rapeseed production has undergone sustained growth over the past 20 years. Having surpassed
cottonseed production in the early 2000’s, it is now the second most produced oilseed behind soybeans. The major
producers are China, India, Canada and European Union (27). During this same period, rapeseed crushing has risen
strongly, Europe being the major player in this expansion (development of biodiesel) followed to a lesser extent by
Canada and China. World exports of rapeseeds are dominated by Canada, by far the largest exporter. Japan is a tradi-
tional importer, while China and the EU (27) are less regular buyers. Although less spectacular than palm oil growth,
rapeseed oil growth is also remarkable. Its consumption occurs mainly in the crushing countries, the EU being the
principal consumer. Rapeseed meal is the second major oilseed meal produced worldwide (after soybean meal). It has
been following broadly the same trends as seeds and oils, this evolution was marked a short period of stagnation in
the early 2000’s. Consumption of rapeseed meal has grown strongly in the EU (which is deficient in protein feed), in
China (due to its extraordinary economic development), and in the USA (due to milk producers’ demand for feed). The
main exporters of rapeseed meals are Canada and India. Oilseed prices spiked in 2008 and since 2010 are remaining at
historically high levels: whilst prices fell sharply following the 2013 harvest, they remain well above the lows of 2009.
Rape seed meal, however, will remain a secondary meal with known drawbacks; there is little prospect of its price going
higher than 65–70% of that of soybean meal.
Keywords: Rapeseed seed /rapeseed oil /rapeseed meal /production /trade /prices /biofuel
Résumé – Le marché mondial et européen du colza. Durant les 20 dernières années, la production mondiale de
graines de colza mondiale a cru très rapidement, devenant la seconde graine oléagineuse mondiale après le soja (et
avant l’huile de coton) au début des années 2000. Les producteurs majeurs sont la Chine, l’Inde, le Canada et l’Union
européenne (27). Durant la même période, la trituration mondiale de graines de colza s’est fortement développée,
l’Europe étant l’acteur le plus influent de cette expansion (développement de biodiesel) suivie dans une moindre mesure
par le Canada et la Chine. Le Canada domine les exportations mondiales de graines de colza, s’imposant de loin comme
le plus grand exportateur de ces graines. Le Japon est un importateur traditionnel, tandis que la Chine et l’Europe des
27 sont des acheteurs moins réguliers. Bien que moins spectaculaire que la croissance d’huile de palm, la croissance
de l’huile de colza est également remarquable. Sa consommation est importante dans les pays triturateurs, l’Union
européenne s’imposant comme le premier utilisateur mondial de cette huile. Le tourteau de colza, deuxième tourteau
oléagineux produit dans le monde (après le tourteau de soja), suit approximativement les mêmes tendances d’évolution
que les graines et les huiles, et à ce titre, il a rencontré une période courte de stagnation au début des années 2000.
La consommation de tourteaux de colza a fortement cru en Europe (qui est déficitaire en protéines en l’alimentation
animale), en Chine (en raison de son développement extraordinaire) et aux USA (en raison de l’intérêt de producteurs
de lait pour l’alimentation). Les exportateurs principaux de tourteaux de colza sont le Canada et l’Inde. Les prix des
oléagineux ont atteint un niveau record en 2008, et depuis 2010, ils se maintiennent des hauts niveaux historiques.
Depuis la récolte 2013, les prix sont brusquement retombés, mais demeurent au-dessus des plus bas de 2009. Cependant,
le tourteau de colza restera un tourteau de second rang, avec des inconvénients connus, et il y a peu de chances que ses
prix puissent un jour dépasser 65–70 % du prix des tourteaux de soja.
Mots clés : Graines de colza /huile de colza /tourteau de colza /production /échanges /prix /biocarburants
Correspondence: carre@cetiom.fr
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0),
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Dossier
P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
1 Introduction
With an annual harvest of a little over 450 million tonnes,
oilseed production accounts for just 20% of the world grain
production. But, growth all over the world in oilseed produc-
tion has been remarkable in the past 25 years : world produc-
tion of the major 10 oilseeds (soybeans, cotton seed, rapeseed,
sunflower seed, groundnuts– shelled –, sesame seed, palm ker-
nels, copra, linseed and castor seed) rose from approximately
190 MT in 1985/1986 to more than 453 MT in 2010/2011,
a 136% rise over the course of a quarter-century, a period dur-
ing which the grains sector as a whole (wheat, coarse grains
and rice) witnessed “only” a one-third growth in production,
from 1647 Mn T in 1985 to 2213 Mn T in 2010 (Mittaine,
2012).
