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Alternative sweeteners are food additives, can replace the sugar alone or in combination with each other, each sweetener has its own properties , may be involved with each other in certain characteristics and are selected by the producers depending on the taste , sweetness , stability and cost which are either nutrient or not nutrient alternatives . Alternative sweeteners that have been used to improve the taste of food and/or drink and duplicate the effect of sugar in taste, usually with less food energy. Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are, in general, called artificial sweeteners, much less sweetener is required and energy contribution is often negligible. The sensation of sweetness caused by these compounds (the "sweetness profile") is sometimes notably different from sucrose, so they are often used in complex mixtures that achieve the most natural sweet sensation.
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Karaelmas Fen ve Mühendislik Dergisi / Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal 4 (1), 63-70, 2014
Karaelmas Science and Engineering Journal
Journal home page: http://fbd.beun.edu.tr Review
Some Alternative Sweeteners (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Sucralose and Stevia): Review
Basmaa S. Sheet, Nevzat Artik1, Mahmoud A. Ayed2, Omar Fawzi Abdulaziz3
1Food Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Ankara University, Ankara ,Turkey
2,3Food Science Department, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq
Abstract
Alternative sweeteners are food additives. They substitute the sugar (sucrose) alone or in combination with each other. Each
sweetener has its own properties, may be involved with each other in certain characteristics. They are selected by producers
depending on the taste, sweetness, stability and cost which are either nutrient or not nutrient alternatives. Alternative sweeteners
have been used to improve the taste of food and/or drink and duplicate the effect of sugar in taste, usually with low calorie
value. Some sugar substitutes are natural and some are synthetic. Those that are not natural are, in general, called arti cial
sweeteners, much less sweetener is required and energy contribution is often negligible. The sensation of sweetness caused by
these compounds(“sweetness pro le”) is sometimes notably different from sucrose, so they are often used in complex mixtures
that achieve the most natural sweet sensation.
Keywords: Alternative sweeteners, Arti cial sweeteners, Sugar alcohol, Sorbitol, Xylitol, Sucralose, Stevia
*Corresponding author: Basmaa_albakry
1. Introduction
Sucrose has numerous signi cant properties in the
food industry, such as strengthening and highlighting
the characteristics of components of the other avor,
its work as a preservative, contribution to give volume
and osmotic pressure. Nevertheless, it may cause large
technical problems in some major applications, such as
hydrolysis in acidic systems which result in changes of
sweetness and avor of the product .As a result it has to
be dissolved in water before usage in many applications
(Al-Dabbas and Al-Qudsi 2012, Walters 2009). As well
as the health and nutrition assays which arise due to
the consumption of foods containing large quantities
of carbohydrates. The decomposition of sucrose gives
glucose and fructose, the glucose is very important in our
diet system and converts in the body by the process of
glycolysis, which occurs by series of reactions leading to
the conversion of simple sugars to the smaller molecules
speci cally pyruvate and ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
(McCaughey 2008). Pyruvate metabolizes in the presence
of oxygen and leads to produce carbon dioxide, water
and ATP. To decompose glucose effectively it needs a
force that deals with glucose in the absence of its balance
in the blood stream, pancreas is playing this role which
secretes glucagon that derived from glycogen. Glucose
is released from the glycogen and subjected to the
decomposition in glycolysis (Horn 2009). Some people
may suffer from the high level of glucose in the blood
(hyperglycemia) due to one of two factors , Insuf cient
insulin due to a defect of secretion and/ or inability of
pancreatic beta cells to secrete insulin( Lefebvre et al.
2005,WHO 1999). Some individuals cannot metabolize
fructose, but this case is not common (Horn 2009). The
reduction of glucose is a dif cult task, especially for
some individuals who feel the need to sweet taste. The
excessive amount of sugar intake causes diabetes and
obesity which associated with many diseases especially
heart disease, atherosclerosis and susceptibility diabetes
and tooth decay and so on (Cherniske 2012). However,
health issues, technical and economic dif culties
encouraged researchers in food industry to look for
sucrose alternatives (arti cial or alcoholic) to get almost
the same product sweetened by sucrose (Kroger et al.
