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Gamification in assessment: Do points affect test performance?

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... However, the actual effects on academic performance as well as what teachers perceive as challenging barely have been researched [60] [5]. Nevertheless, the studies available on this topic show that the effects are greatly dependent on the context and the teaching designs in which the gamification activities are implemented as well as on the users [61] [5] [62]. ...
... On the other hand, regarding student motivation, Attali et al. [61] explained that even simple game-like elements in teaching, such as points or badges, can provide some information about students' success in performing a task that may motivate students to continue working. Deci et al. [69] argued that rewards such as points, stickers, or awards could be seen more as contingencies to activities than as feedback on performance because such rewards contain little task information. ...
... Research regarding whether gamification in learning situations affects student knowledge acquisition and learning processes and how this can be managed to increase students' motivation and engagement and, in turn, improve their academic performance, is still an area that has been quite unexplored empirically in education. Furthermore, the studies that are available on using gamification in teaching show that its effects are greatly dependent on the context in which the activities are implemented and on the users [60] [61] [5] [62]. One methodological concern linked to this study is the selection of participants and its quite local character based on the use of university students as cocreators of the gamification activities. ...
Article
This paper reports on a study investigating teachers’ experiences of using gamification as a teaching strategy, in combination with the use of contemporary and emergent technologies in K–12 education. More specifically, the aim was to explore and understand the opportunities and challenges teachers describe by using gamification in teaching. The study was conducted between 2014 and 2018 and included four sub-studies in which university students were given the task of designing gamified teaching activities for school students within K–12 education. This was combined with the use of contemporary technologies such as laptops, media tablets, and emergent technologies such as smart glasses. The university students’ gamification designs were tested in school settings within K–12 education. The empirical material is based on observations of the schools’ tests and interviews with participating teachers. The findings illustrate three emerging themes concerning (a) fostering motivation and collaboration,(b) needing pedagogical balance to achieve deeper learning and (c)organisational changes regarding time and collaboration in teacher teams. The participating teachers described gamification as an opportunity and a catalyst to motivate school students and have them engage in schoolwork while acquiring knowledge at the same time. However, the challenges and obstacles the teachers perceived in using and designing their own teaching activities using gamification primarily concerned a lack of time and a lack of knowledge of the design process, which they perceived as very complex because it differs from that of their ordinary teaching designs.
... This game element may have generated stress among the most motivated learners, a fact that was also reported by teachers following the experiment. This result is common with many gamification studies that show Timers as stressful for learners [40], [50]. ...
... Both Disruptors and Philanthropists had, respectively, an increase in their amotivation and a decrease in their motivated behaviors. This is not surprising, as scoring systems are generally not recommended for motivated learners [41], [50]. This finding for Socializers is coherent with the results obtained in [26] that noted that learners like to compare their scores with others. ...
... Learners with high extrinsic motivation, amotivation, or Disruptor or Philanthropist scores will find it demotivating. This is in line with other studies such as [41], [50] that show score game elements to be problematic. The positive influence of the Socializer type should be nuanced as Orji et al. [38] found positive influences for all game elements with Socializers. ...
Article
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Several studies have been conducted in recent years into the effects of gamification on learner motivation. However, little is known about how learner profiles affect the impact of specific game elements. This research analyzes the effect of a gamified mathematic learning environment on the motivation and the motivated behaviors of 258 learners in secondary schools in France. Overall, results indicate that randomly assigned game elements generally demotivate learners. A more thorough analysis revealed that gamification has a positive impact on the most amotivated learners to do mathematic, although different effects were observed on learners. In particular, we noticed significant influences of their initial level of motivation and their player type on the variation in motivation during the study. We show that these influences vary according to the game element they used. These findings suggest that to increase efficiency, gamification should be tailored not only to the player profile but also to their level of initial motivation for the learning task.
... In the fourth week (T3), the sessions were gamified. Usage of one or two specific game elements is recommended (Landers et al., 2018) and practiced (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015; in gamification research to find the distinct resultant effect of a particular game element or a combination of a two game elements (Landers et al., 2018;Landers & Landers, 2014) in each specific context (Liu et al., 2017). Among the various game elements, 'points' are considered one of the popular (Koivisto & Hamari, 2019) and essential (Sailer et al., 2017) elements that are used to reward participants for varied purposes (Da Rocha Seixas et al., 2016). ...
... In other words, points provide "granular feedback," whereas leaderboards provide "cumulative feedback" (Sailer et al., 2017, p. 375). In summary, the game elements points and leaderboards are effective in the learning settings (Dichev & Dicheva, 2017;Koivisto & Hamari, 2019;Thomas et al., 2022), and the research recommends limiting the number of game elements to one or two for finding its specific effects (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015;Landers et al., , 2018. Therefore, the current study uses two game elements, points and leader boards, to examine the mechanics of gamification due to these two specific game elements. ...
Article
Gamification of learning is the integration of game design elements into the learning context. Decade-long research has revealed evidence on the ability of gamification to increase the engagement levels of users. Research attributes this enhanced user engagement to the unique experience offered by gamification. However, the literature is still unclear about this experience, its pathways, and the underlying mechanism. Hence, the present study examines the behavioral, cognitive, and emotional pathways of learning engagement in a gamified management course through a within-subject experiment. The results indicate that both behavioral and emotional engagement is significantly higher during the gamified sessions. In contrast, no significant change was found in learners' cognitive engagement. Moreover, flow was found to mediate the relationship between gamification and engagement when examined using the multi-categorical mediation analysis. The study brings clarity to the mechanism of gamification based on the foundations of goal setting theory and stimulus organism response (SOR) theory. It also assists practitioners by providing insights into the ‘experience to target for’ while designing gamification in a learning setting. The full paper is available till 14 Jan at https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1g8ty5EuEpWiip
... Gamification can be defined as the use of gaming elements in a non-game context to create a game-like environment . Gamification mainly involves applying elements of games such as badges and leaderboards in an educational context to make learning enjoyable (Attali & Attali, 2015). Gamification elements have been introduced to solve the problems associated with traditional learning methods that students may consider boring; therefore, it has helped promote their engagement. ...
... Gamification allows maximum benefits in the classrooms by driving the focus of goals in class through the performance of challenging tasks (Roberto, Ortiz, Nicolas, & Julian, 2019). One example of a gamification tool is DimensionU, which involves a series of math games and provides academic support and promotes critical thinking skills (Attali & Attali, 2015). It has been employed to boost students' speed performance in tests and increase their motivation since the gaming aspect provides an immediate response after performing the test. ...
Article
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The implementation of gamification techniques has unquestionably altered educational environments and conventional learning styles by dramatically altering the student and instructor positions. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the gamification techniques on students’ academic achievement when applied in online learning environment. A quasi-experimental approach was utilized to determine the impact of gamification on students’ academic achievement. Two 3rd grade mathematics classes consisting of 50 students total were selected, one as the experimental group and the other as the control group. Both groups received online learning via the Microsoft Teams platform. The experimental group received treatment that utilized gamification elements, while the control group did not. A pretest and posttest were given to students in the two groups. Findings revealed that gamification techniques did not affect students’ academic achievement.
