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Air sacs (Sacci pneumatici) in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

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... In mallard duck, Demirkan et al. (2006) revealed the general eight air sacs, while in white Pekin ducks, the caudal thoracic sacs were absent, and so six air sacs were present. Onuk et al. (2009) in domestic native geese, reported a totally of seven air sacs; a single cervicoclavicular, and a paired cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic and abdominal sacs. ...
... The cervical air sac consisted of a median chamber, situated between the lungs and dorsal to the esophagus, and a pair of tubular vertebral diverticula, on each side of the vertebral column, which aerate all the cervical vertebrae, except atlas and axis, and the first two thoracic vertebrae as well as the first two vertebral ribs. The cervical air sac was connected dorsally to the first medioventral secondary bronchus (Nickel et al., 1977, King and Mclelland 1984, Dyce et al., 2002, El-Mahdy, 2005and Demirkan et al., 2006, in chickens, pigeon and mallard duck). On the other hand, Kurtul et al. (2004) demonstrated that the cervical sac of the rock partridge had a caudally pointed diverticula located between the two lungs. ...
... Moreover, King (1975) added that, the abdominal air sacs detached also two iliolumbar diverticula which proceeded through the iliolumbar canal of the synsacrum. In the duck and geese, the abdominal air sac aerated the synsacrum as well as the last two or three ribs (Demirkan et al., 2006 andOnuk et al., 2009). ...
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Because of its physiological importance in the rapid growth rate of birds and the continous air flow that provided it the lungs in both inspiration and expiration, the present study was performed to examine the air sac system on twelve mature turkeys of both sexes and different weight. Seven air sacs were demonstrated associated with the two lungs and characteristic for the turkey. They comprised; the single composite cervicoclavicular air sac and the paired medial clavicular, thoracic and abdominal air sacs. The cervicoclavicular air sac closed partially the thoracic inlet and aerated the coracoid, the clavicle, the sternum, the sternal ribs and most of the vertebral column. The medial clavicular air sacs were the smallest ones, characteristic in the turkey and connected with the preceeding air sac with several small ducts on each side. The thoracic air sac related to the last two ribs, cranially and the abdominal wall, caudally. The medial clavicular and thoracic airsacs had no diverticula and aerated no bones. The paired abdominal air sacs were the largest, interwoven with the abdominal organs and gave off the femoral, perirenal and iliolumbar diverticula as well as the unique pericloacal diverticula dorsolateral to the cloaca on both sides. The abdominal air sacs aerated the synsacrum and the ilium but did not ventilated the femur or any bone of the leg.
... The air sacs responsible for pulmonary ventilation ,their poorly vascularized walls and as such do not significant contribute to gas exchange in bird. (6,7,8,9,5,10,11,12). ...
... In chicken has eight air sacs: single cervical and clavicular ,and paired cranial thoracic ,caudal thoracic ,and abdominal thoracic (14) The mallard ducks have five air sacs; unpaired cervical sac, unpaired clavicular sac, paired cranial thoracic and caudal thoracic sacs, and paired abdominal sac (15, 16,11). ...
... The present study revealed that the (nine) air sacs in white eared bulbul One single sac(interclavicular) and four paired air sacs(cervical, cranial and caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs).match with (13,15) that noted nine air sacs in geese, long-legged buzzard, and disagreement with (5,14,12,11,18) who reported that the number of the air sacs in chicken ,Japanese quail, mallard duck, golden pekin duck and are eight sacs. This differs with ( 19) reported that the number of the air sacs in turkey are seven, (7)noted that air sac in goose are eleven. ...
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The study was designed to observed the anatomical features of the air sacs (Sacci pneumatici)in White Cheeked Bulbul (Pycnonotus leucotis) Ten healthy birds from white cheeked bulbul used, five birds extract the part of trachea and incision it after anaesthetized , then insert the cannula through trachea and injected the cold cure mixture for corrosion cast making. and macerated by 2% (KOH) for 4 days. and. Five birds used for imaging examination, barium sulphate suspension were injected via the trachea using plastic syringe, for radiographic procedure. The number of the air sacs in bulbul (nine) air sacs, cervical ,cranial and caudal thoracic and abdominal air sac , single air interclavicular. The shaped and locations of these sacs described by using the cold cure corrosion cast and Radiological examinations.
... Morphology of the air sacs in several avian species has been well documented (1,3,4,11,13,17). But the studies which were observed on the air sacs of wild birds are limited (15). ...
