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Trends in the consumption of milk and milk products in India: implications for self-sufficiency in milk production

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Trends in the consumption of milk and milk products in India: implications for self-sufficiency in milk production

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This study is an attempt to present a comprehensive picture of trends in consumption of milk and milk products, and estimate possible demand and supplies of milk in India by 2026–27 i.e. the end of XIVth Five Year Plan. (India has been following Five Year Plans for development of the economy. The 12th (2012–17) Five Year Plan is on-going.) The study is primarily based on data extracted from the quinquennial survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on consumption expenditure. Rising demands for milk and milk products will put India under constant pressure to maintain the existing growth in milk production. Any deceleration in growth of milk production will jeopardize India’s ability to meet its domestic requirements for milk in the long run.
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1 23
Food Security
The Science, Sociology and Economics
of Food Production and Access to Food
ISSN 1876-4517
Food Sec.
DOI 10.1007/s12571-014-0376-y
Trends in the consumption of milk and
milk products in India: implications for
self-sufficiency in milk production
Anjani Kumar, P.K.Joshi, Praduman
Kumar & Shinoj Parappurathu
1 23
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ORIGINAL PAPER
Trends in the consumption of milk and milk products in India:
implications for self-sufficiency in milk production
Anjani Kumar &P. K. Joshi &Praduman Kumar &
Shinoj Parappurathu
Received: 28 February 2013 /Accepted: 28 July 2014
#Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht and International Society for Plant Pathology 2014
Abstract This study is an attempt to present a comprehensive
picture of trends in consumption of milk and milk products,
and estimate possible demand and supplies of milk in India by
202627 i.e. the end of XIV
th
Five Year Plan. (India has been
following Five Year Plans for development of the economy.
The 12th (201217) Five Year Plan is on-going.) The study is
primarily based on data extracted from the quinquennial sur-
vey of the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) on
consumption expenditure. Rising demands for milk and milk
products will put India under constant pressure to maintain the
existing growth in milk production. Any deceleration in
growth of milk production will jeopardize Indias ability to
meet its domestic requirements for milk in the long run.
Keywords Milk consumption .Elasticity .Demand .
Supply .India
Introduction
Sustained economic growth, expanding urban population,
changing lifestyles, and increasing health consciousness are
effecting a significant shift in the food basket in India. In
recent years, the per capita consumption of foodgrains has
either stagnated or shown signs of decline, but the consump-
tion of high value livestock food commodities has increased
significantly (Kumar et al. 2003;2006;2007). Milk and milk
products
1
have been one of the most significant components
of the food basket in India and between 1983 and 200910
their share in the monthly per capita food expenditure in-
creased from 11.5 to 14.9 % in rural areas and from 15.7 to
18.4 % in urban areas (GoI, 2010). The contribution of milk
and milk products to calorie and protein intake has been
increasing over time and was the second highest (after cereals)
in 200910. However, studies on food consumption in India
have largely been focused on foods of plant origin, while
demand for foods of animal origin, such as milk is inadequate-
ly understood. An in-depth understanding of the dynamics of
the consumption of milk and milk products for countries with
developing economies such as India is important, not only for
academic exploration but also for policy formulation. The
increasing consumption of dairy products has several impli-
cations for food and nutrition security. Milk and milk products
are major source of proteins in India, particularly for the
majority of the vegetarian population. The question often
arises as to whether India would be able to produce enough
milk and milk products to meet its growing demand or wheth-
er it will have to resort to imports of these commodities. There
are a limited number of earlier attempts that specifically
examined the consumption of milk and milk products (Sinha
and Giri, 1989; Gandhi and Mani 1995; Kumar and Birthal,
2004). However, none of these studies provide a comprehen-
sive picture of milk consumption in India and they are also
quite dated. An evaluation of the pattern of milk consumption
along with its response to changes in income and prices is an
1
Milk and milk products include liquid milk, curd, ghee, butter, ice-
cream, condensed milk, milk powder, and baby food.
A. Kumar (*):P. K. Joshi
International Food Policy Research Institute, New Delhi, India
e-mail: Anjani.kumar@cgiar.org
P. Kumar
Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India
S. Parappurathu
National Centre for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research,
New Delhi, India
Food Sec.
DOI 10.1007/s12571-014-0376-y
Author's personal copy
important guide to policy making. Also, projections for the
medium- and long-term demand for milk will prove useful for
developing effective and strategic development options for
sustainable growth of the Indian dairy sector. This sector is
critical for sustaining the livelihoods of millions of small-
holder farmers who contribute about 70 % of the total milk
production in the country (Kumar et al., Kumar et al. 2011).
The growing demand for milk and milk products offers op-
portunities for smallholders to enhance their income by in-
creasing the efficiency of their milk production. Against this
backdrop, this study was undertaken to examine the trends in
milk consumption patterns, estimate the demand and assess
the prospects of milk supply in India.
Data and methodology
Data
The household level data on dietary pattern and consumer
expenditure, collected by the National Sample Survey Orga-
nization (NSSO) at the national level, were used for this study.
The household data collected in major rounds of the National
Sample Survey (NSS), covering the years 1983, 199394,
200405 and 200910 pertaining to the 38th, 50th, 61st and
66th rounds, respectively, were used. These are compre-
hensive national surveys with sample sizes of over
100,000 households (both rural and urban), which have
high acceptance rates in research and policy arenas. The
data refer to the average per capita consumption in a
household of all food and non-food commodities over a
30 day period .
