Book

Using Multivariat Statistics

Authors:
... Yapı geçerliğini sağlamak için açımlayıcı faktör analizi yapılmıştır. Faktör analizi, tek bir veri setinde, nispeten birbirinden bağımsız; fakat birbiri ile uyumlu veri kümelerini ortaya çıkarmak amacıyla yapılır (Field, 2009;Tabachnick ve Fidell, 1989). Açımlayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda oluşturulan modelin uygunluğunu test etmek için doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) yapılmıştır. ...
... Açımlayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda oluşturulan modelin uygunluğunu test etmek için doğrulayıcı faktör analizi (DFA) yapılmıştır. Doğrulayıcı faktör analizi, bir veya birden fazla bağımsız değişkenle bir veya birden fazla bağımlı değişken arasındaki ilişkilerin gerçek verilerle ne derece uyum gösterdiğini değerlendirmeye yönelik bir analizdir (Tabachnick ve Fidell, 1989). Ölçeğin iç tutarlığının belirlenmesi için Cronbach Alpha katsayısı kullanılmıştır. ...
... Modele âit uyum indeksleri incelendiğinde RMSEA değerinin .08'den küçük olması iyi uyuma (Tabachnick ve Fidell, 1989); CFI değerinin .90 ve üzerinde olması iyi uyuma (Sümer, 2000); GFI ve AGFI değerlerinin .85 ...
... As the outliers were deemed to be a legitimate part of the sample and, given that in a large sample size a few scores in excess of 3.29 are expected, the decision was taken to retain the outliers and change the scores to one unit larger than the next most extreme score in the distribution (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013). Table 1 shows the means, standard deviations, ranges, and internal reliability statistics for the LHA-S-A, IM-PDS, YSQ-S3 subscales, and SMI subscales. ...
... Table 1 shows the means, standard deviations, ranges, and internal reliability statistics for the LHA-S-A, IM-PDS, YSQ-S3 subscales, and SMI subscales. The variables demonstrated good to excellent internal reliability, with the exception of YSQ-S3 Entitlement, where Cronbach's alpha fell below 0.70 (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013). Results of the two-tailed partial correlation analyses for the three hypothesized YSQ-S3 subscales and the SMI subscales that were significantly associated with LHA-S-A scores are presented in Table 2 Prior to finalizing the hierarchical multiple regression model, assumptions were tested. ...
... Given that removal of the DUNNE ET AL. | 5 additional case demonstrated a negligible effect on R 2 and the coefficients, the case was included in further analyses (n = 205). Two schema modes (Angry Child and Undisciplined Child) demonstrated high correlations (r greater than 0.70) with other predictor variables and were therefore removed from further analyses due to issues of multicollinearity (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013). Additional preliminary analyses revealed that the assumptions of linearity, normally distributed residuals, and homoscedasticity were met. ...
Article
Contemporary social-cognitive aggression theory and extant empirical research highlights the relationship between certain Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and aggression in offenders. To date, the related construct of schema modes, which presents a comprehensive and integrated schema unit, has received scant empirical attention. Furthermore, EMSs and schema modes have yet to be examined concurrently with respect to aggressive behavior. This study examined associations between EMSs, schema modes, and aggression in an offender sample. Two hundred and eight adult male prisoners completed self-report psychological tests measuring their histories of aggression, EMSs, and schema modes. Regression analyses revealed that EMSs were significantly associated with aggression but did not account for a unique portion of variance once the effects of schema modes were taken into account. Three schema modes, Enraged Child, Impulsive Child, and Bully and Attack, significantly predicted aggression. These findings support the proposition that schema modes characterized by escalating states of anger, rage, and impulsivity characterize aggressive offenders. In this regard, we call attention to the need to include schema modes in contemporary social-cognitive aggression theories, and suggest that systematic assessment and treatment of schema modes has the potential to enhance outcomes with violent offenders.
... The predictor variables were z-standardized and screened for univariate outliers. No standardized case outside the absolute value of 3.29 (two-tailed) was found (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2014). Squared Mahalanobis distances indicated the absence of multivariate outliers. ...
... To compare the data fit of the models with and without the people model predictor, a −2 Log likelihood difference test for nested models was performed (Weiber and Mühlhaus, 2010). The test corresponds to a stepwise (or hierarchical) regression in which all variables representing perceptual information are forced into the model in a first block and the people model is introduced as predictor variable in a second block (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2014). For all logistic regressions, the binomial logit link function was used. ...
... In total, 1,740 passing decisions could be analyzed. The lack of inordinately large parameter estimates or standard errors in the regression models provided no reason to suspect a problem with outcome groups being perfectly predicted by any variable or there being too many empty cells (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2014). The converging solutions and absence of exceedingly large standard errors for parameter estimates indicated the absence of multicollinearity. ...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of various information sources in decision-making in interactive team sports is debated. While some highlight the role of the perceptual information provided by the current game context, others point to the role of knowledge-based information that athletes have regarding their team environment. Recently, an integrative perspective considering the simultaneous involvement of both of these information sources in decision-making in interactive team sports has been presented. In a theoretical example concerning passing decisions, the simultaneous involvement of perceptual and knowledge-based information has been illustrated. However, no precast method of determining the contribution of these two information sources empirically has been provided. The aim of this article is to bridge this gap and present a statistical approach to estimating the effects of perceptual information and associative knowledge on passing decisions. To this end, a sample dataset of scenario-based passing decisions is analyzed. This article shows how the effects of perceivable team positionings and athletes' knowledge about their fellow team members on passing decisions can be estimated. Ways of transfering this approach to real-world situations and implications for future research using more representative designs are presented.
... Factor analysis (FA) was undertaken with the aim of further assess the measurement items used in the study. Consistent with the Tabachnick and Fidell (2001), factor analysis is best way to comprehend the underlying structure about particular theory and its variables in analysis. ...
... Henceforth, factor analysis is way to observe the potential underlying dimensions that can be recognized through the characteristics of variables which are grouped together in a meaningful way. This can be attained by grouping variables which are highly correlated with each other (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2001). Generally two techniques of factor analysis are employed to determine the variable of interest from the set of coherent subsets that are relatively independent from each other: exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) (Hair et al., 2012). ...
... In this study, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was executed to inspect the structure of the measurement items compare with the variables offered in the theoretical framework. Among the various methods of extraction such as principal component analysis (PCA), principle factors, maximum likelihood factoring, image factoring, alpha factoring and un-weighted and generalized weighted least squares factoring (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2001), PCA was selected to generate the initial solutions for the EFA. The PCA helps to extract the maximum variance from the data set, in a way that first component extract highest variance and last component extract least variance. ...
... DFA modelinin kabul edilebilir olması için "uyum iyiliği kriterleri" ne bakılmaktadır. Kriterlerin önerilen kabul aralığı aşağıdaki tablo 2'de sunulmaktadır (Tabachnick ve Fidell, 2007;Sümer, 2000;Uzun, Gelbal ve Öğretmen, 2010 ...
... Normlaştırılmış Uyum İndeksi (NFI) 0 ile 1 arasında değişir. 1'e yaklaşması mükemmel uyuma işaret eder (Uzun, Gelbal ve Öğretmen, 2010;Tabachnick ve Fidell, 2007;Sümer, 2000). ...
... Ölçek, temel bileşenler analizine tabi tutularak eldeki verilerin analiz için uygunluğu test edilmiştir. Bu çerçevede değişkenler arası korelasyon, uç ve kayıp değerlerden arınıklık ve veri setinin normal dağılımı, örneklem büyüklüğü ve örnekleme yeterliliğidir (KMO ve Bartlett's küresellik testi; Çokluk, Şekercioğlu ve Büyüköztürk, 2010;Tabachnick ve Fidell, 2007). Geçerlik ölçme aracının amaca hizmet etme ve ölçülmek istenilen şeyi gerçekten ölçüyor olması durumudur (Karasar, 2003). ...