... The anatomical components of the cervical sac reported in other avian species (4,13,15,18) were mostly observed in this study. Although Kürtül et al. (12) demonstrated a prominent diverticulum, interpulmonal diverticulum of cervical sacs, lying in between the two lungs in the rock partridge, Nomina Anatomica Avium (2) did not mention about this diverticulum. ...
... Cardial diverticulum was present beneath the heart. While it was constructed by clavicular sac in duck and albatross (4,15). Cardial diverticulum was a part of the cranial thoracic sac in the long-legged buzzard. ...
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Although, a lot of researchers have investigated air sacs in several birds' species, there hasn't been any information about the long-legged buzzard's air sacs. This study aimed to observe the air sacs of mature long-legged buzzard. So the sacs of 5 adult birds were treated by takilon from methylmethacrylate group and colored-neoprene latex for polymerization in order to show and demonstrate the total volume of air sacs and invaded bone tissues. The morphology of the sacs, which was described, was similar to that of other bird species. Significant characteristics such as an additional cardiac diverticulum of the cranial thoracic sac and diverticulum interpulmonalis of saccus cervicalis were demonstrated. We also showed that first four vertebras were not pneumatized in long legged buzzard.
... Morphology of the air sacs in several avian species has been well documented (1,3,4,11,13,17). But the studies which were observed on the air sacs of wild birds are limited (15). ...
... The anatomical components of the cervical sac reported in other avian species (4,13,15,18) were mostly observed in this study. Although Kürtül et al. (12) demonstrated a prominent diverticulum, interpulmonal diverticulum of cervical sacs, lying in between the two lungs in the rock partridge, Nomina Anatomica Avium (2) did not mention about this diverticulum. ...
... Cardial diverticulum was present beneath the heart. While it was constructed by clavicular sac in duck and albatross (4,15). Cardial diverticulum was a part of the cranial thoracic sac in the long-legged buzzard. ...
... The present investigation was in according with (Demirkan et al., 2006 andOnuk et al., 2009), the cervical sac was bilaterally located lateral to the cervical vertebrae. It communicated with the lungs through 1 st medioventral bronchi. ...
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In the present study, ten healthy adult domestic geese (Anser Anser Domesticus) were used. The morphology of the air sacs (Sacci pneumatici) was investigated by using latex neoprene injection and hard cast preparation. The lung (pulmo) was paired, small in size, triangular in shape and not lobed. The geese had nine air sacs; single clavicular sac and paired cervical, cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic and abdominal sacs. The origin, shape, relationships and diverticula of each sac was described and compared with that of other birds.
... While results of Mallory stains showed positive reaction in sub mucosa , lamina properia , perichondrium in both Drake and Duckling as a result to presence of collagen fibers that appears more in submucosa than elastic. This results matched with (27) (8) in coot birds and guinea fowl , (23) in chicken , (27) in European starling (28) in white-eared bulbul ,(29) Japanese , (37) in black francolin , (38) in turkey and (39) in Quail. ...
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The present study aims to compare gross anatomical, histological and histochemical structures of the larynx, trachea and syrinx between mature(Drake) and immature (Duckling) male duck(Anas platyrinchous). Twelve healthy local males ducks were divided into two groups. Six Drake at one year old and six Duckling at three months .For anatomical study the larynx, trachea and syrinx were measured by using vernia. For histological study specimens from larynx, trachea and syrinx were fixed in 10% formaldehyde after that the specimens embedded in paraffin. The next step tissues were sectioned using microtome and stained with routine stain and special stains .The anatomical results revealed that larynx, syrinx and trachea are identical in position in both Drake and Duckling , but differ in size. The histological results revealed that larynx of both Drake and Duckling lined by keratinized pseudostratified squamous epithelial tissue that appears thicker in Drake than Duckling. Trachea of Drake and Duckling lined with ciliated pseudostratifed columnar epithelial with mucous glands , supported by ossified cartilages in Drake and hyaline cartilage in Duckling. Syrinx of both Drake and Duckling lining by the ciliated pseudostratifed columnar epithelial with few goblet cells. Beneath it the lamina properia and sub mucosa that contained in loose connective tissue with blood vessels and amount of elastic and collagen fibers beneath it in Drake spongy bone trabeculae that contains bone lacuna fills with osteocytes , while in Duckling hyaline cartilage. The hyaline cartilage consists of lacuna which contains chondrocytes.
... The secondary bronchi originate from primary bronchi and have differ position with variable number, and named depending on the parts of the lung. They are dividing into Parabronchi (tertiary bronchi), and freely anastomosis with each other (7,8). Bronchi appeared as short tubes stretch caudally from the syrinx to the hilus of the lung at the proximal third of the lung at the visceral surface. ...