Per capita expenditure was considered as a proxy for per
capita income, and therefore these are used interchangeably.
The sample households were categorised into four income/
expenditure groups, viz. very poor,poor,non-poor,and
richfor both rural and urban households. The very poor
class comprised households which have expenditure levels
less than 75 % of the poverty line (PL) as defined and adopted
by the Planning Commission, Government of India; those
whose expenditure is between 75 % of PL and PL were
defined as poor; those between PL and 150 % higher than
PL were defined as non-poor; and those above 150 % greater
than PL were classified as rich.
Methodology
Demand projections for milk
The total demand for milk can be divided into two categories:
(i) direct demand, which comprises milk and milk products
consumed by a household at home and (ii) indirect demand,
comprising milk consumed outside the home in various forms,
along with that used in industries and waste. Several projec-
tions have been made for future demand for milk in India.
These are based on factors such as growth in population and
income, income and price elasticities of demand and govern-
ment policies. A review of past studies has revealed wide
variation in projections, depending on the type of data and
modeling framework used, other underlying assumptions on
demand elasticities, income distribution and growth, regional
dietary patterns and dietary diversification. Some limitations
associated with existing estimates of milk demand include: (i)
the model specification, ignoring theoretical restrictions of
demand relationships, (ii) aggregate analysis done at the na-
tional level, ignoring the effect of structural changes in the
economy, such as urbanization and regional variation, (iii)
national income growth assumptions superimposed on re-
gions and income groups, (iv) per capita income growth,
ignoring population growth in the projected years, thereby
underestimating the income effect on account of a declining
rate of population growth, and (v) ignoring the surge caused
by indirect demand for food by the sustained rise in per capita
income, fast-growing urban populations and increasing em-
ployment opportunities for urban women. In the present study,
some of these deficiencies are addressed and an attempt has
been made to provide credible estimates of future demand for
milk in India.
Direct demand for milk
Estimates of direct (household) demand for milk have been
provided by computing demand at the disaggregated level in
terms of income, lifestyles, and states/union territories (UTs)
of India, and the estimates so obtained have been summed in
order to obtain the national estimates. Milk consumption
patterns differ across income groups and by demography
and geographical locations (Kumar and Birthal, 2004;Kumar
and Joshi, 2012). Hence, to capture their effects we have
classified the 35 states and union territories of India into rural
and urban households and eight expenditure strata - four for
rural and four for urban households on the basis of the poverty
line adopted by the Planning Commission, Government of
India. Demand elasticities,
2
population projections and in-
come growth are the important parameters for projecting
future milk demand. Thus, the direct household milk demand
projections were based on the growth in population, urbani-
zation and income. The household demand projections for
milk and milk products were obtained using the following
model:
hdijkt ¼hdijkt11þyeijk

2
For details on estimation of demand elasticties, kindly refer to Kumar
et al. (2011).
A. Kumar et al.
Author's personal copy
HDijkt ¼hdijkt Nijkt
HDt¼X
i¼1
X
j¼1
X
k¼1
HDijkt
Where, HD
ijkt
is the demand for a commodity (milk and
milk products in the present study) for the subgroup of i
demographic group (rural, urban) in the jstate/UT of k
income group (very poor, poor, non-poor and rich) during the
period t;hd
ijkt
and hd
ijkt-1
are the per capita consumption for
the idemographic group in the jstate/UT of kincome
group in the tand t-1period, (base year, 200405) respec-
tively; N
ijkt
is the population in the tyear belonging to the i
demographic group in jstate/UT of kincome group; y is
the growth in per capita income
3
and e
ijk
is the expenditure
elasticity for the subgroup population belonging to the i
demographic group in jstate of kincome group. These
regional income elasticities were superimposed on the corre-
sponding state/UT. The aggregate direct household demand
for milk in the year t(HD
t
) will be the sum of i and k (i=1,2:
k=1,,4) for the jstate/UT of India. The summing of state/
UT demands will provide national level household demand
for milk in the t
th
year.
Indirect demand for milk
Besides direct demand for milk and milk products at the
household level, indirect demand which includes milk and
milk products consumed outside the home, industrial uses
and wastage, is also important. The demand for different milk
products outside the home is growing with urbanization and
increasing employment opportunities for urban women. The
indirect demand for milk can be estimated under the assumption
that in a year, total supply is equal to the total demand as follows:
St¼PRODtþIM P tþSCt
Dt¼HDtþIDt
IDt¼OH DtþIN DtþWtþEX Pt
St¼Dt
Therefore,
IDt¼StHDt
Where, S
t
and D
t
are respectively the total supply and
demand of milk for the year t; PROD
t
is the production,
IMP
t
is the import and SC
t
is the change in government stock
of milk respectively for the period t;ID
t
is the indirect
demand for milk which consists of other than household
demand (OHD
t
), industrial demand (IND
t
), wastage (W
t
)
and export (EXP
t
).
The indirect demand was computed for the year 200910
and projections have been made based on the yearly trend up
to the year 202627, which is the closing year of the XIV
th
Five-Year Plan.
Trends in consumption of milk and milk products
There has been a considerable rise in the consumption of milk
and milk products in India with increases in the share of high-
value commodities in the food budget of households. The
share of milk and milk products accounted for about 14 %
of household food expenditure in 200910, up from 8 % in
1983. This increase is reflected in the rising per capita con-
sumption of dairy products in India. The per capita consump-
tion of milk has increased from 44.7 in 1983 to 57.1 kg in
200910 (Table 1).
