Article

Online International Outshopping Experience: Proposition of a Research Model

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

With the development of the Internet, consumers can now shop for products sold thousands of miles from home without making a move. This feature of the Internet has a role in redefining the commercial universe, by reducing distance electronically. However, if buying on the Internet has been widely studied in the marketing literature (e.g., Gefen et al. 2003), and if offline cross-border purchasing has received increased attention in recent years (Baruca and Zolfagharian 2012), the cross-border Internet experience remains largely ignored. Yet this is a critical issue of both theoretical and practical implications: better understanding of international Internet shopping helps to increase our knowledge of the customer experience when buying online, and offers important lessons for local retailers, who are losing sales that used to be assured, in how to attract foreign customers or retain their local clientele. To identify the factors influencing the Internet cross-border purchasing experience, this research, presents a review of the marketing literature on international purchasing was made covering the period starting with the article by Herrmann and Beik (1968) until 2013. Thirteen articles on across border purchasing were identified, and provide an important base for the construction of a theoretical model of cross-border shopping on the Internet. A conceptual model identifying six drivers and a moderator of cross-border shopping on the Internet is proposed. Among the six factors influencing the intention to make a cross-border purchase on the Internet, three are direct: the perceived quality of the foreign retailer’s offering, familiarity with the foreign retailer, and susceptibility of the consumer to social influence. Two factors directly affect purchasing intentions together with an indirect effect via an influence on the perceived quality of the offering: language skills and the consumer’s ethnocentrism. One factor, associated costs, has only a direct effect on the perceived quality of the offering. Finally, confidence in the foreign retailer plays a moderating role between the perceived quality of the offering and purchasing intentions. It may be noted that the three factors having a direct impact on purchasing intentions, as well as the moderator, relate to specific issues while shopping on the Internet, while the other three factors relate to the international nature of the cross-border Internet purchase. This suggests that the international dimension interferes with purchasing on the Internet when buying from a foreign retailer. The experience of cross-border shopping on the Internet could be considered to be an electronic experience, added to which the international dimension influences the consumer experience and purchasing intentions, chiefly by influencing the perception of the foreign retailer’s offering. The proposed conceptual model calls for understanding the set of determinants of cross-border Internet purchasing intentions. Even though this phenomenon is growing rapidly, marketing research in this area is scarce. It is necessary to understand the experience of cross-border purchasing on the Internet to better comprehend not only this growing trend, but also to enable significant managerial contributions.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Corresponding to these shifts in various business sectors is the study conducted by Lin (2011) analyzing where the implementation of technological innovation happens the fastest. Boeuf and Sénécal (2013) look at how consumer behaviors, as an effect of technological innovation, have sped up the process of globalization. This globalized economy, driven by both consumer demands and technology, is studied further by, Liu, Feils, and Scholnick (2011), who provide a list of reasons why companies have increased the level of offshore-outsourced operations. ...
... Although globalization became a relevant concept following modern transportation innovations, the internet has been credited with speeding up the globalization process and creating a continuous, smooth flow of business and communication across the globe (Naím, 2009). The rise of the internet has aided in tearing down consumer-borders geographically by opening a door to a global economy by connecting producers and consumers at the touch of a button (Boeuf and Sénécal, 2013). In doing so, competition for domestic goods increases with globalization attributable to an increased supply of goods and producers (Duarte and Restuccia, 2010). ...
... Another similar direct effect of Figure-1 globalization on the market is the development of pricing wars existing on a global scale (Duarte and Restuccia, 2010); consumers have access through the internet to compare prices globally, which, theoretically, speeds up the process of the market reaching equilibrium in terms of pricing (Boeuf and Sénécal, 2013). Businesses are forced into a global market with greater competition due to the entrance of other global businesses into local markets via the internet; as a result, producers must compete prices down to maintain their market share, not only in their local markets, but in a global environment, too (Duarte and Restuccia, 2010). ...
... Sustainability 2019, 11, 5371 2 of 18 affect the ease and simplicity of the purchase, as well as the role of trust in the retailer [2]. Therefore, it is plausible that factors influencing loyalty to an IOO platform differ from factors influencing loyalty to other platforms (e.g., domestic B2C or C2C, offline outshopping). ...
