Article

Role of galactosylation in the renal pathogenicity of murine immunoglobulin G3 monoclonal cryoglobulins

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Abstract

Cryoglobulin activity associated with murine immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) has been shown to play a significant role in the development of murine lupuslike glomerulonephritis. A fraction, but not all, IgG3 monoclonal antibodies are capable of inducing a severe acute lupuslike glomerulonephritis as a result of direct localization of IgG3 cryoglobulins, suggesting the importance of qualitative features of cryoglobulins in their nephritogenic activities. Here a remarkable difference is shown in the renal pathogenicity of 2 murine IgG3 monoclonal cryoglobulins, identical in the amino acid sequences of their heavy and light chains but different in galactosylation patterns of oligosaccharide side chains because of their synthesis in different myeloma cells. The antibody lacking the capacity to induce severe glomerulonephritis displayed an increased proportion of galactosylated heavy chains. Changes in conformation, as revealed by gel filtration analysis, reduced cryoglobulin activity, and accelerated clearance could account for the lack of the renal pathogenicity of the more galactosylated variant. This observation provides a direct demonstration for the role of IgG galactosylation in the pathogenic potential of cryoglobulins.

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... 19 The aggregation is often the result of electrostatic interactions, which in turn depend on the structural characteristics of CGs as an altered glycosylation with reduction in sialic acid content. 4,20 Levo assumed that the existence of an impoverishment of sialic acid would make immunogenic Igs favor cryoprecipitation, especially during persistence and intense immune stimulation. This stimulation would lead to the manifestation of a secretory defect with production of Ig without sialic acid. ...
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Cryoglobulins are immunoglobulins that precipitate in serum at temperatures below 37°C and resolubilize upon warming. The clinical syndrome of cryoglobulinemia usually includes purpura, weakness, and arthralgia, but the underlying disease may also contribute other symptoms. Blood samples for cryoglobulin are collected, transported, clotted and spun at 37°C, before the precipitate is allowed to form when serum is stored at 4°C in a Wintrobe tube for at least seven days. The most critical and confounding factor affecting the cryoglobulin test is when the preanalytical phase is not fully completed at 37°C. The easiest way to quantify cryoglobulins is the cryocrit estimate. However, this approach has low accuracy and sensitivity. Furthermore, the precipitate should be resolubilized by warming to confirm that it is truly formed of cryoglobulins. The characterization of cryoglobulins requires the precipitate is several times washed, before performing immunofixation, a technique by which cryoglobulins can be classified depending on the characteristics of the detected immunoglobulins. These features imply a pathogenic role of these molecules which are consequently associated with a wide range of symptoms and manifestations. According to the Brouet classification, Cryoglobulins are grouped into three types by the immunochemical properties of immunoglobulins in the cryoprecipitate. The aim of this paper is to review the major aspects of cryoglobulinemia and the laboratory techniques used to detect and characterize cryoglobulins, taking into consideration the presence and consequences of cryoglobulinemia in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection.
... 19 The aggregation is often the result of electrostatic interactions, which in turn depend on the structural characteristics of CGs as an altered glycosylation with reduction in sialic acid content. 4,20 Levo assumed that the existence of an impoverishment of sialic acid would make immunogenic Igs favor cryoprecipitation, especially during persistence and intense immune stimulation. This stimulation would lead to the manifestation of a secretory defect with production of Ig without sialic acid. ...
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We have previously shown that murine IgG3 monoclonal autoantibodies with cryoglobulin activity, derived from lupus-prone mice, are able to induce glomerular lesions resembling the "wire-loop" lesion typically described for human lupus nephritis. In the present study, we have further assessed the nephritogenic potential of four IgG3 anti-hapten, trinitrophenyl (TNP), monoclonal antibodies (mAb) obtained from non-autoimmune mice immunized with TNP-conjugated foreign antigens. Our results showed that two of four IgG3 anti-TNP monoclonal cryoglobulins were capable of inducing glomerular lesions, characterized by voluminous intracapillary thrombi and mesangial deposition of PAS-positive materials, which differed from "wire-loop" lesions generated by IgG3 monoclonal cryoglobulins with autoantibody activities. These anti-TNP monoclonal cryoglobulins, however, failed to induce glomerular lesions when mice were kept at 37 degrees C after the mAb administration. This finding formally proves that the cryoglobulin activity is critically involved in the development of glomerular lesions induced by IgG3 anti-TNP mAb. In addition, we have demonstrated a remarkable difference in the nephritogenic activities of two IgG3 anti-TNP mAb, which exhibit a marked sequence homology in the variable regions of their heavy and light chains (91.5% and 99.1% at the amino acid level, respectively) and an identical isoelectric point. Our results indicate first, that IgG3 monoclonal cryoglobulins are able to generate two different kinds of glomerular lesions, and second, that a subtle difference in variable region sequences may determine not only the nephritogenic activities, but also the type of glomerular lesions mediated by IgG3 cryoglobulins.
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MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr(MRL/lpr) lupus mice develop glomerulonephritis in which the histopathological manifestations of the disease are characterized by diffuse cell-proliferative, crescentic, and/or wire loop-like lesions, resembling those of human lupus nephritis. Although these lesions are thought to be mediated by antibodies, little data is available to explain these regular variations in glomerular lesions induced by antibodies at the monoclonal level. We studied glomerular lesions of normal or severe combined immunodeficient mice injected with nephritogenic immunoglobulin G3-producing hybridoma clones (2B11.3 and 7B6.8), which we previously established from an unmanipulated MRL/lpr mouse. Both clones caused increased serum levels of immunoglobulin G3 with identical patterns over time and both induced glomerular deposits of immunoglobulin G3 and C3. However, 2B11.3 and 7B6.8 induced glomerular lesions that differed in their histopathological manifestations. The 2B11.3 clone generated cell-proliferative lesions associated with marked Mac-2-positive macrophage infiltrates, but the 7B6.8 clone induced lesions characterized by subendothelial hyaline deposits resembling wire loops. The latter was not associated with significant inflammatory cell infiltrates at any point throughout the progression of the lesion. Thus, our findings suggest that the histopathological variation in glomerulonephritis seen in MRL/lpr mice results from clonally expanded B cell clones that produce nephritogenic antibodies with different pathogenic potencies.