... Meanwhile, the number of studies in domesticalso is also increasing. When the studies on this subject in recent years are searched, some of the studies examine: the effect of gamified platforms for formative evaluation such as Kahoot (Yürük, 2019;Sanchez, Langer, Kaur, 2020;Zainuddin, Shujahat, Haruna & Chu, 2020;Göksün & Gürsoy, 2019;Öden, Bolat & Göksu, 2021), the effect of the use of gamification interfaces of LMS systems such as Classsdojo (Bozkurtlar & Samur, 2017), the effect of scoring in gamification on success (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015), meta-analysis studies in which gamification studies conducted in recent years (Yiğ & Sezgin, 2021;Tay, Goh, Safiena & Bound, 2022;Zang & Yu, 2022). In these and other studies, it was observed that there were studies on different variables ((reading performance (Chen, Li & Chen, 2020), motivation (Roy & Zaman, 2018;Hanus & Fox, 2015;Mert & Samur, 2018;Yildiz, Topçu, Kaymakçı, 2021), engagement (Zainuddin, Shujahat, Haruna & Chu, 2020), academic achievement (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015;Hanus & Fox, 2015;Karamert & Vardar, 2021), effects of badges and redeemable rewards (Ortega-Arranz, et. ...
... When the studies on this subject in recent years are searched, some of the studies examine: the effect of gamified platforms for formative evaluation such as Kahoot (Yürük, 2019;Sanchez, Langer, Kaur, 2020;Zainuddin, Shujahat, Haruna & Chu, 2020;Göksün & Gürsoy, 2019;Öden, Bolat & Göksu, 2021), the effect of the use of gamification interfaces of LMS systems such as Classsdojo (Bozkurtlar & Samur, 2017), the effect of scoring in gamification on success (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015), meta-analysis studies in which gamification studies conducted in recent years (Yiğ & Sezgin, 2021;Tay, Goh, Safiena & Bound, 2022;Zang & Yu, 2022). In these and other studies, it was observed that there were studies on different variables ((reading performance (Chen, Li & Chen, 2020), motivation (Roy & Zaman, 2018;Hanus & Fox, 2015;Mert & Samur, 2018;Yildiz, Topçu, Kaymakçı, 2021), engagement (Zainuddin, Shujahat, Haruna & Chu, 2020), academic achievement (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015;Hanus & Fox, 2015;Karamert & Vardar, 2021), effects of badges and redeemable rewards (Ortega-Arranz, et. all., 2019;Mert & Samur, 2018)). ...
Article
Gamification in education is the use of game-based mechanisms, game aesthetics and game thinking to ensure student motivation and engagement, superior learning, and a behavioral change. This study was conducted to investigate the nature of the students’ opinions on gamification and on activities that were carried out to create a rich instructional environment through gamification with Scratch. This study was conducted as a qualitative case study. The sample consisted of 37 students (12 females and 25 males) who took the course during the spring semester. Data were collected from the students by using observation and interview forms. Findings of a content analysis showed that gamification significantly influenced the students’ motivation, participation and achievement. It created an enjoyable educational environment, and consequently, enriched academic achievement. Gamification can be used to transform educational contexts, especially the subjects that are problematic, difficult, and boring for students and avoided by students for due responsibility.
... Theme sists of four sub-themes, as can be seen in Figure 4; 30% of the participants who ha itive or neutral reactions at the beginning had a declining motivation over tim finding is consistent with Berkling and Thomas [33], who found a group of studen their interest in gamification over time as they used the system. Other studies re similar results, adding a gradual loss of motivation [27,58]. A behavioral modifi particularly from positive to negative behavior (i.e., students who were enthusia first become less enthusiastic), may be triggered by particular circumstances that an unpleasant experience. ...
... This finding is consistent with Berkling and Thomas [33], who found a group of students lost their interest in gamification over time as they used the system. Other studies reported similar results, adding a gradual loss of motivation [27,58]. A behavioral modification, particularly from positive to negative behavior (i.e., students who were enthusiastic at first become less enthusiastic), may be triggered by particular circumstances that lead to an unpleasant experience. ...
Article
Full-text available
Covid-19 pandemic has changed how the education system operated. The shift from face-to-face learning to online learning generated many problems, including decreasing students’ motivation and engagement. Gamification has been used as one of the solutions to overcome the problem of low motivation and engagement in learning. The current study aims to examine the students' behavioral change when using e-learning with gamification, investigate gamification elements that are important to students and how it influences students’ motivation and engagement, and investigate whether population characteristics may influence students’ motivation and engagement. Qualitative methods were employed to gather and analyze the data. The thematic analysis resulted in 6 main themes. The findings revealed that there were behavioral changes in students during gamification implementation, i.e. from negative to positive and from positive to negative. Four gamification elements were found to be the most important gamification elements to students, i.e. points, leaderboard, badges, and gamified test. The mechanism of how these elements influenced motivation and engagement was discussed. The population characteristics of final-year students also had an impact on gamification effectiveness. Despite gamification’s capabilities to influence motivation and engagement, there are some concerns related to negative impacts that must be addressed in the future.
... Several studies exploring gamification in learning engagement have been carried out on these current five years. Most of the researchers were attracted to use Point, Badge and Leader board to examine its effect in learning engagement (Hew et al. 2016;Attali and Arieli, 2015;Willems et al. 2014;Mccallum, 2014;Brewer et al. 2013). Earlier research by Chauhan et al. (2016) has shown that the Point, Badge and Leader board system, applied in online gamified banking services for managing finances could improve student's experience and make practices of doing homework more interesting. ...
... Earlier research by Chauhan et al. (2016) has shown that the Point, Badge and Leader board system, applied in online gamified banking services for managing finances could improve student's experience and make practices of doing homework more interesting. Attali and Arieli (2015) revealed that there is no significant relationship between gamification mechanics and performance. No effects were found on performance, but the speed of reply increased in the point's condition. ...
... (Aguilera,et.al,2017;Apostol,et.al,2018;Arambarri J.,2018;Arias, D,2016;Arockiyasamy G,2016;Attali, Y., & Arieli, M.,2015;Barata, G,2018;Benzi,) (Buckley, P., & Doyle, E. ,2018;Caton, H., & Greenhill, D.,2017;Change S.,2018;Zhang, H.,2018 (Hamari,et al.,2018;Hsin-Yuan Huang, et al.,2018;Iosup A., Epema D., et al.,2018;Kapp, et al.,2018;Khaddage,et.al,2017;Khaleel,et.al.,2016) : ، ‫اﻟﻘﺤﻄﺎﻧﻰ‬ ٢٠١٣ ، ‫ﺷﻌﻠﺔ،‬ ٢٠١٠ : (  ‫اﻟﻤﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ - ‫اﻟﺤﺬر‬ .  ‫اﻻﺳﺘﻘﻼل‬ - ‫اﻻﻋﺘﻤﺎد‬ . ...
... Conversely, the work by Barata et al. (2013) and that of Hakulinen et al. (2013) found no correlation between marks and Gamification. Attali and Arieli-Attali (2015) looked at the effect of awarding points to participants across the age range when completing math's tests. Whilst the speed increased under Gamification, no significant results were found to suggest any increase in learning. ...
Thesis
Background – Gamification has been cited as a potential way of increasing student engagement and learning within education. However, the research within this area in relation to nursing students remained sparse. Since the concept of Gamification was introduced in 2010, it has steadily gained an enormous amount of interest in industry and education. The body of research had grown substantially over the past 18 years. However, the research tended to reflect experiences of computer science, mathematics and engineering students or pupils in primary and secondary school education. Research aims – This research project set out to explore whether the introduction of a scoring system into an E-portfolio interface changed student nurses’ behaviour when using an E portfolio. Specifically, the research project examined their engagement with online formative activities and to detect if any increase in learning had occurred through comparison of changes in summative practice marks between the gamified and non-gamified groups. Methods – In 2015 (n = 210) undergraduate Bachelor of Nursing degree students were recruited and were randomly allocated to a control or an experimental group. The experimental group was exposed to a scoring system contained within the E portfolio. Those in the control group completed their E portfolio in the normal way. Each practice experience in the E portfolio contained a number of formative activities and a marked summative assessment. The participants completed three x 10 -12 weeks practice experiences. The database underneath the E portfolio was interrogated to capture the participants and their summative marks. Follow-up group discussions were used to explore potential motivational and demotivational factors that might have influenced engagement. These discussions were manually coded. Results – Statistical analysis using t-tests, proportional comparisons of means and standard regression demonstrated that Gamification did show a statistically significant increase in student engagement. The group and individual discussion data in part, upheld the findings of the statistical analysis regarding the use of scoring systems and increased engagement. However, this effect appeared to diminish over a period time. Correlation between Gamification and age, field of nursing and gender demonstrated no significant findings. There were no significant findings in relation to differences in the mean marks attained by the students. The analysis of the group discussions upheld the findings of the RCTs and raised further question about the role played by gender and personality. Conclusion – This research project demonstrated that Gamification using scoring systems is an effective way of increasing student nurse engagement with an E portfolio. The evidence relating to Gamification and nurse education is very sparse. This research project has opened up the field for further research related to nurse education and the longevity of scoring systems as a method of Gamification.