2006, Nabors 2011, Schardt 2004). New developments in
alternative sweeteners continue to abound, their history
remains fascinating. Sucralose and stevia, among the
earliest low-calorie sweeteners, have served as scienti c
test cases. The numerous sweetener developments
throughout the 1990s have facilitated combination
use. With the availability of numerous low-calorie and
reduced calorie sweeteners and improved technology,
higher-quality products can be produced, and in greater
quantity. In some parts of the world, foods and beverages
are available that contain as many as three or more
alternative sweeteners. The use of low-calorie sugar-free
products is tripled in the last two decades of the 20th
century. Only In the United States, more than 150 million
people use these products regularly. The approval of
Sheet, Artik, Ayed, Abdulaziz / Some Alternative Sweeteners (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Sucralose and Stevia): Review
64
these sweeteners for general purpose in the United States
and recognition by regulatory agencies around the world
that sweeteners have reduced caloric values compared
with sucrose (Cardana et al. 2003, Mercola and Pearsall
2006). Alternative sweeteners provide and expand food
and beverage choices to control caloric, carbohydrate,
or speci c sugar intake; assist in weight maintenance
or reduction; aid in the management of diabetes; assist
in the control of dental caries; enhance the usability of
pharmaceuticals and cosmetics provide sweetness in
times of sugar shortage; and assist in the cost effective
use of limited resources. The ideal sweetener should be
water soluble, stable in both food ingredients. Therefore
these conditions increase the stability and consequently
the shelf-life of the nal product. Safety is essential, the
sweetener must be nontoxic and metabolized normally
or excreted unchanged, and studies verifying its safety
should be in the public domain. To be successful, a
sweetener should be competitively priced with sucrose
and other comparable sweeteners. It should be easily
produced, stored, and transported (Schardt 2004).
2. Alternative Sweeteners
Table 1 shows relative sweetness, ADI, nutrient and not
nutrient sweeteners of some sweeteners (natural, alter-
natives and arti cial) compared with sucrose (Kroger et
al. 2006, Rothen 2005).
2.1. Xylitol
It is organic compound and one of four isomers of any
(Pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol) with ve carbon atoms, called
wood sugar or birch sugar, and has other names are
Penta- hydroxy pentane, Xylite, Polyhydric acid and
Polyalcohol. It is used as a natural alternative sweetener
on the taste buds (Sarah 2009). It is found in small
amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables (Makinen
et al. 2007) and is formed as a normal intermediate in the
human body during glucose metabolism. Xylitol has been
shown to be valuable in the prevention of dental caries
because it is not an effective substrate for plaque bacteria
(Leah 2011). Because of its largely insulin-independent
metabolic utilization, it may also be used as a sweetener
in the diabetes diet and as an energy source in parenteral
nutrition. As a sweetening agent, xylitol has been added
in human diet since 1960s (Teya 2008).
2.1.1. Production of Xylitol
Xylitol produces by a chemical method which is based
on the hydrogenation of wood sugar (xylose or xylose
rich with hemicellulose) in presence of nickel as a
catalyst (Salmi et al. 2003). Xylitol also can be produced
by biotechnological method based on its metabolism in
yeast, which is a key factor appropriate and effective in
this way, there are groups of yeasts e.g. Candida tropicalis
which have the ability to metabolize wood sugar as a
source of carbon and prefer urea or urea and casamino
acids (Sreenivas et al. 2004).
2.1.2. Metabolism of Xylitol
Two different metabolic pathways are available for the
use of xylitol:
(a) Indirect metabolism by means of fermentative
degradation of unabsorbed xylitol by the intestinal ora.
Xylitol is slowly absorbed from the digestive tract, after
ingestion of large amounts, only a certain proportion of
the ingested xylitol is absorbed and fermented by the
intestinal ora. Beside minor amounts of gases of H2, CH4
and CO2, the end-products of the bacterial metabolism
of xylitol are mainly short-chain, volatile fatty acids,
(i.e., acetate, propionate, and butyrate). These products
Table 1. The sweetness of some sweeteners (natural, alternatives and arti cial) compared with sucrose
*ADI of
Sweeteners/ kg
body weight / day
Relative
Sweetness
Nutrient
Sweeteners
(kJ/gm)
Not Nutrient
Sweeteners
(w/o calories
value)
Cause
Tooth
Decay
Not
Cause
Tooth
Decay
Sweeteners
Natural sweeteners
Unspeci ed116.74-----Yes-----Sucrose
Unspeci ed0.716.74 -----Yes-----Glucose
Alternatives sugar , sugar alcohol
Unspeci ed110.04------NoYesXylitol
Unspeci ed0.610.04------NoYesSorbitol
Arti cial sweeteners
4 mg250-300YesYesNoYesStevia, stevia Rebaudiana)
15 mg600YesYesNoYesSucralose (Splenda)
*(ADI) acceptable daily Intake (Kroger et al. 2006, Rothen 2005).
Sheet, Artik, Ayed, Abdulaziz / Some Alternative Sweeteners (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Sucralose and Stevia): Review 65
are subsequently absorbed from the gut and enter the
mammalian metabolic pathways.
(b) Direct metabolism of absorbed xylitol in the
mammalian organism, mainly in the liver, a direct
metabolic pathway is available for the portion of xylitol
that is absorbed unchanged from the gastrointestinal
tract (Nabors 2001, Mäkinen 2004). The metabolism of
xylitol and its general relationship to the carbohydrate
metabolism by means of the pentose phosphate pathway
is shown in Figure 2.