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The MRL-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mouse spontaneously develops a disease syndrome which, in many respects, is similar to human rheumatoid arthritis. These mice develop joint inflammation, circulating rheumatoid factors and immune complexes. We now show that the parallel with human disease extends to a glycosylation defect which is observed on IgG from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Using the lectins ricin and Bandeiraea simplicifolia II we have found that terminal N-acetylglucosamine is clearly raised in MRL/lpr IgG. Increased exposure of galactose was also detected, indicating that a second glycosylation site must be present on these molecules. Polyethylene glycol-precipitated IgG complexes bound significiantly more of each lectin than did free IgG, indicating that the changes in glycosylation were associated with complex formation. The sugar abnormality was most marked in the IgG2a/IgG3 fraction from protein A IgG subclass chromatography. Our results suggest that the IgG glycosylation defect seen in rheumatoid arthritis is apparent in the MRL/lpr mouse and may contribute, through complex formation, to the pathological processes in the rheumatoid syndrome.
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In mice and humans, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype are unique in that they spontaneously self-associate. A consequence is the formation of cryoglobulins from some, but not all IgG3 molecules. Little is known about the structural basis of murine IgG3 self-association. A region of the CH3 domain that is unique to IgG3 antibodies is the presence of an extra glycosylation site at residues 471–473. It is known that glycosylation greatly influences solubility. It has also been shown by X-ray crystallography that glycosylated residues (specifically sialic acid) are influential in the contacts of theCHI to CH2 as well as the CH2 to CH2 domains in a human IgGl antibody. These findings provided evidence that a direct interaction exists between the glycosylated residues and other residues within the constant and/or variable domains. It was, therefore, important to determine whether the glycosylated residue in the CH3 domain of the IgG3 constant region is influential in self-association. We have found that removing the glycosylation site by site-directed mutagenesis of an IgG3 RF significantly reduced the self-associating ability of this antibody.
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A MRL strain bearing the autosomal recessive mutant gene, lpr (lymphoproliferation), spontaneously develops, in addition to a lupus-like syndrome, unique serological and pathological manifestations. Production of high titers of IgG rheumatoid factors (RF) may be related to the formation of extremely large amounts of cryoglobulins and the development of tissue lesions such as necrotizing polyarteritis, arthritis, and glomerulonephritis. To analyze more directly the relationship of IgG RF to the development of cryoglobulins and tissue injuries, we have established four monoclonal IgG RF secreting hybridomas from unimmunized MRL-lpr/lpr mice and determined their pathogenic effects in normal strains of mice. All the monoclonal IgG RF obtained in this study were of the IgG3 subclass and generated cryoglobulins. However, the fact that not only IgG3 Rf monoclonals but also four of five non-RF IgG3 monoclonals were able to form cryoglobulins, which were composed exclusively of each IgG3 monoclonal, indicates that the IgG3 molecule has a unique physicochemical property to self-associate via nonimmunological interaction and the ability to form cryoglobulins. When the in vivo pathogenic activities of these IgG3 RF and non-RF monoclonals were examined, three of IgG3 RF monoclonals with the specificity to IgG2a were able to induce extensive pathologic manifestations including peripheral vasculitis and glomerulonephritis characteristic of patients with cryoglobulinemia. Our results indicate that the IgG3 itself, independently of its specificity, could be a potential source of cryoglobulins and IgG3 RF, combined with its activity of cryoglobulin formation, may play a significant role in the development of glomerulonephritis and cutaneous vascular lesions of ears and foot pads observed frequently in aged MRL-lpr/lpr mice.
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A new method for determining nucleotide sequences in DNA is described. It is similar to the "plus and minus" method [Sanger, F. & Coulson, A. R. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 94, 441-448] but makes use of the 2',3'-dideoxy and arabinonucleoside analogues of the normal deoxynucleoside triphosphates, which act as specific chain-terminating inhibitors of DNA polymerase. The technique has been applied to the DNA of bacteriophage varphiX174 and is more rapid and more accurate than either the plus or the minus method.
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CBA and SJL mice were immunized against the hybrid cell antibody Bl-8 (μ,λ1) which we have previously isolated from the primary response of C57BL/6 mice against the hapten (4-hydroxy-3-nitro-phenyl)acetyl (NP) (Eur. J. Immunol. 1978. 8: 393). Cell lines secreting monoclonal antibodies against B1–8 idiotopes were isolated, and the anti-idiotope antibodies were used to characterize the variable portion of B1–8 and of other anti-NP antibodies all belonging to an antibody family which carries a major idiotypic marker, namely the NPb idiotype.
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C-type (Ca(2+)-dependent) animal lectins such as mannose-binding proteins mediate many cell-surface carbohydrate-recognition events. The crystal structure at 1.7 A resolution of the carbohydrate-recognition domain of rat mannose-binding protein complexed with an oligomannose asparaginyl-oligosaccharide reveals that Ca2+ forms coordination bonds with the carbohydrate ligand. Carbohydrate specificity is determined by a network of coordination and hydrogen bonds that stabilizes the ternary complex of protein, Ca2+ and sugar. Two branches of the oligosaccharide crosslink neighbouring carbohydrate-recognition domains in the crystal, enabling multivalent binding to a single oligosaccharide chain to be visualized directly.