The per capita consumption of milk has remained higher in
urban areas. In 1983, the per capita average annual milk
consumption across rural households was 38.7 kg which
increased to 51.7 kg in 200910. During the same period,
the per capita annual consumption of milk and milk products
across urban households increased from 55.6 to 71.6 kg. The
demand for milk was found to increase at a faster rate in urban
areas compared to rural areas. Evidently, milk demand of
urban households in 200910 was 43.6 % higher than that
of 1983, whereas the corresponding hike in demand for rural
households was 38.5 % during the same period. This implies
that increasing urbanization would further fuel growth in the
demand for dairy products. But sustained growth in rural per
capita income would also be instrumental in accelerating
growth in the demand for dairy products.
Relationship between income and milk consumption
Generally, income is considered as the most important factor
determining per capita food demand (Cranfield et al. 1998;
Guo et al. 2000; Gould 2002; Jones et al. 2003;Zhouetal.
2005; Tian and Zhou 2005). Therefore, understanding the
relationship between milk consumption and income change
was regarded as significant. This relationship is often referred
to as the Engel curve (Timmer et al. 1983; Hirshleifer et al.
2005). To examine this, data on food consumption quantities
reported by the consumers of different income groups are
presented in Table 2. The consumption of milk and milk
products increased over time across all income groups and a
direct relationship was observed between consumption and
3
Estimated as the difference between growth in Gross National Product
(GNP) and growth in population.
Trends in the consumption of milk and milk products in India: imp
Author's personal copy
income groups. The difference between the consumption
levels of poor households and rich households was quite
glaring. In 1983, the per capita milk consumption by rich
households was nearly 8.6 times that of very poor households
and 3.9 times that of poor households. This gap reduced over
time and by 200910, the per capita consumption of milk by
rich households was 6.8 times higher than that of very poor
households and 3.3 times higher that of the poor households.
Regional patterns of milk consumption
Considerable differences have been observed in the consump-
tion of milk and milk products across different states. It was as
low as 14.5 kg/capita/annum in Chhattisgarh and 16.4 kg/
capita/annum in Odisha to as high as 160.5 kg/capita/annum
in Haryana and 140.7 kg/capita/annum in Punjab in 200910.
Besides Haryana and Punjab, the annual consumption of dairy
products was very high in Rajasthan (125.4 kg), Himachal
Pradesh (121.4 kg), Gujarat (84.6 kg) and Uttarakhand
(83.9 kg). The per capita consumption of dairy products was
in the range of 4060 kg/capita/annum in states such as Kerala
(41.0 kg), Andhra Pradesh (46.7 kg), Maharashtra (49.0 kg),
Tamil Nadu (49.7 kg), Karnataka (53.3 kg), Madhya Pradesh
(53.7 kg), and Uttar Pradesh (59.3 kg) but lower in Assam
(20.8 kg), West Bengal (21.9 kg), Jharkhand (26.6 kg) and
Bihar (34.9 kg). However, consumption of milk and milk
products has increased during the period 1983 to 200910 in
all states except Assam, Chhattisgarh and West Bengal. The
increase was maximum in Tamil Nadu (70.8 %), followed by
Jharkhand (66.3 %), Kerala (47.0 %), Rajasthan (45.0 %), and
Odisha (39.0 %) (Table 3). The compound annual growth rate
in milk consumption varied from 0.6 to 2.1 %. Regional
disparities in consumption of milk and milk products contin-
ued to persist although the magnitude of the disparities has
declined. The coefficient of variation in consumption of milk
declined from 81.8 in 1983 to 77.4 % in 200910. Regional
disparities in the consumption pattern of milk and milk prod-
ucts can be explained to a considerable extent by socio-
cultural and socio-economic factors. The lower level of con-
sumption of milk and milk products in eastern states could be
partly attributed to the lower purchasing power of their pop-
ulations and the deviant food habits in these states.
Diversity in consumption of milk and milk products:
emerging patterns
A breakdown of consumption of milk and milk products is
given in Table 4. The consumption of dairy products is dom-
inated by liquid milk among both rural and urban households
and the changing pattern of milk consumption is reflected in
the disaggregated changes in the consumption of various milk
products. For instance, although the consumption level of ice-
cream is not significant, the change in its consumption be-
tween 199394 and 200910 is tremendous with expenditure
increasing350 %. On the other hand, growing health concerns
may have been responsible for the little change or reduction in
the expenditure per capita on the consumption of butter and
ghee. The increase in expenditure on consumption of milk and
milk products increased faster in urban areas than in rural
areas during the period 1983 to 200910 (Table 4).
Demand projections for milk in India
The national level estimates of income and own price elastic-
ities of milk based on the Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand
System (QUAIDS) and the Food Characteristics Demand
System (FCDS) model, as estimated by Kumar et al. (2011)
were in accordance with a priori expectation (Table 5). The
income elasticities of milk are positive and decline with
increase in household income. Values of income elasticities
are much higher for the poor than for richer households.