Oilseeds are harvested in all continents of the world from a
variety of plants of diverse origins: in 2011,57% of all oilseeds
originated in the American continent (most of all because of
soybean), 23% in Asia and about 9% in Europe.
With 14% of oilseeds volume, rapseed is the second world
oilseed, but its volumes are dwarfed by soybean which rep-
resents 55% of the harvest. Nevertheless, for European agri-
culture this crop is the major oilseed, with a 2012 production
of 19.5 Mt for a total production of 27.0 Mt. This volume has
increased by about 27% since 2005, a development linked to
the expansion of the biodiesel industry (Prolea, 2011).
This article reviews the principal developments in the rape-
seed markets. For the seeds, oils and meals, it provides recent
figures on the production volumes by geographic zones and
international trade. It also gives information on the processing
industry and on the volumes of oil incorporated in biofuels.
The trends on Europeans markets are reviewed and discussed.
2 Rapeseed seeds
The last 20 years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the
production of oleaginous seeds worldwide, especially soybean
production which has been multiplied by a factor of 2.2 from
1992 to 2012. Rapeseed production has grown at a slightly
higher speed – a factor of 2.4 during the same period. Rapeseed
production surpassed that of cottonseed in the early 2000’s to
become world’s second oilseed.
Looking at the most important dry oilseeds (groundnuts,
cottonseeds, linseed, palm kernels, rapeseed, soybean and sun-
flower), soybean accounted for 55% of total crops in 2012
versus 14% for rapeseed. Twenty years ago, the percentages
were 50 and 12%, respectively. Palm kernel is the crop whose
growth has been the most dramatic, with the 2012 production
being 3.8-fold that 20 years previously, reflecting the well-
known rapid expansion of the palm oil production. By compar-
ison, groundnuts, cottonseed and sunflower have seen slower
development (2012 figures are 1.6 times those of the 1992 val-
ues), but this growth remains strong by comparison with ce-
reals which increased by a factor of just 1.29 as a whole and
only 1.19 in the case of wheat. During the same period, the
global population increased by a factor of 1.29 (FAO, 2013;
World Bank, 2013).
Fig. 1. World oilseeds production (×1000 T) of soybeans, cotton-
seeds, groundnuts, sunflower, OSR (Oilseed Rape), palm kernel from
1991/1992 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
Fig. 2. World oilseed rape (OSR) acreage (×1000 ha) in the major ar-
eas of production (EU, Russia, Ukraine, Canada, USA, India, China,
Australia) from 1991/1992 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
2.1 Major areas of production of rapeseed seeds
Major areas of production of rapeseed seeds in terms
of surface
Rapeseed has, at present, four major production areas, each
of approximately equal surface: Chine, India, Canada and the
European Union (27) (Fig. 2). Over time, these surfaces have
markedly increased in Canada and Europe while they have
remained quite steady in China and to a lesser extend in In-
dia. During the last ten years, acreages have increased by
about 3 million hectares in UE27 and Canada. Far behind
this group, Australia is becoming a significant player with al-
most 2 Mha, followed by Ukraine and Russia which each have
about 1 Mha under cultivation. In 2013, Canadian acreage di-
minished by about 9% in comparison 2012, the first reduction
since 2006.
In Europe, France and Germany are cultivating approxi-
mately the same surface areas, which are following similar
trends (Fig. 3). These surfaces are in the range 1.4–1.6 Mha.
D102, page 2 of 12
P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
Fig. 3. European oilseed rape (OSR) acreage (×1000 ha) in
the major European countries of production (France, Germany,
United-Kingdom, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania) from
1991/1992 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
Fig. 4. Oilseed rape (OSR) acreage (×1000 ha) in 7 European coun-
tries (Austria, Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Czech Republic, Slovak
Republic, Hungary) from 1991/1992 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil
Wor ld, 2012).
In 2011 and 2012, France and Germany were diverging
with 1.56/1.33 and 1.61/1.31 Mha, respectively but that gap
disappeared in the 2013 sowings with 1.44 and 1.46 Mha.
The UK and Poland make up a second group of important
countries for European rapeseed. They devote between 600
and 800 thousand hectares to this crucifer, Poland leading by
one hundred thousand hectares but that spread decreased in
the 2012 and 2013 sowings (0.72/0.76 and O.72/0.71 Mha
in Pl/UK). Romania has seen its production rise dramatically
since its entry in the EU and has taken the fifth place just
ahead of the Czech Republic. Sowings were dramatically re-
duced in 2012 in this country with just 97 000 ha and re-
sumed to 290 000 ha this year. As for Romania, Hungary and
Slovakia, they have seen their acreage increasing significantly
following their entry into the EU in 2004. Together, they have
approximately the same rapeseed surface as Poland (Eurostat,
2013). Denmark, Sweden and Austria are the other impor-
tant growers of rapeseed in Europe (Fig. 4). Lithuania, Latvia
and Estonia are progressively becoming significant produc-
ers, Lithuania cultivating approximately twice the acreage of
Latvia with 264, 124 and 85 thousand ha, respectively this
year.
