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A Review on Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg (breadfruit)

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Artocarpus altilis (Family: Moraceae) is commonly referred to as breadfruit as it is similar to freshly baked bread. Synonyms of Artocarpus altilis are Artocarpus communis and Artocarpus incisus. Basically Artocarpus species consists of phenolic compounds which include flavonoids, stilbenoids, arylbenzofurons and Jacalin, a lectin. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is originated from A. camansi Blanco (bread nut) which is native to New Guinea, Moluccas (Indonesia) and the Philippines. Many on-going researches are testing the pharmacological activities of Artocarpus altilis. Some of the researches that are being carried out on this plant includes antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, sexual behavior, immunomodulatory effect, antidiabetic effect and antibacterial effect. This review will help to provide detailed information on recent researches done on this plant.
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© 2014 Mukesh S. Sikarwar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License -NonCommercial-
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Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 4 (08), pp. 091-097, August, 2014
Available online at http://www.japsonline.com
DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2014.40818
ISSN 2231-3354
Plant Review
A Review on Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg (breadfruit)
Mukesh S. Sikarwar1, Boey Jia Hui2, Kumutha Subramaniam2, Bavani Devi Valeisamy2, Ling Kar Yean2, and Kaveti
Balaji1
1 Unit of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Semeling, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia. 2 Research Student, Unit of
Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, AIMST University, Semeling, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia.
ARTICLE INFO
ABSTRACT
Article history:
Received on: 04/07/2014
Revised on: 22/07/2014
Accepted on: 08/08/2014
Available online: 27/08/2014
Artocarpus altilis
(Family: Moraceae) is commonly referred to as breadfruit as it is similar to freshly baked
bread. Synonyms of Artocarpus altilis are Artocarpus communis and Artocarpus incisus. Basically Artocarpus
species consists of phenolic compounds which include flavonoids, stilbenoids, arylbenzofurons and Jacalin, a
lectin. Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is originated from A. camansi Blanco (bread nut) whic
h is native to New
Guinea, Moluccas (Indonesia) and the Philippines. Many on-
going researches are testing the pharmacological
activities of Artocarpus altilis. Some of the researches that are being carried out on this plant includes anti-
inflammatory, anti
antibacterial effect. This review will help to provide detailed information on recent researches done on this plant.
Key words:
Artocarpus altilis, Indonesia,
Breadfruit.
INTRODUCTION
Herbal Medicine
Herbalism is an ancient practice that actually predates
our recorded human history. According to the records, herbalism
has been accepted as back as Sumerian practices dated back to
5000 years. History of herbal drugs in India dates back to 1900
B.C. which comprises of many herbs that are used in conventional
herbal medicinal system.
In modern era, herbal ingredients are sometimes
marketed for condition and ailments that were never considered in
the traditional systems of medicines. Use of ephedra for weight
loss or athletic performance enhancement is one of the examples.
In Germany, herbal drugs are considered as ‘phytomedicines’, in
which they are subjected to quality control measurement for
safety, quality and efficacy. Most of the herbal/food products are
sold and regulated as nutraceuticals, which does not require pre-
approval for these above criteria (Glatz, 2011).
.
* Corresponding Author
Dr.
Mukesh S. Sikarwar, Unit of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of
Pharmacy, AIMST University, Semeling, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia
.
E. mail:
mukeshsikarwar@gmail.com,
Artocarpus
a
ltilis
Most of the plants in the universe are known to possess
therapeutic properties and have been used since ancient times to
treat various human diseases effectively and efficiently. One such
plant is Artocarpus altilis which belongs to the family, Moraceae. It
is commonly referred to as breadfruit as it is similar to freshly
baked bread. Breadfruit is a tropical fruit and the breadfruit tree
produces fruits from March to June and from July to September
(Akanbi et al., 2009). Breadfruit is also known to be a traditional
starch rich crop. The genus Artocarpus (Moraceae) comprises of
approximately 50 species and is widely distributed in tropical and
subtropical regions (Timothy, 2014). The generic name of the
species comes from the Greek words ‘artos’ (bread) and ‘karpos’
(fruit) and the fruits eaten are commonly called breadfruit (Jones,
2011). Synonyms of Artocarpus altilis are Artocarpus communis
and Artocarpus incises (Orwaet et al., 2014). Basically Artocarpus
species consists of phenolic compounds which includes flavonoids,
Jacalin, a lectin and stilbenoids. Artocarpus extracts and
metabolites from leaves, stem, fruit and bark contain numerous
beneficial biologically active compounds and these compounds are
used in the various biological activities including antibacterial,
antitubercular, antiviral, antifungal, antiplatelet, antiarthritic,
tyrosinase inhibitory and cytotoxicity (Jagtap and Bapat, 2014).
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The fruits are great source of carbohydrate and it has low
fat. Since the fruit can be steamed, fried, baked, roasted and fried,
they can be eaten at all stages of growth. Although breadfruits are
rich in carbohydrates, but they are substituted partially for wheat
flour in many products such as snacks, pastries and bread.
Artocarpus altilis is a suitable crop for the hot, humid, tropical
lowlands areas. Rain is a crucial factor that plays an important role
in the flowering and rate of growth of the fruit. It requires rainfall
of fairly equal distribution. Artocapus altilis grows best in
equatorial lowlands; it is occasionally found in the highlands, but
the production and the quality of the fruits decreases in cooler
conditions. Good drainage is essential, and trees may bear fruits
when the soil is wet. The soil conditions required for the proper
growth of the plants are sand, sandy loam or loam. This plant
grows best at temperature 21- 32 °C. The soil should be neutral to
alkaline in condition, pH 7.4-6.1.
TAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION (Nayeem et al. 2013)
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Mracheobionata
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Hamamelididae
Order: Rosales
Family: Moraceae
Genus: Artocarpus
Species: altilis
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is originated from A.
camansi Blanco and A. Mariannensis Trecul. A. camansi Blanco
(bread nut) is native to New Guinea, Moluccas (Indonesia) and the
Philippines. Around 3000 years ago, breadfruit was first cultivated
in the western Pacific and spread throughout the tropics by
migrating Polynesians where it has been cultivated widely by the
Pacific islanders. Several seedless Polynesian breadfruit varieties
and bread nut from New Guinea were introduced in the Caribbean
in the late 1700s, where the breadfruit is considered as food for the
poor people. Later on, it has been distributed widely in Central and
South America, Africa especially in Senegal, Ghana and Liberia,
India mainly in the coastal regions of Karnataka and Kerala,
Southeast Asia, Malaysia, Madagascar, Maldives, Seychelles,
Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Northern Australia and South Florida
(Deivanai and Bhore, 2010).
MORPHOLOGY (Diane, 1997; Ragone, 2006)
Tree In general, breadfruit trees are very large, evergreen
which can reach to heights of 15 to 20 meters. The tree comprises
smooth, light-colored bark, and the trunk is large in 1.2 m in
diameter, occasionally growing to a height of 4 m before
branching. The wood is gold in colour, but when contact with air,
turns to a darker colour. Latex can be seen in all parts of the tree
which are milky in nature.
Leaves The leaves are thick and leathery with a dark-green
colour on the dorsal side, which often appears to be glossy. The
underside is dull with an elevated midrib and main veins. The
leaves varies in size and shape even on the same tree. At the end of
the branches, the leaves are seen as clusters. The crown is conical
in shape when the trees are young or grown under shaded
condition and they become rounded and irregular when it turns
older. Blade is generally smooth, glossy dark green with green or
yellow-green veins and many white to reddish-white hairs on the
midrib and vein.
Flowers Breadfruit tree bears a multitude of tiny flowers. The
breadfruit is monoecious which means the female and male
flowers grows on the same plant. Club shaped spikes which are 5
cm in diameter and 45 cm in long are found in Male flowers
whereas the female flowers are elliptical, green, pricky head
measuring about 2.5 in (6.35 cm) long. Flowers undergo cross
pollination with small powdery pollen grain spread by both the
wind and insects. Once both the male and female flowers are fused
together, it develops into a fleshy and edible fruit. Although the
reproduction of flowers involves cross pollination, but pollination
does not require the fruit to form.
Fruits Fruits of Artocarpus altilis are of a very specific
structure. In fruit, the central part contains many latex tubes and
large vascular bundles. These vascular bundles can rapidly
discolour upon cutting because of the oxidative enzyme activity.
The fruits are variable in size, shape and surface texture. Mostly
they are round, oval and oblong in shape ranging from 9-20 cm,
more than 30 cm in long and usually weighing around 0.25-6 kg.
Aggregate fruit (syncarp) is formed by the enlargement of the
entire female head. The ripe fruits of these female flowers are
roundish in shape and are 4 to 8 inches in diameter. The ripe fruits
have yellow or yellow-brown skin and the fruits are soft and sweet
Fig. 1 Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg (breadfruit) in natural habitat.
Sikarwar et al. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 4 (08); 2014: 091-097 093
at the same time. The colour of the breadfruits are usually light
green, yellowish green or yellow in colour when mature and the
fruit (Afara) found in Society Island is pinkish or orange-brown in
colour. The flesh of the fruit is usually creamy, soft with a pleasant
fragrant.
Seeds Breadfruits are available with seeds and also without
seeds. The seeded types of breadfruit are available in south
western Pacific, whereas seedless types of breadfruit are common
in Micronesia and Eastern islands of Polynesia. All the breadfruit
varieties elsewhere especially in topic region are of seedless type.
Seeds are brown in colour, shiny, round or ovoid in shape and
irregularly compressed. Moreover, the seeds have little or no
endosperm, no period of dormancy and they can germinate
immediately. Since they can germinate immediately, they are not
able to be dried or stored. Trees that grow with the help of seeds
can produce their fruits in a timeline of 6-10 years or sooner. On
the contrary, asexually propagated trees can start to produce their
fruits in 3-6 years of time.
PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF ARTOCARPUS
ALTILIS
Phytochemicals are secondary metabolites. Wide
varieties of phytochemicals are produced by plants. They function
to attract animals or prevent infection, parasitism and predation but
not necessary for basic metabolism. The Artocarpus genus can
produce a large number of secondary metabolites usually rich in
phenylpropanoids such as flavonoids and flavones. They also
produce phenolic compounds including flavonoids, stilbenoids and
arylbenzofurons. Over 130 compounds are identified in various
organs of the tree of Artocarpus altilis, more than 70 of which
derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Many of the isolated
compounds exhibit biological activity such as inhibit platelet
aggregation, anti-bacterial activity, anti-fungal properties,
inhibition of leukemia cells and as an anti-tumor agent (Handa et
al., 2008). Nutritional compositions of the seeds have water,
protein, carbohydrate, fat, calcium, phosphorus, iron, niacin,
thiamine and vitamin C (Rahul, 2013).
Artocarpus altilis contains some chemical constituents
such as morin, moracin, dihydromorin, cynomacurin,
cyclomorusin, artocarpin, isoartocarpin, cyloartocarpin,
artonol, artonin, artocarpesin, isoartocarpesin,
1) Cycloartocarpin isolated from root stem 2) Cycloartobiloxanthone from root bark. 3) Cudraflavone B from root .
4) Cudraflavone C from root bark. 5) Morusin from root bark.