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The aim of this study was to detect the accumulation of carbon and determination its appearance in different areas of groups of ducks. Using special dyes to detect deposits of carbon particles. Also, using AO/ EB stains to detect early and late (progress) apoptosis that occurred due to the precipitated of carbon in both areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) but late apoptosis occurred in bronchi of brick factories area more than oil field area. The histological examination of trachea showed no any indicator of accumulation of carbon in three different areas, whereas in bronchi showed the presence of carbon in polluted areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) in different amounts.
... The secondary bronchi originate from primary bronchi and have differ position with variable number, and named depending on the parts of the lung. They are dividing into Parabronchi (tertiary bronchi), and freely anastomosis with each other (7,8). Bronchi appeared as short tubes stretch caudally from the syrinx to the hilus of the lung at the proximal third of the lung at the visceral surface. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to detect the accumulation of carbon and determination its appearance in different areas of groups of ducks. Using special dyes to detect deposits of carbon particles. Also, using AO/ EB stains to detect early and late (progress) apoptosis that occurred due to the precipitated of carbon in both areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) but late apoptosis occurred in bronchi of brick factories area more than oil field area. The histological examination of trachea showed no any indicator of accumulation of carbon in three different areas, whereas in bronchi showed the presence of carbon in polluted areas (Al-ahdeb oil field and brick factories areas) in different amounts. © 2018, University of Mosul - College of Veterinary Medicine. All rights reserved.
... The left abdominal air sac in the duck is in two parts, cranial and caudal. It was specified that the caudal part ventilated the last three ribs and synsacrum and was larger and wider than the cranial sac (11). They shape some diverticula. ...
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Solunum, metabolizmanın devamlılığı için hayati öneme sahip olan fonksiyonlardan birisidir. Bir canlının metabolik faaliyet düzeyi dokularına oksijen taşınmasına ve birikmiş karbondioksitin toplanmasına aracılık eden solunum sistemine bağlıdır. Bir kuşta solunum yolunu naris, cavitas nasalis, larynx, trachea, syrinx, primer bronchi (mesobronchi), sekonder bronchi, tersiyer bronchi (parabronchi), air capillaries, pulmo, air sacs ve pneumatik kemikler oluşturur. İnspiration’da alınan havanın yarısı caudal hava keselerine, diğer yarısı ise akciğer üzerinden (oksijeni bırakıp karbondioksit yüklenerek) cranial hava keselerine gider. Ekspiration’da caudal keselerdeki hava akciğer üzerinden (oksijeni bırakıp karbondioksit yüklenerek)trachea’ya geçerken, cranial keselerdeki hava da trachea’ya geçer.
... The avian respiratory system characteristics by the presence of air sacs that connects with lungs, most of the birds possessed nine air sacs pair of cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic, abdominal and cervical air sacs with a single clavicular air sac. ( Powell, 2000;Dunker, 2004) The cervical and clavicular air sacs in mallard ducks consistent with previous studies, the cranial thoracic air sacs was smaller than the caudal sacs pneumatics the second to seven ribs by their diverticula, the caudal thoracic air sac had no diverticulum, the left abdominal air sac had two parts, the cranial and caudal sacs ( Demirkan et al., 2006). The number of the air sacs in duck and goose is nine, four paired sacs with one unpaired the clavicular sack ( Brown et al., 1985;Joines et al., 1985, While Milson et. ...
Article
This study aimed to investigate the anatomical and histological features of air sacs in Japanese quail. Twenty healthy birds from Japanese quail (10 Males and 10 Females) were obtained for routine anatomical and histological study, 2 ml of 10% chloral hydrate was injected directly into the heart and then they were injected via trachea with a cold cure plastic mixture for corrosion cast making. The birds were immersions in 3% potassium hydroxide 40c for maceration, washing by tap water. Grossly, the quail had eight air sacs, four of these were paired, cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic, and abdominal air sacs, while the singular air sacs were the interclavicular and cervical. Histological investigation confirmed that the wall of air sack composed of a delicate single layer of squamous or cuboidal epithelial cells supported by a delicate layer of connective tissue.
