ArticlePDF Available

An Attitude Approach to the Prediction of Entrepreneurship

Authors:
  • Father Flanagan's Boys' Home

Abstract and Figures

Attitude is presented as a better approach to the description of entrepreneurs than either personality characteristics or demographics. The development and validation of the Entrepreneurial Attitude Orientation (EAO) scale are explained. Sixty-three undergraduates were used in developing and establishing the test-retest reliability of the EAO. Fifty-four entrepreneurs and fifty-seven non-entrepreneurs served as known groups in establishing the discriminant validity of the EAO. There was a significant difference between known groups for all four of the EAO subscales (achievement, personal control, innovation, self-esteem); all subscales but achievement entered into a stepwise discriminant function. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Specifically, personality traits (Carland, Carland, Hoy & Carland, 2002), cognition (Mitchell et al., 2002), motivational needs including the need for achievement (McClelland, 1961;McClelland & Winter, 1969), self-efficacy (Chen, Green, & Crick, 1998), self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2000), cognitive biases (De Carolis & Saparito, 2006) and risk taking perception and propensity (Carland, Carland, Carland & Pearce, 1995) are all found to be related to new venture creation. Additional studies have determined that even demographic characteristics such as age, gender, race, marital status, socioeconomic status, previous work experience, education level of the individual and parents, family background and previous entrepreneurial experiences (Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner & Hunt, 1991;Robinson & Sexton, 1994;Gartner, 2004;Sajilan, Hadi & Tehseen, 2015;Startiene & Remeikiene, 2015) of the individual entrepreneurs explain some part of their drive to create new ventures. While demographic characteristics and personality traits tend to be stable over time, motivational needs (e.g. ...
... Other moderating and mediating variables such as self-efficacy (Chen et al., 1998), risk taking propensity (Carland et al., 1995), self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2000), cognitive biases (De Carolis & Saparito, 2006), opportunity recognition, action-orientation and interpersonal sensitivity (Morris et al, 2013a;Davis et al., 2016) can be associated with the motivational orientations to study the differences among behavioral patterns of individuals in different quadrants of the motivational orientation taxonomy. Consequently, the typology should be tested for different groups of students with different demographics such as age, gender, race, marital status, socioeconomic status, previous work experience, education level of the individual and parents, family background and previous entrepreneurial experiences (Robinson et al., 1991;Robinson & Sexton, 1994;Gartner, 2004;Sajilan et al., 2015;Startiene & Remeikiene, 2015) all of which have been found to be related with entrepreneurial behavior. As previously mentioned, research on motivational traits and orientations has merely focused on the achievement motivation orientation in relation to the success of entrepreneurs. ...
... New venture creation is a fundamental goal for an entrepreneur and an entrepreneur's motivation to start a new venture has frequently been studied in relation to personality traits (Carland et al., 2002), cognition (Mitchell et al., 2002), need for achievement (McClelland, 1961;McClelland & Winter, 1969), self-efficacy (Chen et al., 1998), self-determination (Ryan & Deci, 2000), cognitive biases (De Carolis & Saparito, 2006) and risk taking perception and propensity (Carland, et al., 1995). Other factors that contribute to the entrepreneurs' intention to start a new business have been classified under demographic characteristics such as age, gender, race, marital status, socioeconomic status, previous work experience, education level of the individual and parents, family background and previous entrepreneurial experiences (Robinson et al., 1991;Robinson & Sexton, 1994;Gartner, 2004;Sajilan et al., 2015;Startiene & Remeikiene, 2015). We believe that besides personal traits, cognitions, demographics and unique personal experiences of an individual, motivational orientation towards success and failure also plays a significant role in entrepreneurial intent and activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
This case study examines the implementation of a multi-disciplinary course to prepare students for living overseas. The same instructor taught this course to over 1000 students over a period of four years. Teaching evaluations and written comments were used discovering that a traditional course was preferred over an online course. Findings suggest that colleges carefully consider the target markets and curriculum before deciding whether the curriculum should be Internet-based.
... In one view, attitude is seen as a unidimensional construct and can be sufficiently understood and represented only by affective response (Fishbein and Ajzen, 1975). The second view, referred to as the tripartite model, states that all things can be perceived in terms of three types of responses: affect, cognition, and conation (Chaiken and Stangor, 1987;Shaver, 1987;Robinson et al., 1991). We also agree that attitude is a synthesis of affect, cognition, and conation components. ...