6) Broussochalcone A 7) Kazinol A 8) Morin
Fig. 2 Structures of some isolated compounds. Continued…
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oxydihydroartocarpesin, artocarpetin, norartocarpetin (20, 40, 5, 7
tetrahydroxyflavone), cycloartinone, cyclogeracommunin,
cyclocommunol, cycloartenyl acetate, β-sitosterol, sitosterol-β-D-
glucopyranoside, ursolic acid, betullic acid acetate, artocarpanone,
cudraflavone, artoflavon, orartocarpanone (20, 40, 5, 7
tetrahydroxyflavanone), oxyresveratrol and artoindonesianin F(40-
[3-methyl-1(E)-butenyl]-(E)-2,30,4,50-stilbenetetrol) (Solanki and
Nagori, 2012). This species also contains broussochalcone A,
kazinol A, broussoaurone A, cycloartocarpin A,
cycloheterophyllin and broussoflavonol F (Lewis, 1961).
Methanolic, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether leaf extract
of Artocarpus altilis have steroids, phytosterols, gums and resins.
Besides, the other constituents present in the leaf extract are 72.5%
amino acids, 68.2% fatty acids and 81.4% carbohydrates. 15.52
g/100 g fresh weight of starch content is present in breadfruit.
Essential amino acids like cystine, arginine, histidine, leucine,
lysine, metheonine, theonine, tryptophan, sucrose, fatty acids and
ellagic acid are the constituents of Artocarpus altilis. Calcium,
iron and sodium are the minerals in breadfruit (Huie, 2002).
Isoprenylated flavonoids with an isoprenyl side chain at C-3, and
2’, 4’-dioxygenation or 2’, 4’, 5’ trioxigenation patterns in ring B
of the flavone skeleton are specific to Artocarpus species.
Prenylflavonoids and geranyl flavonoids are produced by this plant
(Delazar et al., 2012).
Breadfruits contains geranyl dihydrochalcones such as 1-
(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-[3,4-dihydro-3,8-dihydroxy-2-methyl-2-
(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-5-yl]-1-propanone,
1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-[8-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(3,4-epoxy-4-
methyl-1-pentenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-5-yl]-1-propanone(51-(2,4
dihydroxyphenyl)-3-{4-hydroxy-6,6,9-trimethyl-6a,7,8,10a-
tetrahydro-6H-dibenzo[b,d]pyran-5-yl}-1-propanone,), 2-[6-
hydroxy-3,7-dimethylocta-2(E),7-dienyl]-2',3,4,4'-tetrahydroxy
dihydrochalcone and 1-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-[8-hydroxy-2-
methyl-2-(4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran -5-
yl]-1-propanone (Raymond, 2003).
USES
1) Pharmacological uses (Somashekhar, 2013)
Many on-going researches are testing the
pharmacological activities of Artocarpus altilis. Some of the
researches that are being carried out based on these plants includes
Anti-inflammatory activity, Antifungal potential, Sexual behavior
study, Immunomodulatory potential, Antidiabetic activity,
Antibacterial activity, Anti-cholinergic effect, Chelating activity,
Nutritional assessment, as cosmetic agent, ACE inhibitors,
Antioxidant activity, Toxicity to cancer cell, Anthelmintic
potential, Protease inhibitors, Regulation of oestrogens and
melanin biosynthesis inhibition.
INTERACTIONS (Natural Standard, 2014)
5-Alpha reductase inhibitors
Based on laboratory tests, heartwood extract of
Artocarpus altilis may produce a potent 5-alpha reductase
inhibitory activity, and care must be taken when using 5-alpha
9) Cycloheterophyllin 10) Ursolic acid 11) Cycloartenol
12) B-sitosterol 13) Artocarpetin 14) Norartocarpetin
Fig. 2 Structures of some isolated compounds.
Sikarwar et al. / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 4 (08); 2014: 091-097 095
reductase inhibiting herbs and supplements, as the additive effects
may cause some adverse reactions.
1) Anthelmintics
In an in vitro study, breadfruit tree preparation of 10(-2)-
2.10(-3) concentration interferes with Hymenolepis nana (dwarf
tapeworm) motility by causing motor excitation, contracture, and
finally leads to death. Concomitant use of breadfruit with herbs or
supplements that exhibits anthelminthic activity may have additive
effects.
2) Anticoagulants and antiplatelets
Based on an in vitro study, root extracted from
Artocarpus altilis can inhibit the formation of thromboxane (an
inducer of platelet aggregation). Furthermore, breadfruit may
theoretically potentiate the effects of other herbs and supplements
that increase bleeding risks.
3) Antifungal
Frutackin, a lectin present in the seed extract of
Artocarpus incisus inhibits the growth of Fusarium moniliforme
and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Breadfruit seed extract may
theoretically show synergistic activity when administered in
combination with other antifungal herbs or supplements.
4) Antineoplastics
According to the laboratory test, chemical components
found in the leaves of Artocarpus altilis exhibits cytotoxic and
apoptotic effects on human cancer cells by increasing the
expression of apoptosis-inducing proteins such as Fas, FasL, and
p53 proteins. Leaf extracts of breadfruit may theoretically have
synergistic effect on antineoplastic herbs or supplements.
5) Antioxidants
Based on laboratory research, Thai breadfruit's
(Artocarpus incisus) heartwood extract exhibits antioxidant
activity depending on the dose and they may have an additive
effect when taken with antioxidant herbs and supplements.
6) Hematological agents
According to the in vitro studies conducted on animals
and humans, frutackin shows hemagglutination activity against
erythrocytes and therefore they may have additive effects with
antihemagglutinin herbs or supplements.
7) Inotropes
Based on research done on animals, it is found that the
leaf extracted from Artocarpus altilis exerts a weak negative
chronotropic effect to reduce left ventricular pulse pressure and
also exerts a negative inotropic effect on right ventricular
myocardial strips. Breadfruit may theoretically potentiate the
effects of other herbs and supplements that alter myocardial
contractility.
8) Skin-lightening agents
An in vitro study conducted on melanocyte B16F1
melanoma cells has shown that Artocarpus altilis extract reduced
melanin content in these cells by inhibiting melanin synthesis. On
the other hand, in another study, it is found that when the
heartwood extracts from Artocarpus altilis is applied on the back
of guinea pig, melanin biosynthesis is inhibited without causing
any skin irritation.
BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ARTOCARPUS ALTILIS
1) Antitubercular and Antiplasmodial
Pakawan Puangsombat et al. used dichloromethane to
extract and isolate nine prenylated flavones, three from the root
stems of Artocarpus altilis which are cycloartocarpin, artocarpin,
and chaplashin; and six from the root barks, morusin, cudraflavone
B, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E, cudraflavone C and
artobiloxanthone. They performed the antitubercular activity
against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra using the micro plate
Alamar blue assay (MABA) and the antimalarial activity against
the parasite Plasmodium falciparum (K1, multidrug-resistant
strain) using the microculture radioisotope technique. They
concluded that these prenylated flavones exhibited antitubercular
and antiplasmodial activities, while exhibiting moderate cytotoxic
activity towards KB (human oral epidermoid carcinoma) and BC
(human breast cancer) (Boonphong et al., 2007).
2) Antiatherogenic
Oluwatosin and Olubukola (2014) used methanol extract of
Artocarpus altilis and also questran as standard to learn the plant’s
effect on the atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular
system of hypercholesterolemic (HC) rats. They induced
hypercholesterolemia in male rats by administrating 30mg/ 0.3mL
of dietary cholesterol by oral gavage for nine consecutive weeks.
They concluded that extract of Artocarpus altilis has significant
anti-atherogenic effect and also improves antioxidant system of
hypercholesterolemic rats via their ability to produce favourable
lipid parameters, significant increase in HDL-C and improved
antioxidant system.
3) Antiatherosclerotic
Wang et al (2006) identified the main cytoprotective components
by a bioassay guided isolation of the ethyl acetate extract which
afforded β-sitosterol and six flavonoids. The cytoprotective effect
suggested the promising medicinal applications of Artocarpus
altilis.
4) Skin Lightening Agent
Gottumukkala et al. (2013) isolated dendrite elongation
inhibitory compounds from the extracts of Artocarpus altilis with
methanol and subjected the active fractions obtained to
chromatography method. They conducted the dendrite elongation
study by using melanocyte cells, B16F10.
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Finally, they concluded that the crude methanolic extract,
fractions and isolated compound showed good dendrite elongation
activity and these active compounds can be used in skin care
formulations for the lightening of the skin.
5) Antioxidant Agent
Horng-Huey et al. (2013) evaluated the antioxidant activities
of flavonoids isolated from heartwood and cortex of Artocarpus
altilis including their inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase
and melanin biosynthesis in vitro. They assessed the ability of the
prenylated flavonoids including 10-oxoartogomezianone, 8-
geranyl-3-(hydroxyprenyl)isoetin, hydroxyartoflavone A,
isocycloartobiloxanthone , and furanocyclocommunin , together
with 12 other known compounds to scavenge the DPPH, ABTS+
radical cation, and the superoxide anion (O2), and their
capabilities to inhibit tyrosinase and melanin production in order
to identify the natural antioxidants and whitening agents. Their
investigation resulted in compounds hydroxyartoflavone A,
isocycloartobiloxanthone and artoflavone A having moderate
DPPH-scavenging activity, whereas compound
isocycloartobiloxanthone exhibits significant ABTS+-scavenging
activity, and that norartocarpetin and artogomezianone exhibits
moderate ABTS+-scavenging activity, with compounds 8-geranyl-
3-(hydroxyprenyl)isoetin , norartocarpetin , and artocarpin
displaying good superoxide anion-scavenging activity. They
concluded that these flavonoids are suitable as antioxidants and/or
skin-whitening agents. However, further investigations are
required to determine their mechanisms of action.
6) Alpha Amylase and Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitor
Sindhu et al. (2013) evaluated the inhibitory activities of
methanolic extracts of Artocarpus altilis, Cinnamomum
zeylanicum, Piper betel and Artocarpus heterophyllus on Wheat
alpha amylase and Baker’s yeast alpha glucosidase at varying
concentrations. They concluded that the methanolic extracts of the
all the plants efficiently inhibited alpha glucosidase enzyme in
vitro. However, only Artocarpus heterophyllus can be useful in the
management of postprandial hyperglycaemia.
7) Anthelmintics
Carine et al. (2010) investigated the antiparasitic
potential of the leaf of phenolics containing Artocarpus altilis
(Parkinson) var. seminifera and var. non seminifera and
Terminalia cattapa L., against the gastro intestinal nematode
(GIN) Haemonchus contortus. Their in vitro assay results showed
the A extract of Terminalia cattapa L. dead leaves exhibited egg
hatching inhibition compared with the negative control while the
A extract of T. cattapa L. dead leaf and the M extracts of T.
cattapa L., A. altilis (Parkinson) var. seminifera and var. non
seminifera dead leaf exhibited larval development inhibition
compared with negative control.
8) Antimicrobial Agent
Chinmay et al. (2013) investigated the antimicrobial
activity of Artocarpus altilis leaf extracts in different solvent
media (petroleum ether, methanol, and ethyl acetate). They
concluded that the methanol extract of Artocarpus altilis leaf in
high concentration has the highest antimicrobial activity while
petroleum ether and ethyl acetate leaf extracts showed better
effectiveness at low concentrations.
9) Antihypertensive
Nwokocha et al. (2012) proved that the breadfruit can be
used as an antihypertensive by investigating the possible
mechanisms of action of its aqueous extract and its effect on
cytochromes P450 (CYP) enzyme activities. The aqueous leaf
extract A. altilis was administrated intravenously via cannulated
carotid artery of anaesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats.
The rats are subjected to atropine, mepyramine, propranolol and N
(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Their result showed moderate
inhibitions of cytochrome P450s (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6) enzyme
activities and they concluded that the A. altilis produces negative
chronotropic and hypotensive effects through α-adrenoceptor and
Ca² channel antagonism.