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To analyze the involvement of rheumatoid factors (RF) in the generation of cryoglobulins and the development of related tissue injuries, we have established a panel of anti-IgG2a RF mAbs derived from MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL-lpr), C3H/HeJ-lpr/lpr, and 129/Sv mice. After injection of hybridoma cells to normal mice, all four IgG3 RF mAbs induced cryoglobullnemia, and various degrees of glomerulonephritis and skin leukocytoclastic vasculitis. In contrast, none of the RF mAbs of the other isotypes generated cryoglobulins or tissue lesions. Since the same observation was obtained with another panel of five clonally related anti-IgG2a RF mAbs of MRL-lpr origin with almost Identical heavy and light chain variable (V) regions but five different Isotypes, it seems unlikely that the absence of pathogenicity of non-IgG3 RF mAbs was due to differences in fine specificity or V framework regions. In addition, the analysis of serum RF In MRL-lpr mice has demonstrated that a majority of 4 month old MRL-lpr mice produced substantial amounts of IgG3 RF with cryoglobulin activity. Because the cryoglobulin activity is associated with the murine IgG3 heavy chain constant region, RF of this subclass may play a significant role in the development of autoimmune-related tissue injuries, especially In MRL-lpr mice.
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Of the various classes of antibodies that B lymphocytes can produce, class M (IgM) is the first to be expressed on the membrane of the developing cells. Pre-B cells, the precursors of B-lymphocytes, produce the heavy chain of IgM (mu chain), but not light chains. Recent data suggest that pre-B cells express mu chains on the membrane together with the 'surrogate' light chains lambda 5 and V pre B (refs 2-7). This complex could control pre-B-cell differentiation, in particular the rearrangement of the light-chain genes. We have now assessed the importance of the membrane form of the mu chain in B-cell development by generating mice lacking this chain. We disrupted one of the membrane exons of the gene encoding the mu-chain constant region by gene targeting in mouse embryonic stem cells. From these cells we derived mice heterozygous or homozygous for the mutation. B-cell development in the heterozygous mice seemed to be normal, but in homozygous animals B cells were absent, their development already being arrested at the stage of pre-B-cell maturation.
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MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) mice spontaneously develop lethal glomerulonephritis (GN) similar to human lupus nephritis, associated with the expression of lymphoproliferation gene lpr. To examine whether a particular IgG subclass is responsible for development of GN in these mice, first quantitative analysis of IgG subclasses in serum and in kidney eluates was performed. Although IgG2a was the dominant subclass in serum throughout the lifespan of mice, the IgG3 level in kidney eluates was three times higher than that of IgG2a at the 16 wk of age, which is the time of onset of development of severe GN. In sera of the 12-wk-old mice, half of the IgG3 was in immune complex form, whereas IgG2a in this form was only 17% of the total amount. Second, cyclosporin A, which ameliorates GN in MRL/lpr mice despite autoantibody production, was found to reduce serum IgG3 and mRNA levels, associated with the revision of cationic shift of the serum IgG3 spectrotype seen in isoelectric focusing. Third, among the hybrid mice with non-autoimmune-prone C3H/HeJ-lpr/lpr (C3H/lpr) mice, MRL/lpr x (MRL/lpr x C3H/lpr) F1, in which the genetic background for GN is likely segregated, the mRNA level for IgG3 correlated well with the degree of glomerular lesion. These findings indicate that production of IgG3 in MRL/lpr mice is one of the major factors responsible for development of GN in these mice, and that this is due to the genetic background of the MRL strain.
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The sugar chains of IgG samples purified from sera of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) contain many fewer galactose residues than those from sera of healthy individuals. Enzymatic studies revealed that the low galactose content in the IgGs of RA patients results from the reduced activity in the B cells of a galactosyltransferase (EC 2.4.1.90), which preferentially transfers galactose to asialo-agalacto-lgG. Asialo-agalacto-transferrin and asialo-ovine submaxillary mucin were also galactosylated by detergent-activated human B cell homogenates. However, no difference in the enzymatic activities toward these two acceptors was detected between the B cells from RA patients and from non-RA patients and healthy individuals. Enzyme kinetic studies revealed that an affinity of the galactosyltransferase in the B cells from RA patients was lowered for UDP-Gal but not for asialo-agalacto-lgG, while the affinities for UDP-Gal and asialo-agalacto-transferrin of the galactosyltransferase were not changed between the B cells from RA patients and from non-RA patients and healthy individuals in accordance with their enzyme activities. The results indicated that the reduced galactosyltransferase activity toward asialo-agalacto-lgG in the B cells from RA patients can be ascribed to the lowered affinity for UDP-Gal.
Article
The structures of the asparagine-linked oligosaccharide chains of IgG from autoimmune arthritic MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL-lpr/lpr) mice and control MRL/Mp(-)+/+ (MRL(-)+/+) mice were investigated. Two subpopulations of IgG, M1-I and M1-II, were obtained from serum of MRL-lpr/lpr mice by column chromatography on protein A-Sepharose CL-4B. Although M1-I did not bind to the column, its elution was retarded, whereas M1-II was bound and was eluted in acidic buffer. IgG (Mn) from MRL(-)+/+ mice showed the same chromatographic behavior as M1-II. The structures of oligosaccharide chains liberated quantitatively by hydrazinolysis from IgG samples Mn, M1-I, M1-II, and a pooled mixture (M1) of M1-I and M1-II were determined by sequential exoglycosidase digestion, lectin (RCA120) affinity HPLC, and by methylation analysis. Their oligosaccharide structures were the same and shown to be biantennary complex-type chains +/- Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc beta 1----2Man alpha 1----6(+/- Gal beta 1----4GlcNAc beta 1----2Man alpha 1----3)Man beta 1----4GlcNAc beta 1----4(+/- Fuc alpha 1----6)GlcNAc. The proportion of each oligosaccharide in Mn and M1-II was the same but differed from that in M1-I where the degree of the galactosylation was significantly decreased which caused the change in the oligosaccharide pattern of total serum IgG (M1) of autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mice. This phenomenon, which is also found in total serum IgG of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, suggests that alteration of oligosaccharides in IgG may be a common feature in animals which develop arthritis with the production of rheumatoid factor regardless of species.
