Article

The Use of Football as a Country Branding Strategy. Case Study: Qatar and the Catalan Sports Press

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  • University of Vic-Central University of Catalonia
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Abstract

The main objective of this article is to analyse the sport place branding strategy of Qatar, a Persian Gulf country that is using the income from the commercialisation of its gas to create an economy, which can be successful in the future without depending on this natural source. Sport, above all football, has been a key sector in which the Qatari government believes in order to promote the image of its country worldwide. One of the most interesting examples used in this article is the relationship between the Qatar Foundation and FC Barcelona. Using a qualitative methodology, this article aims to understand the key pillars of this strategy and why sport mega-events have been so important when governments want to increase their reputation in the international sphere.

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... Most importantly, a soft power approach assumes that governments benefit from hosting mega sport events by improving the image of their country. Thus, scholars have pointed out that soft power strategies include nation branding, that is, attempts to favorably change the perceptions of a country and the values associated with it (Fan, 2008;Ginesta & de San Eugenio, 2014;Rein & Shields, 2007). Following Xifra (2009) as well as Ginesta and San Eugenio (2014), such attempts of nation or place branding can be described as public diplomacy, more precisely as government relations with international publics. ...
... Thus, scholars have pointed out that soft power strategies include nation branding, that is, attempts to favorably change the perceptions of a country and the values associated with it (Fan, 2008;Ginesta & de San Eugenio, 2014;Rein & Shields, 2007). Following Xifra (2009) as well as Ginesta and San Eugenio (2014), such attempts of nation or place branding can be described as public diplomacy, more precisely as government relations with international publics. Sport has been characterized as a prime venue for creating and inventing a unique place identity (Ginesta & San Eugenio, 2014). ...
... Following Xifra (2009) as well as Ginesta and San Eugenio (2014), such attempts of nation or place branding can be described as public diplomacy, more precisely as government relations with international publics. Sport has been characterized as a prime venue for creating and inventing a unique place identity (Ginesta & San Eugenio, 2014). Rein and Shields (2007) even claim that hosting a mega sport event is the best opportunity for nation branding, in particular for countries trying to change perceptions (Rein & Shields, 2007). ...
Article
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Previous research has shown that governments have often used mega sport events to convey a positive image of their nation to a global audience, whereas Western-based non-governmental organizations use these events to criticize social ills in the host countries. Research presented here asks to what extent attempts at politicization have prevailed with regard to the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia. The question is addressed with a quantitative content analysis of English Twitter messages (N = 14,366,447) surrounding the Russian World Cup. The analysis points to several attempts to politicize the event, however with limited resonance. Among political tweets, those that criticize the suppression of homosexuals in Russia gained most but only short-lived attention. Sentiment analyses further indicate that negative messages declined in the course of the World Cup; hence, the event might have distracted audiences from political issues and created a “feel-good effect.” The 2018 World Cup appeared as a “normal” mega sport event on Twitter.
... Global stars have emerged, starting with the English player David Beckham and also including the Argentine Lionel Messi and Portuguese Cristiano Ronaldo. Above all, the internationalization of football has played a crucial role in some countries' strategy of country branding, including China, Russia, and Qatar (Ginesta & San Eugenio, 2014). ...
... Hence, the 21st century has seen the emergence of new actors in the football market, whose investments go far beyond the speculative capital that American investors brought to the Premier League (Ginesta, 2011b). Today, the Governments of Qatar and China have made it clear that their soft power (Nye, 2004) depends not only on their economic influence but also on their ambition to be sporting powers (Connell, 2017;Ginesta & San Eugenio, 2014). In fact, Rein and Shields (2007) already pointed out that sport is an active form of geopolitical positioning of growing importance for many states. ...
... In addition, sports organizations (including football clubs) increasingly collaborate to meet the geopolitical positioning needs of certain states or regions (Ginesta & San Eugenio, 2014;San Eugenio, Ginesta, & Xifra, 2017). To define the phenomenon, in the framework of soft power (Nye, 2004) and public diplomacy (Cull, 2008) studies, Murray (2012, p. 576) developed the concept of "sports diplomacy": It involves representative and diplomatic activities undertaken by sports people on behalf of and in conjunction with their governments. ...
Article
The global football industry is changing clubs’ corporate identities. Historically, European football had strong local roots; sport organizations represented local values and fandom were regionally based. However, sporting competitiveness pushes clubs to search for new investors, and foreign investors in Europe are attracted by the popularity of European football. In this article, we analyse how Chinese capital and brands arrived in Barcelona, through the negotiations of a football club in 2016: the Reial Club Deportiu Espanyol (RCDE). RCDE is the club that has received the second most trophies in Catalonia, after FC Barcelona, since the beginning of the 20th century. Today, it has one of the most modern stadiums in Spain, designed using a business approach, and has become a corporate ambassador for the Chinese government’s strategy of becoming a “world football superpower” by 2050. Using a case study approach, this article analyses management and corporate identity changes in the organization due to the new Chinese owner: the Rastar Group.
