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Antinutritional Factors in Plant Foods: Potential Health Benefits and Adverse Effects

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Abstract

Anti-nutritional factors are compounds which reduce the nutrient utilization and/or food intake of plants or plant products used as human foods and they play a vital role in determining the use of plants for humans. This paper is aimed to review the updated scientific information regarding the potential health benefits and adverse effects associated with major antinutritional factors found in plant foods. Antinutrients in plant foods are responsible for deleterious effects related to the absorption of nutrients and micronutrients. However, some antinutrients may exert beneficial health effects at low concentrations. For example, phytic acid, lectins, tannins, saponins, amylase inhibitors and protease inhibitors have been shown to reduce the availability of nutrients and cause growth inhibition. However, when used at low levels, phytate, lectins, tannins, amylase inhibitors and saponins have also been shown to reduce the blood glucose and insulin responses to starchy foods and/or the plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. In addition, phytates, tannins, saponins, protease inhibitors, goetrogens and oxalates have been related to reduce cancer risks. This implies that anti-nutrients might not always harmful even though lack of nutritive value. Despite of this, the balance between beneficial and hazardous effects of plant bioactives and anti-nutrients rely on their concentration, chemical structure, time of exposure and interaction with other dietary components. Due to this, they can be considered as anti-nutritional factors with negative effects or non-nutritive compounds with positive effects on health.
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences
2014; 3(4): 284-289
Published online July 20, 2014 (http://www.sciencepublishinggroup.com/j/ijnfs)
doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140304.18
ISSN: 2327-2694 (Print); ISSN: 2327-2716 (Online)
Antinutritional factors in plant foods: Potential health
benefits and adverse effects
Habtamu Fekadu Gemede
1, 2, *
, Negussie Ratta
3
1
Center for Food Science and Nutrition, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
2
Food Technology and Process Engineering Department, Wollega University, P.O.Box: 395, Nekemte, Ethiopia.
3
Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box: 1176, Addis Ababa Ethiopia
Email address:
fekadu_habtamu@yahoo.com (H. F. Gemede), simbokom@gmail.com (H. F. Gemede)
To cite this article:
Habtamu Fekadu Gemede, Negussie Ratta. Antinutritional Factors in Plant Foods: Potential Health Benefits and Adverse Effects.
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2014, pp. 284-289. doi: 10.11648/j.ijnfs.20140304.18
Abstract:
Anti-nutritional factors are compounds which reduce the nutrient utilization and/or food intake of plants or
plant products used as human foods and they play a vital role in determining the use of plants for humans. This paper is
aimed to review the updated scientific information regarding the potential health benefits and adverse effects associated
with major antinutritional factors found in plant foods. Antinutrients in plant foods are responsible for deleterious effects
related to the absorption of nutrients and micronutrients. However, some antinutrients may exert beneficial health effects at
low concentrations. For example, phytic acid, lectins, tannins, saponins, amylase inhibitors and protease inhibitors have
been shown to reduce the availability of nutrients and cause growth inhibition. However, when used at low levels, phytate,
lectins, tannins, amylase inhibitors and saponins have also been shown to reduce the blood glucose and insulin responses to
starchy foods and/or the plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. In addition, phytates, tannins, saponins, protease inhibitors,
goetrogens and oxalates have been related to reduce cancer risks. This implies that anti-nutrients might not always harmful
even though lack of nutritive value. Despite of this, the balance between beneficial and hazardous effects of plant
bioactives and anti-nutrients rely on their concentration, chemical structure, time of exposure and interaction with other
dietary components. Due to this, they can be considered as anti-nutritional factors with negative effects or non-nutritive
compounds with positive effects on health.
Keywords:
Anti-nutritional factors, Potential Health Benefits, Adverse Health Effects, Plant Foods
1. Introduction
Anti-nutritional factors are a chemical compounds
synthesized in natural food and / or feedstuffs by the
normal metabolism of species and by different mechanisms
(for example inactivation of some nutrients, diminution of
the digestive process or metabolic utilization of food/feed)
which exerts effect contrary to optimum nutrition [1]. Such
chemical compounds, are frequently, but not exclusively
associated with foods and feeding stuffs of plant origin.
These anti-nutritional factors are also known as ‘secondary
metabolites’ in plants and they have been shown to be
highly biologically active. These secondary metabolites are
secondary compound produced as side products of
processes leading to the synthesis of primary metabolites.