... International online outshopping (IOO) refers to consumers buying products and services across borders over the Internet with the click of a button [1,2]. Young people tend to favor IOO for cross-border online shopping. ...
... Loyalty to an IOO platform differs from loyalty to a domestic B2C or C2C platform because cross-border shoppers are brand-oriented, fashion-conscious, and expressive about foreign products and outshopping [9,10]. Boeuf and Sénécal [2] have indicated that IOO consumer behavior is likely driven by additional or distinct determinants. The experience of online outshopping differs from domestic online shopping (e.g., B2C or C2C) because it involves, in part, the international components of consumption (e.g., costs of shipping and customs, foreign language, well-known foreign brands) [1]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We draw upon the social capital theory in order to discuss how three dimensions of social capital affect consumer value and loyalty to online outshopping platforms. After considering the characteristics of consumers, we propose that the structural, relational, and cognitive dimensions of social capital promote consumers’ perceptions of utilitarian and idea shopping value, and that those perceived values increase loyalty to online outshopping platforms. The survey data of 291 Chinese consumers with online outshopping platform experience are used to test the model. The results show that different dimensions of consumers’ social capital influence their loyalty through different values. Utilitarian value mediates the effects of structural capital and cognitive capital on loyalty, whereas hedonic value (ideal shopping value) mediates the effects of structural and relational capital on loyalty.
... This does pose the question, however, how cross-border online trade has arrived on the demand side, in other words, how many customers purchase products online in foreign online shops or from foreign online merchants, whose products are subsequently sent to the domestic market from other countries. After all, even though spatial dimensions have ceded importance in the virtual space in the context of online purchasing transactions (cf., among others, Cairncross 2001;Varadarajan and Yadav 2002;Boeuf and Sénécal 2014), nonetheless the purchased goods must actually be sent to the customer by the merchant, often covering vast distances along the way. Ultimately, the scale of the demand side determines shipping volumes and thus also the levels of freight traffic. ...
... Yamin and Sinkovics (2006) describe the online internationalisation or cross-border online trade as 'the conduct of business transactions across national boundaries, where the "crossing" of national boundaries takes place in the virtual rather than the real or spatial domain'. Boeuf and Sénécal (2014) define 'international outshopping' as the opportunity to purchase products and services across borders using the Internet. Consequently, cross-border online shoppers are 'consumers who shop at foreign online stores that ship products from foreign countries' (Wagner, Schramm-Klein, and Schu 2016, 214). ...
... To date, very few studies have addressed crossborder e-commerce. Boeuf and Sénécal (2014) analysed determinants of cross-border e-commerce. They identified six factors and a moderator of cross-border shopping on the Internet: product quality, experiences with the merchant, language options, trust, price and costs, ethnocentrism and emotional factors. ...
Article
Against the background of increasing internationalisation and digitalisation, the importance of online purchasing transactions, carried out by consumers in countries other than their own, is steadily growing. This is accompanied by an increase in the volume of shipments and, inevitably, by a surge in the level of freight traffic. On the part of the consumers, gaining insights into the ecological consequences of their behaviour has resulted in a greater degree of environmental awareness. This study aims to examine the extent to which this increase in ecologically-oriented sensitivity has an impact on the decision to make a cross-border online purchase. The results are based on a survey of 1,225 students and academic staff at a university. 68 % of the respondents have previously made an online purchase from a foreign online shop or online merchant. The analysis reveals that while there is an awareness of and knowledge about sustainable action, they do not play any part in the decision to make a cross-border online purchase.
... domestic) shopping behaviours. For example, a foreign retailer's language might differ from that spoken in the consumer's home country; taxes on goods might be different, and exchange rates might need to be taken into account; the consumer may experience disorientation in a different cultural environment; and the consumer's attitude towards foreign products, brands and retailers may play an important role in his or her shopping intentions (Boeuf and Senecal 2014). Therefore, compared with domestic forms of outshopping, the international experience may generate different consumer perceptions. ...
... Cheng et al. (2008) investigate e-tailer service quality, its antecedents and its consequences for cross-border online purchasing risks. Conceptually, Safari and Thilenius (2013) analyse consumers' specific uncertainties (e. g., the complexity of product returns, their lack of information about the legal system, language or customer rights) when purchasing from foreign e-tailers, while Boeuf and Senecal (2014) describe six factors that may affect cross-border online shopping intentions. In sum, the literature indicates that cross-border online shopping differs from domestic online shopping because it involves an international component and from physical international cross-border shopping because it involves no travel. ...