Fig. 5. World oilseed rape (OSR) production (×1000 T) in the ma-
jor areas of production (EU, Russia, Ukraine, Canada, USA, India,
China, Australia) from 1991/1992 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World,
2012).
Fig. 6. European oilseed rape (OSR) production (×1000 T) in the
major European countries of production (France, Germany, United-
Kingdom, Czech Republic, Poland) from 2002 to 2013 (Source:
Eurostats, s.d.).
Major areas of production of rapeseed seeds considering
volume-production
Rapeseed production is much less evenly distributed than
areas under cultivation (Fig. 5). The EU (27) is by far the
world’s largest producer with about 20 Mt per year followed
by Canada (15 Mt) and China (12 Mt). India with about 6 Mt
yearly is well behind although with a comparable acreage.
In Europe, France with slightly larger acreage trails
Germany in production except for the 2011 and 2012 har-
vests where poor climatic conditions aected German pro-
duction (Fig. 6). The 2013 harvest saw a severe downturn
in France where a combination of adverse climatic hazards
eroded yields, compounding the eect of a reduction in the
surface area under cultivation. The UK, Poland and the Czech
Republic have a fairly regular productionthat exceeds one mil-
lion tons per year (Eurostats, s.d.).
D102, page 3 of 12
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P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
Fig. 7. Oilseed rape (OSR) production (×1000 T) in 5 European coun-
tries (Romania, Denmark, Bulgaria, Hungary, Lithuania) from 2002
to 2013 (Source: Eurostats, s.d.).
Fig. 8. Oilseed rape (OSR) production (×1000 T) in 6 European coun-
tries (Slovakia, Sweden, Latvia, Finland, Austria, Estonia) from 2002
to 2013 (Source: Eurostats, s.d.).
After a strong progression, Romania production re-
gressed dramatically in 2012 due to a pronounced autumn
drought followed by freeze damages in winter (360 000 ha
sowed/92 000 ha harvested). The 2013 situation has not to-
tally recovered because of soil dryness resulting in reduced
acreage under cultivation (Fig. 7). Lithuania, by contrast, ex-
perienced a steady increase in its production and is at levels
close to Denmark and above Hungary. Bulgarian production
surged from 2006–2010 and then experienced a similar evolu-
tion to that of Romania, though the vagaries of 2012 were less
damaging in this country.
Slovakia, Sweden and Latvia form a group of countries
that produce between 200 and 500 kt/year. Austria, Estonia
and Finland are the three other with a significant production,
their harvests above 100 kt/year.
2.2 Rapeseed seeds crushing
Global rapeseed crushing has been rising strongly. Europe
has been the major player in this expansion, followed to a
lesser extent by Canada and China (Fig. 9).
Fig. 9. World oilseed rape (OSR) crushings (×1000 T) and OSR
crushings (×1000 T) in major players (UE, Canada, India, China,
Japan) from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
Fig. 10. Oilseed rape (OSR) crushings (×1000 T) in Russia, Ukraine,
USA, Mexico, Iran, Turkey, United Arab Emirate (UAE), Australia
from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
European growth has been driven by the emerging use of
biodiesel, as it will be discussed below.
Elsewhere in the world, Mexico, a non-producing coun-
try, has developed a processing industry whose production is
steadily increasing (Fig. 10). Similarly, there has been a steady
increase in rapeseed crushing the United States. Australia and
Russia are two other countries which have also developed
a business in crushing, joined in 2006 by the United Arab
Emirates. All three crush more than 800 kt of rapeseed per
year.
In Europe, crushing is dominated by Germany, which han-
dles almost twice as many seeds as France, which itself has an
activity twice that of Poland and the UK (Fig. 11).
Belgium and the Netherlands have strongly increased
their operations, a development related to the growth of the
biodiesel business (Fig. 12).
D102, page 4 of 12
P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
Fig. 11. Oilseed rape (OSR) crushings (×1000 T) in major players of
Europe (France, Germany, United Kingdom, Poland) from 1996/1997
to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
Fig. 12. Oilseed rape (OSR) crushings (×1000 T) in Belgium-
Luxemburg, Netherlands and Czech Republic from 1996/1997 to
2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
2.2.1 Rapeseed world trade of seeds
There are three categories of countries in the world:
those that produce more than they process, such as Ukraine,
Australia and Canada; those whose processing is broadly the
same as their production, which is the case of India, Russia,
China and Europe as a whole; and countries such as the USA,
Germany, Mexico and the UAE that produce less than they
process (Fig. 13).