... Chapman & Webster began to use technology in recruiting and selecting employees in the corporate environment [6]. Attali conducted a test by conducting tests through computer games (games) to measure the performance of employees in the industry [7]. Widianingrum, etc, state that it is necessary to adjust the competence of office communication between the curriculum and industry to harmonize the learning carried out in schools and technology-based industries [8]. ...
... το δεύτερο αντιλαμβάνεται τα μεικτά αποτελέσματα που παρουσιάζονται ως απόδειξη της αναποτελεσματικότητας της παιχνιδοποίησης (vanRoy & Zaman, 2019). Οι κατακριτές της παιχνιδοποίησης αποδίδουν τα ενθαρρυντικά της αποτελέσματα στην καινοτομία της ως μεθόδου, και για το λόγο αυτό θεωρούν αναμενόμενη τη βραχυπρόθεσμη μόνο επιρροή της στα κίνητρα και τα μαθησιακά αποτελέσματα των μαθητευομένων (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015, Hanus & Fox, 2015. ...
... Las metodologías activas de aprendizaje enfocadas en el alumno permiten un mejor aprendizaje en comparación con los métodos tradicionales centrados en el docente (2,3). Estudios previos sugieren que los estudiantes pertenecientes a la generación Z tienen más probabilidad de seguir participando en una actividad educativa si la tecnología está involucrada, más aún si se trabaja usando plataformas de videoconferencia, como Zoom o Google Meet, aplicaciones móviles o simuladores (2,4,5,6). Sin embargo, las clases magistrales convencionales a través de plataformas de videoconferencia, sin el uso de otras herramientas digitales que permitan interacción y participación del alumno, pueden ocasionar una brecha comunicacional y de atención entre docente y alumno que afectaría el aprendizaje. ...
Article
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La enseñanza de la Odontología cambió. Los efectos de la pandemia, la virtualización de los contenidos, sumado a alumnos pertenecientes a la Generación Z, demanda una enseñanza donde el clásico aprendizaje centrado en el docente se transforma en una formación integral orientada en el alumno, usando estrategias didácticas como la gamificación. En el presente artículo se comparte una experiencia realizada entre alumnos del quinto ciclo de la carrera de Estomatología usando los recursos de la gamificación para generar una enseñanza significativa, dejando de lado las clases magistrales y migrando a modelos de aprendizaje más eficientes y eficaces centrado en el alumno que generen un real compromiso y motivación. Asimismo, se comparte la percepción de los estudiantes sobre la actividad.
... Some external gaming components like points, levels, different prizes, and rewards might cause a demotivating impact on the employees, Marsh [11] brings up a point, another additional prize might decrease the reflection and consideration of players. Additionally, Attali and Arieli-Attali [1] contended that utilizing straightforward components like focuses and levels as impetuses do not have the inborn incentive for some clients, making gamification "simply a stunt." ...
Article
Full-text available
The term gamification is becoming more critical in virtual games and academia, and the economy. Gamification is described as the use of game elements in non-gaming areas such as companies. The purpose of this study is to find out how much gamification can be used in HR. The paper is divided into three parts. First, let's take a closer look at the concept of HR gamification, followed by a theoretical explanation. Later, the document describes the methodology, results, and conclusions used in the study.
... Gamification is another technology gaining popularity in testing and assessment, and is especially popular in the hiring and education spaces. There are two types of gamification-one is adding game mechanics (i.e., gamified elements) to a given assessment (e.g., Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015;, and the other is utilizing actual games as part or all of an assessment (e.g., Arthur & Villado, 2008;Landers et al., 2021). ...
Article
With the advent of big data and advances in technology, psychological assessments have become increasingly sophisticated and complex. Nevertheless, traditional psychometric issues concerning the validity, reliability, and measurement bias of such assessments remain fundamental in determining whether score inferences of human attributes are appropriate. We focus on three technological advances—the use of organic data for psychological assessments, the application of machine learning algorithms, and adaptive and gamified assessments—and review how the concepts of validity, reliability, and measurement bias may apply in particular ways within those areas. This provides direction for researchers and practitioners to advance the rigor of technology-based assessments from a psychometric perspective.
... Έχουν, έτσι, δημιουργηθεί δυο αντίθετα ερευνητικά ρεύματα, εκ των οποίων το πρώτο υποστηρίζει τη θετική επίδραση της παιχνιδοποίησης στην εκπαίδευση και ανάγει τα τυχόν αρνητικά ερευνητικά αποτελέσματα σε ελλιπή ερευνητικό σχεδιασμό (Domínguezetal., 2013, Rojasetal., 2013, ενώ το δεύτερο αντιλαμβάνεται τα μεικτά αποτελέσματα που παρουσιάζονται ως απόδειξη της αναποτελεσματικότητας της παιχνιδοποίησης (vanRoy & Zaman, 2019). Οι κατακριτές της παιχνιδοποίησης αποδίδουν τα ενθαρρυντικά της αποτελέσματα στην καινοτομία της ως μεθόδου, και για το λόγο αυτό θεωρούν αναμενόμενη τη βραχυπρόθεσμη μόνο επιρροή της στα κίνητρα και τα μαθησιακά αποτελέσματα των μαθητευομένων (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015, Hanus & Fox, 2015. ...
Article
Full-text available
Τhe article is an integrative literature review in the field of gamification in education, based on Torraco’s (2016) criteria. It aims to deconstruct and recompose the concept of gamification, highlighting its theoretical, psychological and pedagogical principles, that classify gamification as an upcoming educational tool. First of all, the definition of gamification is discussed, as well as its importance as an educational innovation. Furthermore, the role of gamification in reinforcing motivation is emphasized, through an analysis of its elements that seem to affect students’ motivation. Finally, there is a presentation of research conclusions regarding the effectiveness of gamification in educational context, and suggestions for further research are made. Το παρόν άρθρο αποτελεί μια βιβλιογραφική έρευνα του πεδίου της παιχνιδοποίησης στην εκπαίδευση. Γραμμένο με βάση τα κριτήρια του Torraco (2016), επιχειρεί να αποδομήσει την έννοια της παιχνιδοποίησης στις βασικές αρχές που τη διέπουν, και να την επανασυνθέσει αναδεικνύοντας τις θεωρητικές, ψυχολογικές και παιδαγωγικές βάσεις της, που την κατατάσσουν ως ένα ανερχόμενο εκπαιδευτικό εργαλείο. Αρχικά, συζητάται ο ορισμός της παιχνιδοποίησης, και τονίζεται η σημαντικότητά της ως καινοτόμου παιδαγωγικού μέσου. Στη συνέχεια υπογραμμίζεται ο ρόλος της παιχνιδοποίησης στην ενίσχυση του κινήτρου, και καταγράφονται τα στοιχεία της που επηρεάζουν το κίνητρο των μαθητών/τριών, όπως αυτά απορρέουν από την υπάρχουσα βιβλιογραφία. Τέλος, προβάλλονται συνοπτικά τα συμπεράσματα ερευνών ως προς την αποτελεσματικότητα της παιχνιδοποίησης στο εκπαιδευτικό πλαίσιο, και γίνονται προτάσεις για επιπλέον έρευνα.