... Moreover, we answer the call of Boeuf and Senecal (2014), who indicate that cross-border consumer behaviour is likely driven by some additional or distinct determinants that must be analysed and understood. Therefore, we analyse the types of risks and benefits that affect consumers' online shopping behaviours across national borders. ...
... Even if retailers are not actively trying to sell their merchandise internationally through adaption of offerings to foreign customers or international marketing efforts, online orders may come from outside the home country. If online retailers understand the intentions and characteristics of the growing segment of consumers that shop online across borders, it might be possible to prevent domestic customers from shopping abroad and to lead foreign shoppers to the domestic online store (Boeuf & Senecal, 2014). Hence, it is of strategic relevance, to know how perceived benefits and risks of cross-border online shoppers differ from domestic online shoppers and what moderates the intention of online shopping abroad. ...
... Cross-border shopping literature also emphasizes the difference between consumers who travel to another country for the explicit purpose of shopping (e.g., Lau, 2005;Sullivan, Bonn, Bhardwaj & DuPont, 2012) and purchasing activities of consumers that shop away from home when visiting a country for business or vacation (Sharma et al., 2015). Compared to domestic forms of outshopping, the international experience may bring differences to the consumer perception: the foreign retailer's language might differ from that of the consumer's home country, taxes on goods might be different and exchange rates might need to be taken into account, the consumer may experience disorientation from a different cultural environment, and the attitude toward foreign products, brands and retailers may play an important role for shopping intentions (Boeuf & Senecal, 2014). ...
... Cross-border online shopping differs from domestic online shopping (because it involves an international component) or physically international cross-border shopping (because it involves no traveling). Therefore, consumer behavior is likely to be driven by some additional or distinct determinants that need to be analyzed and understood (Boeuf & Senecal, 2014). ...
... domestic) shopping behaviours. For example, a foreign retailer's language might differ from that spoken in the consumer's home country; taxes on goods might be different, and exchange rates might need to be taken into account; the consumer may experience disorientation in a different cultural environment; and the consumer's attitude towards foreign products, brands and retailers may play an important role in his or her shopping intentions (Boeuf and Senecal 2014). Therefore, compared with domestic forms of outshopping, the international experience may generate different consumer perceptions. ...
... Cheng et al. (2008) investigate e-tailer service quality, its antecedents and its consequences for cross-border online purchasing risks. Conceptually, Safari and Thilenius (2013) analyse consumers' specific uncertainties (e. g., the complexity of product returns, their lack of information about the legal system, language or customer rights) when purchasing from foreign e-tailers, while Boeuf and Senecal (2014) describe six factors that may affect cross-border online shopping intentions. In sum, the literature indicates that cross-border online shopping differs from domestic online shopping because it involves an international component and from physical international cross-border shopping because it involves no travel. ...
... Moreover, we answer the call of Boeuf and Senecal (2014), who indicate that cross-border consumer behaviour is likely driven by some additional or distinct determinants that must be analysed and understood. Therefore, we analyse the types of risks and benefits that affect consumers' online shopping behaviours across national borders. ...
... This can result in some confusion, so this study chose to use the term outshopping, as it is among the most commonly used by academics (e.g. Boeuf and Senecal 2013). Definitions are also varied and sometimes very specific, such as Arnold and Reynolds who defined outshoppers as consumers spending '15% or more of total annual expenditures out of town, but less than 5% through in-home methods ' (2003, 108). ...
... Other studies have focused on international outshopping that is performed online, taking into account that the Internet facilitates purchases without requiring travel. Such was the case of Boeuf and Senecal (2013), which defined the phenomenon as a cross-border Internet purchase. That said, overseas international outshopping that is performed offline has remained uninvestigated. ...