2.1.3.Safety of Xylitol
Xylitol is safe for people with diabetes, almost it maintains
the level of blood glucose in the normal limits because of
low, slow and incomplete absorption; therefore; it could
be used in the diet food because of the suppression of
glucose absorption, also to suppress appetite (Salmi et
al. 2003) and it is safe for teeth because it is unuseful for
the micro ora in the mouth as Streptococcus mutans and
Streptococcus salivarius ) Leah 2011).
2.2. Sorbitol
Sorbitol is widespread in nature, as it exists widely in the
plant kingdom and in many fruits such as plum, peaches,
apples, berries, cherries and pears. It’s relative sweetness
is equal to 60% of the sweetness of sucrose with a third
of the caloric, giving the cold mouth feeling because
of its ability to absorb the heat of solution compared
to other sugars as well as to give it a sense of softness,
sweetness and pleasure (Vincent 2011). Sorbitol has
existed as commercial products for more than 60 years.
Today, sorbitol is used in food, confectionery, oral care,
pharmaceutical, and industrial applications because of
its unique physical and chemical properties.
Figure 1. The chemical production of xylitol (Designed by authors).
CH2OH
OH
OH
HO
CH2OH
Xylitol
D-Xylose
(aldehyde form)
kH
2
K4
K2
K1
K3
Beta-D-XyloFuranose
Alfa-D-XyloFuranose
Alfa-D-XyloPyranose
Beta-D-XyloPyranose
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
HO
OH
OH
OH
O
HO
HO
Figure 2. Metabolism of xylitol (Designed by authors).
Sheet, Artik, Ayed, Abdulaziz / Some Alternative Sweeteners (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Sucralose and Stevia): Review
66
to improve the taste and shelf-life of regular foods and
special dietary products. Sorbitol is slowly absorbed into
the body from the gastrointestinal tract and metabolized
by the liver mainly as fructose, a carbohydrate that is
highly tolerated by people with diabetes. Sorbitol is ab-
sorbed and metabolized in the liver by a pathway located
entirely in the cytoplasmic compartment, demand for ex-
tra insulin. The initial steps in sorbitol metabolim in the
liver, its uptake by liver cells and conversion to glucose
is independent of insulin, but the subsequent use of glu-
cose by the muscle and adipose tissues is in uenced by
insulin (Nabors 2001, Oku and Nakamura 2002). Figure 4
shows Sorbitol and mannitol metabolism (Nabors 2001).
2.2.3. Safety of sorbitol
Many studies showed that large amounts of sorbitol (20-
30 g / day) has lead to abdominal pain. Diabetes should
consume sorbitol within the speci ed amounts. Sorbitol
naturally produced in human body from glucose,
Excessive amount of sorbitol may be turned to glucose
then accumulate in kidneys leading to damage them,
also causes damage to nerve tissue and retina.Sorbitol
is not recommended for individuals with high galactose
level in blood (Brownlee 2001). American organization
for biological experiments indicated no risk of sorbitol
intake within speci ed levels. FDA recommended 50 g
/ day as acceptable daily intake of sorbitol for humans
(Doheny 2008).
2.3. Stevia
Stevia is shrub of Chrysanthemum ‘Asteraceae’, family its
height is 80 cm, and there are about 150-300 type of them,
called Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, its native is northeastern
Paraguay in South America. It has been also cultivated
in China, Brazil, Europe, Canada and Japan, and used
by the Japanese since the 20 years old (BIHW 2009). The
word Stevia refers to the whole plant and the paper con-
tains compounds that sweet and non sweet Compounds.
The Joint Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)
mentioned speci cations of sorbitol which has been
modi ed in 2001 and is being a wet white powder as
it contains 1% water or a crystal or akes or granules,
the molecular weight 182¸17, purity not less than 97%
based on a dry weight and not less than 91% based on
wet weight, chemical formula C6H14O6 and is used as
a sweetener, moisturizer, a component of strength,
stabilizer and increasing volume agent, it has a high
solubility in water and slightly in ethanol (Kusserow et
al. 2002).
2.2.1. Production of Sorbitol
Sorbitol is produced from the catalytic hydrogenation
of glucose (Kusserow et al. 2002), sucrose and starch
(American Dietetic Association 2004). Crystalline sorbitol
is made by further evaporating the sorbitol solution into
molten syrup containing at least 99% solids. The molten
syrup is crystallized into a stable crystalline polymorph
that has one single melting point(99–101°C) and heat of
fusion (175.2 kJ/g, assuming 184 kJ/g) represents a fully
crystallized crystalline sorbitol). The stable polymorph
of sorbitol is known as gamma (γ) Most commercially
available crystalline sorbitol is the (gamma polymorph)
( Sreenivas et al. 2004). Mentioned (Ahmed et al. 2009)
that the possibility of production of dry sorbitol from
three six-sugars are D- glucose, fructose and D-Sorbose,
the best source of its production is the glucose because of
its presence in a wide and low cost. That by the process
of hydrogenation, by using nickel catalysts, and using a
temperature of 120-160 C and pressure of 70-140 bar, both
of glucose and sorbose produce sorbitol but the fructose
produces both sorbitol and mannitol. The production of
sorbitol from glucose syrup is shown in Figure 3.