... A study is presently under way in Nova Scotia, Canada, that includes a larger number of IE trials that will provide sufficient data to tease out these alternative theoretical explanations. With additional IE exposures, it will be possible to use the types of analytic tools, such as multivariate time-series analyses (i.e., a technique that requires a minimum of 50 repeated observations; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007 ), that can analyze the relationships between two or more series of data (e.g., cognitive and affective reactions to the IE trials). These types of analyses have been used in other studies to determine process of change during therapeutic interventions (e.g., Bouchard et al., 2007). ...
... 3. η p 2 = partial eta squared is a measure of effect size. η p 2 represents the proportion of the effect + error variance (i.e., the total variance minus the variance due to other factors in the analysis) that is accounted for by the effect itself (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007 ). η p 2 gives the contribution of each factor separately, taken as if it were the only variable, so that it is not masked by any more powerful variable. ...
Article
A brief cognitive-behavioral treatment intervention that included an interoceptive exposure (IE) component was previously demonstrated effective in decreasing fear of anxiety-related sensations in high anxiety-sensitive (AS) women (see Watt, Stewart, Birch, & Bernier, 2006). The present process-based study explored the specific role of the IE component, consisting of 10 minutes of physical exercise (i.e., running) completed on 10 separate occasions, in explaining intervention efficacy. Affective and cognitive reactions and objective physiological reactivity to the running, recorded after each IE trial, were initially higher in the 20 high-AS participants relative to the 28 low-AS participants and decreased over IE trials in high-AS but not in low-AS participants. In contrast, self-reported somatic reactions, which were initially greater in the high-AS participants, decreased equally in both AS groups over IE trials. Findings were consistent with the theorized cognitive and/or habituation pathways to decreased AS.
... Based on the Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016), non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading cause of death globally, with 72.3% (39,529,600/54,698,600) of deaths being caused by NCDs. 1 As one of the major groups of NCDs, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) contributed about 32.3% (17,646,600/ 54,698,600) of all global deaths in 2016, with 53.7% (9,480,500/ 17,646,600) of these CVDs-related deaths being due to ischemic heart disease. 1 In GBD 2016, high fasting plasma glucose and high total cholesterol were among the 'endocrine, nutritional and metabolic-related' risk factors that were associated with an increased lower limit of RR of above 1.5 for ischemic heart disease. 2 A high body mass index risk factor did not reach this lower limit of RR, although a dose-response relationship was demonstrated. 2 The relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and 'endocrine, nutritional and metabolic-related' cardiovascular risk factors varies across different populations. ...
... Assumptions were tested for the adequacy of expected frequencies and power, and the absence of outliers in the model. 17 The goodness-of-fit for the models was assessed using Nagelkerke's R 2 and the area under the curve (AUC) value for the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. For the accuracy of the model, the interpretation of AUC was based on the following criteria: AUC=0.5 (non-informative); 0.5<AUC<0.7 (less accurate); 0.7<AUC<0.9 ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The investigation of risk factors of cardiovascular disease (e.g., major endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases) across job sectors is useful for targeted public health intervention. This study examined the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypercholesterolemia and obesity in 21 job sectors in the general population. Methods: A baseline cross-sectional analysis of the Malaysian Cohort was conducted, which included 105 391 adults. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted for these three diseases across 20 job sectors compared with the unemployed/homemaker sector. Results: The prevalence of T2DM, hypercholesterolemia and obesity was 16.7%, 38.8% and 33.3%, respectively. The Accommodation & Food Service Activities and Transportation & Storage sectors had significantly higher odds for T2DM (adjusted [adj.] prevalence odds ratio [POR] 1.18, p=0.007 and adj. POR 1.15, p=0.008, respectively). No job sector had significantly higher odds for hypercholesterolemia compared with the unemployed/homemaker sector. Only the Accommodation & Food Service Activities sector had significantly higher odds for obesity (adj. POR 1.17, p≤0.001). Conclusions: Many job sectors were significantly associated with lower odds of having these three diseases when compared with the unemployed/homemaker sector. These differing associations between diverse job sectors and these diseases are important for public health intervention initiatives and prioritization.
... Each rMANOVA was analyzed with follow-up Roy-Bargmann stepdown analysis due to a lack of independence between dependent variables (evidenced by several relations greater than .30; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013). Roy-Bargmann stepdown analysis employs analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) ...
... Participants omitted four items from the DASS Anxiety scale across assessment occasions. Imputation of within-person item means was performed in all cases given the low within-person and total percentage of missing data (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013). ...
Article
Objective: Evaluate the incremental effects of a computerized values clarification (VC) activity on anxiety symptomology and quality of life over and above establishment of a mindfulness meditation (MM) practice. Method: Anxious participants (N = 120, Female = 86; Mage = 22.26) were randomly assigned to a 2-week, 10-min daily MM practice + control task or a 2-week, 10-min daily MM practice + VC task. Pre-assessments and post-assessments included well-established and ideographic self-report measures. Results: Overall decreases in past week and past 24-h anxiety symptom frequency, as well as increased quality of life during the previous 24-h cycle only. VC did not have a demonstrable impact on outcomes. Conclusions: Though findings are preliminary, brief VC exercises may not enhance outcomes that follow from mindfulness practice. Additional research is needed to isolate specific and shared impacts of mindfulness-based and values-based treatment strategies on anxiety symptoms and quality of life.
... When ωH is above 0.80 total score should be considered essentially unidimensional, an ωHS > 0.75 indicates that the subscale score in question is an appropriate measure of its corresponding specific factor. Moreover, reliability both for CFA and ESEM eight factors was estimated by using factor score determinacy coefficients, which represent an estimate of the internal consistency of the factor solution (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2013). The larger the coefficient (≥0.70), the more stable the factors (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2013). ...
... Moreover, reliability both for CFA and ESEM eight factors was estimated by using factor score determinacy coefficients, which represent an estimate of the internal consistency of the factor solution (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2013). The larger the coefficient (≥0.70), the more stable the factors (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
All versions of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP) are broadly used to measure people's interpersonal functioning. The aims of the current study are: (a) to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Italian version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems—short version (IIP-32); and (b) to evaluate its associations with core symptoms of different eating disorders. One thousand two hundred and twenty three participants (n = 623 non-clinical and n = 600 clinical participants with eating disorders and obesity) filled out the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems—short version (IIP-32) along with measures of self-esteem (Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, RSES), psychological functioning (Outcome Questionnaire, OQ-45), and eating disorders (Eating Disorder Inventory, EDI-3). The present study examined the eight-factor structure of the IIP-32 with Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM). ESEM was also used to test the measurement invariance of the IIP-32 across clinical and non-clinical groups. It was found that CFA had unsatisfactory model fit, whereas the corresponding ESEM solution provided a better fit to the observed data. However, six target factor loadings tend to be modest, and ten items showed cross-loadings higher than 0.30. The configural and metric invariance as well as the scalar and partial strict invariance of the IIP-32 were supported across clinical and non-clinical groups. The internal consistency of the IIP-32 was acceptable and the construct validity was confirmed by significant correlations between IIP-32, RSES, and OQ-45. Furthermore, overall interpersonal difficulties were consistently associated with core eating disorder symptoms, whereas interpersonal styles that reflect the inability to form close relationships, social awkwardness, the inability to be assertive, and a tendency to self-sacrificing were positively associated with general psychological maladjustment. Although further validation of the Italian version of the IIP-32 is needed to support these findings, the results on its cross-cultural validity are promising.
... An adjunct discrepancy-based fit index is the ratio of chi-square to degrees of freedom (c2/df ). If that ratio is in the range of 2 to 3, it is indicative of an acceptable fit between the hypothesized model and the sample data (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). According to Table 2, this value was computed as 1.753 and the model demonstrated an acceptable fit. ...
... All these incremental indices are scaled from 0 (no fit) to 1 (perfect fit). Researchers (Kline, 2005;Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007) advise that values close to 0.95 are indicative of a good fit. According to the results of the study, all indices were close to 0.95. ...