Tabl e 1 Rural and Urban per
capita consumption and expendi-
ture of milk and milk products in
India: 1983 to 200910
Source: Extracted from unit level
data of 38th, 50th, 61st and 66th
rounds of consumer expenditure
survey of the NSSO
Year Consumption (kg/capita/annum) Expenditure (Rs./annum) at constant prices 199394)
Rural Urban All Rural Urban All
1983 38.7 55.6 44.7 239 434 283
19931994 50.3 66.4 54.3 325 546 380
20042005 50.2 69.3 55.0 311 548 371
20092010 51.7 71.6 57.1 381 901 453
Tabl e 2 Income group-wise per capita consumption of milk and milk
products in India: 1983 to 200910 (kg/capita/annum)
Income Group
Year Very poor Poor Non-poor Rich
1983 10.3 22.5 40.4 88.2
19931994 13.3 26.8 48.5 101.5
20042005 14.1 24.7 42.4 86.7
20092010 13.7 28.3 49.9 93.3
Source: Extracted fromunit level data of 38th, 50th, 61st and 66th rounds
of consumer expenditure survey of NSSO
A. Kumar et al.
Author's personal copy
The own-price elasticities had the expected negative sign.
Income elasticities obtained by the QUAIDS model are
considerably higher than those obtained by the FCDS
model. The price elasticity trend with rise in income ex-
hibited a more realistic view under the FCDS model than
under the QUAIDS model. Therefore, the elasticity derived
from the FCDS model was used for demand projections of
milk in India.
The total domestic demand of milk is expected to be 209
million tonnes by 202627, up from 116.3 Mt in 201112
(Table 6). Of this, 123.6 Mt would be required for household
consumption and 85.4 million tones would be the indirect
demand. The earlier demand projections based on alternative
income growth assumptions vary from 183Mt to 247Mt in
2020. Kumar (1998) has projected the milk demand to reach
182.8 Mt by 2020, subject to an annual average growth rate of
Tabl e 3 Per capita consumption
of milk and milk products in
different states (kg/annum)
Source: same as in Table 1
States 1983 199394 200405 200910 Change between 1983
and 200910 (%)
Andhra Pradesh 34.7 39.0 43.5 46.7 34.6
Assam 24.6 17.2 22.1 20.8 15.4
Bihar 25.8 31.9 38.3 34.9 35.3
Chhattisgarh 17.7 22.6 13.4 14.5 18.1
Gujarat 68.6 77.2 74.7 84.6 23.3
Haryana 130.4 164.6 161.5 160.5 23.1
Himachal Pradesh 92.2 96.8 111.7 121.4 31.7
Jharkhand 16.0 29.7 24.1 26.6 66.3
Karnataka 38.8 42.5 48.0 53.3 37.4
Kerala 27.9 34.7 41.4 41.0 47.0
Madhya Pradesh 42.6 41.1 53.9 53.7 25.8
Maharashtra 38.3 41.8 44.5 49.0 27.9
Odisha 11.8 12.5 13.6 16.4 39.0
Punjab 132.0 161.7 141.7 140.7 6.6
Rajasthan 86.4 128.6 119.4 125.4 45.0
Tamil Nadu 29.1 34.0 42.6 49.7 70.8
Uttar Pradesh 46.6 69.8 60.5 59.3 27.3
Uttarakhand 71.2 92.7 84.4 83.9 17.8
West Bengal 25.8 24.0 23.2 21.9 15.1
India 44.7 54.3 55.0 57.1 27.7
CV (%) 81.8 86.8 79.2 77.4 5.3
Tabl e 4 Per capita expenditure on milk and milk products in India (Rs./annum) at 199394 prices
Expenditure on milk and milk products (Rs/annum/person)
Rural Urban All
199394 200910 Change from
199394 (%)
199394 200910 Change from
199394 (%)
199394 200910 Change from
199394 (%)
Liquid milk 302.8 360.1 18.9 475.6 785.0 65.1 345.6 415.7 20.3
Curd 1.9 1.9 0.0 5.8 9.6 65.5 2.9 3.3 13.8
Ghee 15.8 13.6 13.9 49.0 76.2 55.5 24.0 24.8 3.3
Butter 0.5 0.2 60.0 4.0 3.7 7.5 1.3 0.8 38.5
Ice-cream 0.2 0.5 150.0 1.2 7.7 541.7 0.4 1.8 350.0
Condensed milk/powder 2.1 2.4 14.3 6.3 5.8 7.9 3.1 2.9 6.5
Baby food 0.9 1.3 44.4 2.9 6.9 137.9 1.4 2.3 64.3
Source: Extracted from unit level data of 50th, 61st and 66th rounds
Trends in the consumption of milk and milk products in India: imp
Author's personal copy
7 % in GDP. Delgado et al. (1999) and Rosegrant et al. (2001)
have projected the milk demand in 2020 to be 246.4 Mt under
the scenario of high demand for livestock products. Saxena
(2007) has projected demand for milk in the range of 101104
Mt in 2010 and 143160 Mt by 2020. Among different
demand projections made by several researchers, our projec-
tions for the demand of milk seem to be more realistic because
we have taken into account the demand of milk and milk
products away from home and also the estimates of
household demand for milk have been provided by com-
puting demand at the disaggregated level, in terms of
income, demography, and states/union territories (UTs)
of India, and the estimates so obtained have been summed
to derive the national estimates.
An important question is whether the expected milk supply
would be able to meet the domestic demand in India. To
answer this, the supply of milk under four scenarios of supply
growth (existing growth rate, 3, 4 and 5 %) are presented in
Tab le 7. To meet the projected domestic demand by 202627,
India needs to maintain an annual growth rate of 3.7 % in milk
production. The supply projections under different scenarios
indicate that with existing growth rate of milk production
during the previous decade, India would continue to remain
self-sufficient in milk even in 202627. However, any decel-
eration in the growth of milk production would jeopardize the
self-sufficiency status of milk production in the country but if
concerted efforts are made to accelerate the growth of milk
production, India could become an important exporter of milk
and milk products.