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Air sacs are considered to be one of the controlling factors of bird behaviour and habits in addition to their roles in ventilation, regulating body temperature, swimming and flight. As a scavenger and an omnivorous flight bird, air sacs of the hooded crow were the focus of this study. Eight healthy, adult hooded crows were used to examine the morphological characteristics of the air sacs, which were examined grossly and with latex and cast preparations. In general, the morphological overview of the hooded crow air sacs is similar to other avian species. We observed nine air sacs; four paired sacs (cervical, cranial thoracic, caudal thoracic and abdominal air sacs) and one unpaired sac; the clavicular air sac. The cervical air sac communicated to the lung through the medioventral bronchus and had three diverticula; intermuscular, subscapular and subcutaneous. The clavicular air sac communicated with lung through the medioventral bronchus and had subscapular, axillary, humeral, subpectoral and sternal diverticula. The cranial and caudal thoracic air sacs were communicated with lung through the lateroventral bronchi and the both sacs did not have any diverticula. The abdominal air sacs were posterior to the caudal thoracic air sacs. The left abdominal sac was the largest air sac. The right and left abdominal sacs gave off branches to diverticula that pneumatized synsacrum. The abdominal air sacs gave off femoral diverticula behind the hip joint as well as perirenal diverticula.
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The aim of this study is to detect calcification of trachea and determination its appearance in different age of groups of laying hens. Using special dyes to detect deposits of calcium salts as well as using immunohistochemistry method, showing that the calcification in upper part of trachea does not appear at the age of 6 months, while in the lower part of which appeared simple calcification in the form of small foci. With age progress, the calcification of the hyaline cartilage of the trachea appears as foci with varying size carrying within them dark color calcium deposits. The calcified foci become occupy the large size of tracheal rings and degeneration and death of cartilaginous cells with appear in other somewhere of tracheal rings.
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The present study was conducted on five healthy indigenous male turkeys at the first year of their age and live weight was (4715 ± 43.3 gm) collected from the center of Diwanyia city, our need to have a base line data on the respiratory system of this abundant species of bird in Iraq. It is expected that this work will provide a pivot for future research and subsequent clinical application as regards the biology of the turkey.After birds preparation the trachea dissected out and washing by normal saline solution (0.9% Nacl), then were fixed immediately in 10% formalin, then get ready for routine histological processing.Trachea was lined by respiratory epithelium (ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium) with simple branched tubular mucous glands and goblet cells. Laminapropria-submucosa of the trachea was supported by hyaline cartilages and comprised of loose connective tissue, with large bundles of collagen fibers.
Article
The present study was conducted on five healthy indigenous male turkeys at the first year of their age and live weight was (4715 ± 43.3 gm) collected from the center of Diwanyia city, our need to have a base line data on the respiratory system of this abundant species of bird in Iraq. It is expected that this work will provide a pivot for future research and subsequent clinical application as regards the biology of the turkey.After birds preparation the trachea dissected out and washing by normal saline solution (0.9% Nacl), then were fixed immediately in 10% formalin, then get ready for routine histological processing.Trachea was lined by respiratory epithelium (ciliated, pseudostratified columnar epithelium) with simple branched tubular mucous glands and goblet cells. Laminapropria-submucosa of the trachea was supported by hyaline cartilages and comprised of loose connective tissue, with large bundles of collagen fibers
Article
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In the study, the macroanatomy of the bronchi and sacci pneumatici were examined in details in 7 domestic mature geese (Anser anser domesticus) with 4500-5000 g live weight. The left and right bronchus primarius seperated from trachea branched into four groups of bronchi secundarii that depart from the bronchus primarius called as bronchi mediodorsales (bmd), bronchi medioventrales (bmv), bronchi lateroventrales (blv), and bronchi laterodorsales (bld). The number of bmd, bmv, blv and bld were 4, 10, 10 and 25-30, respectively. It was seen that some of these bronchi were connected with pulmo and some of them were connected with sacci pneumatici. Totally seven sacci pneumatici were found in goose. Saccus thoracicus cranialis, saccus thoracicus caudalis and saccus abdominalis were in pair, however saccus cervicoclavicularis was single. It was determined that the saccus thoracicus cranialis and saccus thoracicus caudalis contained no diverticula and did not aerate any bones. It is first time that branching of the bronchi secundarii and relationship between branches of bronchi secundarii and sacci pneumatici in goose have been observed in the study.
Article
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ONLY one specific study on the respiratory system of the turkey has been found. This consisted of two papers published in 1953 by Cover. Cover reviewed the observations of previous investigators on the chicken. He pointed out that in general all reports agree on the number of air sacs in the chicken (4 paired and 1 single) but they often have been named differently. Disagreement centers around the cervical or thoraco-cervical and the posterior thoracic air sacs. Cover (1953b) observed in the turkey that “the paired posterior thoracic and thoraco-cervical as well as the single anterior thoracic air sacs are combined into a single large compartment, the aggregate sac, which communicates with the air passageways of the lung at its anterior ventral border. There are two unions, one with a ventral bronchus and another with an area of several parabronchi. The combined sacs have the same location and visceral relations . . .