2.2.2. Metabolism of Sorbitol
Sorbitol is widely accepted by the food and pharmaceuti-
cal industries as nutritive ingredient because of its ability
Figure 3. Production of sorbitol from glucose syrup (Ahmed et al. 2009).
CHO
H OH
HO H
H OH
H OH
CH2OH
CH2OH
H OH
HO H
H OH
H OH
CH2OH
H2
Catalyst
Sorbitol D-Glucose
Sheet, Artik, Ayed, Abdulaziz / Some Alternative Sweeteners (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Sucralose and Stevia): Review 67
in methanol at 4:1 v / w for 7 hours. The ltrate by
evaporation with rotary evaporator at a temperature of
45°C and the remaining washes by ether and extracts
with butanol several times to remove pigments and
puri ed by crystal process in temperature 5°C. Figure
5 shows the chemical composition of stevia sweetener
(BIHW 2009).
2.3.2 Metabolism of Stevia Compounds
Only limited data are available on the in vitro and in vivo
metabolism of stevioside and other S. rebaudiana sweet
constituents. An initial investigation in which stevioside
and rebaudioside A were degraded to steviol by rat
intestinal ora in vitro was reviewed previously. Steviol
has also been found as a major metabolite of stevioside
when a tritiated form of the compound was fed to wistar
rats at an oral dose of 125 mg/kg.The biological half-life
of stevioside was estimated to be 24 hr, and 125 hr after
compound administration, the highest percentages of
radioactivity were found in the feces, followed by expired
air and urine. It was concluded that although a portion of
orally administered stevioside was excreted unchanged
in the feces of the rat, most of it was degraded by the
intestinal bacterial ora to steviol, steviolbioside and
glucose, which were then absorbed in the cecum (Nabors
2001). Absorbed glucose was metabolized and excreted
in the expired air as carbon dioxide and water, where as
steviol was conjugated in the liver and excreted into the
The sweet compounds called glycosides which is dou-
ble turbine with a sweet taste (WHO 1999). Stevioside
is a white crystalline material with a melting point of
196–198°C, an optical rotation of 39.3 degrees in water,
an elemental composition of C38H60O18, and a molecular
weight of 808.88. Stevioside is only sparingly soluble in
water but is highly soluble in ethanol. Rebaudioside A is
considerably more water soluble than stevioside because
it contains an additional glucose unit in its molecule. Ste-
vioside is relatively stable under normal elevated tem-
peratures involved in food processing and does not turn
brown on heating or ferment during use. The compound
does not precipitate. Stevioside is permitted for use in
distilled liquors, unre ned rice wines, in South Korea
1984, confectionery, soy sauce, and pickles, although
not so far in bread, baby foods, dairy products, and as a
tabletop sweetener. There is an active market for S. rebau-
diana products in the United States (Nabors 2001).
2.3.1. Production of Steviol glycosides
The production of stevia sweeteners by extraction
methods (Abu-Arab et al. 2010).
Extraction in water; soaked in worm water at 15:1 v
/ w for 3 hours, then it is ltered and puri ed using
calcium hydroxide, the ltrate passes through the ion
exchange column to remove unwanted pigments and
then concentrate by rotary evaporator at a temperature
45°C. Extraction in methanol; The dry leaves soaked
Figure 4. Sorbitol and mannitol metabolism (Nabors 2001).
NADP NADPH ATP ADP
12
2’
3
7
844’
9
10
11
12
13
14
ATP ADP
ATP
ADP
ATP ADP
ATP
ADP
NAD
NADH
Sorbitol
D-Fructose
D-Fructose 1-P D-Fructose 1, 6 -bisphosphate
D-Fructose 6-P
D-Glucose 6-PD-Glucose
Glycogen
Dihydroxyacotone
phosphate 6
D-Glyceraldehyde D-Glyceraldehyde 3-P
NAD (P) H
NAD (P)
Glycerol
NAD
NADH D-Glycerate
Lactate
NAD NADH
Pyruvate
5
Sheet, Artik, Ayed, Abdulaziz / Some Alternative Sweeteners (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Sucralose and Stevia): Review
68
2.3.3. Safety of stevia
Chronic oral toxicity study performed in male and
female wistar rats fed a diet containing 85% pure
stevioside (0, 0.2, 0.6, and 1.2%), result showed no-effect
of stevioside was equivalent to 1.2% of the diet. The rats
did not show any treatment-related changes in growth,
general appearance, and clinical biochemical values
relative to control. It was projected from this study that
an acceptable intake of stevioside in humans 7.94 mg/
kg/day.