2.2.2 Rapeseed exports of seeds
World exports of rape seeds are dominated by Canada, by
far the largest exporter, followed essentially by just two other
countries, Australia and Ukraine (Fig. 14).
Since 2003 there has been an upward trend in internation-
alisation of oilseed trade, but this trend is not without his-
tory since a few years earlier the international trade share had
peaked at 25%. The share of rapeseed in the volume of ex-
ported oilseeds followed the same trend. It is striking that the
Fig. 13. Crushing/production of oilseed rape (OSR) ratio in sev-
eral countries (Ukraine, Australia, Canada, India, Russia, China, UE,
Germany, USA) and worldwilde, during three periods (1997–2004,
2005–2008 and 2009–2012) (Source: Oil World, 2012).
Fig. 14. Global world oilseed rape (OSR) exports (×1000 T of seeds)
and world OSR exports (×1000 T of seeds) of major players (Ukraine,
Canada, Australia) from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World,
2012).
two curves follow a parallel evolution, in particular with re-
gard to the low of 2002/2003, while at that time the production
of rapeseed and soya bean were not growing at the same rates
(Fig. 15). The 99/00 peak is not correlated to a change in seeds
prices but rather to strong import demand from China, which
fell back in the succeeding years.
2.2.3 Rapeseed imports of seeds
On the imports side, Japan is a traditional player with a
steady consumption while China and the EU27 are less pre-
dictable buyers (Fig. 16). The EU has become the largest im-
porter in recent years due to increasing needs related to the
expansion of biofuels; China’s demand varies according to
changes in food needs. Pakistan and Mexico, two countries
with large populations and which lack oilseeds, are seeing im-
ports grow year on year.
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P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
Fig. 15. Ratio of world exports of oilseeds and total oilseed produc-
tion and ratio of oilseed rape (OSR) world export and all oilseeds
world export. The first is an indicator of the proportion of the produc-
tion that is traded at international level; the second one represents the
participation of OSR in these exchanges.
Fig. 16. World oilseed rape (OSR) imports (×1000 T of seeds) of
major players (EU, Mexico, Pakistan, China, Japan) from 1996/1997
to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
3 Rapeseed oil
3.1 Production of seed oils
The global seed oil market has been led by palm oil since
2004, and its production has almost tripled since 1997, exceed-
ing 50 MT in 2011/2011. 15 years earlier, palm oil production
had been less than 20 MT per annum (Fig. 17).
That growth in palm and palm kernel oil is higher than that
of all the other oils. Although less spectacular, the growth in
rapeseed and soybean oil has also been remarkable (Fig. 18).
The growth in sunflower oil production has also grown faster
than the world population; corn, cotton and olive oil have been
following the growth trend of the global population.
Groundnut oil is in decline. This is being driven by a mul-
tiplicity of factors, among which an increasing share taken by
unprocessed groundnuts being used in food, its replacement in
some geographical areas by soybeans and problems with afla
toxin contamination.
Fig. 17. World vegetable oil production (×1000 T) of soybean oil,
cottonseed oil, groundnut oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil,
olive oil, palm oil, palmkernel oil, coconut oil, from 1996/1997 to
2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
Fig. 18. Comparisons of vegetable oils growth (soybean oil, cotton-
seed oil, groundnut oil, sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, corn oil, olive oil,
palm oil, palmkernel oil, coconut oil, from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012
(Source: Oil World, 2012).
3.2 Global trade of rapeseed oil
Consumption of rapeseed oil takes place mainly in the
crushing countries. It is therefore not surprising that the EU
is the principal consumer (Fig. 19). The notable feature of
that zone is the strong rise in its consumption since the early
2000’s. China and the USA are experiencing growing con-
sumption, unlike India and Japan where volumes remain flat.
China’s appetite for OSR oil can be explained by developments
in the country’s wealth and demography while in the USA, the
nutritional quality of the product would explain the evolution
since the price of rapeseed oil price makes it uncompetitive
for biodiesel production (FranceAgriMer, 2013). International
trade in rapeseed oil reached 4 Mt in the 2011–2012 crop year,
which amounts to 17% of global production (Fig. 20). Since
the early 2000’s, an expansion in international trade has ac-
companied the growth in global demand.