Conclusions
This study has revealed the rising significance of dairy prod-
ucts in the food basket of the people of India. A major reason
behind the rising demand of milk is its substantially higher
income elasticity of demand which is greater in rural than
urban areas. Within milk and milk products, the change is
tilted in favour of value added milk products such as ice-
cream. On the other hand, the demand for traditional milk
products such as butter and ghee has shown a declining trend.
The rising demands for milk and milk products will put India
under pressure to maintain at least the existing growth in milk
production. Any deceleration in growth of milk production
would jeopardize Indias ability to maintain self-sufficiency.
These demands also have implications for the evolving inter-
national market in milk and its products. If India falls short of
meeting its domestic need, it will have a substantial impact on
the prices of dairy products in domestic as well as global
markets. Under such a scenario, issues such as future supply
sources of this important food commodity will also have to be
addressed.These concerns deserve urgent attention from India
and the broader international agribusiness community.
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Tabl e 5 Income and price elasticties of milk in India
QUAIDS model FCDS model
Income
elasticity
Price
elasticity
Income
elasticity
Price
elasticity
Very poor 2.342 0.820 0.862 0.850
Poor 2.018 0.923 0.694 0.810
Non-poor 1.773 0.999 0.539 0.708
Rich 1.556 1.076 0.276 0.521
All 1.640 1.035 0.429 0.624
Source: Kumar et al. (2011)
Tabl e 6 Demand projections for milk in India
(Million tons)
Year Household demand Indirect demand Total demand
201112 68.8 47.5 116.3
201617 81.7 56.4 138.1
202122 99.4 68.7 168.1
202627 123.6 85.4 209.0
Source: Authorsestimates
Tabl e 7 Prospects of future milk production in India under alternative
growth scenarios (Million tonnes)
Production of milk at
Year Existing
growth rate
3% 4% 5%
201112 120.6 119.7 120.8 122.0
201617 145.4 138.7 147.0 155.7
202122 175.3 160.8 178.9 198.7
202627 211.4 186.5 217.6 253.7
Source: Authorsestimates
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in South Asia, organized by FICCI, ICRISAT & IFPRI in New
Delhi, India, November 56.
Kumar, P., Mruthyunjaya, & Birthal, P. S. (2006). Changing consumption
pattern in south Asia. In P. K. Joshi, A. Gulati, & R. Cummings Jr.
(Eds.), Agricultural diversification and smallholders in south Asia
(pp. 151187). New Delhi: Academic Foundation.
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Anjani Kumar is Research Fel-
low at the South Asia Office of
the International Food Policy
Research Institute (IFPRI) in
New Delhi. Before joining
IFPRI, he was Principal Scien-
tist (Agricultural Economics) at
the International Crops Re-
search Institute for the Semi-
Arid Tropics (ICRISAT),
Patancheru, India. Earlier, he
served as Principal Scientist at
the National Centre for Agricul-
tural Economics and Policy Re-
search(NCAP),NewDelhiand
as Senior Agricultural Economist in the Asia Office of the Interna-
tional Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), Nairobi. His area of re-
search includes food and nutrition security, agricultural diversifica-
tion, impact assessment, value chain analysis, agricultural trade and
food safety.
Pramod Kumar Joshi is the Di-
rector for South Asia, Internation-
al Food Policy Research Institute
(IFPRI), New Delhi. Prior to this,
he held the positions of Director
of the National Academy of Agri-
cultural Research Management
(NAARM), Hyderabad and the
Director of the National Centre
for Agricultural Economics and
Policy Research (NCAP), New
Delhi. Earlier, Dr. Joshi was
South Asia Coordinator at IFPRI
and senior economist at the Inter-
national Crops Research Institute
for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru. His areas of research
include technology policy, market and institutional economics.
Dr Praduman Kumar is former
professorofAgriculturalEco-
nomics, Indian Agricultural Re-
search Institute, New Delhi, India
and has been conducting research
for almost 45 years. He has made
significant contributions to differ-
ent sectors of agriculture, includ-
ing water management, livestock,
crops and fisheries and has writ-
ten extensively in the areas of to-
tal factor productivity, sustainabil-
ity issues, demand supply projec-
tions for food commodities, price
policy, smallholder farmers and
household food and nutritional security. Dr Kumar has developed a
number of econometric models for crops, livestock and fisheries. His
research on TFP and food demand projections are used and acknowl-
edged at national and international levels.
Trends in the consumption of milk and milk products in India: imp
Author's personal copy
Shinoj Parappurathu is a Scien-
tist at the National Centre for Ag-
ricultural Economics and Policy
Research (NCAP), New Delhi, In-
dia. He graduated from Kerala
Agricultural University, Kerala
and holds Masters and Doctoral
Degrees from the Indian Agricul-
tural Research Institute (IARI),
NewDelhi.Heworksmainlyin
the area of public policy in Indias
agricultural sector with special fo-
cus on agricultural marketing,
price policy, trade, growth and
commodity outlook modelling.
Apart from research, he is also
engaged in teaching post-
graduate and doctoral students at
the Post Graduate School of IARI.
A. Kumar et al.
Author's personal copy
... Similarly, MEMS viscometers in petroleum and oil industries applications can measure density as well as viscosity from the same sample amount, which is fast and needs small equipment [41][42][43]. MEMS viscometers have been successfully applied to many industries including inkjet, food, biomedical, petroleum and so on [44][45][46][47][48][49]. Particularly in the clinical industry, the MEMS viscometers are overtaking the general viscometers because they require less volume sample to be diagnosed and they do not require cleaning after each use, as they have disposable cartridges [50]. ...