One major factor limiting the wider food utilization of
many tropical plants is the ubiquitous occurrence in them
of a diverse range of natural compounds capable of
precipitating deleterious effects in man, and animals
compound which act to reduce nutrient utilization and/or
food intake are often referred to as anti-nutritional factors
[2].
Antinutrients are chemicals which have been evolved by
plants for their own defense, among other biological
functions and reduce the maximum utilization of nutrients
especially proteins, vitamins, and minerals, thus preventing
optimal exploitation of the nutrients present in a food and
decreasing the nutritive value. Some of these plant
chemicals have been shown to be deleterious to health or
evidently advantageous to human and animal health if
consumed at appropriate amounts [3].
There have been several reviews in recent years
about the antinutritional factors found in foods. Most
of them, however, deal with specific properties or
285 Habtamu Fekadu Gemede and Negussie Ratta: Antinutritional Factors in Plant Foods: Potential Health Benefits and
Adverse Effects
beneficial effects for specific antinutritional factors
found in a foods and / or feeds. However, this review
was aimed to assess updated scientific information of
the potential health benefits and adverse effects of
major antinutritional factors in plant foods.
2. Antinutritional Factors in Plant
Foods
2.1. Tannins
The word tannin is very old and reflects a traditional
technology. Tanning was the word used in the scientific
literature to describe the process of transforming raw
animal hides or skins into durable, nonputrescible leathers
by using plant extracts from different plant parts [10].
Tannin is an astringent, bitter plant polyphenolic compound
that either binds or precipitates proteins and various other
organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids [4].
The term tannin refers to the use of tannins in tanning
animal hides into leather; however, the term is widely
applied to any large polyphenolic compound containing
sufficient hydroxyls and other suitable groups to form
strong complexes with proteins and other macromolecules.
Tannins have molecular weights ranging from 500 to over
3000 [5].
Tannins are heat stable and they decreased protein
digestibility in animals and humans, probably by either
making protein partially unavailable or inhibiting digestive
enzymes and increasing fecal nitrogen. Tannins are known
to be present in food products and to inhibit the activities of
trypsin, chemotrypsin, amylase and lipase, decrease the
protein quality of foods and interfere with dietary iron
absorption [6].
Tannins are known to be responsible for decreased feed
intake, growth rate, feed efficiency and protein digestibility
in experimental animals. If tannin concentration in the diet
becomes too high, microbial enzyme activities including
cellulose and intestinal digestion may be depressed [9].
Tannins also form insoluble complexes with proteins and
the tannin-protein complexes may be responsible for the
antinutritional effects of tannin containing foods [7, 8].
2.2. Phytate
Phytate (is also known as Inositol hexakisphosphate
(InsP6)) is the salt form of phytic acid, are found in plants,
animals and soil. It is primarily present as a salt of the
mono- and divalent cations K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ and
accumulates in the seeds during the ripening period.
Phytate is regarded as the primary storage form of both
phosphate and inositol in plant seeds and grains. In addition,
phytate has been suggested to serve as a store of cations, of
high energy phosphoryl groups, and, by chelating free iron,
as a potent natural anti-oxidant [10].
Phytate is ubiquitous among plant seeds and grains,
comprising 0.5 to 5 percent (w/w) [22]. The phosphorus
bound to phytate is not typically bio-available to any
animal that is non-ruminant. Ruminant animals, such as
cows and sheep, chew, swallow, and then regurgitate their
food. This regurgitated food is known as cud and is chewed
a second time. Due to an enzyme located in their first
stomach chamber, the rumen, these animals are able to
separate, and process the phosphorus in phytates. Humans
and other non-ruminant animals are unable to do so [11].
Phytate works in a broad pH-region as a highly
negatively charged ion, and therefore its presence in the
diet has a negative impact on the bioavailability of divalent,
and trivalent mineral ions such as Zn
2+
, Fe
2+/3+
, Ca
2+
, Mg
2+
,
Mn
2+
, and Cu
2+
. Whether or not high levels of consumption
of phytate-containing foods will result in mineral
deficiency will depend on what else is being consumed. In
areas of the world where cereal proteins are a major and
predominant dietary factor, the associated phytate intake is
a cause for concern [12].