D102, page 6 of 12
P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
Fig. 19. World oilseed rape oil (OSR oil) disappearance (×1000 T)
in Europe, CIS (Commonwealth of independent States, most of all
the Soviet Union), Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, USA, Mexico, China,
India, Japan from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
Fig. 20. World rapeseed oil imports (×1000 T) and rapeseed oil im-
ports (×1000 T) in Europe, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, USA, China
from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
3.3 Biofuels and vegetable oil
According to the FAO, the use of vegetableoil for biodiesel
is at about 10% of the global vegetable oil production ob-
served during 2008–2010. The conversion of vegetable oils to
biodiesel is limited to a low number of countries (Fig. 21).
Argentina, EU (27) and Thailand have respective shares
(biodiesel/total oil consumption) of biodiesel consumption
of 58%, 37% and 39%, far above the world average. They
are trailed by Brazil and Indonesia with 23% and 20% con-
version rates. In these countries, the biodiesel production is
still growing thanks to developments in mandatory incorpora-
tion. In Indonesia the rate of incorporation has moved from 5
to 7% in 2012 (US Energy Information Administration, 2013).
In the United States of America, demand for biodiesel have
shifted from 1.9 Mm3in 2009 to 3.8 Mm3in 2012 encourag-
ing production to reach 4.1 Mm3in 2012 (National Biodiesel
Board, 2013). This rate should remain at that level while the
Fig. 21. Production of biodiesel (1000 m3) by a selection of countries
(Source: US Energy Information Administration, 2013).
Fig. 22. Biodiesel production (×1000 T) in European countries, from
2008 to 2011 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
so-called ‘advanced biofuels’ are expected to take the lead in
the future. Brazil is similarly increasing its incorporation tar-
get, shifting from 5% in 2011 to 7% in 2012 and has invested
in esterification capacities far beyond his internal consumption
with 5.6 Mt available in 2011.
Ethanol production dwarfs biodiesel at global level
with 82 Mm3vs. 20 Mm3in 2010 but in Europe, this bio-
fuel leads the market. European output was about 9.5 Mt in
2010, while the US and Brazil were producing 1.1 Mt each,
Argentina 0.9 Mt, and other countries approximately 4 Mt.
Argentina’s output has increased strongly and is now at
about 3 Mt per year with substantial exports (2 Mt), mainly
directed to the EU (27). In that country a dierential between
taxes on biodiesel (20%) and oil and seeds (32%) has been
crucial for the development of exports. Argentina also has a
biodiesel incorporation requirement of 10% and an allocated
volume of 1.3 Mt for 2012 (OECD-FAO, 2011)
France and Germany are the leading European countries
for the production and consumption of biodiesel (Fig. 22). To-
gether, they account for approximately half of the EU (27) vol-
umes. In 2011, French production was impacted by imports
of animal fats and waste oils due to the double counting of
these materials in the mandatory incorporation requirement.
Other European countries are aected by competition from
imports of methyl esters of soybean oil from Argentina and
palm oil from South Asia. Germany has suered less from this
D102, page 7 of 12
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P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
160000
180000
200000
kT
Oilsees Meals ('kT)
SOYBEAN MEAL
COTTON MEAL
SUNFLOWER MEAL
RAPESEED MEAL
CORNGLUTEN FEED
PALMKERNEL MEAL
Fig. 23. World production (×1000 T) of various oilseeds meals (soy-
bean meal, cotton meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed meal corn-gluten
feed, palm-kernel meal) from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil
Wor ld, 2012).
competition thanks to a more favorable regulation regarding
the double counting of spent oils and animal fats and a strong
local industry.
According to the available sources, rapeseed oil transes-
terification was consuming between 6 and 7 Mt in 2010/2011.
With rapeseed oil production being at about 10 Mt, this mar-
ket has a strong importance for the business; the cap set by the
EU will have major consequences for the future of rapeseed in
Europe (Oil World, 2012).