Article
Previously we have demonstrated that eight out of nine IgG3 monoclonal antibodies (mAb) obtained from autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr mice were able to self-associate and to precipitate in the cold (Gyotoku et al., J. Immunol. 1987. 138:3785). To determine whether the cryoprecipitation of IgG3 mAb is enhanced or inhibited in the presence of specific ligand, we have established eight IgG3 mAb reactive with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) hapten: four mAb were obtained from fusion of spleen cells of C57BL/6 mice immunized with 2,4,6-trinitrophenylated keyhole limpet hemocyanin, three from 129/Sv and one from BALB/c immunized with DNP-lipopolysaccharide. Five of them induced cryoglobulins composed exclusively of the IgG3 mAb. The binding of negatively charged monomeric DNP-amino acid conjugates completely inhibited the cryoprecipitation of all the five cryoprecipitating anti-DNP IgG3 mAb, while the incubation with positively charged or neutral DNP-amino acid conjugates had variable effects: increase, inhibition or no change of the cryoprecipitation. In addition, positively charged DNP-amino acid conjugates were able to induce the cryoprecipitation of one of the non-cryoprecipitating anti-DNP IgG3 mAb. Our data showed that (a) IgG3 mAb derived from non-autoimmune strains of mice, similar to IgG3 mAb derived from an autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr strain, possessed the unique property to self-associate and were able to form cryoglobulins in most cases; (b) although the Fc-Fc interactions of IgG3 mAb play a decisive role in IgG3 cold solubility, IgG3 cryoprecipitation was markedly influenced after interacting with their specific ligand, depending on the charge of the hapten-amino acid conjugate. This suggested that even minor interferences with the electrostatic equilibrium of the IgG3 by the binding of charged hapten molecules induced dramatic changes in the solubility of the IgG3 mAb at low temperature.
Article
A total of 20 of 23 IgG3 mAb derived from unmanipulated autoimmune MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice was shown to generate cryoglobulins which were composed exclusively of IgG3. Although three IgG3 mAb failed to develop cryoglobulins, they were able to bind nonspecifically to any IgG3 molecules as efficiently as cryoprecipitable IgG did. The direct role of the gamma 3 constant region for the generation of cryoglobulins was demonstrated by the following findings: 1) the cryoglobulin activity was independent of the specificity of the IgG3 mAb, 2) no mAb other than those of the IgG3 subclass, including IgM rheumatoid factors (RF), generated cryoglobulins, and 3) the cryoglobulin activity was gained after the Ig class switch of mAb from IgM to IgG3. Analysis of Ig components in three different sources of cryoglobulins, either induced by the injection of bacterial LPS or by the infection with Plasmodium yoelii in BALB/c mice or developed spontaneously in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice, revealed the selective concentration of IgG3 in these cryoglobulins; greater than 99%, 73% and 58% of IgG recoverable from these three cryoglobulins, respectively, were IgG3. This further attests to the major role of IgG3 in the generation of cryoglobulins in mice. In addition, the enhanced formation and even induction of IgG3 cryoglobulins in the presence of IgM anti-IgG3 RF mAb, and the enrichment of IgM RF in LPS- or malaria-induced cryoglobulins indicated that IgM RF can be involved in the generation of cryoglobulins by interacting with noncryoprecipitable IgG3 as well as cryoprecipitable IgG3.
Article
A murine IgG3 mAb, clone 6-19, derived from non-manipulated autoimmune MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice is a rheumatoid factor specific for IgG2a and is able to generate cryoglobulins via nonspecific IgG3 Fc-Fc interaction. Intraperitoneal passive transfer of ascites containing the 6-19 mAb into BALB/c mice induces, within 18 h, remarkable pathology characterized by skin vasculitis and acute glomerulonephritis associated with cryoglobulinemia. In order to evaluate the possibility of modulating the development of tissue lesions by an anti-Id antibody, we have raised an IgG2b anti-Id mAb specific to the 6-19 mAb. The cryoprecipitation of 6-19 mAb was completely inhibited in the presence of excess amounts of anti-Id mAb in vitro. In vivo, pretreatment of BALB/c mice with anti-6-19 anti-Id mAb inhibited development of skin vasculitis and glomerulonephritis induced by the 6-19 mAb. The cryoglobulin formation was markedly diminished due to enhanced elimination of the 6-19 mAb from the circulation. In contrast, pretreatment with an IgM anti-IgG3 rheumatoid factor mAb neither protected nor aggravated the development of tissue lesions. These results suggest possible implications in the anti-Id treatment of similar vascular diseases in man.
Article
Autosensitisation to IgG may be important in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis and could be related to reduced glycosylation of the oligosaccharides in the C gamma 2 region of serum IgG. The activity of galactosyltransferase, the enzyme that catalyses the addition of galactose to the oligosaccharide chains, was measured in the circulating B cells of seventeen patients with classic rheumatoid arthritis. It was significantly lower than that of a group of eleven controls (p less than 0.001) or of nine age-matched controls (p less than 0.001). In contrast, the enzyme activity of the T cells was within the range of that in nine age-matched controls, and enzyme activity in monocyte-rich mononuclear-cell populations was higher than in controls, possibly reflecting stimulation of the monocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. These findings suggest that galactosyltransferase may regulate the degree of glycosylation during IgG synthesis and could therefore be implicated in the rheumatoid inflammatory process.