2.3. Oxalate
A salt formed from oxalic acid is known as an Oxalate:
for example, Calcium oxalate, which has been found to be
widely distributed in plants. Strong bonds are formed
between oxalic acid, and various other minerals, such as
Calcium, Magnesium, Sodium, and Potassium. This
chemical combination results in the formation of oxalate
salts. Some oxalate salts, such as sodium and potassium,
are soluble, whereas calcium oxalate salts are basically
insoluble. The insoluble calcium oxalate has the tendency
to precipitate (or solidify) in the Kidneys or in the Urinary
tract, thus forming sharp-edged calcium oxalate crystals
when the levels are high enough. These crystals play a role
to the formation of kidney stones formation in the urinary
tract when the acid is excreted in the urine [15].
Oxalate is an anti-nutrient which under normal
conditions is confined to separate compartments. However,
when it is processed and/or digested, it comes into contact
with the nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract [16]. When
released, oxalic acid binds with nutrients, rendering them
inaccessible to the body. If food with excessive amounts of
oxalic acid is consumed regularly, nutritional deficiencies
are likely to occur, as well as severe irritation to the lining
of the gut. In ruminants oxalic acid is of only minor
significance as an anti-nutritive factor since ruminal micro-
flora can readily metabolize soluble oxalates, and to a
lesser extent even insoluble Ca oxalate. While the
importance of the anti-nutritive activity of oxalic acid has
been recognized for over fifty years it may be a subject of
interest to nutritionists in the future [17, 18].
Oxalic acid forms water soluble salts with Na+, K+, and
NH4+ ions, it also binds with Ca2+, Fe2+, and Mg2+
rendering these minerals unavailable to animals. However
Zn2+ appears to be relatively unaffected. In plants with a
cell sap of approximately pH 2, such as some species of
Oxalis and rumex oxalate exists as the acid oxalate
(HC2O4), primarily as acid potassium oxalate. In plants
with a cell sap of approximately pH 6, such as some plants
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences 2014; 3(4): 284-289 286
of goosefoot family it exists as oxalate (C2O4)2- ion
usually as soluble sodium oxalate and insoluble calcium
and magnesium oxalates. Calcium oxalate is insoluble at a
neutral or alkaline pH, but freely dissolves in acid [19].
2.4. Saponins
Saponins are secondary compounds that are generally
known as non-volatile, surface active compounds which are
widely distributed in nature, occurring primarily in the
plant kingdom. The name ‘saponin’ is derived from the
Latin word sapo which means ‘soap’, because saponin
molecules form soap-like foams when shaken with water.
They are structurally diverse molecules that are chemically
referred to as triterpene and steroid glycosides. They
consist of nonpolar aglycones coupled with one or more
monosaccharide moieties. This combination of polar and
non-polar structural elements in their molecules explains
their soap-like behaviour in aqueous solutions.
The structural complexity of saponins results in a
number of physical, chemical, and biological properties,
which include sweetness and bitterness, foaming and
emulsifying properties, pharmacological and medicinal
properties, haemolytic properties, as well as antimicrobial,
insecticidal, and molluscicidal activities. Saponins have
found wide applications in beverages and confectionery, as
well as in cosmetics and pharmaceutical products. Due to
the presence of a lipid-soluble aglycone and water soluble
sugar chain(s) in their structure (amphiphilic nature),
saponins are surface active compounds with detergent,
wetting, emulsifying, and foaming properties [2].
Saponins were treated as toxic because they seemed to
be extremely toxic to fish and cold-blooded animals and
many of them possessed strong hemolytic activity.
Saponins, in high concentrations, impart a bitter taste and
astringency in dietary plants. The bitter taste of saponin is
the major factor that limits its use. In the past, saponins
were recognized as antinutrient constituents, due to their
adverse effects such as for growth impairment and reduce
their food intake due to the bitterness and throat-irritating
activity of saponins. In addition, saponins were found to
reduce the bioavailability of nutrients and decrease enzyme
activity and it affects protein digestibility by inhibit various
digestive enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin [21].
Saponins are attracting considerable interest as a result
of their beneficial effects in humans. Recent evidence
suggests that saponins possess hypocholesterolemic,
immunostimulatory, and anticarcinogenic properties. In
addition, they reduce the risk of heart diseases in humans
consuming a diet rich in food legumes containing saponins.