The European industry is also being strongly aected by
a possible revision of EU legislation that would introduce the
accounting of the so-called ILUC (indirect land use change)
in the greenhouse emissions of biofuels. The new accounting
would penalize biofuels produced from vegetable oil. During a
recent vote (Oct. 23, 2013), the European Parliament Environ-
ment Committee withheld a negotiating mandate from Corinne
Lepage, the French MEP leading the proposal.In consequence,
there is little chance that a new proposal will be readied before
the next European elections and therefore that a new law could
be voted before the end of 2014. The biodiesel industry was re-
lieved by the news which it hopes will lead to the provision of
new scientific data that might indicate a more nuancedeect of
the ILUC. The proposal of Lepage was to cap the mandatory
incorporation of biofuels for transports at 6% instead of 10%,
i.e., at approximately the level already attained. That change, if
enforced, would cause losses on the heavy investments already
made in light of the previous target. It would also weaken the
existing units because a sharp reduction of the incorporations
was planned after 2020 (Keating, 2013)
4 Rapeseed meals
4.1 World oilseed meals production, including
rapeseed meals
Soybean meal is by far the major oilseed meal produced
worldwide (Fig. 23). With 177 Mt for the 2011–2012 crop
year, it accounted for 63% of available meals (including corn-
gluten feed) in mass and almost 72% of the proteins supply
Fig. 24. Comparisons of oilseed meals growth (soybean meal, cot-
tonseed meal, groundnut meal, sunflower meal, rapeseed meal, corn-
germ meal, corn-gluten feed, palm kernel meal, copra meal, linseed
meal), from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
from these materials. Rapeseed meal is the second by rank but
with only 33.6 Mt it is just the first of the secondary sources.
In terms of growth (Fig. 24), we see again the trends al-
ready observed for the cases of seeds and oils. Rapeseed meal
and soybean meal have witnessed approximately the same
trends although rapeseed meal encountered a short period of
stagnation in the early 2000’s. Not surprisingly, palm-kernel
meal is the resource that has experienced the fastest growth
and sunflower is ahead of the other meals. Linseed declined
slightly, but that crop’s acreage is lagging far behind and it is
far from clear that its decline is linked to the development of
canola in Canada.
4.2 Global trade of rapeseed meals
4.2.1 Rapeseed meals imports
Consumption of rapeseed meal has grown strongly in the
EU (27) which is deficient in protein feed and where these
new supply was replacing imported soybean meal. China,
with its extraordinary economic development, has seen its
plant protein needs explode, from which rape has benefited
(Fig. 25). The USA is increasing its consumption of rapeseed
meal due to the interest of milk producers in this feedstu.
Mexico took 1 Mt in 2011/2012, as compared with half that
amount 10 years previously. Russia is also experiencing ris-
ing consumption but its volumes are remaining below 0.6 Mt.
Some other countries, like Iran, Vietnam and Indonesia, are
progressively adding rapeseed meal to their list of feedstus.
The USA and China are the major importers of rapeseed
meal (Fig. 26) but their consumptions are complemented by an
ensemble of new consumers each with relatively low volumes
allowing the global exchanges to rise sharply during the least
years.
4.2.2 Rapeseed meals exports
The main exporters of rapeseed meals are Canada with
more than 3 MT (Fig. 27) and, surprisingly, India which ex-
ported in 2011/2012 around 1 MT. The EU (27), Russia and
the UAE each supplying between 250 and 350 kt in 2011/2012.
D102, page 8 of 12
P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
Fig. 25. World oilseed rape meal (OSR meal) disappearance
(×1000 T) in Europe, Canada, USA, Mexico, Bangladesh, China,
India and Japan from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World,
2012).
Fig. 26. Rapeseed meal world imports (×1000 T) and rapeseed meal
imports (×1000 T) in Europe, USA, Mexico, China, Indonesia, South
Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012
(Source: Oil World, 2012).
Fig. 27. Rapeseed meal world exports (×1000 T) and rapeseed meal
exports (×1000 T) of CIS (Commonwealth of independent States,
most at least the Soviet Union), Canada, China, India and United Arab
Emirates (UAE) from 1996/1997 to 2011/2012 (Source: Oil World,
2012).
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 28. Evolution of prices of soybean, rapeseed and sunflower seeds
(a), meals (b) and oils (c) from July 2004 to beginning of 2013
(Source: Oil World, 2012).
5 Rapeseed prices
5.1 Evolution of rapseed seeds, oils and meals prices
The price of the oilseeds (Fig. 28a) peaked in 2008 and
since 2010 have reencountered historically high levels. Whilst
prices have fallen sharply since the 2013 harvest, they remain
above the lows of 2009.
Data about seeds prices were collected by ONIDOL from
the weekly publication “La Dépêche”:
Sunflower seeds: quotations for depart Chateauroux ” until
2007 and after 2017 CAF St Nazaire.
Soyba beans: CAF Rotterdam.
Rapeseed seeds: CAF Rouen.
D102, page 9 of 12
Dossier
P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
Rapeseed oil: Fob Rotterdam and after 2007 Fob Dutch
ex-mill.
Sunflower oil: Fob France up to May 2007 then Fob NW
Europe.
Soybean oil: Fob Rotterdam then after 2007, Fob Dutch
ex-mill.
– Rapeseed meal: France, Ex-mill Brest and Rouen after
2007.