... The studies that analyze the inclusion of active learning methodologies in educational contexts focused on gamification (Hanus & Fox, 2015;Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015;De Marcos et al., 2016;Han-Huey et al., 2018;Hakak et al., 2019;Durrani et al., 2022) and the Flipped Classroom (Gilboy et al., 2015;Hao & Lee, 2016;Yilmaz, 2017;Steen-Utheim & Foldnes, 2018;Shibukawa & Taguchi, 2019;Maloy et al., 2019;Ruiz et al., 2022) are particularly noteworthy. Moreover, these strategies receive the most attention from primary education trainee teachers (Blasco-Serrano et al., 2018;Gómez et al., 2019). ...
Chapter
The primary purposes of this study are to investigate the opinions and conceptions of primary education teachers undergoing initial training on active methodologies and to evaluate a training program that uses these methodologies with a particular focus on the teaching of Social Sciences. To this end, a mixed methodology has been employed, using an initial questionnaire and a focus group as research instruments. Following the data analysis, the results show a favorable assessment of these active methodologies. There were some gender differences, as women assigned greater value than men to the active strategies, resources, and evaluation approaches and were more focused on competency-based learning. Another result highlighted the suitability of using service-learning or inquiry methodology to teach Social Sciences. The authors conclude that improving the training program developed is necessary, offering more connections with practice and expanding initial teacher training in active methods.
... Another area of intervention with gamification techniques in Mathematics is assessment. In Attali and Arieli- Attali (2015), they examined the effects of game points on performance in a computerized assessment of mastery and fluency of basic mathematics concepts. They found that game points had a significant effect on response speed, in both populations of adults and teenage students, while low effect on response accuracy. ...
Chapter
Studies show that gamification enhances the mathematics learning experience by increasing student engagement. Gamification can be successfully used in higher education contexts, primarily when it comes to distance learning. It can compensate for the lack of interaction and create a student-centered, customizable, and autonomy-promoting environment. The use of adaptive learning and interactive feedback can be seen as strategies to improve student access and success in open online courses. In particular, a mathematical modelling module for undergraduates developed inside the project start@unito uses such strategies. Moreover, it is taught entirely in English. The Mathematical Modelling course inside the Erasmus+ Project SMART represents another source for research. The purpose of the chapter is to discuss the possibility of combining adaptive learning with gamification techniques to enhance and facilitate the English-mediated learning process while teaching of mathematics, adding the linguistic and STEM education challenge.
... For example, it is defined that most of the gamification elements are effective on individuals aged 30 and below (Klock, Gasparini, Pimenta and Hamari, 2020;Oyiboet al., 2017;Tondello, Orji and Nacke, 2017). In this respect, GLE are usually designed for individuals at primary, elementary and higher education levels (Attali and Arieli-Attali, 2015). However, there are GLEs for adults aged 30 and above during in-service training to equip them with professional competence (Tanış, 2021). ...
... Gamification is defined as "the use of game elements and game-design techniques in non-game contexts" (Deterding et al., 2011, p. 1) to encourage users' motivation, enjoyment, and engagement in perform- Gamification applies different learning elements, such as game designs and structures (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015). This methodology is based on the increased capability of players to learn and retain information when they have fun while learning (Molina et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
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Firstly, the authors introduce the concept of gamification design applied to various contexts. Then, they discuss how the gamification approach is used within the space sector to develop online and offline resources to foster passion and interest in STEM-related subjects. Indeed, a decreasing number of students nowadays decide to take up STEM-related studies and careers. Therefore, following an edutainment logic, it is essential to design more gamification activities to increase students' motivation and engagement with STEM topics. Given this, they consider the cases of the videogames Kerbal Space Program (KSP) and MinecraftEdu, the ESA Kids website, Mission X, CanSat Competition, Moon Camp, Climate Detectives, Astro-Pi Challenge, and the ESERO Project. They also carry out a netnographic study on some social media pages. Moreover, they discuss how gamification activities may promote the company's corporate brand for NASA and the European Space Agency (ESA). Finally, they focus on the digital divide, which might limit the gamification methodology in approaching disadvantaged socioeconomic countries.
... Nowadays, one strategy used in the classroom is gamification, defined as the use of the principles of the game in non-common contexts (Attali & Arieli-Attali, 2015). It is a methodology where students can purchase new knowledge, reinforce them, experience simulations and/or solve real world problems in a playful way. ...
Conference Paper
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... Some challenges frequently faced in conducting classes in online distance learning include dull classes due to static learning styles, students' loss of attention due to long hours on screen, students are difficult to maintain high motivation due to non-conducive learning environment. As reported in Attali & Arieli-Attali (2015), introducing fun game-like features into traditional learning activities could promote user engagement and make the learning more attractive to students. As a result, this study has shown that implementing creative online assignments with the interesting features could benefit students in terms of motivation and engagement, as summarized in Table 2. ...
... Contributions to the literature on gamification have been particularly focused on education and learning (Attali and Arieli-Attali, 2015;Simões et al., 2013), health (McKeown et al., 2016, marketing and consumer behavior (Lucassen and Jansen, 2014;Rodrigues et al., 2016), as well as on social behaviors (Schoech et al., 2013). ...
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The paper examines the relationship between gamification – the use of game elements in non-gaming contexts – and innovation teams’ outcomes. It builds on psychological and teamwork theories, arguing that gamification overcomes collaboration issues and generates multiple positive outcomes, particularly in coordination, alignment, engagement, and teams’ motivation. The research follows a qualitative theory-driven using a case study of an innovation project. The conceptual model built through the findings offers valuable insights about applying gamification in innovation teams, namely: i) surprising teams with such a new and playful approach reduces stress among team members; ii) rules and time constraints play a crucial role in teams’ coordination by avoiding dispersion and enhancing focused efforts. The paper provides a set of testable theoretical propositions derived from the conceptualization of gamification in the context of innovation teams and supports innovation managers interested in measuring gamification outcomes in teams.
... In [13] authors observed that points contributed to increase the speed of response of participants. In [14], authors conducted experiments in 172 participants to examine the effects of points which main finding included the increase of the intrinsic motivation of students. ...
... Games specifically designed for educational purposes have been largely studied, as can be observed in the literature reviews presented in [6] and [7]. The main idea of using games is to transmit the motivational power of videogames to encourage students to practice, persevere, and deal with challenges related to serious topics in a fun way [8], [9], [10], [11]. ...
... A tesztmegoldási motiváció növelésének másik, viszonylag egyszerű módja, ha magát a tesztet alakítjuk át oly módon, hogy a résztvevők motiváltabbak legyenek a megoldására. A korábbi kutatások magasabb szintű motivációt találtak azokban az esetekben, ha (1) a feladatok nem voltak túlságosan megterhelőek (DeMars, 2000;Wise, 2006), hanem inkább a résztvevők képességeihez illeszkedőek, annak megfelelő nehézségűek ( Asseburg és Frey, 2013;Rios, 2021), ha (2) képeket, illusztrációkat tartalmaztak ( Lindner és mtsai, 2016; Lindner és mtsai, 2019), valamint ha (3) érdekesek voltak számukra (Attali és Arieli- Attali, 2015). A vonatkozó kutatási eredmények alapján összességében érdemes olyan teszteket kidolgozni és alkalmazni, amelyek (1) feladatleírása könnyen érthető, amelyek a (2) feleletalkotó kérdéstípusok mellett feleletválasztós kérdéseket is tartalmaznak (Rios, 2021). ...
