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A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus) from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand

Authors:
  • Ranong Marine Fisheries Research and Development Station
  • Societas Medicinae Sinensis

Abstract and Figures

We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. is characterized by a maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or porebearing (male) scales on each femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal bands between limb insertions. The discovery of a new reptile endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the high importance of this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation.
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Accepted by A. Bauer: 9 Dec. 2014; published: 14 Jan. 2015
ZOOTAXA
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Copyright © 2015 Magnolia Press
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3905.4.9
http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:0592C749-F59B-4E87-9C90-3F74D59F3798
A new forest-dwelling Bent-toed Gecko (Squamata: Gekkonidae: Cyrtodactylus)
from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand
KIRATI KUNYA
1
, MONTRI SUMONTHA
2
, NONN PANITVONG
3
, WUTTIPONG DONGKUMFU
4
,
THANA SIRISAMPHAN
4
& OLIVIER S. G. PAUWELS
5,6
1
Nakhon Ratchasima Zoo, 111 M. 1, Ratchasima-Pak Tongchai Rd., Chaimongkol, Mueang, Nakhon Ratchasima 30000, Thailand.
E-mail: kkunya@yahoo.com
2
Ranong Marine Fisheries Station, 157 Saphanpla Rd., Paknam, Mueang, Ranong 85000, Thailand.
E-mail: montri.sumontha@gmail.com
3
siamensis.org, 408/144 Phaholyothin Place Bldg 34FL, Phaholyothin Rd., Phayathai, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
E-mail: npanitvong@gmail.com
4
Doi Inthanon National Park, 119 M. 7 Ban Luang Sub-district, Jom Thong District, Chiang Mai Province 50160, Thailand.
E-mail: w.peak60@hotmail.com
5
Département des Vertébrés Récents, Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Rue Vautier 29, B-1000 Brussels, Belgium
6
Corresponding author. E-mail: osgpauwels@yahoo.fr
Abstract
We describe a new forest-dwelling Cyrtodactylus from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Cyrtodac-
tylus inthanon sp. nov. is characterized by a maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tu-
bercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or pore-
bearing (male) scales on each femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal
scales; no precloacal groove or depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal
bands between limb insertions. The discovery of a new reptile endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the high importance of
this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation.
Key words: Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov., taxonomy, new species, Doi Inthanon National Park
Introduction
With its summit culminating at 2565 m a.s.l., Doi Inthanon is the highest mountain of Thailand and shows a forest
species composition that is unique in the country (Khamyong et al. 2004). Its reptile fauna has never been
thoroughly investigated, and few records are available and are mostly undocumented (Nabhitabhata et al. 2004,
Nabhitabhata & Chan-ard 2005). No Cyrtodactylus has been so far reported. Pursuing our taxonomic work and
field surveys on this genus, that have already brought to light the existence of several micro-endemics in the
mountains of northern Thailand (Bauer et al. 2009, 2010, Ellis & Pauwels 2012, Kunya et al. 2014, Pauwels et al.
2014), we visited Doi Inthanon and encountered a population that is distinct from all known congeners in scalation
and color pattern. This population is consequently described hereafter as a new species, Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp.
nov.
Material and methods
Measurements and meristic counts follow Sumontha et al. (2012), Panitvong et al. (2014), Pauwels & Sumontha
(2014) and Pauwels et al. (2014). Paired meristic characters are given left/right. Numbers of supralabial and
infralabial scales are counted from the largest scale immediately posterior to the dorsal inflection of the posterior
portion of the upper jaw to the rostral and mental scales, respectively. The number of longitudinal rows of body
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tubercles was counted transversely across the center of the dorsum from one ventrolateral skin fold to the other.