... The GFI value in this model is 0.873. The approximate value with the recommended level is higher than 0.90 (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007), and another criterion is more than 0.85, which indicates a marginal fit research model (Hair et al., 2016). ...
... The AGFI value in this model is 0.855. The approximate value with the recommended level should be higher than 0.80, indicating the fit of the research model (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). TLI is an index of conformity that is less influenced by sample size. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research’s objective was to analyse the impact of sustainable practices, destination image, perceived value and novelty seeking on tourist satisfaction and temporal revisit intention in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The respondents in this study were tourists in the city of Yogyakarta, with a sample size of 420 respondents. The methodology of this research employed a purposive sampling technique. Nonprobability sampling was performed using the structural equation modelling method that was processed using AMOS 22.0. The results of this research show that sustainable practices, destination image, perceived value and novelty seeking have positive and significant effects on satisfaction. Satisfaction mediates the impact of sustainable practices, destination image, perceived value and novelty seeking on revisit intention, showing that the influence of these factors on temporal revisit intention will be enhanced if tourists are satisfied. This study has implications for marketing strategies for tourism sectors in revisiting contexts. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
... e sample included children between the ages of 18 and 35 months and comprised 203 males and 70 females. Tabachnick and Fidell [29] recommended a sample size of at least 80, where N > 50 + 8m (m is the number of predictor variables). Moreover, Babyak [30] suggested a minimum sample size of 10-15 observations per predictor variable. ...
... Mukaka [33] was used to interpret the size of the correlation coe cient. Tabachnick and Fidell [29] suggest that as long as correlation coe cients among independent variables are less than 0.90, multicollinearity is less likely to have occurred. e results are presented in Table 2. ...
Article
Full-text available
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder that consists of difficulties with social communication and language, as well as the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors. These deficits tend to present in early childhood and usually lead to impairments in functioning across various settings. Moreover, these deficits have been shown to negatively impact adaptive behavior and functioning. Thus, early diagnosis and intervention is vital for future success within this population. The purpose of this study was to further examine the subscales that comprise the adaptive behavior section of the Bayley®-III to determine which of the ten subscales are predictive of ASD in young children (i.e., ≤ three years of age). A retrospective file review of 273 children participating in Kentucky’s early intervention program, First Steps, was completed. The children ranged in age from 18 to 35 months. A binary logistic regression was used to assess the subscales that comprise the adaptive behavior of the section of the Bayley®-III to determine which of the ten subscales are predictive of ASD in young children (i.e., ≤ three years of age). The results indicated that individual lower raw scores in communication, community use, functional preacademics, home living, health and safety, leisure, self-care, self-direction, and social subscales were predictive of an autism diagnosis.
... 05, but according to Howell (2009), the MANOVA test can still be done if the dependent variable shows the largest standard deviation value that does not exceed four times the smallest value, and the three dependent variables used have fulfilled this provision (See table 2). In addition, the indicator of homogeneity only applies if the sample used has the same size (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007), while this study has a different sample size for each different group (unequal sample size). ...
... The limitation of this study is the fulfillment of statistical assumptions that are not yet fully satisfactory. For example, correlations between dependent variables should have a moderate correlation with each other (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2007). In this study, not all dependent variables show a moderate level as desired. ...
Article
Full-text available
The teacher's positive attitude towards people with disabilities plays an important role in encouraging the success of inclusive education. Using a three-dimensional theory of attitude formation namely cognitive, affective, and conative, this study aims to measure the attitudes of teachers in South Kalimantan, Indonesia towards inclusive education (N = 212) by proposing several variables that influence that attitude. Using one-way Manova, this study finds that female teacher shows better affective dimensions and students majoring in special education show greater support for inclusive education. In general, there are significant differences in attitudes between special and general teacher categories. Also, teachers with personal contact or experience with persons with disabilities exhibit better attitudes. There is no significant difference between experienced and inexperienced teachers. Religion also has an influence, religious teachers are better in the conative dimension, and less-religious teachers are better in cognitive dimensions.
... Skovlund viser at dikotomisering av kontinuerlige variabler kan ha en rekke uheldige konsekvenser, hvor en av de viktigste er tap av statistisk styrke. Dette er en velkjent problemstilling (2). Skovlund påpeker at lav eller dårlig statistisk styrke er en risikofaktor for falske-negative forskningsfunn (type II-feil), og at man feilaktig konkluderer at det ikke er en statistisk signifikant forskjell mellom for eksempel to behandlingsbetingelser. Skovlund unnlater imidlertid å nevne at lav eller dårlig statistisk styrke faktisk også er en risikofaktor for falske-positive forskningsfunn (type I-feil) (3)(4)(5), og overestimerte effektstørrelser (6, 7). ...
... A factor analysis (principal components with varimax rotation) was carried out on the LDCDQ-NL to explore its factor structure both for the whole group, gender and for the separate age groups. A factor loading above 0.30 was determined to be an acceptable level to include a particular item into a factor (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2014). We opted for Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation to be able to compare the results across studies as the same method was used in the study by Wilson et al. (2015). ...
Article
Background: Early recognition of children at risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is important, but variability in motor development in preschool children affects the validity of instruments to reliably detect children at risk of DCD. Aims: To investigate the age-related validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ-NL). Methods and procedures: Two hundred and sixty 3- to 5-year old children were recruited in the Netherlands. Parents filled out the LDCDQ-NL and children were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 Test (MABC-2 Test). Internal consistency of the LDCDQ-NL was determined by Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was investigated using factor analysis. Concurrent validity was measured by calculating correlations between the LDCDQ-NL and MABC-2. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) were calculated to assess discriminant validity. Outcomes and results: Internal consistency of the LDCDQ-NL was 0.91. Factor analysis resulted in three factors (Fine motor skills, Locomotor skills, Ball skills). Correlation between the LDCDQ-NL and MABC-2 Test increased with increasing age. With a sensitivity of 80%, specificity increased with age. Conclusions and implications: The LDCDQ-NL is a reliable and valid screening instrument for 4- and 5-year old Dutch children; concurrent and discriminant validity are low for 3-year olds.
... Before testing the study's hypotheses, some verifications to ensure compliance with the basic postulates specific to covariance analyses were covered. First, as suggested by Tabachnick and Fidell (2013) and used by various authors (Gosselin, Lemyre, & Corneil, 2013;Johns, 2011), a logarithmic correction was made to adjust the distribution of the frequency of presenteeism. Secondly, the calculation of internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's alpha) showed satisfactory degrees of homogeneity to justify the use of a single score for each measure in subsequent statistical analyses. ...
Article
Research on presenteeism has largely focused on its prevalence, determinants and consequences on the health of both employees and organizations. To date, few studies have examined the influence of presenteeism on workers’ attitudinal and motivational responses. Based on the Effort–Recovery Theory, this study evaluates the mediating effect of work engagement in the relationship between presenteeism and job satisfaction. Building on previous work, this study also proposes to consider perceived organizational support as a moderator of the work engagement–job satisfaction relationship. Presented in the form of a mediated moderation model, the results of bootstrapped regression analyses show three main results. First, presenteeism is negatively associated with work engagement and job satisfaction. Secondly, work engagement is one of the factors through which presenteeism influences job satisfaction. Thirdly, perceived organizational support moderates the association between work engagement and job satisfaction so that, at a low level of work engagement, feeling supported by the organization makes a difference on job satisfaction. Overall, this research is part of the limited number of studies that have focused on the interplay existing between presenteeism and its consequences in terms of job attitudes.
... Tablo 3'te görüldüğü üzere çarpıklık ve basıklık katsayıları -1 ile +1 arasında olduğu görülmekte olup bu durum verilerin homojen dağılım gösterdiğini belirtmektedir. Tabachnick ve Fidell (2013)'e göre verilerin homojen dağılım gösterebilmesi için çarpıklık ve basıklık katsayılarının -1.5 ile +1.5 arasında olması gerektiğini ifade etmişlerdir. ...