10) Antiausteric Agent
Nguyen et al. (2014) has determined that the methanolic
leaves extract of the Artocarpus altilis has maximum preferential
cytotoxicity against PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells under
nutrient-deprived conditions at a concentration of 50µg/mL. They
successfully isolated eight new geranylated dihydrochalcones
named sakenins A-H (1-8) together with four known compounds
(9-12) from the methanolic leaves extract of Artocarpus altilis.
They have identified sakenins F (6) and H (8) as potent cytotoxic
candidates.
11) Mosquito Deterrent
Jones et al. (2012) investigated the chemicals in the dried male
inflorescences of breadfruit which is responsible for mosquito,
Aedes aegypti deterrence. They proved that the male breadfruit
flowers and fatty acids has the ability as mosquito repellent via
systematic bioassay-directed study of the hydrodistillate of A.
altilis and all its fractions using adult Aedes aegypti females.
CONCLUSION
The genus Artocarpus (Moraceae) comprises of
approximately 50 species and is widely distributed in tropical and
subtropical regions. The generic name of the species comes from
the Greek words ‘artos’ (bread) and ‘karpos’ (fruit) and the fruits
eaten are commonly called breadfruit. The fruits are great source
of carbohydrate and it has low fat. Since the fruit can be steamed,
fried, baked, roasted and fried, they can be eaten at all stages of
growth. Although breadfruits are rich in carbohydrates, but they
are substituted partially for wheat flour in many products such as
snacks, pastries and bread.
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A. Maxwell P. Jones, Jerome A. Klun, Charles L. Cantrell,
Diane Ragone, Kamlesh R. Chauhan, Paula N. Brown and Susan J. Murch.
Isolation and Identification of Mosquito (Aedes aegypti) Biting Deterrent
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How to cite this article:
Mukesh S. Sikarwar, Boey Jia Hui, Kumutha Subramaniam, Bavani
Devi Valeisamy, Ling Kar Yean, and Kaveti Balaji. A Review on
Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg (breadfruit). J App Pharm
Sci, 2014; 4 (0
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... It saved Ghanaians from death and wasting during 1983 famine. Breadfruit was the only crop that did not fail completely when Southern Ghana experienced drought in 1983; most of the grain crops and trees failed [16]. ...
... Alternatively, they may be grown hydroponically. Scientific methods have been developed for large-scale propagation and mass production of breadfruit plants for worldwide distribution but African breadfruit remains underutilized [13,16]. ...
... Artocarpus altilis (breadfruit); Artocarpus heterophyllus (jackfruit) and Treculia africana (African breadfruit). Artocarpus altilis is seedless and may be processed like sweet potatoes and yams [16]. Jackfruit leaves (Artocarpus heterophyllus) are without lobes and are smaller than breadfruit leaves. ...
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African breadfruit is an underutilized food security crop which is a delicacy for the Ibo ethnic group of South East Nigeria. It is commonly found in West and Central Africa. It is an evergreen large tree that bears about 20–30 pods containing edible seeds, annually. The edible seeds are used as specialty dishes by the Ibo tribe of South East Nigeria. African breadfruit meals have high dietetic value. The pods, leaves and roots are use in traditional medicine. The leaves are particularly rich in carbohydrates, phytochemicals (flavonoids, phenols, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones) and minerals. These constituents contribute to its antioxidant, antimicrobial and wound healing properties. The stem bark extract is used as a cough remedy and has antimicrobial properties. The water and ethanoic extracts of the root possess antihyperglycaemic properties and also discourage the development of secondary complications of type 2 diabetes. Many of the perceived medicinal and chemical properties have not been scientifically investigated. Although other members of the mulberry family (especially the Artocarpus species) have received some research attention, Treculia africana remains underutilized despite its great potentials as a food security and medicinal crop.
... Sukun atau Artocarpus altilis merupakan salah satu species anggota famili Moraceae (Araaraan) yang telah lama dimanfaatkan oleh berbagai masyarakat lokal di Indonesia. Artocarpus altilis sinonim dengan A. communis dan A. incises (Sikarwar et al 2014). William et al (2017) menyatakan bahwa Pulau Kalimantan merupakan pusat keankeragaman Genus Artocarpus kemudian menyebar ke Pulau Sumatera dan Pulau Jawa. ...
... Meningkatnya resistensi obat dari patogen dan konsekuensi negatif penggunaan antibiotik telah menyebabkan pencarian obat alternatif dari alam (Sivagnanasundaram and Karunanayake 2015). Sikarwar et al (2014) melaporkan bahwa A. altilis memiliki aktivitas sebagai antiinflamasi, antioksidan, antijamur, efek imunomodulator, efek antidiabetik dan efek antibakteri. Pemanfaatan tumbuhan sebagai obat tradisional sengat erat hubungannya dengan kandungan metabolit sekundernya atau sering juga disebut dengan senyawa bioaktif. ...
... un dan antar kultivar A. altilis. Karakter buah seperti tekstur kulit, warna kulit, bentuk dan warna pulp juga paling berguna untuk membedakan antar aksesi(Daley et al 2020).3.2. Pemanfaatan Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg Obat TradisionalSukun telah lama dimanfaatkan masyarakat lokal di Indonesia maupun negara lain sebagai obat tradisional.Sikarwar et al (2014) melaporkan bahwa A. altilis memiliki aktivitas sebagai antiinflamasi, antioksidan, antijamur, efek imunomodulator, efek antidiabetik dan efek antibakteri(Sikarwar et al 2014). Pemanfaatan tumbuhan sebagai obat tradisional berhubungan dengan senyawa bioaktifnya atau metabolit sekundernya. Buah A. altilis mengadung triterpen, flavonoid, s ...