The number of longitudinal rows of ventral scales was counted transversely across the center of the abdomen from
one ventrolateral skin fold to the other. The numbers of subdigital lamellae beneath the toes were counted from the
base of the first phalanx to the claw. The following measurements were taken with a digital caliper to the nearest
0.1 mm: AG: axilla to groin length, taken from the posterior margin of the forelimb at its insertion point on the
body to the anterior margin of the hind limb at its insertion point on the body; EarL: ear length, the greatest
horizontal distance of the ear opening; ForeaL: forearm length, taken on the dorsal surface from the posterior
margin of the elbow while flexed 90° to the inflection of the flexed wrist; HeadH: head height, the maximum depth
of head from the occiput to the throat; HeadL: head length, from the posterior margin of the retroarticular process
of the lower jaw to the tip of the snout; HeadW: head width, measured at the angle of the jaws; Internar: internarial
distance, measured between the nares across the rostrum; Interorb: interorbital distance, measured between the
anterior edges of the orbits; NosOrb: nostril to orbit distance, from the posterior margin of the external nares to the
anterior margin of the orbit; OrbD: orbit diameter, the greatest horizontal diameter of the orbit; OrbEar: orbit to ear
distance, from the anterior edge of the ear opening to the posterior edge of the orbit; SnOrb: snout to orbit distance,
from the tip of the snout to the anteriormost margin of the orbit; SVL: snout-vent length, taken from the tip of snout
to the vent; TailL: tail length, taken from the vent to the tip of the tail, original or regenerated; TailW: tail width,
taken at the base of the tail immediately posterior to the postcloacal swelling; TibiaL: tibia length, taken on the
ventral surface from the posterior surface of the knee while flexed 90° to the base of heel. Meristic characters
abbreviations: DorTub: dorsal tubercles; FemPi: femoral pits; FemPo: femoral pores; IL: infralabial scales;
InterorbSc: interorbital scales; PreclPi: precloacal pits; PreclPo: precloacal pores; SL: supralabial scales; Ven:
ventral scales. Museum and other acronyms: CUMZ-R: Chulalongkorn University Museum of Zoology, Reptile
Collection, Bangkok; IRSNB: Institut Royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Brussels; MS: Montri
Sumontha’s field number series; THNHM: Thailand Natural History Museum, National Science Museum,
Technopolis, Pathum Thani.
Systematics
Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov.
(Figs 1–7)
Holotype. THNHM 22550; adult male from Doi Inthanon (ca. 18°35'32" N, 098°29'12" E, alt. ca. 700 m asl),
Amphoe (= District) Jom Thong, Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand. Collected by W. Dongkumfu on 7
February 2014.
Paratypes. THNHM 25605 (field no. MS 320) and CUMZ-R-0.2320 (field no. MS 503), adult females, same
locality, date and collector data as the holotype.
Diagnosis. Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other congeneric species by its
maximum known SVL of 87.3 mm; 18 to 20 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; a continuous series of 34 to 37
enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, including four to six pitted (female) or pore-bearing (male) scales on each
femur separated by a diastema from five pitted (females) or pore-bearing (male) precloacal scales; no precloacal
groove nor depression; transversely enlarged subcaudal scales; and three to five irregular beige dorsal bands
between limb insertions.
Description of holotype. Adult male. SVL 87.3 mm. TailL 102.0 mm (only first 12.4 mm original). Head
relatively long (HeadL/SVL 0.30), wide (HeadW/HeadL 0.63), not markedly depressed (HeadH/HeadL 0.41),
distinct from slender neck. Loreal region inflated, canthus rostralis not prominent. Snout elongate (SnOrb/HeadL
0.38), rounded, longer than orbit diameter (OrbD/SnOrb 0.70); scales on snout small, rounded to oval, granular to
weakly conical, mostly homogeneous, larger than those on crown, interorbital and occipital regions. Eye large
(OrbD/HeadL 0.27); pupil vertical with crenelated margins; supraciliaries short, those at posterior part of orbit
bearing small conical spines. Ear opening rounded, relatively small (EarL/HeadL 0.06); orbit to ear distance
subequal to orbit diameter (OrbEar/OrbD 1.01). Rostral much wider (3.3 mm) than deep (2.0 mm), rostral crease
nearly half of rostral height. Two enlarged supranasals separated from one another by an elongate internasal.
Rostral in contact with first supralabials, nostrils, supranasals and internasal. Nostrils oval, more or less laterally
directed, each surrounded by supranasal, rostral, first supralabial and two enlarged postnasals. Three or four rows
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of small scales separate orbit from supralabials. Mental triangular, wider (3.4 mm) than deep (2.9 mm). A single
pair of greatly enlarged postmentals in broad contact behind mental, each bordered anteromedially by mental,
anterolaterally by first infralabial, posterolaterally by an enlarged lateral chinshield, and posteriorly by two
granules. Supralabials to mid-orbital position 7/7, enlarged supralabials to angle of jaws 10/11. Infralabials 9/9.
Interorbital scale rows across narrowest point of frontal bone 24.
Body slender, relatively short (AG/SVL 0.43) with well-defined non-denticulate ventrolateral folds. Dorsal
scales weakly heterogeneous, domed to conical; regularly distributed tubercles (about five times size of adjacent
scales) extending from shoulder region onto tail base, smaller tubercles on postocular region, crown, occiput and
nape; most tubercles bearing a strong keel, less marked on lower flank tubercles; tubercles on posterior trunk and
sacral region most prominent; tubercles in 20 regular rows at midbody, typically separated from one another by two
or three dorsal granules. Ventral scales larger than dorsals, smooth, oval and subimbricate, largest on posterior
abdomen and in precloacal region. Midbody scale rows across belly between ventrolateral folds 34. Gular region
with homogeneous, smooth, juxtaposed granular scales. A continuous row of 35 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales,
as follows, from left to right: one unpitted poreless femoral scale + six pore-bearing femoral scales + a diastema of
nine unpitted poreless scales + five pore-bearing precloacal scales + a diastema of eight unpitted poreless scales +
six pore-bearing femoral scales. Postcloacal spurs each bearing three enlarged, conical scales.