Article
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a widely prevalent (1-3%) chronic systemic disease thought to have an autoimmune component; both humoral and cellular mechanisms have been implicated. Primary osteoarthritis (OA) is considered to be distinct from rheumatoid arthritis, and here damage is thought to be secondary to cartilage degeneration. In rheumatoid arthritis, immune complexes are present that consist exclusively of immunoglobulin, implying that this is both the 'antibody' (rheumatoid factor [RF]) and the 'antigen' (most commonly IgG). Autoantigenic reactivity has been localized to the constant-region (C gamma 2) domains of IgG. There is no evidence for a polypeptide determinant but carbohydrate changes have been reported. We have therefore conducted a study, simultaneously in Oxford and Tokyo, to compare in detail the N-glycosylation pattern of serum IgG (Fig. 1) isolated from normal individuals and from patients with either primary osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis. The results, which required an evaluation of the primary sequences of approximately 1,400 oligosaccharides from 46 IgG samples, indicate that: (1) IgG isolated from normal individuals, patients with RA and patients with OA contains different distributions of asparagine-linked bi-antennary complex-type oligosaccharide structures, (2) in neither disease is the IgG associated with novel oligosaccharide structures, but the observed differences are due to changes in the relative extent of galactosylation compared with normal individuals. This change results in a 'shift' in the population of IgG molecules towards those carrying complex oligosaccharides, one or both of whose arms terminate in N-acetylglucosamine. These two arthritides may therefore be glycosylation diseases, reflecting changes in the intracellular processing, or post-secretory degradation of N-linked oligosaccharides.
Article
Eighty-six patients with cryoglobulinemia repeatedly underwent complete immunochemical and clinical evaluation during the course of their disease. Immunochemical analysis of the purified cryoglobulins allowed us to classify them into three groups. Type I cryoglobulins are made of isolated monoclonal immunoglobulin: IgM (11 cases), IgG (7 cases), IgA (2 cases) or Bence Jones protein (1 case). Type II cryoglobulins are mixed cryoglobulins with a monoclonal component possessing antibody activity towards polyclonal IgG. These cryoglobulins were mainly IgM-IgG (19 cases), sometimes IgG-IgG (2 cases) or IgA-IgG (1 case). Type III cryoglobulins (43 cases) are mixed polyclonal cryoglobulins, i.e., composed of one or more classes of polyclonal immunoglobulins and sometimes nonimmunoglobulin molecules such as beta1C or lipoprotein. Most of these type III cryoglobulins are also immunoglobulin-anti-immunoglobulin immune complexes. This classification enabled us to establish correlations between the biologic findings and the clinical features as well as the underlying diseases.Cutaneous and vasomotor symptoms were most severe in patients with type I and II cryoglobulins. The usual clinical picture in patients with type II or III cryoglobulins consisted of chronic vascular purpura and mild Raynaud's phenomenon. Renal and neurologic involvement were more frequent in patients with type II and III cryoglobulins, and were of major prognostic significance. In our series, immunoproliferative and autoimmune disorders were the most frequent diseases associated with cryoglobulinemia. The former were associated with type I or II cryoglobulins and the latter mainly with type III cryoglobulins. Of note is that idiopathic cryoglobulinemia accounted for nearly 30 per cent of the cases despite repeated careful clinical evaluation and a mean follow up of 9 years.In 10 per cent of the cases, acute and severe symptoms necessitated emergency treatment with plasmapheresis and chemotherapy which allowed a satisfactory initial remission in all but one patient. Conversely, no treatment was definitively effective in patients with chronic symptoms such as vascular purpura.
Article
It is now recognized that the vast majority of cryoglobulins are either intact monoclonal immunoglobulins (Igs) or, somewhat more frequently, Ig complexes in which one component, usually IgM, exhibits antibody activity to IgG, i.e., mixed cryoglobulins. Other cold precipitable plasma proteins distinct from immunoglobulins have also been recognized, including cryofibrinogens, C reactive protein albumin complexes, a heparin precipitable protein related to fibrinogen, and a nonclotting component of Cohn Fraction I 1 from pooled normal serum. In addition, cold insoluble Bence Jones proteins have also been described. In this review, only those proteins recognizable as immunoglobulins will be considered, and to more accurately describe them, the term 'cryoimmunoglobulins', will be used. A classification can be made on the basis of the immunoglobulin composition of the cryoprecipitates. Essentially three types can be described on the basis of immunoglobulin homogeneity: a single homogeneous immunoglobulin is present (monoclonal type); two or more immunoglobulins are found, one of which is homogeneous (mixed type); and one or more immunoglobulins are found, none of which are homogeneous (polyclonal type). Cryoimmunoglobulinemia is not as unusual as commonly thought. As much as 80 μg/ml has been detected in sera from apparently normal individuals when 50 ml aliquots of blood were processed. Of interest is the fact that mixed IgM IgG cryos were found in 25 out of 49 sera from normal individuals. In 16 of these mixed cryoIgs, rheumatoid factor activity was present. Only 13 of the normal sera had a cryo content less than 10 μg/ml, and the highest normal level was 80. Thus, trace amounts of cryoIgs are frequently found in normal individuals. The phenomenon may represent a physiologic part of the immune response which can evolve into a pathologic one, depending on the duration, quantity and composition of the cryiIg synthesized.