... Similarly, Eckstein and Delaney (2002: 235) explain that new venues offer some interesting intangible social benefits regarding the creation of a collective conscience, and Horne (2011: 207) states that 'iconic stadium construction is about flagging transnational places and creating a symbolic capital to attract middle-class and upper middle-class visitors'. To sum up, we can consider that sport venues play their part in the competition for global promotion and branding of cities (Ginesta and de San Eugenio, 2014;Horne, 2011). ...
... Global football brands, such as Real Madrid and FC Barcelona, have become civil ambassadors of their local cities worldwide (Ginesta and de San Eugenio, 2014). As FC Barcelona Marketing & Meeting Events Department recognized: ...
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In 2014, FC Barcelona and Real Madrid presented a project for the remodelling of their stadia. The new stadia of both clubs will be, not only a place to attend live sports events, but also somewhere fans will be able to consume both football brands permanently, every moment of the day. Currently, stadia have become commodities themselves. At a time when TV rights in Spain were thrown into crisis, sports organizations understand that sports venues allow them to create other significant income sources that could help them to increase their season’s turnover. Hospitality and events packages, for example, are part of this leisure product that professional football clubs offer in their venues. The aim of this article is to analyse how Spanish professional football clubs attempt to maximize the use of their stadiums, and how these venues are also part of a wider city branding strategy for the host cities. Data for this qualitative research are taken from the Spanish football clubs that have UEFA Category 4 stadia: FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, Atlético de Madrid, Atletic Club de Bilbao, Málaga CF, Real Sociedad, RCD Espanyol and València CF.
... Qatar is endowed with natural gas and oil. It has the third largest natural gas reserves in the world (Ginesta & de San Eugenio, 2014;Peterson, 2006;U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2015). ...
... For instance, Qatar earned US$38 billion from oil exports in 2014 (U.S. Energy Information Administration, 2015). Although Qatar's economic development and business progress have largely depended on natural gas and oil revenues, there is concern that these fossil fuel resources will be depleted in the future (Ginesta & de San Eugenio, 2014;Khodr, 2012;Qatar General Secretariat for Development Planning, 2012). Morakabati, Beavis, and Fletcher (2014) indicate that "Qatar currently produces 1.4 million barrels of oil per day…At current rates of production, Qatar will exhaust its proven oil reserves half way through the twenty-first century, a daunting picture for Qatar's future generations, and a major factor associated with the decision to diversify its economy to non-energy sectors" (p. ...
... Externally, participation in international sport organizations and events has become a rite of passage into the circle of recognized nation states (Horton, 2013) and therefore a means of legitimization (Ben-Porat, 2000;Rolim Silva, 2014;Zhouxiang, 2011). The field of international sports has also become an important platform for public diplomacy, country branding and PR (Ginesta and de San Eugenio, 2014;Koch, 2013;Ndlovu-Gatsheni, 2011), particularly through hosting or bidding for sport mega-events (Cornelissen, 2008;Grix and Lee, 2013). ...
Article
The article explores the intersections between sport, state and resistance in the context of military occupation and independence struggle. Based on a year of fieldwork in the local sports clubs in the West Bank, it analyses how sport may be used as a tool of resistance and state-building on the community level. For decades preceding the establishment of the Palestinian Authority in 1994, sport and youth centres were important sites of socio-political mobilization and took an active part in the national effort to build structures independent from the Israeli occupation. Following the Oslo Accords, state-building became institutionalized and outsourced to the emergent central institutions of the Palestinian Authority. The article analyses this transition from the perspective of local clubs that went from being active actors of state-building through sport to being subjects of the Palestinian Authority’s efforts to consolidate its state-like powers. To understand how local sport activists made sense of these changes, the distinction between a bottom-up and a top-down approach to state-building through sport is made. The article aims to contribute to the ongoing debates on the use of sport in the service of nation state, by investigating the case of state-building through sport in the context of military occupation.
... On the national level, Qatar founded the high-performance centre, Aspire Academy for Sports Excellence 10 . Ginesta and Eugenio (Ginesta and Eugenio 2013) observe that based on the above examples, it's evident that Qatar's international placement is shaped by the development and execution of sports place branding, especially in football 11 . Qatar will host the 2022 FIFA World Cup and it represents an important milestone in appealing to massive sporting events with great media coverage and opens the doors for international promotion for Qatar 12 . ...
... In fact, place branding has become a discipline that has been growing constantly since the territories have taken advantage of great events, especially great sports events such as the Olympic Games or the FIFA World Cup, to open windows of opportunities for their promotion in international markets of tourists, talent and investment [17]. Unfortunately, it is not easy for these events to become part of a long-term and global strategy of territorial branding beyond immediate touristic promotion. ...