Scales on palm and sole smooth, rounded to oval or hexagonal, slightly domed. Scalation on dorsal surface of
hind and forelimbs similar to body dorsum with enlarged tubercles interspersed among smaller scales. Fore and
hind limbs relatively long, slender (ForeaL/SVL 0.16, TibiaL/SVL 0.20). Digits long, slender, inflected at
interphalangeal joints, all bearing robust, slightly recurved claws. Basal subdigital lamellae broad, oval to
rectangular, without scansorial surfaces (7-8-8-7-7 right manus, 7-7-9-11-9 right pes); narrow lamellae distal to
digital inflection and not including ventral claw sheath: 9-9-12-13-10 (right manus), 11-11-14-12-12 (right pes); no
interdigital webbing. Relative lengths of digits: IV>III>V>II>I (manus), V>IV>III>II>I (pes). Mostly regenerated
tail, gently tapering to pointed tip, longer than SVL (TailL/SVL 1.17). Original and regenerated parts of tail with
enlarged median subcaudal scales.
FIGURE 1. Live adult male holotype of Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. from Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand.
Photo by M. Sumontha.
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FIGURE 2. Preserved type series of Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. in dorsal view. Photo by O.S.G. Pauwels.
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FIGURE 3. Preserved type series of Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. in ventral view. Photo by O.S.G. Pauwels.
FIGURE 4. Adult female Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. (not collected) from type locality on Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai
Province. Photo by T. Sirisamphan.
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FIGURE 5. Another adult female Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. (not collected) from type locality on Doi Inthanon, Chiang
Mai Province. Photo by W. Dongkumfu.
Coloration in life. Dorsal ground color of head, dorsum and tail brown. Three irregular light bands on dorsum
between fore- and hind limb insertions, bifurcated at their base on the flanks; their central part shows the same
color as the brown dorsal bands, and they bear prominent whitish tubercles, most contrasting on lower flanks
(Figure 1). Continuous nuchal loop connects orbits. Reticulate pattern on top of head. Ground color of upper
surfaces of fore- and hind limbs light brown, with irregular and discontinuous thin beige bands with scattered
whitish tubercles. Original part of tail showing two light rings which do not encircle the tail. Dorsal surface of
regenerated part of tail marbled with beige and light brown, darker ventrally. Iris dark brown. Throat, venter and
undersides of fore- and hind limbs uniformly beige.
Vari a t i o n. The paratypes resemble the holotype in most aspects of morphology and coloration (Figures 2–3).
Main morphometric and meristic characters of the type series are provided in Table 1. THNHM 25605 shows a
continuous series of 35 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, as follows, from left to right: three unpitted poreless
femoral scales + four pitted femoral scales + a diastema of six unpitted poreless scales + five pitted precloacal
scales + a diastema of nine unpitted poreless scales + five pitted femoral scales + two unpitted poreless femoral
scales. CUMZ-R-0.2320 shows a continuous series of 37 enlarged femoro-precloacal scales, as follows, from left
to right: three unpitted poreless femoral scales + five pitted femoral scales + a diastema of eight unpitted poreless
scales + five pitted preanal scales + a diastema of eight unpitted poreless femoral scales + six pitted femoral scales
+ two unpitted poreless femoral scales. In THNHM 25605, supranasals partly separated in their inferior part by an
internasal. In CUMZ-R-0.2320, supranasals totally separated by an elongate internasal; rostral crease less than a
fourth of rostral height; postcloacal spurs each bearing four conical scales. Three to five irregular beige dorsal
bands between limb insertions (Figures 1–2, 4–7). Original tails show 11 or 12 light dorsal rings (Figures 4, 6–7).
Color pattern in juvenile (Figure 7) same as in subadult (Figure 6) and adults (Figures 1–2, 4–5).
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TABLE 1. Meristic and morphometric (in mm) data for the type series of Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. Paired
meristic characters are given left/right.
Distribution and natural history. The species is known only from Doi Inthanon (Figure 8), from 700 to 1010
m a.s.l., where it is common. We encountered it while it was active at night on trees and large rocks along streams.
It moved slowly when disturbed by torch light and bit when handled. It was found at direct proximity to the reptiles
Acanthosaura lepidogaster (Cuvier) (Agamidae), Gekko gecko (Linnaeus), Hemidactylus frenatus Duméril &
Bibron and H. platyurus (Schneider), Hemiphyllodactylus chiangmaiensis Grismer, Wood & Cota (Gekkonidae),
Ahaetulla prasina (Boie) (Colubridae), Amphiesma khasiense (Boulenger) (Natricidae) and Trimeresurus
popeiorum Smith (Viperidae), and the amphibians Ansonia inthanon Matsui, Nabhitabhata & Panha (Bufonidae),
Leptolalax pelodytoides (Boulenger), Megophrys major Boulenger and M. minor Stejneger (Megophryidae),
Amolops marmoratus (Blyth), Hylarana nigrovittata (Blyth) and Odorrana livida (Blyth) (Ranidae). Captive
specimens ate meal worms and crickets and seemed to quickly dehydrate with decreasing hygrometry. The new
species’ known range entirely falls within Doi Inthanon National Park.