Article
A new subclass of mouse IgG for which we propose the name IgG3 has been shown to have a mol wt of 150,000 consistent with an L(2)H(2) structure, and is present in normal mouse serum at a concentration of 0.1-0.2 mg/ml. Its molecular weight, low carbohydrate content, glycopeptide analysis, and C-terminal analysis are all typical of the IgG class. The intact protein had a strong tendency to form noncovalent aggregates with itself which were dissociable in acid. Upon papain digestion an Fab fragment of 47,000 mole wt was generated along with an Fc fragment which was insoluble at neutral pH. As for its biology, the protein did not fix complement, was not cytophilic for gammaG2 receptor sites on macrophages, and did not show passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. It was very efficiently transported across the placenta so that its concentration in the newborn was twice that in the serum of the mother, compared to the concentration of IgG1 and IgG2 proteins which were only present at one-third the concentration of that found in the serum of the mother. The Fc fragment of this protein reacted with and was solubilized by the staphylococcal A protein which also precipitated the intact immunoglobulin. In addition, the myeloma protein which was the prototype for this gammaG subclass exhibited binding activity for levan which was localized to the Fab fragment.
Article
Rats of the LOU/Ws1 strain were immunized with mixtures of mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) of various isotypes, and their spleen cells were fused with the rat myeloma Y3.Ag1.2.3 or the mouse myeloma X63.Ag8.653. From four fusion experiments, we have selected 14 rat MAbs that exhibited selective binding to either IgG2a, IgG2b, IgG1, and IgG3 subclasses or to kappa chain isotypic determinants. Cross-blocking studies revealed that three rat MAbs identified distinct determinants on the Fc fragment of the MAb H10-81.10 (A.TH, Igh-1e). By contrast, the IgG1, IgG2b, IgG3, and kappa isotypes defined by the mAbs analyzed in this study were found to be in close spatial relationship. These rat MAbs bound IgG2a, IgG2b, or IgG1 mouse MAbs, expressing the Igh-1e,j,a, or c, Igh-3a or b, or Igh-4a or b allelic specificities, respectively.
Article
Studies of the murine lambda light chains produced by myeloma cells provided the first evidence for somatic point mutation of germ-line variable (V) region genes. An examination of the variable regions of 19 lambda 1 chains revealed seven which differed from a common sequence by one to three amino acid substitutions. Subsequently, one of these presumed somatic variants of the single lambda 1 V gene was characterized by DNA sequence analysis of the rearranged functional gene. The predicted DNA sequence alteration was observed and no silent mutation was evident. These studies of lambda chain variants suggested that the hypervariable, complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) ht be a preferred site of somatic mutation because all seven characterized variants contained substitutions only in these regions. By contrast, comparisons of closely related kappa chain variable region amino acid sequences, and more recently VK and VH genes, have suggested that somatic mutation probably occurs in codons for both framework and CDR residues. To examine this apparent discrepancy between the sites of somatic mutations in lambda and kappa genes, we have determined the nucleotide sequence of two lambda 1 gene from hybridomas and a lambda 2 gene from a myeloma. These sequences demonstrate that somatic mutation in lambda genes can occur in both the framework and CDR residues.
Article
We have prepared monoclonal hapten-specific mouse IgG2b antibodies depleted of asparagine-linked carbohydrate chains by treating the hybridoma cells with tunicamycin. The carbohydrate-deficient antibodies behaved in an identical manner to the normal antibodies with regard to fine antigen-binding reactivity (a Fab fragment feature) and protein A binding capacity [a feature requiring integrity at the CH2 and CH3 domain-interaction regions in the constant region of the heavy chain (CH)]. However, they lost the ability to activate complement, to bind to Fc receptors on macrophages, and to induce antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. Furthermore, antigen-antibody complexes produced from such carbohydrate-deficient antibodies failed to be eliminated rapidly from the circulation. We conclude that removal of carbohydrate chains from IgG molecules may have a profound and highly select impact on the biological activity to these antibodies.
Article
The glycosylation of the circulating immunoglobulin-gamma (IgG) antibody molecules changes in rheumatoid arthritis. The extent of the changes correlates with the disease severity and reverses in remission. We demonstrate here that the alteration in glycosylation associated with rheumatoid arthritis can create a new mode for the interaction of IgG with complement through binding to the collagenous lectin mannose-binding protein (MBP). Rheumatoid arthritis is associated with a marked increases in IgG glycoforms that lack galactose (referred to as G0 glycoforms) in the Fc region of the molecule and that terminate in N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc). We show, using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray data, that these terminal GlcNAc residues become accessible for MBP binding. We further demonstrate that multiple presentation of IgG-G0 glycoforms to MBP results in activation of the complement. This suggests that a contribution to the chronic inflammation of the synovial membrane could arise from the localization of the IgG-G0 glycoforms in the affected joint and from resulting activation of complement.
Article
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is glycosylated in both the Fc and the Fab regions of the protein with a heterogeneous ensemble of structures (glycoforms) that is both highly reproducible (i.e. nonrandom) and site specific. In normal IgG, the 2 highly conserved oligosaccharides of the Fc region are found buried between the CH2 domains, forming specific protein-saccharide interactions with the Fc protein surface. One of the functions attributed to the Fc oligosaccharides of normal IgG is to maintain the conformational arrangements of the Fc domains as well as the hinge regions. These structural features are necessary for Fc effector functions such as Clq and monocyte binding. A hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is a dramatic increase in the presence of serum IgG containing Fc oligosaccharides lacking an outer arm galactose residue (termed 'G0' glycoforms). The increased level of G0 has been shown to be directly related to the pathogenesis of RA. Nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation studies of the Fc region from normal and RA IgG, as well as examination of x-ray structures, show that the G0 oligosaccharides have an increased mobility resulting from the loss of binding between the G0 oligosaccharide and the Fc protein surface. From these observations it follows that regions of the protein surface that are normally covered by the oligosaccharide are revealed. The newly accessible protein surface could have lectin-like activity and also be inherently antigenic. In addition, the more mobile G0 oligosaccharide can be recognised by mannose binding protein. As the mannose binding protein can activate complement, and the Fc oligosaccharide would not normally be accessible to protein recognition, this finding might suggest a specific role for the G0 glycoform in inflammation when the appropriate IgG glycoforms are clustered.