... Any factor with an eigenvalue less than 1 is not as important. In practice, a robust solution should account for at least 50% of the variance (Fidell and Tabachnick, 2007). The present three-factor model was deemed the best solution because of its conceptual clarity and ease of interpretability. ...
... This observation was eliminated. There was no issue of multicollinearity because none of the correlation coefficients was above 0.9 (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of the study is to explore the moderating role of Growth Need Strength (GNS) on the relationship between Perceived Organisational Support (POS), Perceived External Prestige (PEP) and job satisfaction in the healthcare industry of Pakistan. The data was collected from nurses working in the public sector hospitals in Pakistan. After a successful confirmatory data analysis, a multivariate regression analysis was utilised to interpret the results. The results indicate that there is a positive and statistically significant effect of POS and GNS on job satisfaction. However, no statistically significant association is found between PEP and job satisfaction. The findings also reveal that GNS positively moderates the relationship between POS and job satisfaction. Healthcare organisations can utilise these results as a basis for future planning and decision making to retain nurses and to improve their job satisfaction level. These organisations should give preference to employees with high growth needs.
... The results of this study show similarity with the original scale (6), the Spanish version (18), and the Italian version (20). In the EFA applied, an Eigenvalue of 1 or above was accepted for determining the factor number (26,27). The scale consisted of four sub-dimensions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aim: As a situational phobia, nomophobia is the fear experienced in the absence of a cell phone. Nomophobia leads to situations that negatively affect children’s health. The aim of this study is to conduct validity and reliability studies for the Turkish version of the Nomophobia scale. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted with volunteer students from three secondary schools and two high schools whose parents’ approval was acquired. Expert opinions, a pilot study, and a calculation of validity and reliability stages were applied. For data analysis, the Shapiro-Wilk normality test, Content Validity index, Pearson correlation analysis, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, confirmatory factor analysis, explanatory factor analysis, and t-tests were used. Results: This study included 818 voluntary child participants. Of the participants, 56.7% were girls. In all, 91.5% of the participating children were connected to the Internet on their mobile phones, and 67.2% had their own computer. The age range of participants was 9-18 years, and their average age was 14.1±2.32 years. The scale accounts for 57.8% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha for the whole scale was identified as 0.90. As a result of confirmatory factor analysis, the factor coefficient was over 0.30, and the fit indices were over 0.90. Conclusion: The Turkish version of the NMP-Q is reliable and valid for the 9-18 age group. Keywords: Nomophobia, mobile phones, children, Turkey
... The Shapiro-Wilk normality test was applied to the dependent variables: while the Confidence Score (W = 0.96, p = 0.1246) was normally distributed, this was not the case for the Hits (W = 0.87, p = 0.0001) and the FA (W = 0.90, p = 0.0009). Despite this violation of the normality assumption we applied the above described ANOVAs due to the robustness of these tests against the violation of this assumption 39 . ...
Article
Full-text available
With time, memories undergo a neural reorganization that is linked to a transformation of detailed, episodic into more semantic, gist-like memory. Traditionally, this reorganization is thought to involve a redistribution of memory from the hippocampus to neocortical areas. Here we report a time-dependent reorganization within the hippocampus, along its anterior-posterior axis, that is related to the transformation of detailed memories into gist-like representations. We show that mnemonic representations in the anterior hippocampus are highly distinct and that anterior hippocampal activity is associated with detailed memory but decreases over time. Posterior hippocampal representations, however, are more gist-like at a later retention interval, and do not decline over time. These findings indicate that, in addition to the well-known systems consolidation from hippocampus to neocortex, there are changes within the hippocampus that are crucial for the temporal dynamics of memory.
... This indicates that all items are positively contributing to the overall reliability. The overall α is excellent because it is above 0.7, and indicates good reliability (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2007). ...
Chapter
This chapter describes a study conducted to develop an understanding of socio-cultural rationalities and behaviour among employee commuters at Symbiosis International University (SIU) in Pune, an Indian metropolis. Commuting preferences of employees to the university campuses are primarily determined by Cost, Convenience, Comfort and Safety (CCCS) choices. Within particular small groups of employees, these orders of CCCS vary due to an atypical attitude. An ‘operational definition of a context’ was used to deliberate on possible Willingness to spend, the changes in the behaviour of employees’ time, comfort, and safety while commuting to the office. Together with dissatisfactions and importance given to the commuting choices, the Willingness to change commuting patterns has tangible impacts on environmental sustainability. This empirical research assessed the causal structures offered and the interactions due to categories of employees’ gender, age, designation, campus location, and vehicle type. With this backdrop, this social study discusses Pune’s metropolis commuting culture of employees. While attaining environmentally sustainable transportation policies for Higher Education Institutes (HEIs) at its heart, this chapter addresses the need for a more integrated understanding of the mitigation challenges and makes rational recommendations for Indian urban HEIs. Employees’ willingness and participation in outlined policies would realise the desired behavioural change towards meeting the low-carbon emission goals.
... Zgodnie z założeniami teoretycznymi modelu schematów wymuszono rozwiązanie zakładające 18 składowych. W związku ze wzajemnym skorelowaniem niektórych składowych (współczynnik r Pearsona > 0,32) zastosowano rotację nieortogonalną Oblimin (Tabachnick i Fidell, 2013). Procedurę przeprowadzono najpierw na danych ipsatyzowanych w celu osłabienia głównej składowej i łatwiejszej interpretacji rozwiązania (Baron, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) measures the intensity of early maladaptive schemas connected with symptoms of mental disorders, particularly personality disorders. We conducted a procedure of shortening the Polish version of the YSQ, analogous to the original one, and determined the psychometric properties of the instrument thus developed by performing a reliability and validity analysis (n = 1.073). In the second part of the study we tested the factor structure of the YSQ using confirmatory factor analysis in the sample from Study 1 and an independent group (n = 898). We reduced the number of items in the questionnaire from 232 to 90 - leaving five items in each of the 18 scales corresponding to specific schemas. We obtained adequate and high internal consistency coefficients for each subscale and for the whole instrument. The overall measure of schemas was positively associated with beliefs characteristic for all personality disorders measured by the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire (PBQ). The intensity of the schemas (except the Self-Sacrifice scale) significantly differentiated participants from the clinical (n = 31) and nonclinical groups (n = 1,042). We also confirmed the theoretical factor structure of the instrument, although the weakness of some measures of fit suggests the need for further research. The obtained results support the use of the experimental short Polish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire as a measure of early maladaptive schemas. © 2017 Towarzystwo Naukowe Katolickiego Uniwersytetu Lubelskiego. All rights reserved.
... The orthogonal rotation can generate higher generalizability and replicability power compared to the oblique rotation. Additionally, it is less complicated because the factors are uncorrelated with each other (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2001)." ...
Article
Full-text available
Public schools have become one of the significant educational institutions for all Malaysians. It has been used to teach Malaysians to be part of a community, having diversified cultures, races, and religions. As such, students have learned to be more compassionate, considerate, and kind to others. However, most public schools in Malaysia have been operating for many years, which has resulted in neglect and damage due to aging and improper care and maintenance. The lack of regular maintenance and care is mainly attributed to insufficient budget allocations from the federal government. This research focused on determining the factors that could influence the prospective investors' intention to donate in this crowd-funding project. The research selected the UTAUT model to determine the prospective investor's intention toward donating money to the crowd-funding project. To test the developed hypotheses in this study, descriptive research was adopted by applying a self-administered questionnaire distributed to respondents. For this study, convenience sampling was selected, whereby 384 respondents responded and answered the questions. All the independent variables have shown that they were positively significant to the intention of the prospective investor. Hence, the intention of prospective investors is influenced by performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, facilitating conditions, and trustworthiness. This research successfully contributed to the knowledge in this field by applying the UTAUT factor in the context of crowd-funding for the maintenance of public schools in Malaysia. The research could act as a guideline or reference to enhance the public's intention to donate in a crowd-funding project and it is hoped that this research could be used as a standard and reference for future crowd-funding initiatives by the government INTRODUCTION As of 2018, there were 10,202 public schools in Malaysia, including primary and secondary schools (Ministry of Education (MOE), 2019). Designated as education properties in which students and teachers can operate within in obtaining their education and teaching activities, these educational amenities are funded by the government. According to Jeffery (2002), educational facilities include not only materials, equipment, and information technology (IT) but also other aspects such as buildings and the surrounding environment, which are fundamental components needed for learning and educational facilities.