Etymology. The specific epithet inthanon refers to the type locality. It is a noun in apposition, invariable. We
suggest the following common names: Took-kai Doi Inthanon (Thai), Doi Inthanon bent-toed gecko (English),
Cyrtodactyle du Doï Inthanon (French), Doi Inthanon Bogenfingergecko (German), Doiinthanonkromvingergekko
(Dutch).
Discussion
Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. shows enlarged precloacal pore-bearing scales separated from femoral pore-
THNHM 22550 Holotype THNHM 25605 Paratype CUMZ-R-0.2320 Paratype
Sex Male Female Female
SVL 87.3 86.7 83.5
ForeaL 13.6 13.8 13.2
TibiaL 17.2 17.1 16.1
TailL 102.0 (last 89.6 regenerated) 51.7 (last 44.6 regenerated) 102.0 (last 42.0 regenerated)
TailW 6.2 7.2 6.1
AG 37.5 35.4 36.9
HeadL 26.4 25.0 24.2
HeadW 16.6 16.5 15.2
HeadH 10.7 10.6 9.5
OrbD 7.0 6.9 6.1
OrbEar 7.1 6.8 6.4
SnOrb 10.0 9.9 9.0
NosOrb 7.4 7.3 6.8
Interorb 5.6 4.8 4.6
EarL 1.6 1.4 1.3
Internar 2.4 2.4 2.1
DorTub201918
PreclPi/PreclPo 5 PreclPo 5 PreclPi 5 PreclPi
FemPi/FemPo 6/6 FemPo 5/4 FemPi 6/5 FemPi
Ven342929
SL 10/11 11/12 10/10
IL 9/9 10/10 9/9
InterorbSc 24 18 18
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bearing scales by a diastema, and we thus hereafter provide a comparison with all other species known from
Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam sharing this condition (see
intraspecific comparisons and latest descriptions for this set of species in Bauer 2003, Nazarov et al. 2008, Ngo &
Bauer 2008, Rösler & Glaw 2008, Bauer et al. 2010, David et al. 2011, Sumontha et al. 2010, Grismer 2008, 2011,
Luu et al. 2011, Ziegler et al. 2013, Kunya et al. 2014, Pauwels et al. 2014a-b, Phung et al. 2014).
FIGURE 6. Subadult female Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. (not collected) from type locality on Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai
Province. Photo by W. Dongkumfu.
Among all these species, the ones showing similar dorsal patterns to Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. are the
Northern Thailand C. dumnuii and C. khelangensis Pauwels, Sumontha, Panitvong & Varaguttanonda, 2014, the
Northeastern Thailand C. kunyai Pauwels, Sumontha, Keeratikiat & Phanamphon, 2014, the Northern Vietnamese
C. huongsonensis Luu, Nguyen, Do & Ziegler, 2011 and the Southern Vietnamese C. huynhi Ngo & Bauer, 2008,
C. kingsadai Ziegler, Phung, Le & Nguyen, 2013 and C. ziegleri Nazarov, Orlov, Nguyen & Ho, 2008. From C.
dumnuii, C. inthanon sp. nov. differs by its lower number of ventral scale rows (29–34 vs. 40), its absence of
prominent white tubercles within the brown dorsal bands (vs. their conspicuous presence in C. dumnuii), its dark
brown iris (vs. green in C. dumnuii) and its lower number of light rings on original tail (11 or 12 vs. 13 or 14). It is
separated from C. huongsonensis by its higher number of dorsal tubercle rows (18–20 vs. 14–16), its lower number
of ventral scale rows (29–34 vs. 41–48) and 5 vs. 6 precloacal pores. It differs from C. huynhi by its enlarged
subcaudals (absent in C. huynhi), its lower number of precloacal pores (five vs. seven to nine) and its lower number
of ventral scale rows (29–34 vs. 43–46). C. inthanon sp. nov. can be distinguished from C. khelangensis by the
absence of precloacal pores in females (vs. presence in C. khelangensis), the presence of prominent white tubercles
on the nape and along the anterior and posterior border of the nuchal collar (absent in C. khelangensis), its poorly
contrasted reticulum on dorsal surface of head (vs. sharply contrasted in C. khelangensis) and its higher number of
light rings on the original tail (11 or 12 vs. 8). It differs from C. kingsadai by its lower number of precloacal pores
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(5 vs. 7–9) and its lower number of ventral scale rows (29–34 vs. 39–46). C. inthanon sp. nov. differs from C.
