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All forms of baking and processing cause a loss of nutrients, including vitamin E, but little is known about these occurrences or if they could be avoided. The objective of this research was to study the incorporation of palm oil and the stability of vitamin E in palm oil during breadmaking. Wheatmeal and rye breads were baked with and without the addition of 0, 2, 5 or 8 % palm oil. The eight E group vitamers (tocopherols and tocotrienols) were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction, freeze dried then analysed using normal phase HPLC. Compared to the controls, the inclusion of palm oil was found to increase the quantity of all forms of vitamin E in the final baked products. It is concluded that palm oil is very effective in increasing the vitamin E content of wholegrain bread.
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... Tocopherol retention rates between 70 and 90% were reported by Alvarez-Jubete et al. (2009) for gluten-free breads based on amaranth, quinoa and buckwheat. Palm oil as an ingredient to obtain higher levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols in bread was investigated by Buddrick et al. (2015). They found lower retentions (about 60%) in rye bread compared to more than 80% in wheat bread. ...
Chapter
Frying, baking, and cooking represent basic processes in food preparation covering industrial scale, restaurant and catering as well as domestic preparation. They are all connected to a heat treatment of the food up to 100 °C or even more at least in part of the food material. Reduction of bioactives during these processes can be mainly attributed to thermal degradation due to heat load and to leaching, e.g. during cooking. The leaching depends on polarities of the bioactives and the heating medium. Therefore, influence of heating medium cannot be neglected to get the whole picture of bioactive retention during such processes. Because of the influence of the polarity of bioactives, the discussion in this chapter is segmented between polar and non-polar bioactives. For both types of bioactives, the effect of the different food preparation processes on their retention is discussed considering the current state of research data available in scientific literature.KeywordsFryingBakingCookingNutritional valueBioactives
... The different forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols (α, β, γ, δ) depend on the number and location of methyl groups in the hydrophilic head of 6-chromanol [40,41]. Tocopherols and tocotrienols both act as natural antioxidants [42][43][44]. Furthermore, tocotrienols have been reported to be effective in the prevention of cancer-related processes, cardiovascular pathologies, and Alzheimer's disease [45][46][47]. ...
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Lipids play an important role in defining the overall quality of biscuits, particularly in terms of resistance to oxidation, as well as for their influence on textural and sensorial properties. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of durum wheat oil on the physico-chemical and sensory features of biscuits. Control biscuits (C) prepared with the commonly used sunflower oil were compared with samples prepared with durum wheat oil at 50% (D50) and 100% replacement levels (D100). The reformulated biscuits were very rich in tocols, especially tocotrienols (982.9, 635.2, and 64.1 mg/kg on lipid fraction weight in D100, D50, and C, respectively). The higher content of antioxidants extended the resistance to the oxidation of biscuits (induction time = 53.61, 70.87, and 79.92 h in C, D50, and D100, respectively). D100 showed the lowest amounts of triacylglycerol oligopolymers and oxidized triacylglycerols, and the lowest amounts of the volatile markers of lipid oxidation (hexanal and nonanal). The use of durum wheat oil did not affect the sensorial and textural properties, compared to C. This study suggests that durum wheat oil could be effectively used in biscuit-making to decrease the oxidative phenomena and increase the bioactives of the end-products.
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Rye is one of the main cereals produced and consumed in the hemiboreal climate region. Due to its use primarily as wholegrain products, rye provides a rich source of dietary fibre as well as several classes of phytochemicals, bioactive compounds with potentially positive health implications. Here, we review the current knowledge of the metabolic pathways of phytochemical classes abundant in rye, starting from the microbial transformations occurring during the sourdough process and colonic fermentation and continuing with the endogenous metabolism. Additionally, we discuss the detection of specific metabolites by mass spectrometry in different phases of their journey from the cereal to the target organs and excretion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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The bacterial ecology during rye and wheat sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Viable plate counts of presumptive lactic acid bacteria, the ratio between lactic acid bacteria and yeasts, the rate of acidification, a permutation analysis based on biochemical and microbial features, the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and diversity indices all together demonstrated the maturity of the sourdoughs during 5 to 7 days of propagation. Flours were mainly contaminated by metabolically active genera (Acinetobacter, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Comamonas, Enterobacter, Erwinia, and Sphingomonas) belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria or Bacteroidetes (genus Chryseobacterium). Their relative abundances varied with the flour. Soon after 1 day of propagation, this population was almost completely inhibited except for the Enterobacteriaceae. Although members of the phylum Firmicutes were present at very low or intermediate relative abundances in the flours, they became dominant soon after 1 day of propagation. Lactic acid bacteria were almost exclusively representative of the Firmicutes by this time. Weissella spp. were already dominant in rye flour and stably persisted, though they were later flanked by the Lactobacillus sakei group. There was a succession of species during 10 days of propagation of wheat sourdoughs. The fluctuation between dominating and subdominating populations of L. sakei group, Leuconostoc spp., Weissella spp., and Lactococcus lactis was demonstrated. Other subdominant species such as Lactobacillus plantarum were detectable throughout propagation. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae dominated throughout the sourdough propagation. Notwithstanding variations due to environmental and technology determinants, the results of this study represent a clear example of how the microbial ecology evolves during sourdough preparation.
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Since carotenoids are likely to grow in importance and value, the recovery of carotenoids from palm oil and palm oil by-products is important. Numerous extracting methods have been developed to recover the carotenoids from crude palm oil; these include 1) the saponification method, 2) the iodine method, 3) the molecular distillation method, 4) extraction by selective solvents and crystallization, 5) separation by adsorption and 6) gel permeation. Other procedures with regard to palm oil methyl esters (POME) were also reported. The object of this chapter is to classify and assess the various extracting methods proposed.