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THE purpose of this work has been to investigate the morphology of the respiratory system of the White Pekin duck, from the bronchi distad; to establish by which route the air sacs are supplied with air; and to determine the significance of the diaphragm and the pleura. LITERATURE REVIEW The more important anatomic studies on the White Pekin duck have been done by Akester (1960), Delphia (1958, 1959) and Rigdon (1959). A comprehensive literature review of the avian respiratory system has been compiled by Mennega (1964a). Because the terminology of avian respiratory anatomy is frequently confusing, the nomenclature used by the Federal Poultry Inspection Service has been adopted for this work. Due to its economic importance the chicken has been studied rather extensively by men like Bradley and Grahame (1960), King (1956, 1957), McLeod and Wagers (1939), and Marshall (1960). An extensive work is being prepared for publication by Lucas.**
Article
INTRODUCTION ACCORDING to Gilbert (1939), Harvey first carefully described the air sacs in fowl in 1651. In recent years the air sacs have been cast into models by several methods, though seldom have the results proved completely satisfactory. Workers such as McLeod and Wagers (1939) using a celluloid mass, Gilbert (1939), employing Wood’s alloy, Rigdon et al. (1958) and Rogers (1961) using latex for turkey and chickens respectively observed several difficulties. Problems such as complete penetration, maintaining high temperature and removal of tissue and bones from casts after infusion became prevalent. At this station interest was directed toward these casts, not only for new knowledge in the area of physiology, but as teaching aids for demonstration of anatomical features that are difficult to describe. From the chemical and physical properties of methyl methacrylate, a low density monomer, it appeared that this material might be worthy of investigation for possible use . . .
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The development of pneumatisation in the skull of the domestic fowl has been studied in a series of chick embryos from 7-20 days incubation (Hamburger & Hamilton Stages 29-46) and in birds from hatching to 126 days posthatching. During the embryonic period primary pneumatisation developed by 3 routes. (i) The tympanic cavity directly invaded surrounding bones-squamosal, parietal, supraoccipital and prootic. (ii) Extensions of the tympanic cavity invaded the bones in which these occurred-the caudal pneumatic antrum in the exoccipital and the rostral pneumatic antrum in the parasphenoid/basisphenoid. (iii) A tubular diverticulum from the tympanic cavity grew rostrally and invaded the quadrate and pterygoid. A similar diverticulum grew rostrally towards the cartilaginous mandible but was only found to invade it in one case after the time of hatching. In most instances onset of pneumatisation occurred three stages subsequent to the onset of ossification. In bones in which ossification is intramembranous bone tissue often formed around small air sac outgrowths, resulting in multiple sites of invasion while, in bones ossifying perichondrally, cartilage resorption was a necessary prerequisite and air sac invasion frequently occurred in common with a vascular bud resulting in a single pneumatic foramen. After hatching secondary pneumatisation spread from the already pneumatised bones to involve the whole cranium. Spread throughout the parietal and frontal was preceded by the establishment of dipole within these bones and the final extent of pneumatisation was variable. Spread to the most distal parts of the cranium was only accomplished after the intervening sychondroses had fused.
Article
The occurrence of pneumatisation in the skull of the adult domestic fowl was investigated in eight birds by gross and histological examination. It was found to occur regularly throughout the neurocranium and in the quadrate and variably in the mandible, but to be absent in the facial skeleton. Close agreement was found between gross and histological examination. The entire skeletons of fifty one adult birds all from the same hatch and kept under the same conditions were examined grossly for evidence of the occurrence and extent of pneumatisation. Previous findings for the skull were confirmed with the additional information that pneumatisation in the pterygoid was variable. Variation in the extent of skull pneumatisation was less than in the postcranial skeleton, where only cervical vertebrae 5-9 were found to be regularly pneumatised. The humerus and coracoid were variably pneumatised, often unilaterally. The os coxae and sternum had a very low incidence of pneumatisation. The three cockerels in the group appeared to be relatively well pneumatised. Some possible factors governing the occurrence and extent of pneumatisation in the skeleton are discussed.
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Aysun Çevik Demirkan Kocatepe Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Anatomi Anabilim Dalı 03200 – Afyon
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Adress for correspondance Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aysun Çevik Demirkan Kocatepe Üniversitesi Veteriner Fakültesi Anatomi Anabilim Dalı 03200 – Afyon, Türkiye E-mail: aysuncevik@yahoo.comT
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