... Even though processing technologies involved in a single device may be complex, it has been proven to be very promising especially for biomedical applications [55][56][57]. In the food industry, MEMS viscometers contribute to finding the viscosity of all lactulose solutions which is important for milk adulteration in developing countries like India, China, Sudan, Pakistan, and Brazil where milk consumption is very high [47][48][49]. In the inkjet industries, the print quality of ink is determined by two important physical components; surface tension and viscosity, so nowadays for quality printing, inkjet industries are also using MEMS viscometers to enhance their application ranges to precise liquid dispensing, manufacturing radio frequency identification (RFID) tag sensors [44][45][46]. ...
... Similarly, MEMS viscometers in petroleum and oil industries applications can measure density as well as viscosity from the same sample amount, which is fast and needs small equipment [41][42][43]. MEMS viscometers have been successfully applied to many industries including inkjet, food, biomedical, petroleum and so on [44][45][46][47][48][49]. Particularly in the clinical industry, the MEMS viscometers are overtaking the general viscometers because they require less volume sample to be diagnosed and they do not require cleaning after each use, as they have disposable cartridges [50]. ...
... Even though processing technologies involved in a single device may be complex, it has been proven to be very promising especially for biomedical applications [55][56][57]. In the food industry, MEMS viscometers contribute to finding the viscosity of all lactulose solutions which is important for milk adulteration in developing countries like India, China, Sudan, Pakistan, and Brazil where milk consumption is very high [47][48][49]. In the inkjet industries, the print quality of ink is determined by two important physical components; surface tension and viscosity, so nowadays for quality printing, inkjet industries are also using MEMS viscometers to enhance their application ranges to precise liquid dispensing, manufacturing radio frequency identification (RFID) tag sensors [44][45][46]. ...
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Viscosity is an important rheological parameter, which needs to be measured accurately in various industrial applications to improve the quality of the product. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based microfluidic viscometers are nowadays overpowering conventional types of viscometers due to many advantages such as compatibility for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, small size, higher shear rates, no solvent evaporation, small sample size requirement (in micro and nano-litres), and better accuracy. This paper summarizes a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art of MEMS-based technologies combined with microfluidics for realizing the viscometers to determine various fluidic parameters, important for applications in different fields like biopharmaceuticals and protein therapeutics, lubricants/adhesives, healthcare, food industries, cosmetics, concrete, paints, fuel and petroleum industries, etc. This review covers the basic sensing principles of various types of MEMS-based technologies useful for viscometer applications, such as pressure, diaphragm, viscometer/ rheometer on a chip (VROC), acoustic, cantilever etc. Limitations of different types of commonly available tabletop viscometers are outlined. Considering the present and future applications of MEMS-based viscometers, their role in industrial applications are also discussed in detail.
... Similarly, MEMS viscometers in petroleum and oil industries applications can measure density as well as viscosity from the same sample amount, which is fast and needs small equipment [41][42][43]. MEMS viscometers have been successfully applied to many industries including inkjet, food, biomedical, petroleum and so on [44][45][46][47][48][49]. Particularly in the clinical industry, the MEMS viscometers are overtaking the general viscometers because they require less volume sample to be diagnosed and they do not require cleaning after each use, as they have disposable cartridges [50]. ...
... Even though processing technologies involved in a single device may be complex, it has been proven to be very promising especially for biomedical applications [55][56][57]. In the food industry, MEMS viscometers contribute to finding the viscosity of all lactulose solutions which is important for milk adulteration in developing countries like India, China, Sudan, Pakistan, and Brazil where milk consumption is very high [47][48][49]. In the inkjet industries, the print quality of ink is determined by two important physical components; surface tension and viscosity, so nowadays for quality printing, inkjet industries are also using MEMS viscometers to enhance their application ranges to precise liquid dispensing, manufacturing radio frequency identification (RFID) tag sensors [44][45][46]. ...
Article
Viscosity is an important rheological parameter, which needs to be measured accurately in various industrial applications to improve the quality of the product. Micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based microfluidic viscometers are nowadays overpowering conventional types of viscometers due to many advantages such as compatibility for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, small size, higher shear rates, no solvent evaporation, small sample size requirement (in micro and nano-litres), and better accuracy. This paper summaries a comprehensive review on the state-of-the-art of MEMS-based technologies combined with microfluidics for realizing the viscometers to determine various fluidic parameters, important for applications in different fields like biopharmaceuticals and protein therapeutics, lubricants/adhesives, healthcare, food industries, cosmetics, concrete, paints, fuel and petroleum industries, etc. The review covers the basic sensing principles of various types of MEMS-based technologies useful for viscometer applications, such as pressure, diaphragm, viscometer/rheometer on a chip (VROC), acoustic, cantilever etc. Limitations of different types of commonly available tabletop viscometers are outlined. Considering the present and future applications of MEMS-based viscometers, their role in industrial applications are also discussed in detail.
... Cheese Commodities trade NPC ValuesNPC values, and the value of unity is not so significant, indicating that Indian cheese commodities face tough competition in global market in terms of Unit prices. One of the reasons could be that, in order to keep the dairy market export-oriented, government subsidies for dairy product manufacturing and trade in the European Union and the United States make their product available at a lower price than the Indian commodity rates for the same(Joshi, 2014), hindering the competitiveness of the Indian dairy commodity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). ...