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ABSTRAK Artocarpus altilis merupakan salah satu species anggota famili Moraceae telah lama dimanfaatkan masyarakat sebagai bahan pangan dan obat tradisional. Kajian ini bertujuan menjelaskan hubungan pemanfaatan tumbuhan sebagai obat tradisional dengan bioaktivitas sertan kandungan nutrisi A. altilis. Penulisan artikel ini didasarkan kajian literatur yang terbit secara online tentang A. altilis terutama yang terbit di Google scholar dengan menggunakan kata kunci A. altilis, uses of A. altilis dan bioactivities A. altilis. A. altilis memiliki syncarps yang dapat dimakan dan merupakan tumbuhan yang mudah ditemukan di berbagai daerah di Indonesia. Artocarpus altilis sinonim A. communis dan A. incises. Bioaktivitas A. altilis yaitu antimikroba, antioksidan, antidiabetes mellitus, anti kanker, dan antihipertensi. Senyawa cycloartocarpin, artocarpin, chaplashin morusin, cudraflavone B, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E, cudraflavone C dan artobiloxanthone memiliki aktivitas antikanker sedangkan altilisin H, altilisin I, dan altilisin J berhubungan dengan aktivitas sebagai anti diabetes mellitus. Buah A. altilis kaya akan karbohidrat, protein dan mineral seperti kalium, kalsium, fosfor, magnesium, besi, natrium dan mangan. Cara pengolahan buah A. altilis mempengaruhi kandungan mineral dan indeks glikemiknya. Buah A. altilis sangat potensial dikembangkan sebagai nutraceutical sebagai bahan pengan sekaligus sebagai anti kanker dan anti diabetes mellitus. ABSTRACT Artocarpus altilis is a species belonging Moraceae has been long used by the local community as food and traditional medicine. This study aims to explain the relationship between the use of plants as traditional medicines and the bioactivity and nutritional content of A. altilis. The writing of this article is based on a review of the literature published online about A. altilis, especially those published on Google scholar, using the keyword A. altilis, uses of A. altilis and bioactivities A. altilis. A. altilis has edible syncarps and is a plant that is easily found in various regions in Indonesia. Artocarpus altilis has synonyms with the names Artocarpus communis and Artocarpus incises. Bioactivity of A. altilis, namely antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic mellitus, anti-cancer, and antihypertensive. The compounds cycloartocarpin, artocarpin, chaplashin morusin, cudraflavone B, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E, cudraflavone C and artobiloxanthone have anticancer activity, while altilisin H, altilisin I, and altilisin J are associated with activity as anti-diabetes mellitus. A. altilis fruit is rich in carbohydrates, protein and minerals such as potassium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, sodium and manganese. The way A. altilis is processed affects its mineral content and glycemic index. A. altilis fruit has the potential to be developed as a nutraceutical as a food ingredient as well as an anti-cancer, and anti-diabetes mellitus.
... Secara spesifik senyawa dapat dikatakan sebagai antioksidan yang sangat kuat jika nilai IC50 kurang dari 50 ppm, kuat untuk IC50 bernilai 50-100 ppm, sedang apabila bernilai 100-150 ppm, dan lemah apabila nilai IC50 bernilai melebihi dari 151 ppm (Munteanu & Apetrei, 2021). Sikarwar et al. (2014) mengemukakan bahwa ketika suatu larutan dicampur dengan zat yang mengandung aktivitas antioksidan, maka zat tersebut akan mendonorkan sebuah atom hidrogen. Hal inilah yang menyebabkan warna ungu larutan berubah menjadi kuning pucat hingga kemerahan. ...
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Minuman herbal menjadi semakin penting setelah senyawa-senyawa metabolitnya diperoleh fungsinya bagi kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh metode pengeringan terhadap profil FTIR, sifat fisiko kimia, antioksidan dan sensori minuman herbal tiwai. Penelitian ini disusun menggunakan Rancangan Acak Kelompok (RAK) Non Faktorial dengan 3 perlakuan yaitu pengeringan dengan oven, matahari dan pengeringan dengan sangrai. Data dianalisis sidik ragam dan uji lanjut BNT (taraf 5 %). Hasil dari FTIR serapan ikatan O-H diperoleh pada bilangan gelombang 3261-3270 cm-1, serapan ikatan O-H merupakan pembentuk senyawa fenol/flavonoid yang merupakan antioksidan pangan. Metode pengeringan minuman herbal tiwai berpengaruh tidak nyata terhadap sifat sensoris hedonik dan mutu hedonik warna, aroma maupun rasa. Pembentukan warna minuman herbal tiwai paling cepat dengan metode pengeringan oven yaitu 3.67 menit. Intensitas warna tertinggi terdapat pada pengeringan sangrai dengan nilai 0.563. Aktivitas antioksidan tertinggi juga dihasilkan pada pengeringan sangrai 185,24 ppm.
... The flesh of the fruit is creamy, soft, sweet to taste and has a characteristic flavour (Zerega et al. 2005).The fruit is an excellent source of dietary fiber and micronutrients. Breadfruit contains several functional compounds such as dihydroxychalcones, prenylated flavonoids, flavones, morin, moracin, phenolic compounds, steroids, stilbenes and terpenes that provide a diverse range of health promoting properties (Wang et al. 2006, Sikarwar et al. 2014. Medicinal properties of breadfruit include antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticholingeric and estrogen regulating Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) has been categorized as an underutilized fruit. ...
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Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) has been categorized as an underutilized fruit. Different parts of this underused fruit contain essential nutrients that are beneficial for human health. Scientific studies indicate that fruit peels also contribute to several pharmacological properties. The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of pulp and peel extracts of breadfruit. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using DPPH˙ radical scavenging activity, Fe3+ reduction and phosphomolybdenum reduction assay. Antibacterial activity was determined using agar well diffusion method against six bacterial strains viz Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumonia. Volatile functional compounds were identified using Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicate that the peel extract exhibited greater potential to scavenge DPPH˙ free radicals along with strong reducing capacity. IC value of pulp and peel extract 50 was found to be 246.54μg/mL and 98.21μg/mL. With reference to antibacterial activity, the peel extract possessed greater ability to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Maximum zone of inhibition was observed for Staphylococcus aureus (23 mm at a concentration of 625μg/mL). GC-MS analysis showed the presence of seven volatile functional compounds in pulp extract and thirteen functional compounds in peel extract. Findings of the study highlight the use of pulp and peel of Artocarpus altilis
... Jackfruit, a crop closely related to breadnut, is reported to have antioxidative, antiaging, hypotensive, and hypoglycemic properties (Mandave et al., 2018;Shahin et al., 2012). Breadnut also boasts its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antifungal, and antibacterial potential (Sikawar et al., 2014). Similarly, Nasution and his associates (2018) noted that the n-haxane crude extract from the peel of breadnut showed promise in reducing the blood glucose level in mice. ...