kunyai by its higher number of precloacal pores in males (five vs. three) and its continuous nuchal loop (vs.
medially interrupted). It differs from C. ziegleri by its enlarged subcaudal scales (absent in C. ziegleri), by having
generally less dorsal tubercle rows (18–20 vs. 20–24) and ventral scale rows (29–34 vs. 33–39). Besides these
species, one should mention here another one which, although it lacks femoral pores, presents a similar dorsal
pattern, and also lives in Northern Thailand, namely C. doisuthep Kunya, Panmongkol, Pauwels, Sumontha,
Meewasana, Bunkhwamdi & Dangsri, 2014. C. inthanon sp. nov. can be separated from it, in addition to the
possession of femoral pores in males, by its lighter dorsal coloration, and its light dorsal bands which are wider
than in C. doisuthep and in lower number (three to five vs. six or seven). The regenerated tail portion in C. inthanon
sp. nov. is marbled light brown and beige, while it is velvet black in C. doisuthep (compare with figures in Kunya
et al. 2014).
FIGURE 7. Juvenile Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. (not collected) from type locality on Doi Inthanon, Chiang Mai Province.
Photo by M. Sumontha.
Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. is distinct from all the remaining Burmese, Cambodian, Lao, Vietnamese and
Thai species showing precloacal and femoral pores separated by a diastema by the combination of the following
characters: enlarged subcaudals (absent in C. aequalis Bauer), five precloacal pores in males (11–12 in C.
annandalei Bauer, six in C. auribalteatus Sumontha, Panitvong & Deein, 2010, ten in C. bichnganae Ngo &
Grismer, seven to nine in C. brevipalmatus Smith, nine in C. caovansungi Orlov, Nguyen, Nazarov, Ananjeva &
Nguyen, 9–11 in C. consobrinus (Peters), 15 in C. russelli Bauer, nine in C. slowinskii Bauer, three or four in C.
takouensis Ngo & Bauer, none or one in C. thuongae Phung, van Schingen, Ziegler & Nguyen, eight or nine in C.
tigroides Bauer, Sumontha & Pauwels, 2003), 18 to 20 longitudinal tubercle rows (24 in C. aequalis, 22–24 in C.
auribalteatus, 22 in C. russelli, nine or ten in C. takouensis, 13 in C. tigroides), 29–34 ventral scale rows (24 in C.
aequalis, 43 in C. annandalei, 38-40 in C. auribalteatus, 37 in C. brevipalmatus, 44–48 in C. caovansungi, 58–65
in C. consobrinus, 35–41 in C. russelli, 39–40 in C. takouensis) and three to five irregular light bands between limb
insertions and reticulated dorsal head pattern (blotched dorsum pattern in C. aequalis; no reticulum on dorsal head
surface in C. annandalei; three straight bands between limb insertions in C. auribalteatus; blotched dorsum pattern
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in C. brevipalmatus; blotched dorsum pattern and absence of dorsal head surface reticulum in C. russelli; blotched
dorsum pattern in C. slowinskii; three or four straight yellow bands between limb insertions in C. takouensis;
blotched dorsum pattern in C. thuongae, four straight bands between limb insertions in C. tigroides).
Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov. does not seem to face any immediate specific conservation threat, but there
are general threats to the whole Doi Inthanon National Park, including use of forest resources by locals, disturbance
of wildlife by tourists and trails and facilities development (Hvenegaard & Dearden 1998). We did not record it in
the local or international pet trade. The discovery of a new reptile species endemic to Doi Inthanon reinforces the
high importance of this mountain in terms of biodiversity conservation. Since the species is relatively common, it
indicates that although Doi Inthanon is one of the Thai natural sites most visited by researchers and ecotourists, its
faunal inventory is obviously incomplete, and additional surveys would probably reinforce the value of the park.
FIGURE 8. Map of Thailand showing the position of Doi Inthanon, the type locality of Cyrtodactylus inthanon sp. nov.
Acknowledgements
We are grateful to Kriangsak Thanomphan, Chief of Doi Inthanon National Park, for supporting our study. We
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thank Tanya Chan-ard (THNHM, Pathum Thani), Georges Lenglet (IRSNB, Brussels) and Kumthorn Thirakhupt
(CUMZ, Bangkok) for providing access to the respective herpetological collections under their care, to Thomas
Ziegler (Cologne Zoo) for commenting on the manuscript, and to Watchira Sodob for preparing the map.
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APPENDIX. Comparative material examined.