Article
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The main objective of this article is to analyse whether the positioning of the Pla de l'Estany district, in Catalonia, can be redefined in a context of possible saturation of the sports brand that was structured thanks to the success of the 1992 Olympic Games. Furthermore, this article aims to analyse how to design and implement long-term public policies in place branding. The Pla de l'Estany district is one of the smallest in Catalonia and had its moment of splendour during the Barcelona Olympic Games, which positioned it as a place of natural beauty and sports tourism. However, twenty-five years later, we ask whether this positioning needs to be updated. This research deploys a methodological triangulation that combines in-depth interviews with opinion leaders, discussions in focus groups and an online survey open to citizens. This research presents three conclusions: it places the processes of citizen participation as a key element in the construction of territorial brands; refocuses the narrative of the territory of the Pla de l'Estany based on the concepts of "sustainable nature" and "traditional culture"; and conceptualises place branding not just from the perspective of promoting tourism, but also from that of fomenting sustainable governance.
... One of the most interesting examples is the relationship between the Qatar Foundation and FC Barcelona. Using a qualitative methodology, this article aims to understand the key pillars of this strategy and why sport mega-events have been so important to governments seeking to increase their reputation in the international sphere (Ginesta Portet & di San Eugenio Vela, 2014). ...
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The current paper is looking into the way in which Qatar’s investment in sport, both directly and indirectly, is being perceived by the Israeli press. In order to accomplish the task set above, a content analysis of Qatar’s media coverage in the Israeli online press was conducted. Our analysis includes 1199 articles appearing in the mainstream online Israeli press and the findings point out to an interesting trend; there are significant differences between sport related stories, which present a political context and those who do not deal with politics which are significantly more supportive of Qatar.
... One of the most interesting examples is the relationship between the Qatar Foundation and FC Barcelona. Using a qualitative methodology, this article aims to understand the key pillars of this strategy and why sport mega-events have been so important to governments seeking to increase their reputation in the international sphere (Ginesta Portet & di San Eugenio Vela, 2014). ...
... In the Arab world, sports medicine started gaining attention during the late twentieth century and started flourishing during the early twenty-first century (Fares et al. 2017c). The globalization and commercialization of sports worldwide led to an increased interest and a surge in investments with regards to sports academies and institutions dedicated for injury research and rehabilitation (Ginesta and San Eugenio 2014). An example to this would be the establishment of Aspetar, the first specialized orthopedic and sports medicine hospital in the Gulf region (About Aspetar 2019). ...
Chapter
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The rise in popularity of sports worldwide has shed light on the importance of sports medicine on both individual and community-based levels. The increasing participation of Arab countries in global sporting events, the rise of talented Arab athletes worldwide, and the greater allocation of funds towards Arab sporting organizations have attracted many investors and promoters to the region. This helped establish better sporting facilities and enhance and promote athletic youth development. Nevertheless, sports medicine remains a young medical field in the Arab world. This is unfortunate, given the health problems facing Arab countries, evident by the prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity among its population. The Arab world is noticeably lagging when it comes to sports medicine research. The lack of research culture, deficiency of adequate funds, and the political turmoil embroiling the region are some of the reasons as to why this medical field is not developing properly. It is essential to solve these problems if we ought to remain up-to-date with the academic advancements achieved worldwide. Forging scientific collaborations, expanding research activities, and harboring political and regional stability are essential for the research culture to thrive and prosper in the Arab world.
... The implementation of soft power diplomacy during the 2018 Asian Games has involved many stakeholders in all aspects so that it can be said to be a form of successful public diplomacy. Public diplomacy is fully integrated with the process of forming a country's image (Ginesta and de San Eugenio, 2014). This is an advantage of implementing a swaggering strategy that uses soft power because it can be done by non-state actors. ...
Conference Paper
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The aim of this paper is to critically review various models of framing analysis approach based on the critical analysis of various relevant kinds of literature proposed by famous scholars who concern with the framing studies. The review of framing analysis models revealed that every different model of framing analysis approaches scientifically used to dig the typology of news framing in news text. Those differences derived from different ways of scholars critically viewed and interpreted the context of the philosophical and epistemological meaning of framing. The paper shows that the different framing analysis approaches used in media framing studies such as the internal structure of the media package, episodic vs thematic, multi-dimensional, structures of news discourse, the ’categorization’ concept, four functions of framing, framing deductive approach, and list of the frame.
... The city council has drawn up an urban renewal strategy that is not only based on "hard" elements such as architectural heritage and cultural infrastructure (García, 2004, Majoor, 2011 but also on "soft" components and stories that exploit the city's heritage, cultural diversity, literature and cultural festivals (Luna-Garcia, 2008;Patricio Mulero & Rius-Ulldemolins, 2017;Resina, 2019). Major sporting fixtures (such as Barcelona FC matches), and tourism and leisure features (beaches, gastronomy, etc.) are also grist to the mill in building the city as a brand (Casellas, 2009;Ginesta & De, 2014). In recent decades, the construction of new cultural facilities (Filmoteca, CCCB, MACBA, among many others) has boosted the city's cultural capital (Rius-Ulldemolins & Sánchez, 2015). ...