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Vitamin B12 deficiency is a common clinical condition, sometimes leading to severe hematologic and neurologic diseases. Screening for vitamin B12 deficiency is indicated in patients with relevant signs, such as anemia, neuropathy, or cognitive impairment. Since folic acid fortification started, the concern of masking anemia and macrocytosis due to vitamin B12 deficiency, leading to neurologic disease, has emerged. Oral treatment with vitamin B12 is effective even at low doses in most cases of food-bound vitamin B12 malabsorption, and it has been advocated as a suitable means to prevent B12 deficiencies. Fortification with vitamin B12 is expected to reduce the vitamin deficiency-related diseases and prevent the folic acid masking effect. It may also offer an opportunity to increase folic acid dose in fortified food. One of the major issues regarding food fortification with vitamin B12 is the awareness of the clinical conditions related to vitamin B12 deficiency and the potential of the replacement therapy to prevent them. More studies are needed to verify the appropriate dose and modality of vitamin B12 fortification and to examine safety and long-term outcomes.
Chapter
Macronutrient deficiencies adversely affect the health of large populations and contribute significantly to reduced quality of life in vulnerable groups. l Although elimination of micronutrient deficiency has long been a priority of international organizations, it remains a major issue in developing countries. l Accurate estimation of the prevalence of micronutrient deficiency in specific regions, policy decisions and their implementation, choice of mineral fortificants, levels of fortification, selection of a suitable vehicle, and feasibility studies are some of the key issues that need to be addressed for fortification programs to be successful. l Wheat flour fortification with minerals seems to have a greater influence compared to many other vehicles in the Indian subcontinent, where the wheat flour is mainly consumed as a dietary staple to meet energy requirements. l The fortificants added should not impart undesirable characteristics to the food, such as changes in color, taste, smell, and texture. l Atmospheric conditions and lack of modern storage facilities for fortified flours demand more consideration that stability and acceptability issues. Mineral fortification should not unduly curtail the shelf life of the fortified whole wheat flour. l Bioavailability of mineral fortified flour has long been debated and highlights the fact that use of novel iron sources in the presence of phytic acid in wheat flour could be a better choice for fortification. l Overall, fortification of whole wheat flour can effectively be used as a means to control mineral deficiencies, especially in developing countries
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The term ‘vitamin E’ refers to a group of eight vitamers (alpha-, beta-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols and tocotrienols). Its primary role is thought to be as an antioxidant commonly added to a variety of foods, e.g. bakery products. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) procedures are used for the separation and analysis of these tocopherols and tocotrienols in foods. The use of a normal phase column is the preferred approach in such methods, with hexane almost universally utilised as the mobile phase. However there is increasing concern regarding the toxicity of hexane. Here we evaluate the use of heptane as a replacement for hexane in HPLC based vitamin E analysis. The two solvents were compared using samples of bread fortified with palm oil (as a source of vitamin E). Accelerated solvent extraction procedure followed by HPLC showed the effective separation of the E vitamers in a variety of bread samples using both solvents. It is concluded that heptane provides effective separation and quantification of the E vitamers found in cereals and cereal products while also reducing operator risk.
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Changes of natural vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and added retinyl palmitate (12.5 μg/g or 250 IU/100 kcal) in soybean oil, corn oil, and palm olein were evaluated during stimulated deep-fat frying. Total vitamin E (milligrams per 100 g) decreased more rapidly in palm olein than in soybean or corn oil. The relative stabilities of the vitamin E homologues in the oils were α-T > δ-T > β-T > γ-T (soybean oil), α-T > γ-T > δ-T > γ-T3 (corn oil), and α-T > δ-T3 > α-T3 > γ-T3 (palm olein). Retinyl palmitate was more stable in palm olein than in soybean or corn oil. Feasibility to fortify frying oils with retinyl palmitate was demonstrated. The increased level of retinyl palmitate in the fried foods indicates that fortification of retinyl palmitate to frying oils can be a useful tool for delivery of vitamin A activity. Keywords: Frying oils; tocopherol and tocotrienol stability; vitamin E; retinyl palmitate fortified oils
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Ten rye varieties grown in one location were analyzed for their contents of dietary fiber (arabinoxylan and β-glucan) and phytochemicals (folate, tocols, phenolic acids, alkylresorcinols, and sterols). The varieties included old and modern varieties from five European countries. Significant differences were observed in the contents of all phytochemicals in whole grains and in the fiber contents in the flour and bran. The old French varieties Haute Loire and Queyras had high contents of most phytochemicals, whereas the Polish varieties Dankowskie-Zlote and Warko were relatively poor in phytochemicals. The varieties with a high content of folate tended to have low alkylresorcinol contents and vice versa. Furthermore, high contents of arabinoxylans were associated with high contents in tocols and sterols. The 10 selected rye samples comprising old populations and old and modern varieties from different ecological regions of Europe demonstrate high natural variation in their composition and show that landraces and old populations are useful genetic resources for plant breeding. The contents of single phytochemicals can likely be affected by breeding, and they may be adjusted by the right selection of genotype.Keywords: Phytochemical; rye; Secale cereale L.; genetic variation; old genetic resources; dietary fiber; arabinoxylan; folate; tocopherol; tocotrienol; alkylresorcinol; phenolic acid; plant sterol