The LD50 values for steviol in hamsters (which were
more susceptible to this compound than either mice or
rats) were 5.20 and 6.10 g/kg body weight for males and
females, respectively. Death was attributed to acute renal
failure, and severe degeneration of the proximal tubular
cells was observed histopathologically (WHO 1999,
Nabors 2001).
2.4. Sucralose
Sucralose was discovered in 1976 during the consideration
of a collaborative research between Tale and Lyle sugar
bile. It was also inferred from the results of biliary and
fecal excretion that enterohepatic circulation of steviol
occurred. JECFA concluded, based on many studies
that conducted to determine the conversion outside the
human body for two glycosides rebaudioside- A and
stevioside and incubation with micro ora that isolated
from human feces selective broth which added to it two
glycosides by using HPLC, they are fully degraded to
the aglycon steviol in 10 and 24 hours respectively, and
the decay times vary due to linkage C19: 1 in stevioside
degraded rapidly by micro ora to steviol and a half
glucose while the linkage 13:1 C in rebaudioside A
more resistant to degradation by this micro ora (Ishii
and Brache 1995). It was concluded that the micro ora
in the human intestine not able to analyze the steviol
therefore it comes out with the urine in the form of
steviol glucuronide and this means that metabolized
compounds leave the body and do not accumulate in it
(Hutapea et al.1999). Acceptable daily intake of stevia is
4 mg/kg body wt./day (Brownlee 2001).
Figure 5. The chemical composition of stevia sweetener (BIHW 2009).
Figure 6. The production of sucralose (Mercola 2005).
H3C
O
H
H
CH2
CH3
O-R1
C
O-R2
Steviol
Stevioside
Rebaudioside A
R1 R2
H H
β-Glc β-Glc-β-Glc(2¬1)
β-Glc β-Glc-β-Glc(2¬1)
β-Glc(3¬1)
Sucrose 3Cl of Phosphorus oxychloride Sucralose
CH2OH
HH
H
HOH
HOH
HO
O
O
CH2OH
O
H
H
HOH
HO
CH2OH
CH2OH
HH
H
HOH
HOH
Cl
O
O
CH2
O
H
H
HOH
HO
CH2
Cl
Cl
Sheet, Artik, Ayed, Abdulaziz / Some Alternative Sweeteners (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Sucralose and Stevia): Review 69
for human consumption. Recently, the safety database for
sucralose was published in a peer-reviewed supplement
of Food and Chemical Toxicology, ‘‘Sucralose Safety
Assessment’’ No evidence exist that the consumption
of sucralose or its hydrolysis products would cause any
untoward effects. Sucralose is nontoxic and does not
hydrolyze or dechlorinate after ingestion (Rencuzooullari
2006). A small amount of hydrolysis of sucralose can
be found in products, depending on pH, time, and
temperature. The animal studies clearly demonstrate
the overall safety of sucralose even under lifelong, high-
dose test conditions that would exaggerate any health
effects. Studies included evaluation of animals that
were exposed to sucralose from conception throughout
normal life span and with amounts that far exceed the
probable maximum human consumption. In addition,
the hydrolysis products of sucralose were subjected to
almost the same level of testing as sucralose, including
a separate cancer study. Metabolism studies indicate
that the dog, rat, mouse, and man metabolize sucralose
similarly. Therefore, the results of the safety studies
conducted on sucralose in animals can be extrapolated to
man with con dence (Mercola and Pearsall 2006).
3. Conclusion
Sucrose replacement by arti cial and alcoholic
sweeteners is to reduce calorie content. These sweeteners
are convenient for diabetes , they do not require insulin
for their metabolism. They do not cause teeth decay
because they do not provide the suitable environment
for microorganisms growth in the mouth. It has been
concluded that the use of alternative sweeteners led to a
reduction of body weight, blood sugar level, and blood
lipids as cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and increased
HDL levels. Despite of numerous approvals on arti cial
sweeteners, but there is a need for further studies using
experimental animals about the impact of arti cial
sweeteners on the endogenous organs such as heart,
lungs, liver and spleen and study the storage of glycogen
in liver.
re nery Ltd and the College of Queen Elizabeth at the
University of London (Knight 1994, Lebedev et al. 2010)
in trying to nd ways to use sucrose in the production
of chemical intermediate agents , and in 1989 conducted
Hough and Khan Studies on these sweeteners that they
had been replaced by groups hydroxyl with halogens
in the molecule of sucrose and it has been observed
that these halogens have been able to change the
sweetness of the molecule, chlorine and bromine both
are highly soluble in water, but found that the bromine is
dif cult treatment and has little effect in the strength of
desalination (Hough and Khan 1989).This was ruled out
and choose chlorine Which form sucralose that is chemical
name 1,4,6-Trichlorogalactosucrose (Ishii and Brache
1995), but the trade name is splenda, produces in purity
of 98% (Knight 1994). For this reason, it was chosen as an
ideal sweetener. The selective chlorination of the sucrose
molecule produced remarkable changes to the sweetness
intensity and stability of sucrose, without compromising
taste quality. Sucralose has a pleasant sweet taste similar
to sucrose and has unpleasant aftertaste. Sucralose is a
white, crystalline, no hygroscopic, free owing powder.