Article
The city of Barcelona in general and its historic center in particular have undergone a sea change from an industrial city to a global tourism and service center. Some authors argue that urban renewal schemes are ruining the heritage of cities. However, Barcelona showcases a kind of urban renewal which is culture-led yet conserves the city’s unique identity. This paper shows that in Barcelona’s case, the relationship between urban branding and urban renewal is dialectical and disputed rather than top-down and by dictate. Thus, in the case of the Raval district, the urban and cultural planning led by local government and cultural institutions is part of a concerted effort to turn a blighted area plagued by social problems into a new global cultural district. The renewal scheme brings the district’s activists and artists into the picture to come up with an inclusive, bottom-up approach to planning.
... The creation of place brands is sometimes the result (or a connected action) of a much longer term paradiplomatic strategy carried out by a specific public administration; and sometimes it requires actions of public diplomacy for the consolidation and strategic deployment of a campaign of place branding that allows the positioning of a place (city, region, country, etc.) on an international level to attract tourists, investments, and talent. Following Anholt (2006), Ginesta and San Eugenio (2013) state: Therefore, public diplomacy should no longer be limited to communicating and/or promoting the government's policies but should, in the spirit of nation branding, work to improve the nation's international reputation, which is conditioned by the image that it presents abroad. (p. ...
Article
Place branding is a relatively new transdisciplinary academic discipline. It is an evolution of what some researchers understood as “place or city marketing,” “place selling,” and “place promotion.” The three concepts analyze the need that territories have to position themselves in order to compete in the global markets through an eminently economic perspective. However, place branding rejects the corporate world to address, as positioning axes, the tangible and intangible values of a specific region and, therefore, its identity. Furthermore, public administrations have had to adopt strategies that link residents when designing place brands that can guarantee long-term narratives and become effective mechanisms for spatial planning, urban governance, local development, or economic promotion. Citizens’ engagement, at the grassroots level, has become a key element for the successful conceptualization and implementation of place brands. The current discipline of place branding is therefore totally linked to the political order. Public administrations become key actors in the development of place branding campaigns, not only in the local context but also at the national and international levels. The aim of this article is to present a theoretical evolution of place branding in order to find the most common links with the political order, as well as to design a conceptual framework to fit this discipline into the context of political science. This theoretical evolution will be conceived taking into account the results of previous empirical research that the authors conducted for different Catalan public administrations. The results of this article show clear synergies between four basic concepts: the place brand, its aim to contribute to sustainable planning, its influence on public governance decisions and, finally, its capacity to be central in the definition of public diplomacy programs outside the usual state-centric domain. Therefore, place branding led by public administrations—this is what we can understand as “public branding”—has a major and inevitable political focus.
... Despite the multiplicity of actors and the variety of sporting initiatives, the focus of academic and popular attention has often revolved around a few, limited questions. Qatar's sport strategy is normally looked at from a state-level perspective, and explored in terms of building 'soft power' (Antwi-Boateng, 2013;Krzyzaniak, 2018), diplomacy or branding the nation (Bromber, 2014;Ginesta & de San Eugenio, 2013). ...
Chapter
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Qatari citizens have been electing the Central Municipal Council (CMC) every four years since elections were first instituted in 1999. Although elections for the Consultative Council have been announced on numerous occasions since 2003, until today, the CMC remains the only elective Qatari institution. With local attributions, the CMC is a single body at national level, made up of 29 members who have neither executive nor legislative powers and whose role is limited to advising the Ministry of Municipalities on problems that arise in every municipality of the country. Although Qatari authorities have shown great interest in carrying out exemplary elections, the interest shown by citizens has not been comparable and instead showed a very low registration rate on the electoral roll and a decreasing voter turnout since 2015. This chapter addresses the question of why Qatari citizens have been reluctant to engage in the only election conducted in the country in high numbers, as could be expected and although they clearly express interest in ‘political issues’ in a number of different surveys. A preliminary conclusion for this question is the lack of attributions granted to the CMC and the low added value that the CMC has for the Qatari population.
... On the national level, Qatar founded the high-performance centre, Aspire Academy for Sports Excellence 10 . Ginesta and Eugenio (Ginesta and Eugenio 2013) observe that based on the above examples, it's evident that Qatar's international placement is shaped by the development and execution of sports place branding, especially in football 11 . Qatar will host the 2022 FIFA World Cup and it represents an important milestone in appealing to massive sporting events with great media coverage and opens the doors for international promotion for Qatar 12 . ...
Article
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Da fifa i 2010 uventet annonserte Qatar som vertsnasjon av vm i fotball i 2022, ble verdens oppmerksomhet umiddelbart rettet mot den lille ørkenstaten. Det autoritære emiratet fremsto som et av de mest usannsynlige vertslandene for det enorme arrangementet, og søknaden om å få holde fotball-vm nærmest som et pr-stunt. Planene var svært ambisiøse, og ett spørsmål dukket raskt opp: Hvorfor?