Download a free pdf: https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/R78NASXBINEQXHDNSCZR/full?target=10.1080/09593969.2017.1364656 Outshopping is defined as purchasing goods outside of consumers’ trading areas. Despite threatening local economies, outshopping generates opportunities for the new trading areas in which it occurs. Studies on outshopping have reported contradictory results and academics suggest further research, especially in relation to consumers’ micro-level characteristics. Moreover, few studies have focused on the U.S. as the trading area and apparel as the traded product. Based on the theory of reasoned action, this quantitative study explores how attitudes toward international outshopping and subjective norm influence purchase intention of apparel goods among international outshoppers in the U.S. by focusing on four characteristics of international outshoppers – self-control in terms of spending, the desire for unique products, age, and gender – as antecedents of attitudes toward outshopping. Colombian consumers (South America) were chosen as respondents because market reports indicate that the U.S. is their top favorite international tourist destination. Findings suggest that more positive attitudes toward outshopping apparel in the U.S. were found among female consumers with higher self-control over their expenditures. Respondents were also influenced by the opinion of others; while age and desire for unique products were found non-significant. By understanding international outshoppers, marketers can develop unique market strategies for attracting global consumers.
... Language distance is another psychic distance dimension that has received empirical confirmation in the research community (Dow and Karunaratna, 2006). Because the language of foreign online retailers may be different from that of consumers in their own countries, consumers may lose their direction in different cultural environments (Boeuf and Senecal, 2014). If they think it takes too much time to understand the content on foreign websites, they may become less willing to participate. ...
Article
Purpose The psychic distance often hinders the interaction between cross-border e-commerce (CBEC) and consumers. This paper aims to discuss the issues of psychic distance of consumers in the CBEC. In addition, it attempts to explain the factors that affect psychic distance from three dimensions of culture, economy and politics and the two different shopping behaviors caused by psychic distance. Design/methodology/approach This research incorporates both theoretical and empirical studies. In this study, 249 validated questionnaires were selected from 300 Chinese CBEC consumers by snowball sampling, and the relationship between variables was tested using structural equation model (SEM). This was done through online research, and it is ensured that the data obtained are first-hand information. Findings The paper suggests the theoretical model operationalizing CBEC psychic distance and the empirical analysis results show that all the six influencing factors have a positive impact on the psychic distance of consumers. Logistics infrastructure barriers in the economic dimension are confirmed as the major influencing factor, and the significance of the political dimension is relatively small. Based on consumers' uncertainty of various kinds of information, psychic distance subconsciously causes consumers to deviate in the cross-shopping process. Originality/value Currently, research on e-commerce mainly focuses on saving trade costs and improving consumer welfare, while research on the internal impact of CBEC on consumers is insufficient. Psychic distance is a new concept in the field of cultural and social research. The originality of this paper is that the concept of psychic distance has been extended from overseas invested enterprises to research with CBEC consumers as the selected object. The obstacles of CBEC have been widely studied, but few are related to the closeness of consumers, or the inner feelings of consumers are ignored. In the context of CBEC, this paper lists the actual external factors and potential threats that may affect consumers' consumption concerns of CBEC from three dimensions. The real emotions of consumers in the face of these difficulties indirectly affect the purchase satisfaction and reduce the purchase desire. Consumer psychic distance is a real phenomenon in cross-border shopping, and it is almost inevitable for these difficulties. On the premise of inevitability, high psychic distance will slow down cross-border shopping in the eyes of consumers.
... Entsprechend der in der Literaturübersicht vorgestellten einschlägigen wissenschaftlichen Literatur zu Einflussfaktoren auf das cross-border Onlinekaufverhalten wurden die Faktoren Vertrauen (BOEUF / SÉNÉCAL 2014, CARDONA et al. 2015, Produkteigenschaft (CHANG et al. 2005, JARRATT 2000, BOEUF / SÉNÉCAL 2014, CARDONA et al. 2015, SHARMA et al. 2015, Servicequalität (CHANG et al. 2005, CHENG et al. 2008 Bei den beiden, ein umweltbewusstes Handeln implizierenden Hypothesen, wurde allerdings von einem negativen linearen Zusammenhang ausgegangen, in dem Sinne, dass je umweltbewusster Menschen sind, umso weniger werden sie grenzüberschreitend einkaufen. So wurde nach dem Bewusstsein für negative Folgen des zunehmenden grenzüberschreitenden Onlinehandels gefragt. ...