Sunflower meal: France, Fob St Nazaire.
Soybean meal: France, Lorient.
In the charts presented here (Figs. 28a–28c), fluctuations in
the price of soybean are 89% explained by the price of the
meal and 7% by the price of oil; residual variability is of the
order of 4%. This variability is the variability of crushing gross
margin and has a standard deviation of 17 e/t seed (average
price: 283 e/t, initial standard deviation: 89.4 e/t). There is a
correlation between the price of oil and that of meal, the R2
coecient being 0.74.
In the case of rapeseed, it is the value of the oil that is the
main driver: it explains 82.6% of the variability in the data pre-
sented in the charts, as compared with 11.6% for meal prices.
The residual variability has a standard deviation of 23.5 e/t
and represents 6% of the total variance in the price of seed
(SD 96.7 e/t, average 286 e/t). The correlation between prices
of oil and meal has an R2coecient of 0.68. This correlation
is somewhat weaker than that between the prices of soy prod-
ucts. Overall, the markets for oil and meal are relatively uncor-
related. The prices of meals are mainly under the influence of
the demand for feed, which is growing steadily, and the sup-
ply of soybean meal. Demand in the oil market depends on
both the food market and industrial uses including biodiesel;
the supply side must cope with competition from palm oil.
With regard to market developments, it is interesting to
note that the price spike in 2007/2008 was not followed in 2009
by a return to prices of 2006/2007 and that the whole period
has been marked by a strong progression in seed prices which
was only interrupted in July 2013. The ensuing decrease has
been more marked for rapeseed and sunflower than for soy-
beans. This dierentiation is easily explained by the fact that
meal prices remain at historically high levels, while oil prices
are heading downwards, pursuing a trend that seems not about
to stop.
5.2 Co-evolution of rapeseed meal and soybean meal
prices
The relationship between the prices of these meals has
undergone some variation during the period under review
(Fig. 29). Before 2008, there was a relatively tight link between
the prices of soybean meal and rapeseed meal which explained
about 80% of the variations of rapeseed meal and where the
general trend was that rapeseed meal was around 0.7 of the
cost of soybean meal. In the years 2008/2010, this relation has
loosened to the point that it explained only 30% of the vari-
ability. But, from January 11 to July 2012, the cloud realigns
and the R2coecient jumps to 0.91. In the recent period, we
observe a new de-correlation characterized by a relatively low
variability of the rapeseed meal in times of high volatility in
soybean meal prices.
Fig. 29. Rapeseed meal (RSM) prices (in e/T) as a function of Soy-
bean Meal (SBM) prices (in e/T), for 5 periods of time, between July
1998 and March 2013 (Source: Oil World, 2012).
Fig. 30. Ratio between rapeseed meal (RSM) prices and Soybean
Meal (SBM) between July 1998 and March 2013 (Source: Oil World,
2012).
An interesting fact is the yearly drop of the rapeseed
meal/soybean meal prices ratio (Fig. 30) at the change of crops
year. Even when the consecutive years averages are close,
there is a strong likelihood that the rapeseed meal prices are
going to fall relative the ones of soybean meals. Another inter-
esting fact is the relative decline in the price of rapeseed meal
in the period from July 2008 to June 2012 while soybean meal
prices were around 300 e/t followed by a rise in 2012/2013
campaign marked by very high soybean meal prices. Since the
2008/2009 crop year, the average price of rapeseed meal has
been about 55% of soybean meal (SD 6.6%). This price is well
under the potential value of a rapeseed meal that contains 75%
of the proteins of soybean meal and 80–90% of its energy
value. According to the Canola Council, the potential relative
value of rapeseed meal is between 70–85% for dairy cattle,
65–75% for hog growers and 55–70% for chickens. These lat-
ter require more concentrated feed and hence rapeseed meal is
less beneficial than soybean meal (Canola Council, 2007).
D102, page 10 of 12
P. Carré, A. Pouzet: OCL 2014, 21(1) D102
5.3 Impact of biodiesel development
The development of biodiesel since the second half of the
mid of 2000’s has led to a relative decline in rapeseed meal
prices due to an abundance in supply. These relatively low
prices have encouraged the development of meal usages by
feed manufacturers in a larger range of feed specialties. The
gap between the potential value of the feedstuand its real
prices is likely to diminish in a context of long term high pro-
teins prices. Time and experience are increasing the knowl-
edge of feed manufacturers who are progressively learning
how much rapeseed meal they can safely use to take advan-
tage of its cheaper price. However, rapeseed will remain a sec-
ondary meal with known drawbacks and there is little hope
that its prices could go beyond 65–70% of the price of soy-
bean meal.