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The study analyses the extent to which the presence of a football club with an international projection increases the visibility and global projection of the city that it belongs to. It specifically focuses on knowledge of a selection of English and German cities. The analysis is based on probabilistic methodology and uses data from surveys completed by Catalan university students. Our findings demonstrate that cities with famous football clubs are better known than others from the same country and similar urban hierarchy. Moreover, the best-known cities are also the ones where football has the greatest weight in the overall knowledge of the city. Furthermore, the study also demonstrates that the inclusion of the name of the city in that of the football club becomes a key factor for determining the intensity of the previously mentioned effects.
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Singapore is a rapidly developing country with a diverse population sitting on one of the most strategic locations in the world—Strait of Malacca, which transports more than 50% of world’s commercial goods. Over the past fifty years, the country has transformed itself from a technology user to a technology developer. The main source of human and financial capital in the country is the foreign talent and direct investment. The government has established various agencies and institutions, such as Agency for Science, Technology and Research, to propel domestic innovation in collaboration with MNCs. Most importantly, the government has maintained a liberal immigration policy to attract the overseas talent. Moreover, the IP Act and Competition Act balance each other to promote competition between low-tech and high-tech enterprises but at the same time these regulations ensure a level playing field for all actors in the innovation system of Singapore. Similar to other innovation-driven countries, Singapore has also developed public research institutions, clusters, and science parks. In parallel to the institutional and infrastructure development, there has been an equal emphasis on training and development of human capital. On other hand, a host of public-private partnership programs, such as Technopreneurship21 and GET-UP, ensures collaboration between industries, universities and government at all levels.
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The innovation system and IUGP settings of Norway are of special interest because the country has transformed its oil and gas-based growth to knowledge-based development. Norwegian example is most suitable for the small-sized wealthy nations with abundant hydrocarbon resources which are committed to transform their natural capital to knowledge capital. This chapter provides a detailed account on the past and present of innovation system and IUGP initiatives that helped Norway in developing its knowledge ecosystem. We explore the cultural and institutional settings in Norway to find the needs and motivations to transform the Norwegian hydrocarbon economy to knowledge-based economy. The role of the state government has been remarkable in establishing the sector-based public research institutes and a collaborative framework between the research institutes, higher education institutes, and industry. In addition, the enactment of concession laws and the law on the right to inventions made by employees motivated the knowledge-based workforce to innovate and commercialize. At the same time, the establishment of science parks and business parks helped the young entrepreneurs and SMEs to increase their competence level and to compete at the national and international levels. Also, the decentralized public procurement helped in stimulating the domestic market for innovation. Lastly, the public-private partnership programs created further opportunities for technology transfer and commercialization.
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In the first part of this chapter a qualitative comparison of the IUGP enablers is performed between US, Norway, Singapore, and Qatar, which were discussed in detail in Chaps. 2– 5. The qualitative comparison reveals that the IUGP history in the US, as one might expect, is the longest in comparison to the other countries. At the same time, Qatar is still at an engagement level in terms of its IUGPs and overall innovation system. In the second part of this chapter, to further explore the specific areas where Qatar has a room to improve (in comparison to the other three countries), a comprehensive quantitative comparison of Global Innovation Index (GII) and its indicators is performed between the four countries (Cornell University, INSEAD, WIPO, 2017). The comparison highlights that Qatar can enhance its innovation system and IUGP settings through improvements in regulatory environment, research and development, market sophistication (such as credit and investment), knowledge-based workforce, knowledge creation, and creative outputs (such as creative goods and services and online creativity).
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Qatar is entirely different from the benchmark countries in terms of its geography, climate, size, mix of population, culture and thus, economic conditions. It is located on the tiny branch out of the Arabian Peninsula in the eastern side of the Arabian Gulf. It is smaller than the size of state of Connecticut with around only 12,000 km² of pretty flat and sandy land. The country is considered quite young as it gained its independence in 1971, with small and homogenous native population (i.e., estimated to be around 300,000) as a minority among its quite internationalized total population of around 2.75 million as of 2018. It is almost entirely economically dependent on its abundant oil and gas reserves (i.e., third largest natural gas reserves in the world). The leadership of the country has taken many steps in the past two decades to attempt to transform the hydrocarbon-based economy to knowledge-based economy. The most prominent step among these is the introduction of Qatar National Vision 2030, which sets out the roadmap of economic transformation and human development in Qatar while protecting its physical, natural and cultural environment. In addition, Qatar Foundation (QF), an initiative of the Royal Family, has been phenomenal in Qatar’s effort to develop a knowledge ecosystem. At the same time, enacting the law of ‘Protection of Intellectual Property and Copyright’, ‘Establishing Free Zone’, and ‘Patents Law’ has clearly demonstrated the intentions and determination of the leadership towards a knowledge-based sustainable development. Furthermore, under the umbrella of QF, Qatar is home to eight international branch campuses which help the country in exploiting its local talent on one hand and attracting the foreign talent on the other. Moreover, Qatar has two national universities and three national research institutions operating in proximity of the international branch campuses, science park, and incubation center. The location of knowledge-intensive institutions in close vicinity in the Education City, which is home to the QF and its member institutes and branch campuses, allow these institutions to collaborate and compete at the same time. Other notable institutions playing key roles in the national innovation system are Qatar Development Bank (QDB), Qatar National Research Fund (QNRF), Qatar Science and Technology Park (QSTP), and the recently established Qatar Research Development Innovation (QRDI) council which offer various necessary funding and support programs to lift the innovational and technological quotient of the country to international standards.