... The affective component of attitude is composed of the way one feels about the object, either positive or negative. The conative or behavioral component of attitude is concerned with a person's intentions and predispositions in regards to how they wish to behave toward the object (Robinson et al., 1991). According to Reyad et al. (2019), entrepreneurial attitudes include cognition of skills and intentions to start a business. ...
... Reed (2021) refers to these attitudes as passion, courage, flexibility, and a strong work ethic and integrity. Robinson et al. (1991) described entrepreneurial attitudes as a construct consisting of a number of characteristics, including achievement in business, innovation in business, perceived personal control of business outcomes, and perceived self-esteem in business, which are each composed of three components, namely, affect, cognition, and conation. Following this, these authors (i.e., Robinson et al., 1991) developed the Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Orientation (EAO) scale, which comprises of 75 Likert-type items and four subscales (achievement, innovation, personal control, and self-esteem). ...
... Corrected items-Total Correlation (correlation of an item to summated scale score) and inter-item correlation (squared multiple correlations between the respective item and all others) are the two most common diagnostic reliability measures (Hair et al., 2010). Robinson, Stimpson, Huefner, and Hunt (1991a) In assessing the correlation reliability among items that formed the construct, the study adopted both the diagnostic reliability measures suggested by Hair et al. (2010). SEM requires a rather large sample size (n > 200) for path analysis, causal modeling, and covariance structure analysis (Kline, 2005). ...
... As advocated by Hair et al. (2010) and Robinson et al. (1991a), the two most common diagnostic reliability measures i.e. Corrected items-Total Correlation (correlation of an item to summated scale score) and inter-item correlation were used for the study. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Job Satisfaction, organization performance and employee turnover intention are closely interlinked. High performance culture organizations that promote both job satisfaction and work-life balance often produce good results and have the ability to attract and retain talented employees. Job satisfaction of fixed scheduled employees in the Malaysian offshore outsourcing support is constantly challenged from working long irregular hours to fulfill global “Follow-the-sun” workflow commitment and maintaining effective communication in a temporal dispersed virtual organization. The work time demand is felt more as the temporal dispersion variance between parties in communication widens. This research was initiated with the objective of understanding employees working under such conditions and whether having good management policies such as flexible work arrangement buffer the impact and restore job satisfaction. For this quantitative survey, 306 Information Technology Outsourcing, and Business Process Outsourcing respondents, located in the MSC flagship town of Cyberjaya, were identified. The results reveal that Malaysian offshore outsourcing workers are generally satisfied with their work environment. Whilst global communication remains a temporal dispersion challenge, flexible work arrangement does not alleviate the impact of long irregular work hours; however, it promotes job satisfaction. The findings also confirm the importance of co-workers and supervisory support in mitigating the demands of work. Contrary to the belief that globalization emphasizes cost optimization and reluctance of MNCs in spending and developing resources, most respondents acknowledged that good support from their co-workers and supervisors are vital. The study highlights the critical impact of globalization and temporal dispersion on job satisfaction among fixed working arrangement employees who support Malaysian offshore outsourcing.
... Midgley and Dowling (1993) acclaimed that the central component of human personality is innovativeness, which supports digital entrepreneurship among entrepreneurs. However, innovativeness strongly impacts entrepreneurial intention (Robinson et al., 1991). ...
... Therefore, this outcome is consistent with previous studies. However, innovativeness substantially affects entrepreneurial intention (Robinson et al., 1991). ...
... Midgley and Dowling (1993) acclaimed that the central component of human personality is innovativeness, which supports digital entrepreneurship among entrepreneurs. However, innovativeness strongly impacts entrepreneurial intention (Robinson et al., 1991). ...
... Therefore, this outcome is consistent with previous studies. However, innovativeness substantially affects entrepreneurial intention (Robinson et al., 1991). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to identify the determining factors of digital entrepreneurial intention among university graduate students in Bangladesh. The study considered university students as a study sample (n = 358) who were either in their final year of bachelor's program or in the master's program from three private universities located in Dhaka city, Bangladesh. This study was quantitative in nature, and a survey questionnaire was used based on the previous studies. There were three parts: a questionnaire, demographic information analysis , and a Likert-based measurement of study variables. A Cronbach (α) coefficient value of 0.70 or above was regarded to examine the reliability of the constructs. A factor loading value of 0.50 or above was considered to measure the research validity of all constructs' items. Regression analysis was run to test the hypotheses. A Google form-based online survey questionnaire was used to collect the data, followed by a non-probability sampling method. After scrutiny, incomplete responses were discarded, and finally, 358 responses were deemed usable. The paper used SPSS version 26.0 to perform relevant statistical analyses. The results show that digital entrepreneurial self-efficacy, digital literacy, entrepreneur-ship education, innovativeness, and creativity positively and significantly impact university students becoming digital entrepreneurs. Regression result shows that students' innovative-ness and entrepreneurship education have more impact on their digital entrepreneurial intentions , implying that policymakers and universities should design their academic policy to promote innovative and entrepreneurship activities in the academic pedagogy.