Saponin-rich foods are important in human diets to control
plasma cholesterol, preventing peptic ulcer, osteoporosis
and to reduce the risk of heart disease. Saponins are used as
adjuvants in viral (e.g., Quillaja saponaria-21) and bacterial
vaccine (e.g., Quillaja saponins) applications . A high
saponin diet can be used in the inhibition of dental caries
and platelet aggregation, in the treatment of hypercalciuria
in humans, and as an antidote against acute lead poisoning.
In epidemiological studies, saponins have been shown to
have an inverse relationship with the incidence of renal
stones [22].
2.5. Lectins
Lectin comes from the Latin word “legere”, which
means “to select”. Lectins have the ability to bind
carbohydrates. Nowadays, proteins that can agglutinate red
blood cells with known sugar specificity are referred to as
“lectins” (Fereidoon S., 2014). The name “hemagglutinins”
is used when the sugar specificity is unknown. Lectins and
hemagglutinins are proteins/glycoproteins, which have at
least one non-catalytic domain that exhibits reversible
binding to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
They can bind to the carbohydrate moieties on the surface
of erythrocytes and agglutinate the erythrocytes, without
altering the properties of the carbohydrates (Sze Kwan Lam
& Tzi Bun Ng, 2013).
Lectins are glycoproteins widely distributed in legumes
and some certain oil seeds (including soybean) which
possess an affinity for specific sugar molecules and are
characterized by their ability to combine with carbohydrate
membrane receptors. Lectins have the capability to directly
bind to the intestinal muscosa, interacting with the
enterocytes and interfering with the absorption and
transportation of 0.01% free gossypol within some low-
gossypol cotton nutrients (particularly carbohydrates)
during digestion and causing epithelial lesions within the
intestine. Although lectins are usually reported as being
labile, their stability varies between plant species, many
lectins being resistant to inactivation by dry heat and
requiring the presence of moisture for more complete
destruction (Boehm and Huck, 2009).
Lectins have become the focus of intense interest for
biologists and in particular for the research and applications
in agriculture and medicine. These proteins with unique
characteristics have found use in diverse fields of biology
and as more lectins are being isolated and their role in
nature elucidated, they continue to occupy an important
place in agricultural and therapeutic areas of research (Sze
Kwan Lam & Tzi Bun Ng, 2013).
Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins present in
most plants, especially seeds like cereals, beans, etc., in
tubers like potatoes and also in animals. Lectins selectively
bind carbohydrates and importantly, the carbohydrate
moieties of the glycoproteins that decorate the surface of
most animal cells. Dietary lectins act as protein antigens
which bind to surface glycoproteins (or glycolipids) on
erythrocytes or lymphocytes (Sauvion et al., 2004). They
function as both allergens and hemagglutinins and are
present in small amounts in 30% of foods, more so in a
whole-grain diet. Lectins have potent in vivo effects. When
consumed in excess by sensitive individuals, they can cause
3 primary physiological reactions: they can cause severe
intestinal damage disrupting digestion and causing nutrient
deficiencies; they can provoke IgG and IgM antibodies
causing food allergies and other immune responses (Boehm
287 Habtamu Fekadu Gemede and Negussie Ratta: Antinutritional Factors in Plant Foods: Potential Health Benefits and
Adverse Effects
and Huck, 2009) and they can bind to erythrocytes,
simultaneously with immune factors, causing
hemagglutination and anemia. Of the 119 known dietary
lectins, about half are panhemagglutinins, clumping all
blood types. The remainder are blood-type specific. In
general, lectins alter host resistance to infection, cause
failure to thrive and can even lead to death in experimental
animals (Vasconcelos and Oliveira, 2004).
Lectin comes from the Latin word “legere”, which
means “to select”. Lectins have the ability to bind
carbohydrates. Nowadays, proteins that can agglutinate red
blood cells with known sugar specificity are referred to as
“lectins” (Fereidoon S., 2014). The name “hemagglutinins”
is used when the sugar specificity is unknown. Lectins and
hemagglutinins are proteins/glycoproteins, which have at
least one non-catalytic domain that exhibits reversible
binding to specific monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.
They can bind to the carbohydrate moieties on the surface
of erythrocytes and agglutinate the erythrocytes, without
altering the properties of the carbohydrates [23].