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Breadnut is an indigenous fruit commonly found in Southeast Asia. The authors recognized the potential of breadnut as a food source; thus, the study was set out to determine the proximate composition and antioxidant activity of breadnut seed flour. The sample was found to contain 75% carbohydrates, 9.07% fat, and 6.16% protein. Moreover, the flour made from breadnut yielded a DPPH scavenging activity of 97.33%, an indication of high antioxidant capacity. The flour was blended with wheat flour to investigate its functional properties. It was observed that the 50:50 breadnut seed flour and wheat flour showed potential in terms of water absorption capacity, fat absorption capacity, emulsion capacity, and foaming ability. With the rising population and threat to food and nutrition security, alternative sources must be explored. This study illustrated the potential of breadnut as a source of energy and other nutrients. More so, its functional behavior as an alternative or at least composite to wheat flour.
... Besides, studies of Badrie et al. (2010) and Jones et al. (2011) well-documented breadfruit as a good source of minerals such as Ca, Mg, K, P, Cu, and Fe which are required to ensure the health and productivity of broiler. Moreover, breadfruit is comprised of phenolic compounds such as flavonoids, stilbenoids, and aryl-benzofurans, knowing to possess anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-tumour, and cytotoxicity properties (Jagtap and Bapat;Sikarwar et al., 2014). These findings have supported the claim that breadfruit is an assortment ingredient of high energy with medicinal values for broiler diets. ...
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Purpose: There is a need to explore the use of non-conventional, locally available and cheap energy-rich ingredients to substitute corn in broiler diets as it is used mainly for human consumption in developing countries. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of partial substitution of corn with breadfruit flour (BFF) in broiler diets on growth performances and meat quality in broiler chickens. Research Method: One hundred and eighty day-old straight-run “Cobb 500” broiler chicks (45.92 ± 0.43 g) were randomly allocated into one of three dietary treatments (Corn based basal diet with no BFF [Control], Corn-substituted basal diet with 5% BFF [BFF5], and Corn-substituted basal diet with 10% BFF [BFF10]) with six replications and 10 birds per replicate. Growth parameters including body weights, average daily gain, average daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and organ weights and meat quality parameters were determined. Findings: The broilers fed BFF10 significantly (P < 0.05) improved the body weight, average daily weight gain, and feed efficiency of broilers for the complete experimental period (d 1-35). Further, the same diet improved (P < 0.05) the average daily feed intake of broilers for the starter period (d 1-7) compared to the control diet. Furthermore, broilers fed BFF10 had a heavier (P < 0.05) heart, liver and empty intestine than those fed BFF5. Moreover, breast meat of broilers fed BFF10 had a significant (P < 0.05) lower crude fat content and CIE a* value than that of broilers fed other diets. Originality/value: Breadfruit flour would be a suitable non-conventional energy feed source to partly substitute corn in broiler diets up to 10% with improved growth performance and meat quality in broiler chickens. © 2021, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Sabaragamuwa University of Sri Lanka. All rights reserved.
... Steps 3 to 5 were carried out using the other bacteria; Escherichia coli.The inoculation steps were carried out twice for both bacteria in order to have enough bacteria throughout the course of the experiment. The tubes containing the inoculated solution were incubated at 37˚C (Sikarwar et al., 2014). ...
... Daun Kluwih juga diketahui mengandung GABA (Gamma Amino Butyric Acid) (Indrowati & Ariyanto 2012). Kandungan senyawa flavonoid pada Artocarpus altilis juga diketahui memiliki aktivitas sebagai antiinflamasi (Fakhrudin et al., 2015), antibakteri, antivirus (Sikarwar et al., 2014), antioksidan (Arif et al., 2018) dan memiliki aktivitas untuk menurunkan kadar glukosa darah penderita diabetes mellitus (Sogandi & Amelia) dengan dosis 50mg/kgBB (Eryuda & Soleha, 2016). ...
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Gastrointestinal infection is a common infection in Indonesia. Many bacteria could cause gastrointestinal disorder, including Shigella dysenteriae and Bacillus subtilis. Currently, they are treated using chemical and traditional drugs. One of the common pants in Indonesia is Kluwih (Artocarpus camansi). The objective our study to determine antibacterial activity and inhibitory mechanism of Kluwih leaf extract against pathogenic bacteria which cause gastrointestinal infection, i.e. Shigella dysenteriae and Bacillus subtilis. The extraction process used maceration technique using 96% ethanol solvent and the antibacterial activity was studied using agar diffusion method. The research result showed that Kluwih leaf extract had inhibitory power with KHM (minimum inhibitory concentration) value of 25% against S. dysenteriae and 6.25% against B. subtilis. The present study also revealed that Kluwih leaf was suspected to have inhibitory activity against bacteria by making holes in the membrane of bacterial cell, leading to the release of nucleic acid and protein and cell death. Keywords: antibacterial, Artocarpus camansi, kluwih, Shigella dysenteriae, Bacillus subtilis.