Article
MRL/lpr mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like autoimmune syndrome characterized by immunopathologic manifestations such as necrotizing vasculitis of the skin and glomerulonephritis. A feature of this autoimmune syndrome is the production of extremely large amounts of monoclonal IgG3 cryoglobulins. The structural basis of IgG3 cryoprecipitation is not well understood. Although the IgG3 isotype is necessary for cryoprecipitation, not all IgG3 antibodies cryoprecipitate. It has been postulated that electrostatic charge may be influential in cryoprecipitation. To investigate this problem, the VH and VL sequences of a panel of IgG3 cryoglobulins and non-cryoglobulins were compared, with particular attention to charged amino acid differences. At VH residues 6 and 23 the cryoglobulins were more positively charged than their non-cryoglobulin counterparts. To analyze further the effect of charge on cryoprecipitation, the sequence of an IgG3 monoclonal cryoprecipitating rheumatoid factor was modified by site-directed mutagenesis. The more positive residues at VH 6 and 23 present in some of the cryoglobulin antibodies were mutated to the more negative residues found in the non-cryoglobulins. The results show that VH residue 6 affects cryoprecipitation while residue 23 does not. When injected into normal BALB/c mice, the unmutated antibody produced glomerular immune deposits and focal glomerulonephritis, whereas loss of cryoprecipitability by mutating residue 6 completely abrogated glomerular immune deposition and glomerular injury. In contrast, the mutation at residue 23 which retains cryoprecipitability reduced glomerular immune deposition and prevented glomerular injury.
Article
Oligosaccharides can be of fundamental importance to glycoprotein function. Glycosylation abnormalities are present in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may be associated with disease pathogenesis. To determine whether similar disease mechanisms occur in the MRL-1pr/1pr autoimmune arthritic mouse, studies on B lymphocyte galactosyltransferase (GTase) have been carried out. In MRL mice, a significant reduction in peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) GTase activity was found when compared to their paired splenic (SP) GTase activity (-69%, p = 0.002) and histocompatible non-autoimmune control CBA/Ca mice (-67%; p = 0.002). The changes in PBL GTase activity are similar to those found in RA and on further analysis, using mixing experiments in the presence of purified human milk GTase, this reduction was shown not to be due to the presence of a soluble intracellular GTase inhibitor. Furthermore when examining MRL derived hybridoma cells producing IgG, significantly reduced GTase activity was detected in the rheumatoid factor (RF) producing hybridoma cells compared to those secreting an irrelevant antibody (-21%, p < 0.05). Together these findings suggest that the glycosylation changes observed in this study, and those reported previously in RA, are tissue-specific, may result from cells trafficking from centres of disease activity and are not the result of direct enzyme inhibition. It is now important to further understand the mechanisms controlling glycosylation and relate disease associated changes with those occurring as part of normal cellular physiology.
Article
Immunoglobulin G (IgG) molecules are glycosylated in CH2 at Asn297; the N-linked carbohydrates attached there have been shown to contribute to antibody (Ab) stability and various effector functions. The carbohydrate attached to the IgG constant region is a complex biantennary structure. Alterations in the structure of oligosaccharide have been associated with human diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. To study the effects of altered carbohydrate structure on Ab effector function, we have used gene transfection techniques to produce mouse-human chimeric IgG1 Abs in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line Lec 1, which is incapable of processing the high-mannose intermediate through the terminal glycosylation steps. We also produced IgG1 Abs in Pro-5, the wild-type CHO cell line that is the parent of Lec 1. The Pro-5-produced Ab (IgG1-Pro-5) was similar to IgG1-My 1, a myeloma-produced IgG1 Ab of the same specificity, in its biologic properties such as serum half-life, ability to effect complement-mediated cytolysis, and affinity for Fc gamma RI. Although the Lec 1-produced Ab, IgG1-Lec 1, was properly assembled and retained antigen specificity, it was incapable of complement-mediated hemolysis and was substantially deficient in complement consumption, C1q binding, and C1 activation. IgG1-Lec 1 also showed reduced but significant affinity for Fc gamma R1 receptors. The in vivo half-life of IgG1-Lec 1 was shorter than that of either the myeloma- or Pro-5-produced counterpart, with more being cleared during the alpha-phase and with more rapid clearance during the beta-phase. Clearance of IgG1-Lec 1 could be inhibited by the administration of yeast-derived mannan. Thus the uptake of IgG1-Lec 1 appears to be accelerated by the presence of terminally mannosylated oligosaccharide. Therefore, certain Ab functions as well as the in vivo fate of the protein are dramatically affected by altered carbohydrate structure. Expression of Igs in cell lines with defined glycosylation mutations is shown to be a useful technique for investigating the contribution of carbohydrate structure to Ab function.