... A tesztmegoldási motiváció növelésének másik, viszonylag egyszerű módja, ha magát a tesztet alakítjuk át oly módon, hogy a résztvevők motiváltabbak legyenek a megoldására. A korábbi kutatások magasabb szintű motivációt találtak azokban az esetekben, ha (1) a feladatok nem voltak túlságosan megterhelőek (DeMars, 2000;Wise, 2006), hanem inkább a résztvevők képességeihez illeszkedőek, annak megfelelő nehézségűek ( Asseburg és Frey, 2013;Rios, 2021), ha (2) képeket, illusztrációkat tartalmaztak ( Lindner és mtsai, 2016; Lindner és mtsai, 2019), valamint ha (3) érdekesek voltak számukra (Attali és Arieli- Attali, 2015). A vonatkozó kutatási eredmények alapján összességében érdemes olyan teszteket kidolgozni és alkalmazni, amelyek (1) feladatleírása könnyen érthető, amelyek a (2) feleletalkotó kérdéstípusok mellett feleletválasztós kérdéseket is tartalmaznak (Rios, 2021). ...
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A mérés-értékelés főbb céljainak átalakulásával, tanulást segítő diagnosztikus funkcióinak előtérbe kerülésével az alacsony téttel bíró tesztek egyre nagyobb szerepet játszanak a tanítás-tanulás folyamatában, valamint az országos és nemzetközi értékelésekben. Miután az alacsony téttel bíró teszteken nyújtott teljesítménynek nincs következménye a tanulók tanulmányi előrehaladására, előfordulhat, hogy az ezeken a teszteken elért eredmények eltérnek a nagy téttel bíró teszteken nyújtott teljesítményektől. Ennek oka lehet, hogy előbbin a tanulók nem feltétlen tesznek meg minden erőfeszítést a feladatok megoldása során, utóbbin a diákok tesztmegoldás közbeni szorongása jelentős teljesítménycsökkentő hatással bírhat. A tanulmány keretein belül az első problémakörrel foglalkozunk részletesebben. A megfelelő motivációval rendelkező diákok aránya számos tényezőtől függ. A szakirodalomban elérhető kutatási eredmények szerint a motiváltabb személyek teljesítménye jellemzően magasabb, mint nem motivált társaiké. Az eredmények validitásának növelésére számos módszer alkalmazható az alacsony téttel bíró tesztek esetén, amelyek két nagy csoportba sorolhatók. Az első csoportba sorolt módszerek a tesztek megoldása előtt alkalmazandók, céljuk, hogy a tesztet megoldók motivációját növeljék, és így valódi tudásukra vonatkozóan pontosabb, megbízhatóbb értékelést valósítsanak meg. A másik csoportba sorolt módszerek mérik a feladatmegoldók teszt során nyújtott motivációját, majd a teszt megoldása után kiszűrik a nem motivált válaszokat, vagy épp a nem motivált személyeket ezzel növelve a teszt validitását. A kutatási eredmények alapján megállapítható, hogy mind a nem motivált válaszok/válaszadók kiszűrése, mind a vizsgázók motivációjának növelése növeli a teszteredmények validitását. A legpontosabb eredmény pedig a különböző módszerek kombinálásával érhető el.
... Therefore, gamification is defined as a method of using gaming principles (i.e. challenges, feedback and interactivity) in nongame contexts (Pektas and Kepceoglu 2019;Attali and Arieli-Attali 2015;Werbach and Hunter 2012). ...
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ABSTRACT This study aims to analyse the extent to which gamification tools and multimedia resources (i.e. Cuadernia, Kahoot, Quizizz, and Socrative) can serve in learning strategies for education, achievement, participation and motivation during student teacher training in the subject of Musical Education and its Didactics and within the general context of higher education. We use a quantitative methodological approach with a quasi-experimental design and surveys as assessment tools. All 62 participants were studying Musical Education and its Didactics in their Bachelor’s Degree in Primary Education at a private Spanish university and had finished their internship period. Application of the gamification strategy proved effective for dynamic teaching-learning. Findings show how the appropriate teacher training in didactic use of information and communication technologies (ICT) can achieve positive educational results when used correctly. ICT teaching practices for music education should be implemented with an adequate didactic approach for best results
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This book compiles the research conducted by the author during the years 2019-2022. The objective of this book is to present the results of a study related to educational innovation from different aspects. The reasons for writing this scientific work originate from the interest to contribute to knowledge in the area of educational research. Teachers, administrators, and academic researchers can use the methodologies and results to support educational innovation.
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This study sets out to conduct a systematic review of the emergence and evolution of gamification in the social environment, its main components, and its application as a learning tool through the motivation and engagement it generates in people. The results were obtained by consulting two major scientific databases, namely, Scopus and the Web of Science, which provided 136 articles published on the social environment from 2011 through to mid-2016 using the term gamification. The results of this study reveal how over time gamification has been gaining importance in the social environment through the use of its components. The highest number of scientific publications come from the United States and Spain. In addition, the use of gaming components increases motivation and engagement. It shows how gamification uses (individual or group) rewards according to the context to achieve the proposed objectives, being successfully implemented in education, health, services, and social learning.
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In the last decade, gamification has been a widely used mechanism to influence behavioral habits in users so that they are more positively involved in learning and business processes. There are many articles or applications that materialize this adoption by showing success stories. However, few are those who mention the dangers of its use. This article shares the main precautions to be taken when creating a gamified strategy, promoting the use of gamification design and evaluation frameworks, in order to create a balanced approach that meets the profiles of its users.KeywordsGamificationStandardizationDesign frameworks
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Eğitim ve değişim… Özleri itibari ile birbirlerinin tamamlayıcısı olan, bununla birlikte son yıllarda ilişkileri daha zengin ve çok boyutlu hale gelen iki toplumsal olgu. Ve bu iki olgu etrafında eğitim sistemleri ve öğretim süreçlerinin amaç, işlev, nitelik ve sürdürülebilirliklerine ilişkin öğretim biliminin kılcallarına kadar yayılmış olan tartışmalar… Elbette, eğitim ortaya çıktığı günden itibaren insanoğlunun uyum kabiliyetinin geliştirilmesi ile ilgilenen bir uğraşı alanı olmuştur. Bununla birlikte “değişim” ve “uyum” süreçlerinde meydana gelen anlamsal, algısal ve işlevsel başkalaşımlar eğitim anlayış ve etkinliklerimizi radikal biçimde etkilemektedir. 2020’lere kadar değişim ve içerdiği bileşenler eğitim sisteminin genelde dışında ortaya çıkmış, öğrenme-öğretme süreçleri bu değişime uyum sağlayabilecek biçimlere evrilmiştir. Oysa pandemi bizi nasıl değişeceğimizi göremediğimiz ancak değişmemiz gerektiğinin farkında olduğumuz yeni bir ortama, bir “belirsizlik” haline itmiştir. Bu ortamda “uyum”, öngörülen ya da hesap edilen değişime uyum sağlamanın ötesinde var olan kaynakları kullanarak ve ortak akıldan yararlanarak etkin çözümler üretme biçimine dönüşmüştür. Böyle bir dönüşümün zor olduğu kadar daha kalıpları zorlayan, daha çok disiplinliğe ve katılımcılığa açık, daha yaratıcı bir süreç olduğu açıktır. Kitabımız, bu bakış açılarıyla, özellikle pandemi sonrası dönemde eğitim ve değişim ilişkisini öğretim sürecinin çeşitli özneleri üzerinden ele almaktadır. Not: Açık erişimli olarak yayımlanan kitabımıza https://depo.pegem.net/egitimvedegisimkitabi.pdf adresinden erişilebilmektedir.