... Como se puede observar en la Tabla 5 la hipótesis 1 que plantea que una formación profesional hacia la actitud tiene un efecto positivo y significativo con un β = .416, por lo cual dicha hipótesis es aceptada, con resultados similares a los encontrados por Wu y Wu (2008) y Gurbuz y Aykol (2016) quienes midieron la actitud emprendedora de estudiantes universitarios en diferentes países y con una preparación profesional diferente; las actitudes al estar siempre abiertas al cambio pueden ser influenciadas por profesionistas o educadores y cambiar la percepción o el sentir emprendedor de los estudiantes (Robinson et al., 1991). Sin embargo, al evaluar el impacto que tiene la preparación profesional con base en el emprendimiento y ciencias económico-administrativas en la hipótesis 2, los resultados revelan un impacto no significativo ya que cuenta con un β =.046, por lo tanto, se rechaza, a pesar de ser soportada por otros estudios empíricos, esto es posiblemente debido a que, en su mayoría, se mide el constructo de educación a través de elementos basados en una preparación estrictamente sobre emprendimiento, y para este estudio, se considera la preparación profesional en ciencias económico-administrativas, por lo que se entiende que si el individuo se prepara bajo una educación guiada hacia el emprendimiento en comparación con una educación multidisciplinaria, este será más propenso a desarrollar una actitud emprendedora (Entrialgo e Iglesias, 2016; Zhang et al., 2014 En la hipótesis 3, se determinó que contar con una actitud positiva sobre emprender un negocio en Internet influye de manera positiva y significativa en la intención de realizar este comportamiento en estudiantes universitarios ya que cuenta con un β = .670, ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Con la intención de explorar la relación entre la educación media superior en México y el desarrollo sustentable, se llevó a cabo un estudio con enfoque cuantitativo, se analizaron datos de fuentes secundarias, específicamente de bases oficiales proporcionadas por el INEGI, INEE, CONAGUA, SEP y CONAPO. Por medio de la regresión lineal se evalúo y determinó que existe una relación significativa entre la matricula e instituciones de educación media superior y el desarrollo sustentable. Los resultados generados permiten observar la importancia de dar continuidad a la reforma educativa en este nivel en México, que establece entre sus prioridades desarrollar en el alumnado la competencia en materia de sustentabilidad.
... The outcome showed ASE (α = 0.841), LLE (α = 0.763) and SAT (α = 0.882) factors had Cronbach's alpha values greater than 0.70 indicating a high level of consistency between each of the constructs with other constructs in the regression model (Nunnally, 1978). Although LII factor had a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.637, it is considered as acceptable internal consistency (0.6 ≤ α < 0.7) for exploratory factor analysis (Robinson et al., 1991). These four factors were used as variables for confirmatory factor analysis. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose-Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the Malaysian government declared a Movement Control Order (MCO) to prevent the spread of the virus. Educational institutions were forced to switch their pedagogy to online learning to complete the semester curriculum, catching academicians and students off-guard that resulted in makeshift online lesson delivery. Previous online learning motivation studies have neglected the impact of an unplanned or sudden transition to online learning during a pandemic on student motivation to learn. This study aims to examine location learning environment, learner-instructor interactions, and self-efficacy of students more succinctly on their learning motivation during an unplanned transition to online learning. Method-This study used a sequential explanatory mixed method strategy with a sample size of 535 randomly collected from a public and two private higher education institutions in Malaysia. IBM SPSS statistical software v22 was used for descriptive statistics. Regression testing was carried out using AMOS statistical software v21 structural equation modeling. Findings-Revealed the importance of location learning environment in fostering student motivation and the positive influence of learner-instructor interactions on students achieving the desired learning outcomes during an unplanned transition to online learning. However, there is no evidence to suggest a causal effect between student self-efficacy and online learning motivation during such conditions. The theoretical implication indicates that having conducive hygiene factors are essential to driving student motivation under such situations. Significance-The COVID-19 pandemic provides opportunities for researchers to examine the role of various motivational theories to explain student motivation in learning under challenging conditions. Educators and students would benefit on ways to increase student online learning motivation in lockdown conditions. Setting up a more efficient online delivery approach could lead to higher student satisfaction and potential enrolment.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Government of India is increasingly stressing on digital economy due to enormous benefits that it derives. Plethora’s of incentives are also announced to promote and expedite its adoption. Digitization happens by leveraging technology. Digitization in economy also carries several risks and underlying challenges that are visible and several of them that are unexplored. This work aims in exploring the technical challenges underlying the digital economy and security vulnerabilities that surround digital economy particularly in Indian context. Further, this work analyzed the current state of digital economy and predicted the target that it can achieve in next five years. Accordingly, this article will be helpful for all the stakeholders to prepare for the opportunities and to address the challenges. Thereby, transition to digitization can be accomplished smoothly and with a higher pace.