The sweetener is highly soluble in water, ethanol, and
methanol and has negligible effect on the pH of solutions.
The viscosity of sucralose solutions is similar to that of
sugar the reason that microorganisms responsible for
plaque formation cannot use the sweetener, and thus
sucralose is noncarcinogenic (Nabors 2001).
2.4.1. Production of sucralose
The production of sucralose occurs by linking of chlorine
with sucrose. The process made in ve stages, ,it has
been replaced by three groups hydroxyl selectively with
three atoms of chlorine in the molecule of sucrose (Ishii
and Brache 1995) as in gure (6):
2.4.2. Metabolism of sucralose
Many studies have shown that the majority of sucralose
affordable and non-absorbed out with the faeces
unchanged, and the majority of absorbed out with the
urine unchanged too and its rate up to 1-2%, and rates of
metabolized of sucralose in experimental animals vary
according to type of animal (Lebedev et al. 2010).
As appear that Ratio of metabolized sucralose haven’t
been engaged in any metabolic pathways that responsible
for the balance of glucose in rats and humans (Mercola
and Pearsall 2006).
2.4.3. Safety of sucralose
More than 100 scienti c studies have been conducted
over the past 20 years to evaluate the safety of sucralose
Table 2. Ratio of metabolized sucralose in different types of
experimental animals and humans (Lebedev et al. 2010).
Ratio metabolized of
sucralose
Experimental animals
Less than 10%Rats and mice
22-30%Rabbits
20-30%Human
30-40%Dogs
Sheet, Artik, Ayed, Abdulaziz / Some Alternative Sweeteners (Xylitol, Sorbitol, Sucralose and Stevia): Review
70
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... Erythritol, characterizes with a clean sweet taste, is approximately 70 % as sweet as sucrose, with no aftertaste and a mild cooling effect in the mouth [18,20,22,26]. It can be easily blended with artificial sweeteners such as acesulfame potassium and aspartame or other polyols, i.e., sorbitol and xylitol or other sweeteners such as stevia to give a similar flavor to the one of table sugar [22, Fast absorption through the small intestine, not metabolized, over 90 % excreted unchanged in the urine; the unabsorbed part is fermented in the large intestine by the colonic microorganisms Well tolerated in human body even up to 80 g when consumed spread over the day [1,18,23,126] Isomalt Slowly and only partly digested and absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract, and the unabsorbed part (~90 %) is fermented by the gut microflora in the colon [1,40,44] Lactitol Small part is absorbed (2 %) by passive diffusion, and the remainder passes undigested to the colon (the distal part of the large intestine) where is slowly fermented [45][46][47] Maltitol Partially digested in the intestines, and non-absorbed part is metabolized by colonic bacteria [1,60,64] Mannitol Passively absorbed part is digested in the intestines, and non-absorbed part is metabolized by colonic bacteria in the lower gut [75,78] Sorbitol Partially absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract where it undergoes digestion, and non-absorbed part is metabolized by colonic bacteria [1,68,72,75,78] Xylitol Indirect-fermentative degradation of unabsorbed xylitol by intestine bacterial flora Direct metabolism via the glucuronic acid-pentose phosphate shunt-a portion of xylitol undergoes metabolic pathway in mammalian liver [47,108] 27]. Even slight amounts of aspartame or acesulfame K increase erythritol sweetness by about 30 %. ...
... It is produced from sucrose in a two-step process, which makes isomalt chemically and enzymatically more stable than the sucrose. It starts by sugar enzymatic Non-cariogenic, improves dental health (helps in remineralization of tooth enamel) Increases saliva production, which helps in treating xerostomia Protects salivary proteins, has a protein-stabilizing effect Improves breath odor Reduces infections in the mouth and nasopharynx Low calorie and very low glycemic index Antiketogenic-decreases serum-free fatty acid levels and improves peripheral glucose utilization Favors absorption of calcium and B vitamins Inhibits yeast growth, including Candida albicans Decreases glycation of proteins, reduces AGEs Helps to maintain healthy gut function Xylitol Nickel catalyzed hydrogenation of wood sugar (xylose)-four step process that includes xylose isolation, purification, hydrogenation to xylitol and its crystallization [47,108] Biotechnologically by yeasts such as Candida tropicalis that metabolize wood sugar [128] transglucosidation into maltulose that is subsequently hydrogenated into isomalt, which is a combination of two disaccharide alcohols, [39,40]. ...
... Osmotic diarrhea as a result of intestinal malabsorption when ingested dose is greater than 50 grams per day [78] Consumption of 20-30 g/day results in abdominal pain [108] Not specified ...