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United States of America is of a special interest in academic studies due to its size, population, resources, and the development quotient. The country has organically advanced in the paradigm of research and innovation through advanced, diverse and strong IUGPs, which resulted in the creation of knowledge-intensive business opportunities and jobs. This chapter provides a comprehensive account on the development of IUGPs in the US. First, we explore the history of the IUGPs in the US—how it evolved and who supported it? Second, we discuss the legislation around the IUGPs, such as the Bayh-Dole Act which is one of the widely credited acts for improving university-industry collaboration and technology transfer in the US national innovation system. Third, we take account of the intermediary structures in the US which support the translation of research results into commercialized products/services, such as the Industry-University Cooperative Research Centers (IUCRCs), Engineering Research Centers (ERC), research parks, and industrial innovation centers. Finally, we review the national policies that encourage the collaboration between universities, industries, and government, such as the public procurement of integrated circuit chips, research and experimentation tax credit program, and small business innovation research program.
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One of the vital forces reshaping the global football business in recent years is stemming from China. In particular, a wave of Chinese ownership of European football clubs is not unheard of any longer. However, very little research has been done on this issue from sport management scholars. This study uses China’s overseas financial direct investment (ODI) to elucidate a sudden surge in the ownership of European football clubs. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore possible explanations for ODI activities of selected Chinese firms that have acquired European football clubs. Using Dunning’s ODI paradigm, this study attempts to carefully explain the reasons behind the Chinese firm’s ODI to acquire these football clubs. Nine Chinese firms that acquired football clubs during the 2014-2017 were examined. This study argues that the firms have explicit firm-specific reasons for ODI, while political influences appear to affect acquisition decisions. This study also argues that most firms have specific sport industry-seeking motivation. Further discussion was provided based on findings of this study.
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This piece is an overview of actors and policies concerning sport in the nation of Qatar. In recent years, sports have been given high priority in government attempts to raise exposure of the nation internationally. Many authors have assessed the rationale of sports policy from an international relations perspective, speaking in terms of soft power or nation branding. Actors beyond the nation state, however, are equally involved in the shaping of ‘Qatar sport’—from businessmen and state-backed companies to individuals at the grassroots level. To redress the focus, the first section explores the establishment of the external view of Qatar as an emerging sports hub through the hosting of high-profile international sporting events and the creation of facilities for training and rehabilitating top-level athletes. The way these activities are organised is shown to be an elite-level, top-down approach. The second section shifts focus to explore informal sports participation at the grassroots level in Qatar. A bottom-up view onto involvement in sports in Qatar reveals a plurality of sporting participation that state and commercial-driven narratives sometimes fail to consider. Such multi-directional and actor-driven approaches are needed to arrive at a better understanding of how sport is viewed—and used—in Qatar.
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The aim of this article was to analyse the initiative FC Barcelona Peace Tour 2013, in Israel and Palestine. This research is based on lengthy interviews with people associated with the initiative and the use of primary sources, both institutional and journalistic. Secondary sources have also been used, such as journalistic accounts of the initiative. The article thus examines the nature of FC Barcelona Peace Tour 2013, which it defines as an exercise in sports diplomacy, inspired by civil society and articulated through the club. The article concludes that FC Barcelona has been able to act as a mediator between two opposed communities due to the universal values linked to its brand and its nature as a ‘civil religion’. This notwithstanding, the political problems that arose during the planning of the initiative highlight the geopolitical complexity of the Middle East and, by extension, the limits of sports diplomacy.
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Acknowledgements. Glossary. Foreward. 1. The Essence of Football: the historical and social bases of the global game. 2. The Twentieth--century Sport: football, class and nation. 3. Spectator Cultures: passion at play in Europe and Latin America. 4. Football Grounds: emotional attachments and social control. 5. The Price of Victory: football finance and the television revolution. 6. Footballa s Players: from local heroes to international stars. 7. The Goal of Winning? football, science, tactics and aesthetics. 8. The Cultural Politics of Play: ethnicity, gender and the a post--fana mentality. Afterword. Notes. References. Index.
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The financial aspect of Premiership football is currently attracting huge attention. Hardly a week goes by without some new story breaking about the game, whether it is a record transfer, a wage or television deal, or the building of a new stadium. Yet there has been little, if any, investigation into just how the newfound wealth from Premiership football impacts on the locality. In this article, the authors present an initial indication of how the two Premiership clubs situated in Merseyside are linked into the local economy. It is based on a survey of club suppliers an d local businesses located around the two grounds of Everton and Liverpool Football Clubs. It shows Premiership football to be more than a dependent consumer service activity in the local economy with a potential for exploitation in terms of supplier networks, tourism an d image boosting. The authors argue that this is a subject area that requires further research and understanding, an d more serious attention as a feature of local economic policy.