Lectins have become the focus of intense interest for
biologists and in particular for the research and applications
in agriculture and medicine. These proteins with unique
characteristics have found use in diverse fields of biology
and as more lectins are being isolated and their role in
nature elucidated, they continue to occupy an important
place in agricultural and therapeutic areas of research [25].
Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins present in
most plants, especially seeds like cereals, beans, etc., in
tubers like potatoes and also in animals. Lectins selectively
bind carbohydrates and importantly, the carbohydrate
moieties of the glycoproteins that decorate the surface of
most animal cells. Dietary lectins act as protein antigens
which bind to surface glycoproteins (or glycolipids) on
erythrocytes or lymphocytes [26]. They function as both
allergens and hemagglutinins and are present in small
amounts in 30% of foods, more so in a whole-grain diet.
Lectins have potent in vivo effects. When consumed in
excess by sensitive individuals, they can cause 3 primary
physiological reactions: they can cause severe intestinal
damage disrupting digestion and causing nutrient
deficiencies; they can provoke IgG and IgM antibodies
causing food allergies and other immune responses [27]
and they can bind to erythrocytes, simultaneously with
immune factors, causing hemagglutination and anemia. Of
the 119 known dietary lectins, about half are
panhemagglutinins, clumping all blood types. The
remainder are blood-type specific. In general, lectins alter
host resistance to infection, cause failure to thrive and can
even lead to death in experimental animals [28].
2.6. Alkaloids
Alkaloids are one of the largest groups of chemical
compounds synthesised by plants and generally found as
salts of plant acids such as oxalic, malic, tartaric or citric
acid. Alkaloids are small organic molecules, common to
about 15 to 20 per cent of all vascular plants, usually
comprising several carbon rings with side chains, one or
more of the carbon atoms being replaced by a nitrogen.
They are synthesized by plants from amino acids.
Decarboxylation of amino acids produces amines which
react with amine oxides to form aldehydes. The
characteristic heterocyclic ring in alkaloids is formed from
Mannich-type condensation from aldehyde and amine
groups [27].
The chemical type of their nitrogen ring offers the means
by which alkaloids are subclassified: for example,
glycoalkaloids (the aglycone portion) glycosylated with a
carbohydrate moiety. They are formed as metabolic by-
products. Insects and hervibores are usual1y repulsed by
the potential toxicity and bitter taste of alkaloids [28, 29].
Alkaloids are considered to be anti-nutrients because of
their action on the nervous system, disrupting or
inappropriately augmenting electrochemical transmission.
For instance, consumption of high tropane alkaloids will
cause rapid heartbeat, paralysis and in fatal case, lead to
death. Uptake of high dose of tryptamine alkaloids will
lead to staggering gate and death. Indeed, the physiological
effects of alkaloids have on humans are very evident.
Cholinesterase is greatly inhibited by glycoalkaloids, which
also cause symptoms of neurological disorder. Other toxic
action includes disruption of the cell membrane in the
gastrointestinal tract [30].
2.7. Protease Inhibitors
Protease inhibitors are widely distributed within the plant
kingdom, including the seeds of most cultivated legumes
and cereals. Protease inhibitors are the most commonly
encountered class of antinutritional factors of plant origin.
Protease inhibitors have the ability to inhibit the activity of
proteolytic enzymes within the gastrointestinal tract of
animals. Due to their particular protein nature, protease
inhibitors may be easily denatured by heat processing
although some residual activity may still remain in the
commercially produced products. The antinutrient activity
of protease inhibitors is associated with growth inhibition
and pancreatic hypertrophy. Potential beneficial effects of
protease inhibitors remain unclear, although lower
incidences of pancreatic cancer have been observed in
populations where the intake of soybean and its products is
high [33]. While protease inhibitors have been linked with
pancreatic cancer in animal studies, they may also act as
anticarcinogenic agents. The Bowman-Birk inhibitors
derived from soybean have been shown to inhibit or
prevent the development of chemically-induced cancer of
the liver, lung, colon, oral and esophagus [31].