... ile .08 arasýnda olmasý ve SRMR deðerinin ise .10'un altýnda olmasý beklenmektedir(29,30,31). Ek olarak, Falk ve Miller (32) modelin açýklayýcý gücünü desteklemek için R2 deðerlerinin .10 ...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Most of the studies that examine cognitive vulnerability tend to focus on cognitive vulnerability for depression and explain anxiety through its intersection with depression. Looming Cognitive Style (LCS) was suggested as a cognitive vulnerability model that is specific for anxiety. According to the model, people who have looming vulnerability tend to evaluate the threats coming from the environment as more overwhelming than they actually are and are constantly hypervigilant to the threat cues that may come from the environment. This pattern plays an important role in both generation and maintenance of anxiety disorders. A two-factor looming vulnerability scale was developed to assess looming cognitive style and the present study aims to adapt the scale into Turkish and examine its psychometric characteristics. METHODS: The sample is composed of 657 university students between the ages of 18 and 29. The participants were administered LMSQ as well as scales that assess anxiety, depression, and worry. RESULTS: Confirmatory factor analysis results supported the original factor structure of the scale providing two distinct, but correlated factors as social and physical looming. In addition to that, total score and subscale scores had moderate to high correlations with other study variables and reliability scores appearing close to the original form provides support for the reliability of the scale. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The Turkish version of the LMSQ is a reliable and valid scale that can be used with Turkish population.
... 4 Although the sample size was calculated for the purpose of the trial, it was also large enough to conduct a discriminant function analysis, as the number of injured participants exceeded the requirement of being at least 2 more than the number of predictor variables, and the total sample size was more than five times larger than the number of predictor variables entered into the model. 23 However, the randomised trial itself was slightly underpow- ered at its completion because the injury incidence was lower group.bmj.com on April 10, 2018 -Published by http://jramc.bmj.com/ Downloaded from than expected (21% compared with an expected 30%). ...
Article
Introduction This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with the development of common lower limb injuries during initial defence training in naval recruits who were enrolled in a randomised trial. Methods Three-hundred and six naval recruits were randomly allocated flat insoles (n=153) or foot orthoses (n=153) while undertaking 11 weeks of initial training. Participant characteristics (including anthropometrics, general health, physical activity, fitness and foot characteristics) were collected at the baseline assessment and injuries were documented prospectively. Injury was defined as the combined incidence of participants with medial tibial stress syndrome, patellofemoral pain, Achilles tendinopathy and plantar fasciitis/plantar heel pain throughout the 11 weeks of training. A discriminant function analysis was used to explore the ability of baseline measures to predict injury. Results Overall, 67 (21.9%) participants developed an injury. Discriminant function analysis revealed that participants who sustained an injury were slightly younger (mean 21.4±SD 4.1 vs 22.5±5.0 years) and were less likely to be allocated to the foot orthosis group (40% vs 53%) compared with those who remained uninjured. The accuracy of these baseline variables to predict injury was moderate (78.1%). Conclusions Lower limb injury was not accurately predicted from health questionnaires, fitness results and clinical assessments in naval recruits undertaking initial defence training. However, although not reaching statistical significance, the use of foot orthoses may be protective against common lower limb injuries. Trial registration number ACTRN12615000024549; Post-results.
... Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was made in order to test whether the DAS would be confirmed as a model or not. CFA made with LISREL is an advanced technique used to test the theories related to the latent variables [26]. The structural model in Figure 1 was tested with LISREL. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was carried out to develop a scale for determining the level of digital addiction of the youth. In this study carried out with a group of 687 students from Siirt, Dicle and Erzincan Universities, a draft scale of 28 items based on the interviews with two students who spent a long time with digital tools and their friends, and on the expert opinions was prepared. The validity of the Digital Addiction Scale (DAS) was determined by descriptive, confirmatory factor analysis, and criterion reliability. Item analysis based on the average of points of 27% lower-upper groups and item-total correlation was conducted. Reliability was determined by Cronbach’s alpha and test-retest methods. The result of the factor analysis showed that the DAS explains the 59.51% of the total variance and has a structure consisting of five sub-dimensions called Overuse, Non-restraint, Inhibiting the Flow of Life, Emotional State, and Dependence. The confirmatory factor analysis showed that the DAS has good adaptive values. The scales applied concurrently with the DAS within the scope of criterion validity were also found to be in a significant and positive relation to the DAS. The item-total score correlation coefficients were found between.373 and 620. The t-values of item mean scores of 27% lower-upper groups were found to be significant. Cronbach’s Alpha was calculated 0.874. The test-retest reliability made in a three-week interval was calculated r=.779 (p<.001). According to the findings of the study, it is possible to say that the DAS is a valid and reliable measurement tool that can be used to measure the digital addiction of the university students.
... This value is evaluated by the ratio with the degree of freedom. If χ 2 /df is ≤ 2, it means perfect fit [22]. When Table 2 is analyzed, it is seen that this value is 1.65 in the developed scale. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, a Digital Reading Disposition Scale was developed to determine undergraduate pre-service teacher students’ dispositions towards digital reading, opposed to a preference for printed reading material. Initially, a 20-items trial version of the scale was administered to a total sample of N=301 undergraduate pre-service teacher students in order to establish validity of the scale. According to the results of the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) of the data collected by means of the 20-item trial form, it was revealed that only 12 items of the scale had a one-factor loading, which explained 65.58% of the total variance. Fit index values, derived from a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), confirmed the one-factor structure of the 12-items scale as a valid model. A satisfactory Cronbach-Alpha internal consistency coefficient of 0.952, as well as satisfactory test-retest reliability coefficient (Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.92) reapplied to n=98 pre-service teacher students three weeks after the first administration of the scale, provide evidence of the high reliability and consistent measurement of the scale over time. Furthermore, as part of an item analysis, adjusted item-total correlation of each item was calculated, and t-values for upper and lower 27% groups are reported to be significant (p<.001) for the 12 items of the scale. Accordingly, satisfactory validity and reliability indices are established for the Digital Reading Disposition Scale for the study sample in this investigation disposition.
... After a logarithmic transformation of perceived stress, depression, and neuroticism, as well as inverse transformation of the loneliness, assumptions regarding multivariate normality were met. 44 ...
Article
Background: The link between psychosocial stress and cognitive function is complex, and previous studies have indicated that it may be mediated by processing speed. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine whether processing speed mediates the association between psychosocial stress and global cognition in older adults. Moreover, the moderating role of gender in this model is examined as well. Methods: The study included 2322 community-dwelling older adults in Malaysia who were randomly selected through a multistage proportional cluster random sampling technique. Global cognition construct was measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment; psychosocial stress construct was measured by perceived stress, depression, loneliness, and neuroticism; and processing speed was assessed by the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Structural equation modelling was used to analyze the mediation and moderation tests. Results: Processing speed was found to partially mediate the relationship between psychosocial stress and global cognition (β in the direct model = -0.15, P < 0.001; β in the full mediation model = -0.11, P < 0.001). Moreover, the relationship between psychosocial stress and global cognition was found to be significant in men only, whereas the association between processing speed and global cognition was significant in men and women. Conclusions: Psychosocial stress may increase the likelihood that older adults will experience poor processing capacity, which could reduce their higher level cognition. Results indicate that there is a need to develop processing capacity intervention programmes for psychologically distressed older adults to prevent them from suffering cognitive decline.