... Direct metabolization happens in the liver or indirect metabolization 23 by fermentative degradation by intestinal ora . ADI mentioned intake by humans is about 100 g per day.It is responsible for growth inhibition of microorganism like Streptococcus mutan(cariogenic bacteria).Xylitol is changed over to xylitol-5-phosphate by means of phosphoenolpyruvate resulting in development of intracellular vacuoles and cell membrane degradation. ...
... It's sweetness is equivalent to sixty percent of the sweetness of sucrose. It is derived from the catalytic hydrogenation of 23 glucose, sucrose, starch and absorbed and metabolized in the liver. In mouth it is metabolized at a slower rate by all of the mutans streptococci including S. mutans than sucrose. ...
... Sorbitol-sweetened gums simulate saliva without causing a drop to the critical pH and have been shown to be equal to 48 xylitol gum in terms of caries control . Higher amounts of sorbitol intake cause abdominal discomfort pain, and mild to severe diarrhoea, 23 irritable bowel syndrome and fructose malabsorption. ...
... Partially absorbed in the upper gastrointestinal tract where it undergoes digestion, and non-absorbed part is metabolized by colonic bacteria [1,68,72,75,78] Xylitol Indirect-fermentative degradation of unabsorbed xylitol by intestine bacterial flora Direct metabolism via the glucuronic acid-pentose phosphate shunt-a portion of xylitol undergoes metabolic pathway in mammalian liver [47,108] 27]. Even slight amounts of aspartame or acesulfame K increase erythritol sweetness by about 30 %. ...
... It is produced from sucrose in a two-step process, which makes isomalt chemically and enzymatically more stable than the sucrose. It starts by sugar enzymatic Non-cariogenic, improves dental health (helps in remineralization of tooth enamel) Increases saliva production, which helps in treating xerostomia Protects salivary proteins, has a protein-stabilizing effect Improves breath odor Reduces infections in the mouth and nasopharynx Low calorie and very low glycemic index Antiketogenic-decreases serum-free fatty acid levels and improves peripheral glucose utilization Favors absorption of calcium and B vitamins Inhibits yeast growth, including Candida albicans Decreases glycation of proteins, reduces AGEs Helps to maintain healthy gut function Xylitol Nickel catalyzed hydrogenation of wood sugar (xylose)-four step process that includes xylose isolation, purification, hydrogenation to xylitol and its crystallization [47,108] Biotechnologically by yeasts such as Candida tropicalis that metabolize wood sugar [128] transglucosidation into maltulose that is subsequently hydrogenated into isomalt, which is a combination of two disaccharide alcohols, [39,40]. ...
... Osmotic diarrhea as a result of intestinal malabsorption when ingested dose is greater than 50 grams per day [78] Consumption of 20-30 g/day results in abdominal pain [108] Not specified ...
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Epidemic obesity and diabetes encouraged the changes in population lifestyle and consumers’ food products awareness. Food industry has responded people’s demand by producing a number of energy-reduced products with sugar alcohols as sweeteners. These compounds are usually produced by a catalytic hydrogenation of carbohydrates, but they can be also found in nature in fruits, vegetables or mushrooms as well as in human organism. Due to their properties, sugar alcohols are widely used in food, beverage, confectionery and pharmaceutical industries throughout the world. They have found use as bulk sweeteners that promote dental health and exert prebiotic effect. They are added to foods as alternative sweeteners what might be helpful in the control of calories intake. Consumption of low-calorie foods by the worldwide population has dramatically increased, as well as health concerns associated with the consequent high intake of sweeteners. This review deals with the role of commonly used sugar alcohols such as erythritol, isomalt, lactitol, maltitol, mannitol, sorbitol and xylitol as sugar substitutes in food industry.
... Erythritol was also toxic to the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Tephritidae) (Zheng et al. 2015). Erythritol consumption is safe for humans (Sheet et al. 2014), demonstrating potential for use of this compound in human safe pest control applications (Tokuoka et al. 1992;Storey et al. 2007). The previous experiments of erythritol effects on D. melanogaster longevity tested a commercial sweetener mixture containing erythritol (Truvia, Cargill, Inc., Minneapolis, MN) and erythritol against sucrose (control) and against several other commercial non-nutritive sweetener mixtures (Baudier et al. 2014). ...
... The aim of this study was to test whether insect toxicity was a general property of non-nutritive polyols. We chose to test polyols that, like erythritol, are commercially available and approved for human consumption (Mortensen 2006;Canimoglu and Rencuzogullari 2012;Sheet et al. 2014). We fed several food-additive polyol sweeteners to adult D. melanogaster in controlled laboratory feeding trials, along with sucrose and no-sweetener control foods, and we tested whether flies on these feeding treatments differed in longevity. ...