Cyrtodactylus auribalteatus: see Sumontha et al. (2010: type series); C. brevipalmatus: see Pauwels and Chan-ard (2006); C.
doisuthep: see Kunya et al. (2014: type series); C. dumnuii: see Bauer et al. (2010: type series); C. intermedius: IRSNB 17011,
Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand; C. khelangensis: see Pauwels et al. (2014: type series); C. oldhami complex: see Pauwels &
Chan-ard (2006) and Pauwels et al. (2000); C. peguensis: see Pauwels et al. (2000); C. sanook: see Pauwels et al. (2013: type
series); C. sumonthai: see Bauer et al. (2002: type series); C. tigroides: see Bauer et al. (2003: type series).
... Comparisons. We compared the new species with its congeners from Vietnam and neighboring countries in mainland Indochina, including Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, China (Yunnan), Thailand, and peninsular Malaysia based on examination of specimens (see Appendix) and data obtained from the literature (Smith 1917(Smith , 1921a(Smith ,b, 1935Taylor 1963;Ulber & Grossmann 1991;Ulber 1993;Bauer 2002Bauer , 2003Bauer et al. 2002Bauer et al. , 2003Bauer et al. , 2009Bauer et al. , 2010Ziegler et al. 2002Ziegler et al. , 2010Ziegler et al. , 2013Pauwels et al. 2004Pauwels et al. , 2013Pauwels et al. , 2014aPauwels et al. ,b, 2016Nguyen et al. 2006Hoang et al. 2007;Orlov et al. 2007;Grismer & Ahmad 2008;Ngo 2008Ngo , 2011Ngo & Bauer 2008;Ngo & Chan 2010, 2011Ngo & Pauwels 2010;Sumontha et al. 2010Sumontha et al. , 2012Sumontha et al. , 2014Chan-ard & Makchai 2011;David et al. 2011;Schneider et al. 2011;Luu et al. 2011Luu et al. , 2014Luu et al. , 2015Luu et al. , 2016aGrismer et al. 2012Grismer et al. , 2016Grismer et al. , 2017Kunya et al. 2014Kunya et al. , 2015Nazarov et al. 2014;Panitvong et al. 2014;Le et al. 2016;Connette et al. 2017;Pham et al. 2017;andNguyen et al. 2015a, 2017). The new species can be distinguished from other known species of Cyrtodactylus by morphological characters (see Table 2). ...
... It is therefore likely that the sequence of C. bichnganae was erroneously assigned and we recommend that the sample from the type specimen be re-sequenced in future study to clarify this issue. Smith 1917Smith , 1921aSmith ,b, 1935Taylor 1963;Ulber & Grossmann 1991;Ulber 1993;Bauer 2002Bauer , 2003Bauer et al. 2002Bauer et al. , 2003Bauer et al. , 2009Bauer et al. , 2010Ziegler et al. 2002Ziegler et al. , 2010Ziegler et al. , 2013Pauwels et al. 2004Pauwels et al. , 2013Pauwels et al. , 2014aPauwels et al. ,b, 2016Nguyen et al. 2006Nguyen et al. , 2014Hoang et al. 2007;Orlov et al. 2007;Grismer & Ahmad 2008;Ngo 2008Ngo , 2011Ngo & Bauer 2008;Ngo & Chan 2010, 2011Ngo & Pauwels 2010;Sumontha et al. 2010Sumontha et al. , 2012Sumontha et al. , 2014Chan-ard & Makchai 2011;David et al. 2011;Schneider et al. 2011;Luu et al. 2011Luu et al. , 2014Luu et al. , 2015Luu et al. , 2016aGrismer et al. 2012Grismer et al. , 2016Grismer et al. , 2017Kunya et al. 2014Kunya et al. , 2015Nazarov et al. 2014;Panitvong et al. 2014;Le et al. 2016;Connette et al. 2017;Pham et al. 2017; ...
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We describe a new species of Cyrtodactylus on the basis of seven specimens collected from karst forests of Son La and Dien Bien provinces, Vietnam. Cyrtodactylus taybacensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining Indochinese bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: medium size (SVL up to 97.5 mm); dorsal tubercles in 13-16 irregular rows; ventral scale rows 30-38; ventrolateral folds present without interspersed tubercles; each thigh with 11-13 enlarged femoral scales; femoral pores absent in males and females; precloacal pores 11-13 in males, five or 15 pitted scales in females, in a continuous row; postcloacal tubercles two or three; lamellae under toe IV 16-20; subcaudal scales transversely enlarged; dorsal head with dark brown marking, oval, triangle and arched shape; five brown dorsal bands between limb insertions. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is recovered as a member of the Cyrtodactylus wayakonei species group, and strongly supported as the sister taxon of C. cf. bichnganae from Son La City in all analyses.