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Artocarpus are members of the Moraceae family who are believed to be a large family comprises of nearly 60 genera and about 1400 species. The most important genus of the Moraceae family is Ficus, Morus and Artocarpus. The extract and bioactive compounds from bark, leaves, seeds and pericarp of monkey fruit have shown to possess exceptional phytochemical, nutritional and valuable pharmacological properties. This fruit is capable of offering numerous inhibitory factors such as antibacterial, antitubercular, antiviral, antifungal, antiplatelet, antiarthritic, tyrosinase inhibitory and cytotoxicity. This review devotes the complete overview of pharmacological and bioactive components exclusively found in the monkey fruit and its parts. However, fruit exhibits appreciable properties, but they are still unknown as well as underutilized. The remarkable properties of plants and the modern approaches are needed for the treatment of chronic diseases, the development of drugs and functional food products, or for the improvement of properties existed ones.
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Daun sukun (Artocarpus altilis) merupakan salah satu obat tradisional yang sudah lama digunakan untuk mengatasi berbagai penyakit. Beberapa senyawa yang telah diketahui mampu mengambat pertumbuhan kanker yang terdapat dalam daun sukun adalah senyawa golongan flavonoid. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menentukan kadar flavonoid ekstrak etil asetat daun sukun. Sampel diekstrak menggunakan metode maserasi dengan pelarut etil asetat. Penentuan kadar flavonoid menggunakan spektrofotometri yang diukur pada panjang gelombang 435 nm, dengan pembanding kuersetin (QE). Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan kandungan flavonoid pada ekstrak etil asetat daun sukun adalah 29,442±1,20 mgQE/g.
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The present study aims at bioefficacy assessment and phytoconstituent screening of Atrocarpus altilis (breadfruit) fruit extracts in different solvents (methanol and ethyl acetate) for antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial potentiality of plant fruit extracts obtained in different solvent media (methanol and ethyl acetate) were studied against various pathogenic organisms like Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis. Methanolic and ethyl acetate fruit extracts of Artocarpus exhibits the presence of only three phytochemicals viz. steroids, phenols and flavonoids. The MIC values of ethyl acetate and methanolic fruit extracts for microbes were determined by agar disc diffusion method which showed significant variation. Streptococcus mutans and Enterococcus faecalis showed maximum growth inhibition using 25 μl of methanolic fruit extracts with a MIC value of 0.90 and 0.6 mg/ml respectively. Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed maximum zone of inhibition using 25 μl of ethyl acetate fruit extract with a MIC value of 0.90 mg/ml for both. Methanolic fruit extract had no effect on growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and ethyl acetate fruit extract had negligible effect on growth of Streptococcus mutans. The fruit extracts of Artocarpus altilis has immense potentiality for antibacterial activities as evident from the phytochemical and MIC study. Further purification of the secondary metabolites and structural studies can aid in isolation of active compounds from this plant.
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This study was carried out to determine the proximate, functional and pasting properties of breadfruit starch. Breadfruit starch was isolated from matured breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) and was analyzed for its functional, proximate and pasting properties. The starch contains 10.83%, 0.53%, 0.39%, 22.52%, 77.48% and 1.77% moisture, crude protein, fat, amylose, amylopectin and ash contents respectively. The average particle size, pH, bulk density and dispersibility of the breadfruit starch were 18 μm, 6.5, 0.673 g/mls, and 40.67% respectively. The swelling power of the breadfruit starch increases with increase in temperature, but there was a rapid increase in the swelling power from 70 to 80°C. The pasting temperature of the starch paste was 84.05°C, setback and breakdown values were 40.08 and 7.92 RVU respectively. The peak viscosity value was 121.25 RVU while final viscosity value was 153.42 RVU. This study concluded that breadfruit starch has an array of functional, pasting and proximate properties that can facilitate its use in so many areas where the properties of other starches are acceptable.
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Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis Fosb) is a rich source of carbohydrates, minerals, and vitamins. Though the crop has been distributed widely, it has often scored as an underutilized crop, and little attention has been given to its large-scale commercial cultivation due to limited knowledge on planting material, agronomic practices, and production techniques. Recently, breadfruit has been identified as an alternate source of carbohydrates, and the starch can be processed into many forms that would offer potential opportunities in the agro-processing and agro-export industry. The objectives of this review are to highlight the economic values of the breadfruit crop, to provide information about its cultivation, and to promote the breadfruit’s cultivation. Though currently, breadfruit is an underutilized and neglected fruit plant species in many countries, including Malaysia, cultivation of this fruit crop is expected to grow. Keywords: Agroforestry, Artocarpus, Biotechnology, Breadfruit, Carbohydrates, Farming, Staple food, Fruit plants
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The Food and Agriculture Organization recently reported that the number undernourished people has reached a record high of 1.02 billion, most prevalent in the tropics. Breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg, is an underutilized Oceanic staple crop long recognized for its potential to alleviate hunger in tropical climates. Breadfruit can be grown sustainably with minimal agricultural inputs and can be multicropped with high value cash crops such as coffee, pepper, or vanilla. A great diversity of cultivars with varying nutritional and agronomic characteristics exists, yet few cultivars are widely cultivated. Recent developments in micropropagation have made possible large scale propagation and dissemination but to fully utilize this resource, a deeper understanding of the nutritional characteristics, and the development of new products and markets are needed. This review will highlight and describe the state of our current knowledge and the potential for breadfruit as a sustainable crop to provide new foods for Western markets and food security for the growing global population.
Chapter
Darwin's Harvest addresses concerns that we are losing the diversity of crop plants that provide food for most of the world. With contributions from evolutionary biologists, geneticists, agronomists, molecular biologists, and anthropologists, this collection discusses how economic development, loss of heirloom varieties and wild ancestors, and modern agricultural techniques have endangered the genetic diversity needed to keep agricultural crops vital and capable of adaptation. Drawing on the most up-to-date data, the contributors review the utilization of molecular techniques to understand crop evolution. They explore current research on various crop plants of both temperate and tropical origin, including maize, sunflower, avocado, sugarcane, and wheat. The chapters in Darwin's Harvest also provide solid background for understanding many recent discoveries concerning the origins of crops and the influence of human migration and farming practices on the genetics of our modern foods.