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Teknolojide yaşanan değişimlerin etkisinin en yaygın görüldüğü alanlardan biri kuşkusuz eğitimdir. Bu bağlamda öğretmen rolleri de son yıllarda oldukça farklılaşmış ve çeşitlenmiştir. Eğitim alanındaki birçok yeniliğin öğrenme ve öğretme süreçlerinde kullanılmasında, öğretmenler en önemli aktörler olarak görülmektedir. Bir öğretmenin niteliğini öğretmen kimliği ve öğretmen rolü yakından ilgilendirmektedir. Öğretmen kimliği, öğretmenin öğrenciler üzerindeki etkisi, okulun niteliğine olan katkısı, mesleğin profesyonel olduğu kadar sosyal yönünün de ön planda olması gibi çeşitli nedenlerle ele alındığında önemli bir özelliktir. Öğretmen kimliği, öğretmenin toplumda, sistem içinde, okulda, sınıfta, meslektaşları arasında ve en önemlisi öğrenme ve öğretme süreçlerinde oynadığı rolleri etkilemektedir. Öğretmen kimliği ile öğretmen rolü arasında birbirini etkileyen ve dönüştüren bir ilişki olduğu söylenebilir. İdeal öğretmen, uzman öğretmen, nitelikli öğretmen, mükemmel öğretmen, usta öğretmen, başarılı öğretmen gibi birçok kavram ile karşı karşıya kalmaktayız. Peki bu öğretmenler kimlerdir, hangi niteliklere sahiptirler, sınıf içinde ve dışında, sistemde ve toplum önünde rolleri nelerdir? Bu bölümde öğretmen kimliği ve öğretmen rolü arasındaki ilişki irdelenerek, teknolojinin öğrenme ve öğretme süreçlerine entegrasyonunun getirileri ile birlikte öğretmen rolünün değişimi ele alınmıştır.
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The goal of gamification is the deployment of game mechanics in real-world context for non-gaming scenarios, to drive motivation and performance regarding a given activity. Preceding research, mostly supports the hypothesis fundamental to this aim. Till date, gamification has continued to find its application in various industries and sectors. Among application area where gamification has found its usage are in social networks. Due to the commercialization of the mobile devices and user content generation, there has been the emergence of mobile social networking, which has changed the way the users relate to applications. In the search for better ways to improve user experience in mobile social networking, gamification (the use of game design elements in non-related games) can play a vital role. And considering there are many different game mechanics which can result in diverse application services. Various game mechanics were reviewed to understand the working principles and where they can be applied. Based on this review, a conceptual framework for gamified social media application was presented. The game mechanics configuration was deliberately varied, in regards to their impact on the completion of basic functionalities as well as potentially improve user engagement.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of gamification on students’ e-learning adoption. In addition, this paper examines the effect of two mediations, that is, flow and engagement between gamification and e-learning adoption by using sequential mediation analysis. Design/methodology/approach The authors used the online survey method to collect the 570 responses through convenience sampling procedure. Sequential mediation analysis technique was used to test the mediation hypothesis. Findings The findings of this paper revealed that gamification elements are an important feature of flow, engagement in e-learning adoption process. Also, the paper found that engagement in the learning process is a key element for students to adopt e-learning. Research limitations/implications This paper makes its contribution to the literature related to gamification and e-learning adoption. The paper signifies the importance of gamification as an educational application in e-learning environment and its contribution in designing an interactive learning environment. Originality/value Empirically, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is the first paper to examine the sequential mediation model of gamification in the education sector in a developing nation like India. Furthermore, this paper also extends engagement and flow theory related to e-learning process by showing how students’ engagement and flow impact the e-learning adoption in the gamified environment.
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The primary purposes of this study are to investigate the opinions and conceptions of primary education teachers undergoing initial training on active methodologies and to evaluate a training program that uses these methodologies with a particular focus on the teaching of Social Sciences. To this end, a mixed methodology has been employed, using an initial questionnaire and a focus group as research instruments. Following the data analysis, the results show a favorable assessment of these active methodologies. There were some gender differences, as women assigned greater value than men to the active strategies, resources, and evaluation approaches and were more focused on competency-based learning. Another result highlighted the suitability of using service-learning or inquiry methodology to teach Social Sciences. The authors conclude that improving the training program developed is necessary, offering more connections with practice and expanding initial teacher training in active methods.
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Play and playful elements have been part of human history since time immemorial, almost always being present in educational processes. Given that gamification increases motivation and attitude towards learning, improves spatial cognition, visual attention and problem solving, implies satisfactory consequences in the commitment, fosters retention capacity and optimizes the academic results of the students, it is convenient to offer pedagogical update on this topic to the different educational agents. The purpose of this research is to know the training in gamification of a group of professionals of a Foundation for people with intellectual disabilities, before and after conducting a specific workshop on said methodology, analyzing possible significant differences and size of the effect between pretest and posttest, depending on some situational variables. In addition, it is intended to obtain professional profiles, taking into account these variables and the training level in gamification, before and after the development of the workshop. After the study, a quantitative increase was observed in the teachers' responses, between the pretest and the posttest, with the differences between the two applications of the questionnaire being significant and the size of these differences far exceeding the critical value established by Cohen.
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a gamification-based educational intervention to improve knowledge about diabetes, targeting GCSE-level vocational training students who will work in the field of social/health care. Materials and methods: This was a quasi-experimental study aimed at further education students in Auxiliary Nursing Care and Care of People in a Situation of Dependency at the educational centres in the Autonomous Region of Navarra. After assessing the students' prior knowledge, a random draw was carried out to determine which classes would form part of the control group and which the intervention group. In the traditional programme, a one-and-a-half-hour session was held and in the innovation programme, they had an Escape Room with a brief explanation lasting a total of two hours. In both educational programmes, they completed a pre-test and then a post-test one week after the interventions to assess the degree of knowledge acquisition, in addition to a satisfaction questionnaire. The project ran from October 2019 to February 2020. Results: 302 students took part (162 from the intervention group and 140 from the control group) with a mean age of 18.4 years; 87.4% were female; and 52.7% were studying in vocational training in Care for People in a Situation of Dependency. The post-test knowledge score was 32.70 (SD 10.637) in the control group and 38.07 (SD 11.421) in the intervention group (p = 0.000). Meanwhile the level of satisfaction was 8.19 (SD 1.594) in the control group and 8.60 (SD 1.163) in the intervention group (p = 0.020). Conclusions: Gamified education enhances knowledge acquisition with respect to the traditional methodology and improves student satisfaction. Further studies are needed to verify the effectiveness of these innovative educational methods in the medium and long term.
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Since the beginning of the century, feedback interventions (FIs) produced negative--but largely ignored--effects on performance. A meta-analysis (607 effect sizes; 23,663 observations) suggests that FIs improved performance on average ( d  = .41) but that over one-third of the FIs decreased performance. This finding cannot be explained by sampling error, feedback sign, or existing theories. The authors proposed a preliminary FI theory (FIT) and tested it with moderator analyses. The central assumption of FIT is that FIs change the locus of attention among 3 general and hierarchically organized levels of control: task learning, task motivation, and meta-tasks (including self-related) processes. The results suggest that FI effectiveness decreases as attention moves up the hierarchy closer to the self and away from the task. These findings are further moderated by task characteristics that are still poorly understood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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If a test is constructed of testlets, one must take into account the within-testlet structure in the calculation of test statistics. Failing to do so may yield serious biases in the estimation of such statistics as reliability. We demonstrate how to calculate the reliability of a testlet-based test. We show that traditional reliabilities calculated on two reading comprehension tests constructed of four testlets are substantial overestimates.