... The abbreviations are as follows: / = data not available in literature; -=; characteristic not present; + = characteristic present but not uniquely determined; * = broken or regenerated tail. Bauer et al. 2002Bauer et al. , 2003Bauer et al. , 2009Bauer et al. , 2010Pauwels et al. 2004Pauwels et al. , 2013Pauwels et al. , 2014Pauwels et al. , 2018Nguyen et al. 2010;Ngo & Pauwels 2010;Sumontha et al. 2010Sumontha et al. , 2012Sumontha et al. , 2014Sumontha et al. , 2015Shi & Zhao 2010;Chan-ard & Makchai 2011;David et al. 2011;Schneider et al. 2011;Grismer et al. 2012Grismer et al. , 2018Johnson et al. 2012;Kunya et al. 2014Kunya et al. , 2015Luu et al. 2014Luu et al. , 2015Luu et al. , 2016Luu et al. , 2017Nazarov et al. 2014;Panitvong et al. 2014 King 1962;Das 1993;Günther & Rösler 2002;Rösler et al. 2007;Rösler & Glaw 2008;Oliver et al. 2009;Welton et al. 2009Welton et al. , 2010Iskander et al. 2011;Kathriner et al. 2014;Riyanto et al. 2014Riyanto et al. , 2015Riyanto et al. , 1016Riyanto et al. , 2018Harvey et al. 2015;Hartmann et al. 2016;, Riyanto et al. 2018from Uetz et al. 2019). The abbreviations are as follows: / = data not available in literature; -=; characteristic not present; + = characteristic present but not uniquely determined; * = broken or regenerated tail. ...
... The abbreviations are as follows: / = data not available in literature; -=; characteristic not present; + = characteristic present but not uniquely determined; * = broken or regenerated tail. Bauer et al. 2002Bauer et al. , 2003Bauer et al. , 2009Bauer et al. , 2010Pauwels et al. 2004Pauwels et al. , 2013Pauwels et al. , 2014Pauwels et al. , 2018Nguyen et al. 2010;Ngo & Pauwels 2010;Sumontha et al. 2010Sumontha et al. , 2012Sumontha et al. , 2014Sumontha et al. , 2015Shi & Zhao 2010;Chan-ard & Makchai 2011;David et al. 2011;Schneider et al. 2011;Grismer et al. 2012Grismer et al. , 2018Johnson et al. 2012;Kunya et al. 2014Kunya et al. , 2015Luu et al. 2014Luu et al. , 2015Luu et al. , 2016Luu et al. , 2017Nazarov et al. 2014;Panitvong et al. 2014 King 1962;Das 1993;Günther & Rösler 2002;Rösler et al. 2007;Rösler & Glaw 2008;Oliver et al. 2009;Welton et al. 2009Welton et al. , 2010Iskander et al. 2011;Kathriner et al. 2014;Riyanto et al. 2014Riyanto et al. , 2015Riyanto et al. , 1016Riyanto et al. , 2018Harvey et al. 2015;Hartmann et al. 2016;, Riyanto et al. 2018from Uetz et al. 2019). The abbreviations are as follows: / = data not available in literature; -=; characteristic not present; + = characteristic present but not uniquely determined; * = broken or regenerated tail. ...
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We describe a new species of Cyrtodactylus on the basis of four specimens collected from Phu My, Binh Dinh Province, southern Vietnam. Cyrtodactylus phumyensis sp. nov. is distinguished from the remaining Indochinese bent-toed geckos by a combination of the following characters: size small (SVL up to 66.8 mm); two internasals; dorsal tubercle rows 18 or 19 at midbody; ventral scale rows 33-41; ventrolateral folds slightly developed; each thigh with 5-7 enlarged femoral scales; femoral pores absent in males and female; a series of 5-7 precloacal pores plus a pitted, enlarged precloacal scale in males; 6 pitted, enlarged precloacal scales in female; paravertebral tubercles 20-23; lamellae under toe IV 18-21; small subcaudal scales, not transversely enlarged; two irregular dark longitudinal stripes on shoulder. In phylogenetic analyses, the new species is recovered as a member of the Cyrtodactylus irregularis species group, and strongly supported as a sister taxon of C. cucdongensis from Khanh Hoa Province.
... Doi Inthanon National Park in Chiang Mai Province spanned three districts (Chom Thong, Mae Wang, and Mae Chaem) with altitudes ranging from 400 to 2562 m, and temperatures ranging from 1 o C to 23 o C (Anonimus 2001). Located in a mountainous area and covered with rich plant diversities (Khamyong et al. 2004), many new species of bryophytes (Akiyama et al. 2010), ferns (Iwatsuki et al. 1998), reptiles (Kunya et al. 2015) and insects (Takaoka & Choochote 2005) were uncovered. Fungal diversity in Doi Inthanon National Park has been studied, specifically aquatic fungi (Chuaseeharonnachai et al. 2013) and Xylariaceae (Laessøe et al. 2013), however, none reported on discomycetes. ...