Article
Full-text available
Die großen Städte Deutschlands wachsen derzeit besonders stark. So wird für Berlin eine Zunahme der Bevölkerung von 2015 bis 2030 um über 250.000 Einwohner erwartet. Bei gleichzeitiger Veränderung von Konsumgewohnheiten und Angebotsstrukturen ist davon auszugehen, dass die Auswirkungen auf die Verkehrsnachfrage und das Verkehrsaufkommen signifikant sein werden. Dabei sind schon jetzt die verkehrsbedingten Emissionen gerade in Städten beträchtlich und beeinflussen die Lebensqualität. Aktuelle Forschung geht davon aus, dass Lebensmittel-Lieferservices zu einer Reduktion der Fahrleistung und der Emissionen beitragen können, indem sie weniger effiziente private Einkaufsfahrten ersetzen (ROTEM-MINDALI / WELTEVREDEN 2013: 879). Dabei berück-sichtigen die uns bekannten Studien in der Emissionsberechnung allerdings nicht die Kühlung von Lebensmitteln. Führen vor diesem Hintergrund solche Services tatsächlich zu einem Rückgang von Emissionen und wie wirkt sich dies räumlich aus? Der vorliegende Beitrag schlägt eine Kombination von Modellen für die Simulation von Verkehrs-nachfrage im Personen- und Güterverkehr vor und analysiert am Beispiel der Stadt Berlin die potentiellen Auswirkungen der zunehmenden Nutzung von Lebensmittel-Heimbelieferung auf Verkehrsleistung und CO2-Emissionen im Jahr 2030. Wir zeigen, dass vor allem die notwendige Lebensmittelkühlung einen negativen Effekt auf die Emissionsbilanz aus Einkaufsverkehr und Lieferverkehr hat. Kühlbedingte Emissionen betragen in unserem Fallbeispiel mehr als das Dreifache des Kraftstoffverbrauchs für Fahrten allein und wirken somit nicht emissionsreduzierend, sondern erhöhen sogar den CO2-Gesamtausstoß. Deutlich stärker sind von diesem Effekt die schon verkehrsbelasteten Innenstadtregionen Berlins betroffen, während in weniger nachfragestarken Stadtrandregionen die Emissionen zurückgehen. Um die Lebensqualität in Städten sicherzustellen sind somit energieeffiziente und umweltschonende Technologien nicht nur für den Antrieb, sondern auch die Kühlung der Fahrzeuge erforderlich.
Chapter
This qualitative research aims to explore and determine the values relating to co-creation in an omnichannel environment that could save the company in an era of covid-19. To serve the objectives of our research, we conducted semi-structured interviews. Thanks to these interviews with mixed consumers, it appears that the more the consumer multiplies the channels, the more he generates value. Referring to the theory of value, our results suggest other types of value such as informative value, social value, convenience value, and recreational value. The results thus obtained allow us to highlight the importance of these types of values. In view of these results, we can recommend to companies that have chosen omnichannel strategies as an axis of differentiation, to favour the convenience of different channels, especially those that are digital, and to enhance their playful, informative and social characteristics. The use of different channels, especially during coronavirus, can be a facilitating element to co-create value. In future research, we recommend to validate our results quantitatively.
Chapter
Full-text available
Der Onlinehandel hat mit Fortschreiten der Technik und der steigenden Anzahl von Anbietern in den letzten Jahren weltweit zugenommen. Der HDE prognostiziert für den inländischen deutschen Onlinehandel (B2C) für das Jahr 2018 einen Umsatz von 53,6 Mrd. Euro, was einem Wachstum von 9,6 % im Vergleich zum Vorjahr entspräche (Handelsverband Deutschland HDE 2018:4). Weitaus größere Wachstumschancen werden beim grenzüberschreitenden Onlinehandel gesehen: bei einer jährlichen Wachstumsrate von 25 % wird damit gerechnet, dass 2020 eine Billion US-Dollar weltweit im cross-border e-commerce umgesetzt werden (McKinsey & Company 2017). Im Jahr 2016 haben laut einer Studie von WAGNER et al. (2016) zum grenz-überschreitenden Onlinehandel 56,8 % der Befragten in den letzten 12 Monaten mindestens einmal in einem ausländischen Onlineshop eingekauft (ebd.: 218). Um den grenzüberschreitenden Onlinehandel für noch mehr Konsumenten attraktiv zu machen, ist die Europäische Kommission bestrebt, im Rahmen ihrer “digitalen