... Previamente à realização das análises exploratória e confirmatória averiguámos a distribuição dos itens pelas cinco opções de resposta. Os itens distribuem-se por todas as opções de resposta, Testaram-se os pressupostos da ACP através da dimensão da amostra (razão de 5 sujeitos por item e mínimo de 100 participantes;Gorsuch, 1983), da normalidade e linearidade das variáveis, bem como dos valores extremos (outliers), fatorabilidade do R e adequação amostral(Tabachnick & Fidell, 2013). Visto pretendermos reter fatores tão independentes quanto possível, elegemos como método de rotação a VARIMAX. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo | A qualidade em turismo passa por compreender as caraterísticas intangíveis inerentes ao desenvolvimento turístico, afirmando-se como uma temática abrangente, transversal e primordial para o crescimento sustentável dos destinos turísticos. A análise destas caraterísticas tem suscitado o interesse pela compreensão das perceções dos responsáveis públicos locais, com funções no turismo, e da comu-nidade residente sobre o que valorizam no desenvolvimento do turismo, quais os aspetos a que atribuem importância e como percecionam o seu envolvimento neste processo (Boley, McGehee & Hammett, 2017). Com este trabalho de investigação, pretende-se validar e analisar as propriedades psicométricas de um instrumento de medida, adaptado à realidade portuguesa, que avalie a perceção dos decisores públicos locais sobre qualidade em turismo. Esta escala, aplicada aos municípios portugueses (N=125), encontra-se organizada em subescalas ou dimensões da qualidade: desenvolvimento, económica, quali-ficação / formação, marketing e recursos. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar os resultados relativos à subescala "desenvolvimento", tendo-se verificado que a perceção sobre qualidade do desenvolvimento turístico em Portugal, ao nível local, se traduz em Estratégia de Planeamento, Governança e Política de Inovação. Conclui-se que estimular o diálogo contínuo com as entidades públicas locais, envolvê-los no planeamento e na formulação das políticas turísticas contribui para o desenvolvimento do turismo, porque, aliados à inovação, constituem as condições necessárias à materialização das estratégias de desenvolvimento de turismo em ações desafiantes, a implementar pelos empreendedores locais.
... To test for the effect of fire on arthropods we calculated an arthropod biomass index as the number of arthropods in each size class (<2, 2-5, 5-10, and >10 mm) multiplied by the median size of the class (1, 3.5, 7.5 and 11 mm, respectively). To overcome possible problems of pseudo-replication we used profile analysis of repeated measures (Tabachnick and Fidell, 1996) to test for differences among treatments (control, half-burned, and burned). For each year, arthropod abundance was first averaged across three samples for each plot, then for all plots of the same treatment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The attributes of roadside vegetation, an important bird habitat in grassland ecosystems, have been shown to affect bird abundance, distribution composition, and diversity, yet there are relatively few works on reproductive success of birds nesting along roadsides. Because roadsides are linear habitats, management at the landscape scale can affect nest success in roadsides through bottom-up and top-down effects. In northeastern Oklahoma tallgrass prairie is subjected annually to prescribed spring fires. In the short term fires can alter both arthropod abundance and predator access to nests. We explored effects of burning on bird nest success with a five-year study along roads that traversed tallgrass prairie habitat. Using data from $1400 nests of 23 species, we generated nest survival curves for groups of altricial species defined by nest substrate (ground, shrub, tree, or culvert). We then determined if these curves were affected by management practice (spring burning), food abundance (arthropod biomass), and habitat attributes (tree density and height). Nest substrate had a large effect on nest success: despite their shorter nest exposure period, ground nests were least successful and culvert nests were most successful. An increase in arthropod biomass following burning was possibly the cause for the increased nest success in burned plots, regardless of substrate, suggesting bottom-up control. Tree height and nest height were correlated positively with nest success, whereas tree density had no effect. Conversely, nest predation rates were correlated negatively with nest success, with ground nests experiencing the highest predation, culvert nests the lowest. Our results suggest that burning may increase nest success through bottom-up processes, but some species may not benefit from the increase in food abundance as a result of a concomitant increase in predation.
... The nature of principal component analysis is exploratory rather than confirmatory. [9] Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy and Bartlett"s test of sphericity significance was calculated. Factor coefficients of 0.40 or greater are required for the interpretation of the factor structure. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Formative assessments are considered as means of ensuring deeper learning and understanding. They provide feedback that moves learners‟ forward, activating students as instructional resources for one another.Objectives: This study was done to evaluate the feedback instrument for validity and reliability, and seek student opinion about formative assessment used in the course so that further batches can be benefitted with a better teaching learning exercise. Methods: For evaluation of formative assessment, Likert scale with 11 items was constructed and administered to the students taking the course of Epidemiology in MD program of College of Medicine. Factor analysis was used to see similar pattern of responses in the Likert scale items. Scree plot was used to see „leveling off‟ of Eigen values. Cronbach‟s alpha was used to see the internal consistency of the items in the scale.Results: Eleven questions relating to formative assessment in Epidemiology course were factor analyzed using principal component analysis with oblimin rotation. Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test and Bartlett‟s test of sphericity both indicated that the set of variables are at least adequately related for factor analysis. Substantively, two factors were identified for formative assessment, in class assignments and group presentations.Conclusion: Overall, these analyses indicated that two distinct factors were underlying student responses to the formative assessment scale items and that these factors were internally consistent. Students liked formative assessment and found it useful in the course of Epidemiology
... The component correlation matrix was subsequently examined to determine whether an orthogonal or oblique rotation would be more appropriate for the data. Correlations of 0.32 between factors correspond to approximately 10% of variance overlap; factors with this value or greater should be correlated using an oblique rotation (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2007). Because only five of the factor correlations resulted in values greater than 0.32-and no correlations were greater than 0.40-the EFA of the binary lifetime variables was re-run using the principal component extraction method with equamax rotation, reflecting the assumption of orthogonality. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although construct measurement is critical to explanatory research and intervention efforts, rigorous measure development remains a notable challenge. For example, though the primary theoretical model for understanding health disparities among sexual minority (e.g., lesbian, gay, bisexual) adolescents is minority stress theory, nearly all published studies of this population rely on minority stress measures with poor psychometric properties and development procedures. In response, we developed the Sexual Minority Adolescent Stress Inventory (SMASI) with N = 346 diverse adolescents ages 14–17, using a comprehensive approach to de novo measure development designed to produce a measure with desirable psychometric properties. After exploratory factor analysis on 102 candidate items informed by a modified Delphi process, we applied item response theory techniques to the remaining 72 items. Discrimination and difficulty parameters and item characteristic curves were estimated overall, within each of 12 initially derived factors, and across demographic subgroups. Two items were removed for excessive discrimination and three were removed following reliability analysis. The measure demonstrated configural and scalar invariance for gender and age; a three-item factor was excluded for demonstrating substantial differences by sexual identity and race/ethnicity. The final 64-item measure comprised 11 subscales and demonstrated excellent overall (α = 0.98), subscale (α range 0.75–0.96), and test–retest (scale r > 0.99; subscale r range 0.89–0.99) reliabilities. Subscales represented a mix of proximal and distal stressors, including domains of internalized homonegativity, identity management, intersectionality, and negative expectancies (proximal) and social marginalization, family rejection, homonegative climate, homonegative communication, negative disclosure experiences, religion, and work domains (distal). Thus, the SMASI development process illustrates a method to incorporate information from multiple sources, including item response theory models, to guide item selection in building a psychometrically sound measure. We posit that similar methods can be used to improve construct measurement across all areas of psychological research, particularly in areas where a strong theoretical framework exists but existing measures are limited.