Article
The autosomal recessive mutant gene, lpr, has been shown to accelerate the progression of lupus-like autoimmune disease, which is associated with a massive expansion of a unique CD4-CD8- double-negative T cell subset, in MRL/MpJ mice. Here we report a substrain of MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr (MRL-lpr) mice which live almost twice as long with delayed development of glomerulonephritis, compared with conventional MRL-lpr mice. This substrain, termed MRL-lpr.II (II for long-lived), develops generalized lymphadenopathy characteristically seen in MRL-lpr mice. However, the expansion of a double negative lpr T cell subset is markedly limited with a mean value of 15% in their lymph nodes compared to about 70% in conventional MRL-lpr mice. Overall production of autoantibodies, such as anti-DNA and rheumatoid factors, does not significantly differ between the two MRL-lpr mice. However, serum levels of cryoglobulins, whose major component is IgG3, are markedly diminished in MRL-lpr.II mice with a parallel decrease in IgG3. Since MRL-lpr.II mice still carry the lpr mutation, as documented by the presence of defects in the Fas antigen, a possible new mutation in this substrain may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of lupus-like autoimmune syndrome.
Article
Hydrazinolysis has been applied to the quantitative liberation of intact N-linked oligosaccharides from small amounts of glycoproteins. The usefulness of this approach was originally described by Mizuochi et al. (1). This method has been extensively utilized for preparation of N-linked oligosaccharides from a number of glycoproteins for structural analysis (2–15). When glycoproteins with N-linked oligosaccharides are heated with anhydrous hydrazine at 100°C for 10 h, almost all peptide bonds in the polypeptide moiety are cleaved and the amino acids are converted to hydrazides, whereas the glycosidic bonds are stable. Simultaneously, there is quantitative cleavage of the GlcNAc-Asn linkage and release of acyl groups linked to the amino groups of amino sugars and sialic acids. Therefore, the procedure for preparing N-linked oligosaccharides from glycoproteins for structural analysis consists of three steps: hydrazinolysis, re-N-acetylation, and reduction with NaB3H4 for radiolabeling a small amount of liberated oligosaccharides.
Article
Production of IgG3 in MRL/Mp-lpr/lpr (MRL/lpr) lupus mice is one of the major factors to develop glomerulonephritis (GN) in these mice. To examine molecular characteristics of IgG3 responsible for GN in these mice, hybridoma clones producing IgG3 antibodies were prepared from one unmanipulated MRL/lpr mouse. Two clones, 2B11.3 and 7B6.8, were nephritogenic; that is, they caused severe glomerular lesions when injected to normal mice, moreover with a different histopathological manifestation. The 2B11.3 clone generated diffuse cell-proliferative lesions, while those induced by the 7B6.8 clone resembled wire loop lesions in human lupus nephritis. The cDNA sequence analysis of 7B6.8 antibody and the other IgG3 antibody, 1G3, non-nephritogenic, revealed that the C regions of the heavy and light kappa chains were completely the same between them. Furthermore, they were identical in deduced amino acid sequences to those from non-autoimmune BALB/c mice, indicating no allelic difference of Igh-8 between these two strains. The V regions of 2B11.3 and 7B6.8 antibodies were composed of different sets of VH, D, JH, Vk and Jk. Although both of the VH belonged to the J558 family, they seemed to use a different VH germline gene. These findings suggest that GN in MRL/lpr mice is generated by the expansion of clonally different B cells producing particular antibodies possibly with a different pathogenetic potency.
Article
An IgG3 monoclonal antibody, 6-19, derived from unmanipulated MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice, exhibiting cryoglobulin and anti-IgG2a rheumatoid factor activities, induces skin leukocytoclastic vasculitis and glomerulonephritis when injected into normal mice. To determine the role of the gamma 3 heavy chain constant region in the generation of cryoglobulins and associated tissue lesions, we have established an IgG1 class switch variant, clone SS2F8, from the 6-19 hybridoma by sequential sublining. Here we report that the SS2F8 monoclonal antibody, which loses the cryoglobulin activity but retains the rheumatoid factor activity, fails to generate skin and glomerular lesions. The lack of pathogenicity of the IgG1 SS2F8 switch variant is not due to mutations in variable regions, since nucleotide sequence analysis shows no differences between both clones. In addition, we have observed that the IgG1 SS2F8 switch variant exhibits < 10% of the rheumatoid factor activity, as compared with the IgG3 6-19 monoclonal antibody, suggesting that the self-associating property of the gamma 3 isotype promotes antibody-binding activity. The present study indicates that the cryoglobulin activity associated with the gamma 3 isotype is critically involved in the pathogenicity of 6-19 anti-IgG2a rheumatoid factor monoclonal antibody and highlights the pathogenic relevance of autoantibodies of the IgG3 subclass in murine systemic lupus erythematosus.
Article
Three major components of the plasminogen activators (PA)/plasmin system are synthesized physiologically in glomeruli, and can be involved in glomerular proteolysis and extracellular matrix metabolism: tissue-type PA (tPA), urokinase (uPA) and PA inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). To explore the possible role of a dysregulation of the plasmin protease system in the development and progression of lupus-like glomerulonephritis, we studied the expression of the renal plasmin protease components during the course of the disease, either acute, induced by IgG3 monoclonal cryoglobulins, or chronic, occurring spontaneously in three different lupus-prone mice: (NZBxNZW)F1, BXSB and MRL-lpr/lpr. RNase protection assays and in situ hybridizations revealed a marked glomerular induction of PAI-1 mRNA abundance without any significant changes in renal tPA and uPA mRNA levels in the two different types of lupus-like glomerulonephritis. The overexpression of PAI-1 mRNA occurred in parallel with a significant decrease in glomerular tPA-catalyzed enzymatic activity as determined by zymographic analysis. In addition, a concomitant increase in glomerular expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) mRNA was observed. The demonstration of a close correlation between the PAI-1 and TGF-beta 1 mRNA levels and the severity of lupus-like glomerular lesions suggests that a pertubation of the glomerular PA/PAI balance, resulting from a marked TGF-beta 1-mediated induction of PAI-1 gene expression, plays an important role in the progression of lupus-like glomerular lesions, leading to glomerulosclerosis.