Book
On the occasion of the ICSSR sponsored National Seminar titled “Indian Dairy Sector @75: From Self-reliance to the verge of becoming World Leader” on 5th March 2022, we feel privileged to publish this edited book with ISBN which contains the Research and Technical articles submitted during the seminar by worthy authors from various institutions. This book grew out of our aspiration for systematic compilation and thereafter wide dissemination of thoughts expressed by various authors on the theme of the seminar. ‘Azadi Ka Amrit Mahotsav’ is an initiative of the Government of India to celebrate and commemorate 75 years of independence of progressive India and the glorious history of its people, culture and achievements. The struggle of Indian Dairy Sector also started around our Independence when the dairy cooperative movement was initiated with guidance and leadership of leaders like Shri Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Shri Tribhuvandas Patel, Shri Morarji Desai, Dr. Verghese Kurien and others. With the implementation of effective long-term development schemes like – Operation Flood (1, 2, 3), National Dairy Plan (NDP), Animal Husbandry Infrastructure Development Fund (AHIDF), the Indian dairy sector has become self-sustained and is on the verge of becoming the World Leader. Certainly, this edited book will be of great value and importance to all stakeholders of Indian Dairy Sector including- Students, Faculty Members, Researchers, Academic institutes, Industry and Policy makers and serve as a handy reference for them. We thank all the authors who showed keen interest in the seminar and submitted valuable articles to be included in this book.
... Cheese Commodities trade NPC ValuesNPC values, and the value of unity is not so significant, indicating that Indian cheese commodities face tough competition in global market in terms of Unit prices. One of the reasons could be that, in order to keep the dairy market export-oriented, government subsidies for dairy product manufacturing and trade in the European Union and the United States make their product available at a lower price than the Indian commodity rates for the same(Joshi, 2014), hindering the competitiveness of the Indian dairy commodity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Information is protection, in times when Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) are on an increase in the country, labelling on food products act as an instrument of information for customers related to product nutritional contents. Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) are increasing rapidly in India. NCDs continue to be major public health problem in our country. As per report of WHO, back-of-pack labels usually given in numerical information table format with details on nutritional composition of the food – is a mandatory requirement in most countries. However, studies have shown that back-of-pack nutrient declarations are rarely used in purchasing situations, and consumers report that they are difficult to understand, in particular by those with lower levels of education or nutrition knowledge. Increase in NCDs and Obesity cases due to consumption of pre-packaged and processed foods has become a concern for governments of many countries. In order to prevent or control further widespread of such diseases, various public health policies have proposed a way out through Front of Pack Labels (FoPL). FOPL can make consumers aware about the nutritional contents in the pack in an easier and precise way, as labelling on package is source of information for the consumer to understand the contents of the packaged food products and FoP labelling will also help the consumer in taking buying decisions based on nutritional contents of the product. The Front of Pack Labels will create NCDs related health awareness among packaged food consumers.
... Consumption patterns are not universal across the country and can vary by region or community due to the level of deprivation/food security or in line with traditional practices [13]. Higher intakes are more likely to be observed in urban areas, wealthier households, and large milk producing states, such as Gujarat [14,15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Managing the role of dairy foods in healthy and sustainable food systems is challenging. Milk production is associated with greenhouse gas emissions and milk-based processed foods can be high in fat, sugar and salt; yet, milk production provides income generating opportunities for farmers and dairy foods provide essential nutrients to young children, with a cultural significance in many communities. This is particularly relevant to India, the world’s largest producer of milk. The aim of this study was to use Photovoice, a participatory research method, to explore the experiences and perceptions of communities in India on the role of dairy products in local sustainable and healthy food systems. Methods Purposive sampling recruited two women’s self-help groups in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh: one in a rural area and one in an urban area. A total of 31 participants (10–17 urban group and 12–14 rural group), produced photographs with captions to represent their views on how dairy was produced, sold, and consumed in their community. A discussion workshop was held in each area, with prompts to consider health and the environment. Workshop transcripts, photographs and captions were analysed qualitatively using thematic analysis. Results A range of experiences and perceptions were discussed by the two women’s self help groups. Participants had an awareness of their local food system and how stages of dairy food supply chains were non-linear and inherently interconnected. Three main themes were identified: 1) Quality and value matters to producers and consumers; 2) The need to adapt to sustain dairy farmer livelihoods in water scarce areas; 3) It’s not only about health. Conclusions Moderate milk-producing states such as Andhra Pradesh will continue to develop their dairy industry through policy actions. Including communities in policy discussions through innovative methods like Photovoice can help to maximise the positive and minimise the negative role of dairy in evolving local food systems.