Article
Full-text available
This investigation aimed to examine the load carrying capacity of model piles embedded in sandy soil and to develop a predictive model to simulate pile settlement using a new artificial neural network (ANN) approach. A series of experimental pile load tests were carried out on model concrete piles, comprised of three piles with slenderness ratios of 12, 17 and 25. This was to provide an initial dataset to establish the ANN model, in attempt at making current, in situ pile-load test methods unnecessary. Evolutionary Levenberg–Marquardt (LM) MATLAB algorithms, enhanced by T-tests and F-tests, were developed and applied in this process. The model piles were embedded in a calibration chamber in three densities of sand; loose, medium and dense. According to the statistical analysis and the relative importance study, pile lengths, applied load, pile flexural rigidity, pile aspects ratio, and sand-pile friction angle were found to play a key role in pile settlement at different contribution levels, following the order: P > δ > lc/d > lc > EA. The results revealed that the optimum model of the LM training algorithm can be used to characterize pile settlement with good degree of accuracy. There was also close agreement between the experimental and predicted data with a root mean square error, (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.0025192 and 0.988, respectively.
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmanın amacı öğretmen adaylarının ekran okuma öz yeterlik algılarına yönelik bir ölçme aracı geliştirmektir. Çalışmada ilgili literatür taranmış ve uzman görüşleri göz önünde bulundurularak 40 maddelik bir madde havuzu oluşturulmuştur. Uzman görüşleri alındıktan sonra ortaya çıkan 28 maddelik form bir devlet üniversitesinin eğitim fakültesine kayıtlı 228 öğrenci üzerinde uygulanmıştır. Açımlayıcı faktör analizi sonucunda, 16 madde ve 4 alt boyuttan oluşan form, toplam varyansın %53.07’sini açıklamaktadır. Yapılan DFA sonucunda da uyum indeks değerlerine bakılmış ve 16 maddeden oluşan ölçeğin 4 faktörlü yapısının bir model olarak doğrulandığı görülmüştür. Ölçeğin güvenirliğini belirlemek için test edilen Cronbach-Alfa iç tutarlık ve test-tekrar test güvenirlik katsayı değerlerine göre ölçeğin güvenilir olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Working environment and its negative conditions are strongly associated with intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational complications. Research suggests that, in different societies, life skills training can be of supporting value against complications. The present study’s objective was to determine the effectiveness of life skills training in organizational settings of Tehran province. The population of this study consisted of all working staff who held high school diploma or higher in the province. A total of 456 participants (with mean age of M=33.95 (SD=7.20) years and mean working experience of M=8.62 (SD=6.72) years) was selected and participated in training workshops specifically designed for employed adults. Participants were asked to fill life skills scale, Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), psychological hardiness scale, and Rutherford-Williams hostility inventory before and after the workshops. Multivariate analysis of covariance indicated that post-test profile of control group and experimental group were significantly different (W = 1.81; F = 3.79; df = (3, 215); p > 0.05; η2 = 0.03). These results mean that the intervention could increase the life skills in organizational settings. Life skills training for employed adults can provide a basis to increase life skills. Yet, in order to improve the effectiveness of these training, localization of the package’s content, using trained teachers, and providing good conditions for implementing workshops in organizations are recommended. Keywords: life skills training, effectiveness, organizational sets
Article
Full-text available
Narrative reporting is an important avenue for investors to know more about a company from the eyes of its board of directors. This study aims to examine the impact of forward-looking disclosures on the values of UK FTSE all-shares non-financial firms. It uses a sample of annual report narratives from 2005 to 2014 to determine that the values of UK FTSE all-shares firms are positively influenced by the disclosure of forward-looking information. Besides, after distinguishing between high and low-performing firms, the study finds that forward-looking disclosures have no effect on the values of high-performing firms, though they positively enhance investors’ valuation of low-performing firms. Furthermore, the study concludes that when UK firms are divided based on the size of the audit firm (Big 4 vs. non-Big 4 auditors), forward-looking disclosures only positively affect the values of FTSE all-shares firms that are audited by one of the Big 4 auditing firms. Therefore, the results suggest that forward-looking information in UK narrative reporting statements is seen as credible for firms that are audited by a large auditor and/or are low-performing.
Article
Full-text available
Biennial single-beam dual-frequency acoustic surveys of Indian River Lagoon, a coastal Florida lagoonal system, were performed to quantify the spatial distribution of the annual peak of seasonal drift macroalgae (DMA) as part of the Surface Water Improvement Program (SWIM) enacted in 1986. The ultimate goal of SWIM was to reclaim historical seagrass acreage. Dense accumulations of DMA can ultimately shade seagrass beds and create anoxic zones via decomposition, especially during warm summer months, thus contributing to the internal nutrient pool. A large portion, approximately 140 km of the Indian and Banana Rivers, were surveyed at 200 m line spacing within the timeframe of peak DMA biomass (April through June). A supervised training catalog of 180 60-s acoustic and video samples was grouped into classes of bare substrate, short (canopy) submerged aquatic vegetation and DMA and segmented by discriminant analysis using a combined 38 and 418 kHz dataset. Percent cover of DMA was binned into categories of 0–33, 33–66 and 66–100%. Consistent classification of training catalog samples collected in 2007, 2008 and 2010 validated the temporal consistency of BioSonics digital transducers, meaning the previous surveys training dataset can be used to produce a preliminary map with only a few days lag-time, and that year-to-year acoustically-derived DMA abundances can be directly compared without bias adjustment. DMA biomass within the 288 km² survey area was 69,000 and 102,000 metric tons wet weight in 2008 and 2010, respectively with an overall classification accuracy of 78.9 and 83.2%, respectively. Four large-scale deposits were detected in the same locations during both surveys but the majority of biomass came from widespread sparse deposits. DMA was found to decompose within the IRL rather than exiting through Sebastian Inlet. The high abundance of DMA in 2010 and subsequent release of nutrients within the IRL was vital for understanding the 2011 superbloom.
Article
Full-text available
Broad scale population estimates of declining species are desired for conservation efforts. However, for many secretive species including large carnivores, such estimates are often difficult. Based on published density estimates obtained through camera trapping , presence/absence data, and globally available predictive variables derived from satellite imagery, we modelled density and occurrence of a large carnivore, the jaguar, across the species' entire range. We then combined these models in a hierarchical framework to estimate the total population. Our models indicate that potential jaguar density is best predicted by measures of primary productivity, with the highest densities in the most productive tropical habitats and a clear declining gradient with distance from the equator. Jaguar distribution, in contrast, is determined by the combined effects of human impacts and environmental factors: probability of jaguar occurrence increased with forest cover, mean temperature, and annual precipitation and declined with increases in human foot print index and human density. Probability of occurrence was also significantly higher for protected areas than outside of them. We estimated the world's jaguar population at 173,000 (95% CI: 138,000-208,000) individuals, mostly concentrated in the Amazon Basin; elsewhere, populations tend to be small and fragmented. The high number of jaguars results from the large total area still occupied (almost 9 million km 2) and low human densities (< 1 person/km 2) coinciding with high primary productivity in the core area of jaguar range. Our results show the importance of protected areas for jaguar PLOS ONE | https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.
Article
Full-text available
Banknot basımında gravür tekniği kullanılmaktadır. Taklit edilemez olması ve sahteciliğe karşı en önemli güvenlik unsuru oluşturduğu için banknot üretiminde gravür tekniği tercih edilmektedir. Bu tekniğin sanat eğitimi alan öğrenciler tarafından öğrenilmesi öğrencide kendi çalışmalarına kimlik kazandırmasında ve yeni bir tekniğin uygulama alanı ile daha geniş alanda yaratıcılığını kullanma imkânı bulacağı düşünülmektedir. Banknot gravür tekniği ile yüzeyin birim alanında uyguladıkları çizgi sayısı arttıkça uygulayan bireyin el, göz ve beyin iş birliği ile çalıştığı eser deki başarısı da artacaktır. Günümüz teknolojileri ile artık para basımında kullanılmayan bu tekniğin yaşatılması amaçlanarak, Üniversitelerin Güzel Sanatlar Fakültelerinde veya Güzel Sanatlar Eğitimi Bölümlerinde bu tekniğin lisansüstü ders olarak değerlendirilmesi amacıyla tekniğin etkililiğini ispatlaya bilmek için lisansüstü öğrencilerine banknot gravür tekniği (taille-douce) eğitimi verilmiştir Çıkan sonuçlar doğrultusunda tekniğin uygulanabilirliği test edilmiş ve anlamlı sonuçlar elde edilmiştir. Bu tekniğin seçmeli bir ders olarak programlarda olması, öğrencinin ifade biçimlerini farklı teknikler ile desteklemesi açısından ve şimdiye kadar öğrendiği tekniklerin dışında yeni bir teknik öğrenmesi bakımından önemlidir. Ayrıca hem sanat eğitimi alanında hem de güncel sanat yaşantısında öğrenciye yeni boyutlar kazandırmasının yanı sıra farklı çalışma alanları da yaratacağı düşünülmektedir.