Article
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on entrepreneurial intention (EI) connections among students of entrepreneurship from India's growing economy. It proposes a moderator role for openness to experience (OTE) in the interaction between EO and EI. The data was collected from the undergraduate (UG) and postgraduate (PG) students studying entrepreneurship in their courses from north Indian academic institutions. The SPSS MACRO Process (Hayes, 2013) was used to examine the moderating effect. Based on the notion of planned behaviour, this study found that OTE and EO had an interaction impact on EI. The outcomes of this study add to a better understanding of how openness to experience affects EI. The relationship among the studied variables, including EO and EI in the presence of moderating variable openness to experience from India, would prove the new contribution in the existing corpus of knowledge. Based on the theory of planned behavior, the presented study will encompass the scope of literature on EO and EI.
Article
Full-text available
Discusses the social constructionist movement in modern psychology, noting that social constructionism views discourse about the world not as a reflection or map of the world but as an artifact of communal interchange. Both as an orientation to knowledge and to the character of psychological constructs, constructionism presents a significant challenge to conventional understanding. Although the roots of constructionist thought may be traced to long-standing debates between empiricist and rationalist schools of thought, constructionism moves beyond the dualism of these traditions and places knowledge within the process of social interchange. Although the role of psychological explanation is problematic, a fully developed constructionism could furnish a means for understanding the process of science and invites the development of alternative criteria for the evaluation of psychological inquiry. (100 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
More has been learned about the area of small business and entrepreneurship in the last five years than in the preceding twenty-five years combined. Yet much remains to be done. Research is needed to analyze and explain interfaces and causal relationships which can lead to convergent theories or a comprehensive theoretical development. If small business researchers are to respond to the challenge, consideration must be given to correcting existing deficiencies and incorporating research findings, constructs, and paradigms from other more mature functional areas to further the body of knowledge and to link the theoretical developments with practice.
Chapter
Since Sir Francis Galton’s study on English men of science (1874), it has frequently been upheld that firstborns are more often eminent or more often take part in higher education than laterborns generally and middle children particularly (for a survey see Altus 1965 a, b, 1966 a, b). As the use of intelligence tests increased, the hypothesis was examined that oldest children have higher IQs than their sibs because of their closer contact with parents. Zajonc’s famous “confluence hypothesis” (see p. 39f.) then extended this theory of a firstborn advantage to a model of a largely environmental determination of a child’s IQ by his position in the sibship.
Article
Evaluated the validity of a prevalent model of attitude structure that specifies 3 components: affect, behavior, and cognition. Five conditions needed for properly testing the 3-component distinction were identified. Consideration of the tripartite model's theoretical basis indicated that the most important validating conditions are (a) the use of nonverbal, in addition to verbal, measures of affect and behavior; and (b) the physical presence of the attitude object. Study 1--in which 138 undergraduates attitudes toward snakes were examined, through the use of measures such as the Mood Adjective Check List, semantic differential, and distance of approach--indicated very strong support for this tripartite model. The model was statistically acceptable, its relative fit was very good, and the intercomponent correlations were moderate. Study 2, with 105 Ss, was a verbal report analog of Study 1. Results from Study 2 indicate that higher intercomponent correlations occurred when attitude measures derived solely from verbal reports and when the attitude object was not physically present. (74 ref) ((c) 1997 APA/PsycINFO, all rights reserved).