With soybean meal prices at 437 e/t, this implies that rape-
seed meal could gain about 45 e/t, i.e., a potential improve-
ment of about 30 eper ton of seeds.
5.4 Future of the protein demand
China is the key driver of trends on the global proteins
market. Its imports of soybean meals accounted for almost
two thirds of the global trade in 2012/2013 with 58 Mt, this
compares with 25 Mt in 2004/2005. That spectacular rise is
being led by the dramatic expansion of the livestock sector,
itself driven by the growth in per capita meat consumption.
Since 1980, Chinese people have increased fourfold their pur-
chases of animal products (14.6 to 58.2 kg/year). Regard-
less of whether or not this consumption reaches the level of
countries like France (88 kg/capita), demand will continue
to grow for the foreseeable future. FranceAgriMer note that
other factors are going to be taking place in China that will
boost demand for soybean. The country is aected both by
substantial losses of agricultural land (1% per year) and by
the adverse eects of pollution, as yet largely uncontrolled.
Farmland diminishes under the eect of desertification and ur-
ban expansion. The Gobi Desert in the center China has grown
by 25 000 km2in 10 years. This phenomenon could be the con-
sequence of an overexploitation of aquifers and/or of global
warming. Wastewater is discharged into rivers without any pu-
rification and its use for irrigation leads to serious contamina-
tion of soils and crops. The USDA expects continued growth
in soybean meals import by China, at least until 2020 with a
forecast of 90 Mt at that date.
6 Conclusion
The development of biodiesel has induced a significant in-
crease in both the production and consumption of rapeseed oil.
But biodiesel has not been the only driver of these changes.
Along with the energy use of this oil, there is growing interest
in its food uses observed in China (China’s demand for oil has
added 2–3 Mt to global consumption), in the USA (1 more Mt
per year), and in Korea; that can be attributed to the eect of its
nutritional features in a context where trans fats are in the spot-
light. Rapeseed meal, which accounts for only 20–25% of the
seed’s value, has benefited from the strong demand for pro-
teins; despite a slight decline in its value relative to soybean
meal, the surge in supply has not led to a price collapse. The
gigantic needs of China for proteins is likely to maintain high
prices on the meals market, a situation that could help to re-
duce the gap between the prices of meals.
But these strengths are balanced by the threats of changes
in EU regulations to mandatory incorporation of first genera-
tion biofuels and by the fragile situation of the soybean market
characterized by the predominance of China on demand side,
which alone accounts for around two thirds of the trade, and
a very small number of suppliers. This imbalance is a factor
driving volatility in prices and reduces visibility for the actors.
This eect would be reinforced by the possible consequences
of global warming, which would increase the intensity and the
frequency of droughts, heatwaves and excessive rains.
After 2020, the fate of the first-generation biofuels is likely
to become less favorable. Nevertheless, depending on changes
in the relative valuation of the meals and the trends observed in
the USA where the nutritional properties of rapeseed oil have
led to increase its usage in food, one can expect that the de-
mand will remain suciently strong to sustain a continuous
progression in rapeseed, even if this growth slackens in com-
parison with that of the last ten years.
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Cite this article as: Patrick Carré, André Pouzet. Rapeseed market, worldwide and in Europe. OCL 2014, 21(1) D102.
D102, page 12 of 12
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In a globalised world, the trade of goods and services constitute the heart of the economic system. But the trade patterns may show extreme diversity depending upon the nature of the concerned products. The technical and functional constraints do impose their laws, particularly when they relate to biological products/commodities. The term globalization is generally used to describe a complex process of international integration. When referring to oilseeds, the term must also relate to agriculture and human nutritional requirements for a rising human population spread all over the world, particularly in large urban environment. With an annual harvest of about 450 Mn T, oilseeds are naturally “globalized” in their production patterns. The complexity of their production schemes associated with the diversity of their usage on widespread geographical regions gives this group of commodities a unique role on the world markets. This process of opened trade channels has enabled the sector to meet the supply requirements of a quickly rising demand coming from both the population and all the industrial usages including alternative “green” energy. However, for the time being, demand growth has not been fully counter-balanced by production growth. As a consequence, unless some strict reallocation of acreage is effectively organized or new high yielding technologies are developed, it is a fact that vegetable oil will keep a strong demand base for a long time, compounded by the mechanical demand from economic growth in highly populated emerging economies. The balancing of supply and demand is expected to remain a tight exercise every year. At the end of the day, the future of the entire industry largely lies in technology because the final stake is to ensure the proper feeding of a 9 billion people population in a not too far future.
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