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Sports economists have created a sizable literature on the costs and benefits of publicly funded major-league sports stadiums. This research suggests a growing consensus that stadiums provide little economic advantage for local communities. In response, some stadium supporters have modified their tactics to increasingly avoid claims of tangible economic benefits. Instead, they insist that new stadiums offer communities more intangible social benefits. These alleged intangible benefits can take many specific forms but usually have something to do with a community’s self esteem or its collective conscience. This article draws on the authors’ primary research in 10 U.S. cities that are involved in different stages of new stadium construction. The authors demonstrate how local elites socially construct ideas such as community self-esteem and community collective conscience to help them reap large amounts of public dollars for their private stadiums.
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The aim of this article is to provide a public relations perspective on the civil religion phenomenon through a study of Barcelona Football Club (BFC) as an institution and its public relations efforts. We believe that BFC can be seen as a form of civil religion that uses a devotional–promotional communication model which sets forth, upholds and reinforces relations with “faithful supporters”. The paper links to three main contributions: the work of [Salvador, J. (2004). Futbol, metàfora d’una guerra freda: Un estudi antropològic del Barça. Barcelona: Proa.] on anthropological approach to BFC, [Giner, S. (2003). Carisma y razón. Madrid: Alianza] on civil religion and its communicative dimension, and [Tilson, D. J. (2006). Devotional–promotional communicationa and Santiago: A thousand-year public relations campaign for Saint James and Spain. In J. L’Etang & M. Pieczka (Eds.), Public relations: Critical debates and contemporary practice (pp. 167–184). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.] on devotional–promotional communication. Thus, this article advances a public relations approach to civil religion.
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The aim of this article is to analyze public diplomacy efforts of noncentral governments through sport. The object of the study is Catalonia, a Spanish autonomous region with its own government but without power over national foreign affairs. Public diplomacy links up with relationship building between governments of nation-states and other nation-states and its citizens. However, noncentral governments, as Catalonia, and other organizations with powerful national identity symbols, such as sports organizations, also develop public relations activities to build an international reputation of regions. In the field of sports, some of these territories were given the name of sport countries in the 2003 Barcelona Conference. This article concludes by considering the notion of soft power as coined by Nye to frame the role of sports diplomacy efforts of regional actors.
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Popular sport is attractive. And mediated sport has a mass appeal. Furthermore, the attrac- tion value of sports is increasingly important for the mutual commercialization and devel- opment of both sports and the media. This chapter presents an historical analysis of the symbiosis between sports and the media, and seeks to unravel the dynamics in this rela- tionship. Based on this examination, a more recent case on TV sports rights is also ana- lysed. The Norwegian TV rights deal on football from 2005 shows how such rights have the potential to severely threaten long established publicist ideals.
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The global migration of elite athletes is a key feature of the transnational labour market. Following a background discussion and review of the literature on sport and transnationalism, this article explores this phenomenon in the context of Qatar. Beginning with the emergence, meaning and movement of the elite athlete transnational labour force that constitutes global sport markets, the article explores how states call upon global sport markets in service to national projects. This is followed by a focused examination of the development of the global sport industry in Qatar. By looking at globalization in Qatar, we are able to see culturally relative characteristics of globalization that are not made visible in the predominantly Western-focused sport scholarship. Transnational sport in Qatar exemplifies the operating mechanisms of global networks. Finally, the article concludes with a discussion of transnational labour and the role played by elite sport in the contested terrain between localism and nationalism.
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Sport, especially its most spectacular manifestation during mega-media sports festivals like the summer Olympic Games and the football World Cup, is often viewed as a key exemplar of globalization. Sociologists of sport have increasingly questioned this assessment, citing various empirical instances of resistance to, or amelioration of, globalizing forces in sport. This article explores a more radical theoretical possibility: that sport may be constitutively unsuited to carriage of the project of globalization in its fullest sense. It asks whether the social institution of sport is so deeply dependent on the production of national cultural difference (however the `nation' might be constructed and conceived) that it repudiates the possibility of comprehensive — that is, cultural — globalization.
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Purpose – The demand for sport tourism throughout the world has risen in recent years for several reasons, most significantly an increased emphasis on health and fitness and the increased use of sporting events by cities in order to attract tourists. The purpose of this case study is twofold. First, to trace the corporate communication process implemented by the management of Isrotel Hotels in its effort to build the new Sport Club Hotel, focusing on internal and external communications. Second, to describe how the marketing and promotion of sport hotels differs from that of ordinary hotels. Design/methodology/approach – This article describes one unique example of a hotel based entirely on the idea of fulfilling the dreams of active sport tourists, provided by the Isrotel Hotel Management Group, who have given the concept of a sports vacation a whole new meaning in the world of hospitality. Findings – The case study described here suggests that sports‐oriented hotel identity must be achieved via the most efficient corporate communication channels in the hospitality industry – nomenclature and branding, graphic design, formal statements, architecture, media relations and routine interactions. Originality/value – This case study provides insights into the marketing and communication strategies used in creating a sports‐oriented hotel for people who wish to live and breathe sports 24 hours a day during their vacation. This case can serve other hotel managements in their attempts to provide their guests with a different experience that effectively amalgamates hospitality and sports.