Trypsin inhibitor and chymotrypsin inhibitor are protease
inhibitors occurring in raw legume seeds. Trypsin inhibitors
that inhibit the activity of the enzymes trypsin and
chymotrypsin in the gut, thus preventing protein digestion,
are found in many plant species mainly in different grain
legumes. Trypsin inhibitors are a unique class of proteins
found in raw soybeans that inhibit protease enzymes in the
digestive tract by forming indigestible complexes with
International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences 2014; 3(4): 284-289 288
dietary protein. These complexes are indigestible even in
the presence of high amounts of digestive enzymes.
Protease inhibitors reduce trypsin activity and to a lesser
extent chymotrypsin; therefore impairing protein digestion
by monogastric animals and some young ruminant animals
[32].
2.8. Cyanogenic Glycosides
The cyanogenic glycosides belong to the products of
secondary metabolism, to the natural products of plants.
These compounds are composed of an a-hydroxynitrile
type aglycone and of a sugar moiety (mostly D-glucose).
Cyanogenic glucosides (a-hydroxynitrile glucosides) are
derived from the five protein amino acids Val, Ile, Leu, Phe
and Tyr and from the nonproteinogenic amino acid
cyclopentenyl glycine. Although derived from six different
building blocks, they constitute a very small class with
around 50 different known structures. A number of plant
species produce hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from cyanogenic
glycosides when they are consumed. These cyanogens are
glycosides of a sugar, often glucose, which is combined
with a cyanide containing aglycone. Cyanogenic glucosides
are classified as phytoanticipins. Their general function in
plants is dependent on activation by b-glucosidases to
release toxic volatile HCN as well as a ketones or
aldehydes to fend off herbivore and pathogen attack [34].
3. Conclusion
Antinutritional factors in foods are responsible for the
deleterious effects that are related to the absorption of
nutrients and micronutrients which may interfere with the
function of certain organs. Most of these antinutritional
factors are present in foods of plant origin. Thus, the
presence of cyanogenic glycosides, protease inhibitors,
lectins, tannins, alkaloids, and saponnins in foods may
induce undesirable effects in humans if their consumption
exceeds an upper limit. Certain harmful effects might also
be due to the breakdown products of these compounds.
However, some antinutritional factors as well as their
breakdown products may possess beneficial health effects
if present in small amounts. The mechanism through which
the antinutritional and beneficial effects of food
antinutritional factors are exerted is the same. Health risk
factors associated with antinutritional factors include: lack
of knowledge of the tolerance levels to these compounds in
the human organism, little available information on the
degree of variation of individual risks and little knowledge
with respect to the influence of environmental factors on
the detoxification capacity of the human organism.
Acknowledgement
Authors would like to acknowledge all the Authors of the
articles, we used as a references in preparing this review
paper. The authors have no conflict of interest.
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... Reduction in levels of trypsin inhibitor activity may also be due to breakdown of cellular proteins and enzymes by proteases during germination to provide free amino acids to support autotrophic growth of the seedling (Aviles- Gaxiola et al., 2017). In the context of protein, iron and zinc nutrition, tannins when present in high amounts, inhibit the activities of trypsin, chymotrypsin and interfere with dietary iron and zinc absorption (Igwenyi et al., 2013;Fekadu, 2014). Nonetheless, the lack of effect of traditional malting technology on tannin contents of the iron-rich bean varieties examined in the study may be inconsequential since the level of the anti-nutrient in unmalted samples were lower than 0.3%, the maximum for legumes specified by Codex (1990) and Asouzu and Umerah (2020). ...
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... While, Auwal et al [13] demonstrated the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and tannins with saponins and tannins in larger quantities. As reported by Gemede and Ratta [14] certain anti-nutrients in plant foods such as phytic acid, lectins, tannins, saponins, amylase inhibitors and protease inhibitor are responsible for deleterious effects related to the absorption of nutrients and micronutrients. They reduce the availability of nutrients, inhibit growth and reduce body weight. ...
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... In soybean, Kunitz trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors are the predominant protease inhibitors, forming large unpalatable complexes with dietary protein, thus hindering protein digestibility (Gillman, Kim, and Krishnan 2015). They can induce pancreatic hypertrophy with the inflated release of pancreatic enzymes, causing hurdles in absorbing sulfur-containing amino acids (Gemede and Ratta 2014). Phytic acid (inositol hexakisphosphate) is a metal-chelating antinutritional factor, primarily present in the form of phytate salt of mono-and divalent metal cations like Fe 2+ , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+, and Zn 2+ , making them unavailable for absorption . ...
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Chapter
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