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The theoretical framework presented in this article explains expert performance as the end result of individuals' prolonged efforts to improve performance while negotiating motivational and external constraints. In most domains of expertise, individuals begin in their childhood a regimen of effortful activities (deliberate practice) designed to optimize improvement. Individual differences, even among elite performers, are closely related to assessed amounts of deliberate practice. Many characteristics once believed to reflect innate talent are actually the result of intense practice extended for a minimum of 10 yrs. Analysis of expert performance provides unique evidence on the potential and limits of extreme environmental adaptation and learning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the effects of a computer game on students' mathematics achievement and motivation, and the role of prior mathematics knowledge, computer skill, and English language skill on their achievement and motivation as they played the game. A total of 193 students and 10 teachers participated in this study. The teachers were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. A mixed method of quantitative and interviews were used with Multivariate Analysis of Co-Variance to analyze the data.The results indicated significant improvement of the achievement of the experimental versus control group. No significant improvement was found in the motivation of the groups. Students who played the games in their classrooms and school labs reported greater motivation compared to the ones who played the games only in the school labs. Prior knowledge, computer and English language skill did not play significant roles in achievement and motivation of the experimental group.
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"Gamification" is an informal umbrella term for the use of video game elements in non-gaming systems to improve user experience (UX) and user engagement. The recent introduction of 'gamified' applications to large audiences promises new additions to the existing rich and diverse research on the heuristics, design patterns and dynamics of games and the positive UX they provide. However, what is lacking for a next step forward is the integration of this precise diversity of research endeavors. Therefore, this workshop brings together practitioners and researchers to develop a shared understanding of existing approaches and findings around the gamification of information systems, and identify key synergies, opportunities, and questions for future research.
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Good computer and video games like System Shock 2, Deus Ex, Pikmin, Rise of Nations, Neverwinter Nights, and Xenosaga: Episode 1 are learning machines. They get themselves learned and learned well, so that they get played long and hard by a great many people. This is how they and their designers survive and perpetuate themselves. If a game cannot be learned and even mastered at a certain level, it won't get played by enough people, and the company that makes it will go broke. Good learning in games is a capitalist-driven Darwinian process of selection of the fittest. Of course, game designers could have solved their learning problems by making games shorter and easier, by dumbing them down, so to speak. But most gamers don't want short and easy games. Thus, designers face and largely solve an intriguing educational dilemma, one also faced by schools and workplaces: how to get people, often young people, to learn and master something that is long and challenging--and enjoy it, to boot.
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On average, girls and women are less involved with video games than are boys and men, and when they do play, they often prefer different games. This article reports two studies that investigated the dislikes of German females with regard to video games. Study 1 applied conjoint analysis to female respondents’ (N= 317) ratings of fictional video games and demonstrated that lack of meaningful social interaction, followed by violent content and sexual gender role stereotyping of game characters, were the most important reasons why females disliked the games. Study 2, an online survey (N= 795), revealed that female respondents were less attracted to competitive elements in video games, suggesting an explanation for gender-specific game preferences. These findings are discussed with respect to communication theory on interactive entertainment and their implications for applied video game design.
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A meta-analysis of 128 studies examined the effects of extrinsic rewards on intrinsic motivation. As predicted, engagement-contingent, completion-contingent, and performance-contingent rewards significantly undermined free-choice intrinsic motivation (d = -0.40, -0.36, and -0.28, respectively), as did all rewards, all tangible rewards, and all expected rewards. Engagement-contingent and completion-contingent rewards also significantly undermined self-reported interest (d = -0.15, and -0.17), as did all tangible rewards and all expected rewards. Positive feedback enhanced both free-choice behavior (d = 0.33) and self-reported interest (d = 0.31). Tangible rewards tended to be more detrimental for children than college students, and verbal rewards tended to be less enhancing for children than college students. The authors review 4 previous meta-analyses of this literature and detail how this study's methods, analyses, and results differed from the previous ones.
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Many contend that the future of affordable, high-quality education lies in harnessing the potential of computer technologies. While implementing computer technologies in schools has had both failings and challenges (Dynarski et al., 2007), significant progress in the quality of education to some extent depends on our ability to leverage the many advantages of computer technologies. Computer technologies enable adaptive, one-on-one tutoring to virtually all students in the classroom. The most common goal of these one-on-one intelligent tutoring systems (ITSs) is to produce learning gains. Two of the most common areas of learning address content within specific domains (e.g., physics) or cognitive skill acquisition (e.g., strategies to improve reading comprehension). Both types of learning are often characterized by exposure to declarative information and subsequent interaction with the material (Anderson, 1982). However, acquiring a new skill usually requires a significant commitment to continued practice and application. Skills are often developed and improved with practice over an extended period of time (Newell & Rosenbloom, 1981).
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CBAL, an acronym for Cognitively Based Assessment of, for, and as Learning, is a research initiative intended to create a model for an innovative K–12 assessment system that provides summative information for policy makers, as well as formative information for classroom instructional purposes. This paper summarizes empirical results from 16 CBAL summative assessment pilots involving almost 10,000 online administrations conducted between 2007 and 2010. The results suggest that, on average, the CBAL initiative was successful in building innovative assessments in reading, writing, and mathematics that worked as intended. However, there was considerable variation in the functioning of test forms, especially in writing and math. That variation might suggest that the knowledge needed to produce high-quality forms of these innovative tests in a replicable and scalable manner is not yet at hand. Further, although the results described offer a significant start, many critical questions must be answered before CBAL assessments (or ones like them) are ready for high-stakes operational use.
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Prior work on the CBAL™ mathematics competency model resulted in an initial competency model for middle school grades with several learning progressions (LPs) that elaborate central ideas in the competency model and provide a basis for connecting summative and formative assessment. In the current project, we created a competency model for Grades 3–5 that is based on both the middle school competency model and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). We also developed an LP for rational numbers based on an extensive literature review, consultations with members of the CBAL mathematics team and other related research staff at Educational Testing Service, input from an advisory panel of external experts in mathematics education and cognitive psychology, and the use of small-scale cognitive interviews with students and teachers. Elementary mathematical understanding, specifically that of rational numbers, is viewed as fundamental and critical to developing future knowledge and skill in middle and high school mathematics and therefore essential for success in the 21st century world. The competency model and the rational number LP serve as the conceptual basis for developing and connecting summative and formative assessment as well as professional support materials for Grades 3–5. We report here on the development process of these models and future implications for task development.
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How can we make sure that our children are learning to be creative thinkers in a world of global competition - and what does that mean for the future of education in the digital age? David Williamson Shaffer offers a fresh and powerful perspective on computer games and learning. How Computer Games Help Children Learn shows how video and computer games can help teach children to build successful futures - but only if we think in new ways about education itself. Shaffer shows how computer and video games can help students learn to think like engineers, urban planners, journalists, lawyers, and other innovative professionals, giving them the tools they need to survive in a changing world. Based on more than a decade of research in technology, game science, and education, How Computer Games Help Children Learn revolutionizes the ongoing debate about the pros and cons of digital learning.
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Feedback is one of the most powerful influences on learning and achievement, but this impact can be either positive or negative. Its power is frequently mentioned in articles about learning and teaching, but surprisingly few recent studies have systematically investigated its meaning. This article provides a conceptual analysis of feedback and reviews the evidence related to its impact on learning and achievement. This evidence shows that although feedback is among the major influences, the type of feedback and the way it is given can be differentially effective. A model of feedback is then proposed that identifies the particular properties and circumstances that make it effective, and some typically thorny issues are discussed, including the timing of feedback and the effects of positive and negative feedback. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest ways in which feedback can be used to enhance its effectiveness in classrooms.