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Calycina-like specimens were collected in Doi Inthanon National Park, Thailand. The combined phylogeny of ITS and LSU based on maximum likelihood and bayesian inference analyses confirmed the taxonomic placement of our specimen in Pezizellaceae. Based on morphology and multi-gene phylogeny, the new discomycete specimen was identified as Calycina montana comb. nov., and was documented for the first time in Thailand. Calycina montana is characterized by the amber color, stipitate apothecia, gelatinized ectal excipulum, cylindrical asci and ellipsoidal ascospores. The morphology was observed together with the type strain, Bisporella montana. Our phylogenetic analyses and observation of the morphology of the type strain also confirmed the new combination of Bisporella shangrilana as Calycina shangrilana comb. nov., which resolves the confusion of Bisporella placement in Pezizellaceae.
... However, a few Cyrtodactylus spp. have been found in the northern part of Thailand including Cyrtodact ylus doisuthep, Cyrtodact ylus dumnuii, C yrtodact ylus inthanon, C yrtodact ylus er ythrops, Cyrtodact ylus maelanoi, and Cyrtodact ylus khelangensis, which were found in only three provinces (Chiang Mai, Mae Hong Son, and Lampang) (Bauer et al., 2009;Bauer et al., 2010;Grismer et al., 2020a;Kunya et al., 2014;Kunya et al., 2015;Pauwels et al., 2014b). This finding is inconsistent with those for many lineages of Cyrtodactylus in the surrounding countries, e.g., Myanmar and Laos, which have continuous massif to those in northern Thailand with many limestone ecosystems that are suitable habitats. ...
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... Doi Inthanon, formerly known as Doi Angka, is the highest mountain of Thailand, with its summit at 2565 m a.s.l. The small area represents a classic example of a montane hotspot for biodiversity and endemicity (e.g., Khamyong et al. 2003;Teejuntuk et al. 2003;Sungkajanttranon et al. 2018), although little is documented about the herpetofauna (Kunya et al. 2015;Wu et al. 2019). ...
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... Additionally, mountain ranges in the northern and western areas show a similar pattern to those in some parts of southern Thailand where many species of bent-toed geckos have previously been found 14,15,21,22,[24][25][26] . Although, a few studies of Cyrtodactylus species in northern Thailand have been performed, nevertheless molecular phylogenetic analysis was not included in these works [27][28][29][30][31][32] . Several species of Cyrtodactylus have recently been described as cryptic species both in Thailand (C. ...
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... Femoral and precloacal pore counts were excluded from the PCA due to their absence in females. PV, ET4, UT4, and TT4 were also excluded because these diagnostic characters were not evaluated for Cyrtodctylus inthanon by Kunya et al. (2015). Because the data were skewed by values ranging from 4-36, these data were log-transformed prior to analysis in order to normalize their distribution so as to ensure characters with very large and very low values could not over-leverage the results owing to intervariable nonlinearity. ...
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... Prior to this study, there were 36 species of Cyrtodactylus Gray known from Thailand which is comparable to that of neighboring Myanmar (45 species), Laos (23 species), Vietnam (43 species), and Peninsular Malaysia (33 species) but far exceeds that of China (five species) and Cambodia (eight species) (Uetz et al. 2020). However, in stark contrast to the neighboring countries, the phylogenetic relationships of 44% (16) of the Thai species are unknown because most of the recent species descriptions did not include molecular data (Bauer et al. 2009(Bauer et al. , 2010Chan-ard & Makchai, 2011;Kunya et al. 2014Kunya et al. , 2015Pauwels et al. 2014aPauwels et al. ,b, 2016, thus precluding any downstream comparative analyses (see Grismer et al. 2020a). To this end, we add C. inthanon and C. doisuthep and lower that value to 38%. ...
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... Comparisons. We compared the new species with its congeners from Vietnam and neighboring countries in mainland Indochina, including Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand based on examination of specimens (see Appendix) and data obtained from the literature (Smith 1917(Smith , 1921a(Smith ,b, 1935Taylor 1963;Ulber 1993;Bauer 2002Bauer , 2003Bauer et al. 2002Bauer et al. , 2003Bauer et al. , 2009Bauer et al. , 2010Ziegler et al. 2002Ziegler et al. , 2010Ziegler et al. , 2013Pauwels et al. 2004Pauwels et al. , 2013Pauwels et al. , 2014aPauwels et al. ,b, 2016Nguyen et al. 2006Nguyen et al. , 2014Hoang et al. 2007;Orlov et al. 2007;Ngo 2008;Ngo & Bauer 2008;Ngo & Pauwels 2010;Ngo & Chan 2010Sumontha et al. 2010Sumontha et al. , 2012Sumontha et al. , 2014Chan-ard & Makchai, 2011;David et al. 2011;Schneider et al. 2011;Luu et al. 2011Luu et al. , 2014Luu et al. , 2015Luu et al. , 2016aGrismer et al. 2012;Kunya et al. 2014Kunya et al. , 2015Nazarov et al. 2014;Panitvong et al. 2014;Le et al. 2016;and Connette et al. 2017). ...
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