Agenda” (Ziel ist die Errichtung eines EU-weiten gemeinsamen digitalen Binnenmarktes), Hürden und Hemmnisse für den grenzüberschreitenden Onlinehandel abzubauen (u. a. Abbau rechtlicher Hindernisse, Verbot von Geoblocking sowie der Verringerung von Lieferkosten für den cross-border Onlinehandel (vgl. Europäische Kommission 2016). Die Internationalisierung und Digitalisierung des Handels eröffnet den Konsumenten die Möglichkeit, auf ein breiteres und internationaleres Warenangebot zurückzugreifen. Korrespondierend mit den politischen Initiativen gibt es somit auch seitens des Handels sowie von Konsumgüterherstellern Bestrebungen, den internationalen Onlinehandel weiter auszubauen. Der Fokus der Unternehmen liegt hier nicht nur auf Lieferbeziehungen innerhalb Europas, sondern ebenfalls auf dem Aufbau von weltweiten Vermarktungsstrukturen. So versenden zahlreiche Onlinehändler bereits ins (auch außereuropäische) Ausland; umgekehrt finden sich auf Marktplätzen wie Amazon (Deutschland) eine Vielzahl internationaler Händler, die Produkte direkt auf dem deutschen Markt anbieten. Mit der Errichtung eines digitalen Binnenmarktes und einem Anstieg der weltweiten Internationalisierung des Onlinehandels wird neben den angestrebten positiven Effekten, wie der freie Verkehr von Waren, Personen, Dienstleistungen, Kapital und Daten und der freie und faire Online-Zugang für Konsumenten und Unternehmen zu Waren auf der ganzen Welt, ein Anstieg internationaler Warenströme einhergehen. Dadurch wird die Güterverkehrsproduktion zunehmen, was mit einer erheblichen Erhöhung der Umweltbelastung durch Emission von Luftschadstoffen und Treibhausgasen verbunden ist (ZANKER 2018: 36). Während über die Wirkungen des Onlinehandels auf den Einkaufsverkehr bereits geforscht wurde (u. a. ROTEM-MINDALI / WELTEVREDEN 2013), spielen ökologische Folgen des zunehmenden Güterverkehrs (wie eine erhöhte Emissionsbelastung) bisher eine untergeordnete Rolle. Auf der Angebotsseite der Logistikunternehmen konnten die Ergebnisse empirischer Studien verdeutlichen, “dass zwar das Schlagwort Nachhaltigkeit in den Unternehmen angekommen ist, eine stringente Umsetzung der Inhalte allerdings bei weitem noch nicht erfolgt” (NEIBERGER 2015: 88). Inwiefern die Debatte um zunehmenden Güterverkehr und entsprechender ökologischer Konsequenzen für die Nachfrageseite eine Rolle bei der Entscheidung für einen grenzüberschreitenden Onlineeinkauf spielt, wurde bisher nicht betrachtet. Hier soll die folgende Studie ansetzen und die Forschungsfragen beantworten, welche Faktoren den grenzüberschreitenden Onlinehandel beeinflussen und ob nachhaltige Überlegungen (ökologisches Handeln) seitens der Verbraucher auch bei einer cross-border-Bestellung zum Tragen kommen, sind doch die so generierten Entfernungen teilweise äußerst erheblich.
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study is to investigate purchase intent in online marketplaces as an international phenomenon. A profile of the international online consumer is established, taking into account factors such as indicators of socio-economic development of their home countries. A structural model is analyzed using LISREL, testing the importance of CSR, the propensity to buy from international online vendors and commitment with purchase intent as the dependent variable. A cross-national dataset of 804 respondents from 57 countries is analyzed, showing that CSR activities alone do not increase purchasing intent, but they do when mediated by commitment.
Article
Full-text available
The authors examine the implications of electronic shopping for consumers, retailers, and manufacturers. They assume that near-term technological developments will offer consumers unparalleled opportunities to locate and compare product offerings. They examine these advantages as a function of typical consumer goals and the types of products and services being sought and offer conclusions regarding consumer incentives and disincentives to purchase through interactive home shopping vis-à-vis traditional retail formats. The authors discuss implications for industry structure as they pertain to competition among retailers, competition among manufacturers, and retailer-manufacturer relationships.