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Understanding gaming motivations is important given the growing trend of incorporating game-based mechanisms in non-gaming applications. In this paper, we describe the development and validation of an online gaming motivations scale based on a 3-factor model. Data from 2,071 US participants and 645 Hong Kong and Taiwan participants is used to provide a cross-cultural validation of the developed scale. Analysis of actual in-game behavioral metrics is also provided to demonstrate predictive validity of the scale.
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Response generative modeling (RGM) is an approach to psychological measurement which involves a “grammar” capable of assigning a psychometric description to every item in a universe of items and is also capable of generating all the items in that universe. The purpose of this chapter is to: 1) elaborate on the rationale behind RGM; 2) review its roots and how it relates to current thinking on validity; and 3) assess its feasibility in a wide variety of domains. The chapter concludes with a brief review of possible theoretical approaches to a psychologically sound approach to test construction and modelling.
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A total of 200 fifth- and sixth-grade students with high or low school achievement were given interesting divergent thinking tasks in each of three sessions. Individual comments, numerical grades, standardized praise, or no feedback were received after Sessions 1 and 2. Results confirmed that at Session 3 (posttest), interest, performance, and attributions of effort, outcome, and the impact of evaluation to task-involved causes were highest at both levels of achievement after receipt of comments. Ego-involved attributions were highest after receipt of grades and praise. These findings support the conceptualization of the feedback conditions as task involving (comments), ego involving (grades and praise), or neither (no feedback). The similar impact of grades and praise would not be predicted by cognitive evaluation theory. I discuss the importance of distinguishing between task- and ego-involved orientations in the study of continuing motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a relatively new website that contains the major elements required to conduct research: an integrated participant compensation system; a large participant pool; and a streamlined process of study design, participant recruitment, and data collection. In this article, we describe and evaluate the potential contributions of MTurk to psychology and other social sciences. Findings indicate that (a) MTurk participants are slightly more demographically diverse than are standard Internet samples and are significantly more diverse than typical American college samples; (b) participation is affected by compensation rate and task length, but participants can still be recruited rapidly and inexpensively; (c) realistic compensation rates do not affect data quality; and (d) the data obtained are at least as reliable as those obtained via traditional methods. Overall, MTurk can be used to obtain high-quality data inexpensively and rapidly. © The Author(s) 2011.
Article
There is widespread concern that assessments which have no direct consequences for students, teachers or schools underestimate student ability, and that the extent of this underestimation increases as the students become ever more familiar with such tests. This issue is particularly relevant for international comparative studies such as the IEA’s Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the OECD’s Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA). In the present experimental study, a short form of the PISA mathematical literacy test is used to explore whether the levels of test motivation and test performance observed in the context of the standard PISA assessment situation can be improved by raising the stakes of testing. The impact of (1) informational feedback, (2) grading, and (3) performance-contingent financial rewards on the personal value of performing well, perceived utility of participating in the test, intended and invested effort, task-irrelevant cognitions, and test performance are investigated. The central finding of the study is that the different treatment conditions make the various value components of test motivation equally salient. Consequently, no differences were found either with respect to intended and invested effort or to test performance.
Chapter
The authors present a new view of the relationship between learning fractions and learning algebra that (1) emphasizes the conceptual continuities between whole-number arithmetic and fractions; and (2)shows how the fundamental properties of operations and equality that form the foundations of algebra are used naturally by children in their strategies for problems involving operating on and with fractions. This view is grounded in empirical research on how algebraic structure emerges in young children’s reasoning. Specifically, the authors argue that there is a broad class of children’s strategies for fraction problems motivated by the same mathematical relationships that are essential to understanding high-school algebra and that these relationships cannot be presented to children as discrete skills or learned as isolated rules. The authors refer to the thinking that guides such strategies as Relational thinking.
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The aim of this study was to assess the learning effectiveness and motivational appeal of a computer game for learning computer memory concepts, which was designed according to the curricular objectives and the subject matter of the Greek high school Computer Science (CS) curriculum, as compared to a similar application, encompassing identical learning objectives and content but lacking the gaming aspect. The study also investigated potential gender differences in the game’s learning effectiveness and motivational appeal. The sample was 88 students, who were randomly assigned to two groups, one of which used the gaming application (Group A, N = 47) and the other one the non-gaming one (Group B, N = 41). A Computer Memory Knowledge Test (CMKT) was used as the pretest and posttest. Students were also observed during the interventions. Furthermore, after the interventions, students’ views on the application they had used were elicited through a feedback questionnaire. Data analyses showed that the gaming approach was both more effective in promoting students’ knowledge of computer memory concepts and more motivational than the non-gaming approach. Despite boys’ greater involvement with, liking of and experience in computer gaming, and their greater initial computer memory knowledge, the learning gains that boys and girls achieved through the use of the game did not differ significantly, and the game was found to be equally motivational for boys and girls. The results suggest that within high school CS, educational computer games can be exploited as effective and motivational learning environments, regardless of students’ gender.
Article
Computational facility and the relationship between automaticity or efficient processing of addition facts and success in more complex tasks were examined in a cross-sectional study of 109 children from Grades 3 through 6. Latency data and interview protocols enabled identification of speed and strategy use on the addition facts, grouped into eight fact bundles (e.g. zeroes, small doubles), as a parsimonious procedure for exploring processing efficiency. Profiles of children based on latency performance on the fact bundles were clustered. The slowest cluster reported use of counting strategies on many bundles; the fastest cluster reported use of retrieval or efficient-thinking strategies. Cluster group was the best predictor of performance on multidigit tasks. Addition fact accuracy contributed only for tasks without carrying, and grade level was not significant. Analysis by error type showed most errors on the multidigit sums were due to fact inaccuracy, not algorithmic errors. The implication is that the cognitive demands caused by inefficient solutions of basic facts made the multidigit sums inaccessible. Suggestions for instruction of students who have problems learning basic arithmetic are made.
Article
Obra del norteamericano Burrhus Frederick Skinner (1904-1990), uno de los principales representantes del conductismo. Para Skinner el método experimental es el único criterio de cientificidad y el criterio objetivista es el paradigma de la indagación psicológica, que asume el comportamiento directamente observable desde el exterior como único objeto de la indagación misma. Publicada originalmente en 1953, esta obra era considerada por su autor, según una carta no publicada de 1967, como la mejor expresión de su postura en el campo de la psicología.
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The theory of formative assessment outlined in this article is relevant to a broad spectrum of learning outcomes in a wide variety of subjects. Specifically, it applies wherever multiple criteria are used in making judgments about the quality of student responses. The theory has less relevance for outcomes in which student responses may be assessed simply as correct or incorrect. Feedback is defined in a particular way to highlight its function in formative assessment. This definition differs in several significant respects from that traditionally found in educational research. Three conditions for effective feedback are then identified and their implications discussed. A key premise is that for students to be able to improve, they must develop the capacity to monitor the quality of their own work during actual production. This in turn requires that students possess an appreciation of what high quality work is, that they have the evaluative skill necessary for them to compare with some objectivity the quality of what they are producing in relation to the higher standard, and that they develop a store of tactics or moves which can be drawn upon to modify their own work. It is argued that these skills can be developed by providing direct authentic evaluative experience for students. Instructional systems which do not make explicit provision for the acquisition of evaluative expertise are deficient, because they set up artificial but potentially removable performance ceilings for students.
Feedback research revisited
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Game-based marketing: Inspire customer loyalty through rewards, challenges, and contests
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Zichermann, G., & Linder, J. (2010). Game-based marketing: Inspire customer loyalty through rewards, challenges, and contests. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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Yee, N., Ducheneaut, N., & Nelson, L. (2012, May). Online gaming motivations scale: development and validation. In Proceedings of the 2012 ACM annual conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 2803e2806). Association for Computing Machinery.
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Digital game-based learning in high school computer science education: Impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation
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