Article
Full-text available
Coal blend bulk density is an important property in the coking process. Some variables, such as moisture and particle size, which are controlled or measured in the coal beneficiation process in steel mills, exert a strong influence on this feature. This study aims to understand the density variation of coal blends by the influence of moisture and particle size when using dry and wet bases. The investigations showed that higher density can be reached when drying the coal blend or even with excess of moisture by an agglomeration process. However, for a coal blend of lower moisture content, such as 4%, the better effects on the coking process are evident. Changes on the density from particle size require care, since they can fall in a region of high density achieved by larger particles or in a region with excess coal fines, where either or both can compromise the coke quality.
Article
Full-text available
The contribution of donations and volunteer time to North American arts and cultural organizations is impressive. Growing economic uncertainty coupled with the increasingly competitive nature of philanthropic work and fluctuating volunteerism rates describe some of the challenges facing nonprofit managers in the arts and cultural field today. The intent of this study was to explain charitable giving to an arts and cultural organization in a Canadian context using variables supported in the literature related to philanthropic behavior. The variables included the norm of social responsibility, donor benefits, philanthropic behavior, and household income. Data (233 questionnaires) were collected at a renowned community symphony with revenue from various sources including over $1 million annually in private support. Multiple regression analysis determined two of the four hypotheses were supported and two were partially confirmed. While the norm of social responsibility and household income did confirm existing literature, philanthropic behavior seemed only defined by length of time as donor rather than by volunteering for arts and cultural organizations and donor benefits included tax incentives but not receiving a “gift” in exchange for a support. Research such as this, which contributes to our understanding of arts and cultural donors and the benefits they seek, continues to be important with the potential to inform nonprofit managers. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Objectives Pain sensitivity and psychosocial issues are prognostic of poor outcome in acute neck disorders. However, knowledge of associations between pain sensitivity and ongoing pain and disability in chronic neck pain are lacking. We aimed to investigate associations of pain sensitivity with pain and disability at the 12‐month follow‐up in people with chronic neck pain. Methods The predictor variables were: clinical and quantitative sensory testing (cold, pressure); neural tissue sensitivity; neuropathic symptoms; comorbidities; sleep; psychological distress; pain catastrophizing; pain intensity (for the model explaining disability at 12 months only); and disability (for the model explaining pain at 12 months only). Data were analysed using uni‐ and multivariate regression models to assess associations with pain and disability at the 12‐month follow‐up (n = 64 at baseline, n = 51 at follow‐up). Results Univariable associations between all predictor variables and pain and disability were evident (r > 0.3; p < 0.05), except for cold and pressure pain thresholds and cold sensitivity. For disability at the 12‐month follow‐up, 24.0% of the variance was explained by psychological distress and comorbidities. For pain at 12 months, 39.8% of the variance was explained primarily by baseline disability. Conclusions Neither clinical nor quantitative measures of pain sensitivity were meaningfully associated with long‐term patient–reported outcomes in people with chronic neck pain, limiting their clinical application in evaluating prognosis.
Thesis
Full-text available
Araştırma, anasınıfı ve sınıf öğretmenlerinin okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili bilgi düzeylerinin, mesleki yeterliklerine yönelik algı düzeylerinin ve bazı özelliklerinin [cinsiyet, kıdem, öğrenim durumu, sınıf düzeyi (anasınıfı, birinci - dördüncü sınıf), okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili ders ve seminer alma durumu], okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili algılarını ne düzeyde açıkladıklarını belirlemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma kapsamında, "Anasınıfı ve Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Okuma Yazmaya Hazırlık Etkinlikleriyle ilgili Algı Düzeyleri Ölçeği" ve "Anasınıfı ve Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Okuma Yazmaya Hazırlık Etkinlikleriyle ilgili Bilgi Düzeyleri Ölçeği"nin geliştirilmesi, "Anasınıfı ve Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Mesleki Yeterliklerine yönelik Algı Düzeyleri Ölçeği"nin Türkçe'ye uyarlanması ile, bu üç ölçeğin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmalarının gerçekleştirilmesi de amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma, genel araştırma modellerinden biri olan, ilişkisel tarama modeli kullanılarak yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini, 2012 - 2013 eğitim öğretim yılında Ankara ilinin Çankaya ilçesinde yer alan Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı'na bağlı resmi ilkokullarda görev yapan anasınıfı ve sınıf öğretmenleri (birinci - dördüncü sınıf) oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın örneklemini ise, tesadüfi örnekleme yöntemlerinden basit tesadüfi örnekleme yöntemi ile belirlenen 141 anasınıfı öğretmeni ve 274 sınıf öğretmeni olmak üzere toplam 415 öğretmen oluşturmaktadır. Araştırma amacıyla geliştirilen "Anasınıfı ve Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Okuma Yazmaya Hazırlık Etkinlikleriyle ilgili Algı Düzeyleri Ölçeği" ve "Anasınıfı ve Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Okuma Yazmaya Hazırlık Etkinlikleriyle ilgili Bilgi Düzeyleri Ölçeği" ile araştırma amacıyla Türkçe'ye uyarlanan "Anasınıfı ve Sınıf Öğretmenlerinin Mesleki Yeterliklerine yönelik Algı Düzeyleri Ölçeği"nden yararlanılarak nicel veriler toplanmıştır. Verilerin çözümlenmesinde, araştırmanın örnekleminde yer alan anasınıfı ve sınıf öğretmenlerinden elde edilen verilere ilişkin betimsel istatistikler hesaplanmıştır. Araştırmanın alt amaçları doğrultusunda, verilerin analizi gerçekleştirilmiş; öğretmenlerin okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili bilgi düzeylerine, mesleki yeterliklerine yönelik algı düzeylerine ve bazı özelliklerine göre, okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili algı düzeylerinin farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığının belirlenmesi amacıyla, ilişkisiz ölçümlerde t testi ve tek yönlü varyans analizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Ayrıca, anasınıfı ve sınıf öğretmenlerinin okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili bilgi düzeylerinin, mesleki yeterliklerine yönelik algı düzeylerinin ve bazı özelliklerinin, okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili algılarını, ne düzeyde açıkladığının belirlenmesi amacıyla, aşamalı çoklu regresyon analizi yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın bulguları, araştırmaya katılan hem anasınıfı öğretmenlerinin hem de sınıf öğretmenlerinin okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili algılarının ve mesleki yeterliklerine yönelik algılarının yüksek düzeylerde olduğunu, fakat okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili bilgi düzeylerinin yetersiz olduğunu göstermektedir. Ayrıca, anasınıfı ve sınıf öğretmenlerinin okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili algı düzeylerinin, okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili bilgi düzeyleri, mesleki yeterliklerine yönelik algı düzeyleri ve bazı özellikleri tarafından anlamlı bir şekilde açıklanmadığı görülmektedir. Araştırmanın bulguları ışığında, okuma yazmaya hazırlık etkinlikleriyle ilgili olarak öğretmen eğitimi verilen lisans programlarına, hizmet içi eğitim programlarına, ileride yapılabilecek bilimsel araştırmalara ve eğitim fakültelerinde görev yapan öğretim elemanlarına yönelik öneriler sunulmuştur.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.