Article
Full-text available
Les avancées conceptuelles sont essentielles à la vitalité de la discipline marketing d’autant plus que des travaux récents suggèrent que les avancées conceptuelles dans le domaine sont en train de ralentir. L’auteur aborde la question en développant un cadre de pensée portant sur la conceptualisation en marketing. À la définition de la conceptualisation succède une typologie des contributions conceptuelles. Les types de contributions conceptuelles sont décrits ainsi que leurs points communs, leurs différences et leur importance au sein de la discipline. Les facultés de réflexion liées aux différents types de contributions conceptuelles sont également décrites ainsi que l’utilisation d’outils pouvant favoriser ces facultés. L’article conclut par un ensemble de recommandations visant à faire avancer la conceptualisation dans notre discipline dans les années à venir.
Article
Full-text available
Un cadre d'apprehension des specificites du comportement du consommateur sur un site marchand est propose. Sa construction, guidee par l'impact de la technologie et notamment de l'interactivite, s'appuie sur la mise en regard des connaissances actuelles sur le comportement du consommateur en ligne avec la litterature classique sur le magasinage (faire des courses ou shopping).
Article
Full-text available
This empirical paper explores the antecedents and consequences of trust in the online retail context and examines the moderating role of consumers' familiarity with a Web site in the relationship between Web site quality and trust. Data were collected with an online questionnaire. The research highlights the importance of the Web site interface in consumer online behavior by systematically examining how different quality features affect consumer trust. A multidimensional view of Web site quality with the following dimensions is developed: Web site usability, security and privacy assurance, and product information quality. Trust is shown to lead to positive consequences, such as the formation of positive attitudes and behavioral intentions toward the Web site. The study also identifies the moderating role of Web site familiarity in the relationships between aspects of Web site quality and trust. The implications for e-retailers in terms of Web site design and marketing communications strategy are explored. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
Full-text available
An e-vendor's website inseparably embodies an interaction with the vendor and an interaction with the IT website interface. Accordingly, research has shown two sets of unrelated usage antecedents by customers: (1) customer trust in the e-vendor and (2) customer assessments of the IT itself, specifically the perceived usefulness and perceived ease-of-use of the website as depicted in the technology acceptance model (TAM). Research suggests, however, that the degree and impact of trust, perceived usefulness, and perceived ease of use change with experience. Using existing, validated scales, this study describes a free-simulation experiment that compares the degree and relative importance of customer trust in an e-vendor vis-a-vis TAM constructs of the website, between potential (i.e., new) customers and repeat (i.e., experienced) ones. The study found that repeat customers trusted the e-vendor more, perceived the website to be more useful and easier to use, and were more inclined to purchase from it. The data also show that while repeat customers' purchase intentions were influenced by both their trust in the e-vendor and their perception that the website was useful, potential customers were not influenced by perceived usefulness, but only by their trust in the e-vendor. Implications of this apparent trust-barrier and guidelines for practice are discussed.
Article
The authors address the role of marketing in hypermedia computer-mediated environments (CMEs). Their approach considers hypermedia CMEs to be large-scale (i.e., national or global) networked environments, of which the World Wide Web on the Internet is the first and current global implementation. They introduce marketers to this revolutionary new medium, propose a structural model of consumer navigation behavior in a CME that incorporates the notion of flow, and examine a series of research issues and marketing implications that follow from the model.
Article
What types of shoppers are most loyal to their local retail area? What types are most likely to travel long distances in order to shop in other areas? What do these out-of-town shoppers buy? This analysis of out-of-town shopping by the residents of a small Pennsylvania city investigates the relationship between shoppers' personal characteristics and attitudes toward local market conditions and their movements outside their local retail area.
Article
The concept of consumer ethnocentrism is introduced and a corresponding measure, the CETSCALE, is formulated and validated. Four separate studies provide support for the CETSCALE's reliability and convergent and discriminant validity. A series of nomological validity tests show consumer ethnocentrism to be moderately predictive of theoretically related constructs.
Article
Shopping is one of the most enjoyable leisure-time activities for many tourists. It is, for some destinations, the primary reason for tourism. This article introduces a conceptual model on cross-border shopping built on the extant literature of outshopping, cross-border shopping, and border travel. The authors incorporate macro- and microanalytical factors that influence cross-border shopping behavior. It is hypothesized that market and consumer characteristics (i.e., macro and micro factors) affect cross-border shopping. The model has been tested with data collected from1,000 Hong Kong residents. Findings of this study confirmed that cross-border shopping behavior was affected by the macroenvironmental factors (market characteristics) of the shopping area and socioeconomic as well as motivational characteristics of the consumer (microanalytical factors). On the other hand, the impact of traveling distance between the tourist's place of residence and the shopping area on cross-border shopping was found to be nonsignificant. Implications for retailers and tourism-related institutions are discussed.