... Cheese Commodities trade NPC ValuesNPC values, and the value of unity is not so significant, indicating that Indian cheese commodities face tough competition in global market in terms of Unit prices. One of the reasons could be that, in order to keep the dairy market export-oriented, government subsidies for dairy product manufacturing and trade in the European Union and the United States make their product available at a lower price than the Indian commodity rates for the same(Joshi, 2014), hindering the competitiveness of the Indian dairy commodity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The COVID 19 pandemic and its associated long-term blockade have had a significant negative impact on various sectors, including agriculture and other related sub-sectors in India and several other countries. This review aims to show the impact of this pandemic and lockdown on the dairy sector of one of the fastest growing sectors in recent years. The pandemic and its associated lockdown not only brought millions of poor and marginalized farmers great difficulty in saving crops and livestock to support their livelihoods, as well as poultry and dairy products. It affected the entire other agricultural industry. Value has influenced chains, nutrition and health care, and workforce availability. The paper highlights various dimensions of the impacts, namely, reduction in demand of different commodities, wastage of the produce due to the closure of transport and market chains, distress sale of the produce, and labor shortage and revival strategies taken by the government and associated enterprises. The situation of is caused by COVID19 pollutants in the country, and the views expressed by various workers on the impact of on the dairy sector are reviewed here to develop future strategies. Problems faced by the dairy sector include reduced demand for milk and dairy products, transport restrictions leading to livestock feed shortages, simultaneous rises in feed and feed prices, and no room for dairy farmers to escape. This situation. As workers and others moved from towns / workplaces to their hometowns, activities such as coffee shops, hotels, restaurants and candy shops were shut down. Livestock farmers are unable to sell milk or unproductive / surplus animals on the market, adding to the additional burden of raising these animals during this difficult blockade, complicating the situation. To Therefore, efforts have been made to know the situation of dairy farmers nationwide
... Cheese Commodities trade NPC ValuesNPC values, and the value of unity is not so significant, indicating that Indian cheese commodities face tough competition in global market in terms of Unit prices. One of the reasons could be that, in order to keep the dairy market export-oriented, government subsidies for dairy product manufacturing and trade in the European Union and the United States make their product available at a lower price than the Indian commodity rates for the same(Joshi, 2014), hindering the competitiveness of the Indian dairy commodity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
India is the dominant producer of milk and milk products in the world. The aim of the paper is to study and CSR activities of different dairy sectors in India. The information was collected from different secondary sources such websites, magazines, etc. The study revealed that CSR activities which led the weaker section of the society in forward direction. This study will help to the new entrants to frame their CSR activities and make the strategies which will create a brand among consumers.
... Cheese Commodities trade NPC ValuesNPC values, and the value of unity is not so significant, indicating that Indian cheese commodities face tough competition in global market in terms of Unit prices. One of the reasons could be that, in order to keep the dairy market export-oriented, government subsidies for dairy product manufacturing and trade in the European Union and the United States make their product available at a lower price than the Indian commodity rates for the same(Joshi, 2014), hindering the competitiveness of the Indian dairy commodity. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
India is the dominant producer of milk and milk products in the world. The paper aims to study and compare the business models of dairy sector, especially to the case companies Amul, Maahi milk, and Heritage Foods. These three companies have shown growth over the last many years. The comparative study revealed that both Amul and Maahi milk was favorable to farmers, which gives an immense amount to their products based on quality. This study will help the new entrants to formulate the strategies for the growth of the company.
Chapter
Full-text available
Livestock farming is a key sector that promotes socioeconomic development in developing countries with around 600 million smallholders relying on it for livelihood. The multi-functionality of livestock production in the livelihoods of smallholders, from an income and input generating asset to a source of food and nutrition, is well known but less acknowledged. Though the concept of leveraging agriculture for nutritional goals is gaining importance, the evidence on the impact of nutrition-sensitive agriculture interventions is sparse particularly in one of the major subsectors in agriculture like livestock. The current chapter discusses the potential of livestock farming systems to tap nutritional outcomes in developing countries where multiple forms of malnutrition are highly prevalent due to over-reliance on starch-based diet and other socioeconomic and cultural factors. Thus, the chapter highlights the importance of animal source foods (ASF) in human nutrition, the pathways linking livestock and nutrition, the sustainability issues related to livestock production systems, and the way forward to exploit these systems as a tool for tackling malnutrition in the developing world.
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Diversification of the agricultural production portfolio to include livestock is an effective way of accelerating agricultural growth and reducing rural poverty. This paper now assesses the situation in India where livestock now accounts for a larger share of the value of agricultural output than foodgrains. It also discusses the technological, institutional and policy options to harness the untapped potential of this sector at a time the demand for animal food products, driven by sustained economic and income growth and an expanding urban population, continues to rise both domestically and globally.
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Change has not always been steady in China, and evidence of increased poverty among some subpopulation groups exists. For example, among the rural poor in some areas there has been an increase in chronic energy deficiency, while, particularly among higher-income groups, the incidences of high-fat diets and obesity have increased rapidly. There has been a marked shift not only in obesity but also in other diet-related chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancers. These are rapidly becoming major health problems in the higher-income population. In this article we first present the overall picture with a cross-country analysis of changes in the dietary structure, and we explore the income-fat and diet-obesity relationships. Then we present data from China that demonstrate the trend in the dietary structure. This is followed by a more rigorous examination and testing of the income-food consumption relationship. The behavioral changes that we uncover in the income-food relationship have important implications for the formulation of future nutrition policies in China. We explore some of these implications in the concluding section.
Chapter
Milk from the cow, after pasteurisation, is not satisfactory as an ingredient for the manufacture of sugar confectionery and chocolate, because of its high water content. This, lengthens processing time and the enhanced danger from inversion (see §2.9) outweighs the advantage gained from lower cost of the milk. Typical composition of cow milk is given below % Water 87.4 Fat 3.7 Solids, not fat. 8.9 Lactose 4.9 Casein 3.0 Other proteins 0.5 Acidity as lactic 0.14
Article
The food consumption pattern in India is diversifying towards high value commodities. The decline in per capita consumption of cereals, in particular, coarse cereals, has worsened the nutritional status of the rural poor. On the basis of National Sample Survey data on dietary patterns and consumer expenditure, this article examines empirical evidence on the nature and extent of long-term changes in consumption patterns and nutritional status of various socio-economic groups at the household level in rural and urban India.