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Resum El cas del Club de Futbol Barcelona proporciona un exemple constrenye-dor per examinar l'impacte de la globalització en la relació entre identitat i lloc dels clubs de futbol. El FC Barcelona té unes profundes connexions his-tòriques amb la ciutat de Barcelona i Catalunya. Aquestes connexions s'afe-bliren amb les directives de Josep Lluís Núñez (1978-2000) i Joan Gaspart (2000-2003) i promocionades de nou a partir del 2003, per Joan Laporta i el seu equip directiu. Al mateix temps, amb Laporta, el FC Barcelona s'ha con-vertit en una marca global de renom internacional. Però, com s'ha d'enten-dre aquest renovat interès pel discurs local i nacional arrelat al lloc d'origen a la vegada que l'equip es promociona com una marca global? Tot i que els discursos locals i globals no semblen concordar, la direcció del club promou simultàniament la marca Barça alhora que repolititza el club amb un explí-cit discurs catalanista. D'aquesta manera, els discursos globals i locals no són mútuament exclusius, sinó que els locals es perfilen en la construcció del discurs global i els globals queden implicats en la reproducció del local (Massey 1994: 120).
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Construction of large sports stadiums follows two different general concepts: (a) monofunctional arenas that are specially suited for one sport exclusively and that are characterized by the absence of an athletic track and (b) multifunctional sports stadiums that can be used for different sporting or cultural events. Officials of clubs often argue that the atmosphere in an arena is significantly better than that of a multipurpose facility and that spectators prefer such an atmosphere. Estimated panel regression with fixed effects shows a significant positive effect of a monofunctional soccer stadium on spectator demand. Controlling for other demand determinants in the German professional soccer league, Bundesliga, an isolated effect of around 2,800 additional spectators a game can be found. This translates into a substantial increase of about 10.7% against the mean value of 25,602 spectators per Bundesliga game in the seasons 1963-1964 to 2005-2006.
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This article reexamines the demand for baseball and provides estimates of fan loyalty for U.S.-based professional baseball teams using techniques developed in the stochastic frontier literature. Fans choose to attend games based on price-quality combinations and same intangible fan loyalty. The main focus of this article is to estimate the relative fan loyalty for U.S. professional baseball teams. Fan loyalty is then compared with the outcomes of referenda seeking public funding for new stadiums. Relative fan loyalty is significant in predicting the outcome of public-funding votes.
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Full text of this item is not currently available on the LRA. The final published version is available at http://journals.humankinetics.com/ssj-back-issues/SSJVolume11Issue4December. This article is concerned with unpacking some of the important dimensions of the developing relationship in Britain between satellite television and sport. The article discusses (a) the rise of Rupert Murdoch's BSkyB network and the central role of Sky's exclusive deal with the new Football Associations Premier League for soccer in cementing the future for satellite broadcasting in Europe, and (b) the role of sport and television in constructing national identities and in promoting some of the conditions for the enactment of effective forms of citizenship. The discussion concludes with some comments on recent trends in the commercialization of sport and on the possibilities for the mediation of new forms of spectator attachments to sport.
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This study explores the issues related to the management of sport tourism. It discusses the need for collaboration and strategic planning at a national level and provides an example from the Australian context. The study makes the case for the definition of sport tourism to be, essentially, sport event tourism. In particular, the study discusses the difficulties that arise as a consequence of a lack of co-ordination between disparate sport and tourism departments at the national level. The study then explores the issues associated with the management of sport event tourism at the micro level, using the concepts of the pulsating organization and the flexible firm to tease out various components of sport tourism management. In particular, the study investigates the differences that exist between managing a sport tourism organization and a generic organization and discusses the need for more innovative interpretations of human resource and functional management to adequately address the nuances of sport tourism management.
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Atès que la presència de l'esport a Internet cada cop és més recurrent, aquest treball es centra en l'impacte d'Internet en les relacions existents entre alguns dels actors més importants a la indústria de l'esport a Europa: - Organitzacions esportives, que són productors del producte esportiu base; - Mitjans de comunicació, que comuniquen temes esportius; - Organitzacions comercials, que promocionen els seus productes a través de l'esport i els mitjans de comunicació (tot incloent els patrocinadors esportius); - Fans / consumidors del producte base de l' esport. Amb l'anàlisi de l'estructura i continguts d'una mostra de 27 llocs web d'aquestes organitzacions, i després de considerar els conceptes i teories sobre la comunicació a Internet, l'emergència del comerç electrònic i l'e-marketing, i com poden relacionar-se amb la indústria esportiva i la transmissió de missatges esportius, s'estableixen les conclusions sobre quin és l'impacte d'Internet a la indústria esportiva, quan som propers a l'inici de la convergència entre la televisió digital i Internet.