Article
Abstract Outshopping has been studied in the marketing literature for years, and research has identified some compelling reasons for people to shop out of their home country. Outshoppers literally go extra miles to outshop for better quality and assortment of merchandise, higher quality of personal service, more pleasant shopping atmospherics, and more competitive prices. In this study, we propose that outshopping enjoyment is not only directly related to outshopping, as are the earlier outshopping determinants, but mediate the relationships between those cognitive determinants and outshopping behaviour. In addition, we explore how patriotism and terror would affect people's outshopping frequency. Managerial and research implications are also discussed.
Article
Competitive strategy is primarily concerned with how a business should deploy resources at its disposal to achieve and maintain defensible competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. Competitive marketing strategy focuses on how a business should deploy marketing resources at its disposal to facilitate the achievement and maintenance of competitive positional advantages in the marketplace. In a growing number of product-markets, the competitive landscape has evolved from a predominantly physical marketplace to one encompassing both the physical and the electronic marketplace. This article presents a conceptual framework delineating the drivers and outcomes of marketing strategy in the context of competing in this broader, evolving marketplace. The proposed framework provides insights into changes in the nature and scope of marketing strategy; specific industry, product, buyer, and buying environment characteristics; and the unique skills and resources of the firm that assume added relevance in the context of competing in the evolving marketplace.
Article
The accelerating growth in technology-based self-service today is giving rise to questions about the acceptance of such forms of service delivery by all kinds of consumers and under different situational contexts. This study investigates the moderating effects of consumer traits and situational factors on the relationships within a core attitudinal model for technology-based self-service. An experimental design is used with perceived waiting time and social anxiety (through perceived crowding) as the situational treatments. Relevant consumer traits for technology-based self-service are examined and include inherent novelty seeking, self-efficacy with respect to technology self-consciousness, and the need for interaction with an employee. The results lend support to the hypothesized moderating effects. Implications for service practitioners as well as directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Consumer ethnocentrism is an important concept that is used to understand international marketing phenomena. In this article, the authors conduct two empirical studies. Using consumer data from the United States, South Korea, and India (three diverse cultural and economic environments), they explore six hypotheses. In Stage 1, the results suggest that across all three countries, consumer ethnocentrism provokes negative attitudes toward both foreign advertisements and foreign products. The authors identify a set of consumer variables (i.e., consumers’ global mind-set) that may mediate consumers’ unfavorable attitudes toward foreign advertisements and products derived by consumer ethnocentrism. In Stage 2, the authors find that consumer ethnocentrism dampens consumers’ online consumption activities on a foreign Web site. Finally, the authors find that marketers’ e-mail communications to foreign consumers mediate consumer ethnocentrism in online environments.
Article
Innovators represent a small and somewhat elusive group of consumers who are often the earliest adopters of new products. As such, marketing researchers and practitioners alike are interested in determining the personality characteristics that influence innovators to purchase a new product early in the product life cycle. This correlational study examined the relationships of three of these characteristics (susceptibility to interpersonal influence, attention to social comparison information, and role-relaxed consumption) to individual innate innovativeness. Data were collected using self-report surveys administered to 326 students at a large public university in the south-east United States. The results supported hypothesized negative relationships between consumer innovativeness and both susceptibility to interpersonal influence and attention to social comparison information, as well as a positive relationship between consumer innovativeness and role-relaxed consumption.
Article
The authors investigate the impact of satisfaction on loyalty in the context of electronic commerce. Findings of this research indicate that although e-satisfaction has an impact on e-loyalty, this relationship is moderated by (a) consumers' individual level factors and (b) firms' business level factors. Among consumer level factors, convenience motivation and purchase size were found to accentuate the impact of e-satisfaction on e-loyalty, whereas inertia suppresses the impact of e-satisfaction on e-loyalty. With respect to business level factors, both trust and perceived value, as developed by the company, significantly accentuate the impact of e-satisfaction on e-loyalty. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.