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Previous work showed the non-nutritive polyol sweetener Erythritol was toxic when ingested by Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen, 1930). This study assessed whether insect toxicity is a general property of polyols. Among tested compounds, toxicity was highest for erythritol. Adult fruit flies (D. melanogaster) fed erythritol had reduced longevity relative to controls. Other polyols did not reduce longevity; the only exception was a weaker but significant reduction of female (but not male) longevity when flies were fed D-mannitol. We conclude at least some non-nutritive polyols are not toxic to adult D. melanogaster when ingested for 17 days. The longer time course (relative to erythritol) and female specificity of D-mannitol mortality suggests different mechanisms for D-mannitol and erythritol toxicity to D. melanogaster.
... Although the applications of rare sugars in human nutrition [101,109,[117][118][119][120] and medicine [36,41,78,110] have been widely studied, there are an increasing number of reports highlighting their potential use for sustainable food production [1,[121][122][123][124][125][126][127][128], suggesting a promising future for a potential application of rare sugars in agriculture. ...
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Rare sugars are monosaccharides with a limited availability in the nature and almost unknown biological functions. The use of industrial enzymatic and microbial processes greatly reduced their production costs, making research on these molecules more accessible. Since then, the number of studies on their medical/clinical applications grew and rare sugars emerged as potential candidates to replace conventional sugars in human nutrition thanks to their beneficial health effects. More recently, the potential use of rare sugars in agriculture was also highlighted. However, overviews and critical evaluations on this topic are missing. This review aims to provide the current knowledge about the effects of rare sugars on the organisms of the farming ecosystem, with an emphasis on their mode of action and practical use as an innovative tool for sustainable agriculture. Some rare sugars can impact the plant growth and immune responses by affecting metabolic homeostasis and the hormonal signaling pathways. These properties could be used for the development of new herbicides, plant growth regulators and resistance inducers. Other rare sugars also showed antinutritional properties on some phytopathogens and biocidal activity against some plant pests, highlighting their promising potential for the development of new sustainable pesticides. Their low risk for human health also makes them safe and ecofriendly alternatives to agrochemicals.
... Adanya gula sederhana seperti glukosa dapat difermentasi oleh bakteri mulut dan menyebabkan carries gigi. Sorbitol termasuk golongan pemanis alternatif dengan nilai relativitas rasa manis mendekati glukosa sebesar 0,6 (Sheet et al., 2014), (Soesilo, Santoso, & Diyatri, 2006), tidak mahal dan aman untuk digunakan, serta sulit untuk difermentasi oleh bakteri plak gigi (Soesilo et al, 2006). Sorbitol adalah gula alkohol yang bersifat low-cariogenic (Nadimi et al., 2011). ...
... Xylitol is either metabolized directly in the liver via the glucuronic acid-pentose phosphate shunt of the pentose phosphate pathway or indirectly by fermentation conducted by intestinal flora [38,54]. Almost 50 % of the ingested xylitol is absorbed in the small intestine, whereas 50-70 % of the remaining part is fermented in the large bowel. ...
... Xylitol is either metabolized directly in the liver via the glucuronic acid-pentose phosphate shunt of the pentose phosphate pathway or indirectly by fermentation conducted by intestinal flora [38,54]. Almost 50 % of the ingested xylitol is absorbed in the small intestine, whereas 50-70 % of the remaining part is fermented in the large bowel. ...
Chapter
Among nutritive sweeteners, there can be distinguished polyhydric alcohols (polyols), also known as sugar alcohols, because they are derived from simple carbohydrates , obtained by the substitution of the aldehyde group by the hydroxy one. They are natural sugar alternatives but are also referred to as semisynthetic sweeteners. There are many advantages of sugar alcohols, so they are becoming more and more popular among both consumers and producers. They are characterized by a lower caloric value and glycemic index than sugars and exhibit prebiotic and anticaries effects. All sugar alcohols can be used as bulking agents , which can substitute sugar or corn syrups 1:1 ratio. However, their sweetness varies from 25 % to 100 % as compared with sucrose, so they are usually combined with intense sweeteners or sugar in order to obtain the required flavor and level of sweetness. Additionally, they promote mouthfeel and eliminate improper taste. Therefore, they can be used as reduced-calorie sugar alternatives.
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A method of analysis using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed for the separation and quantitation of the metabolites of stevioside: steviol-16,17α-epoxide, 15α-hydroxysteviol, steviolbioside, isosteviol, and steviol. The separation was carried out on a reversed-phase C18 Nova-Pack column with gradient elution of acetonitrile/water mixture. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in the detection and separation of stevioside and its metabolites found in blood, feces, and urine of hamsters after ingestion of stevioside.
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Sugar-free or reduced-sugar foods and beverages are very popular in the United States and other countries, and the sweeteners that make them possible are among the most conspicuous ingredients in the food supply. Extensive scientific research has demonstrated the safety of the 5 low-calorie sweeteners currently approved for use in foods in the United States–acesulfame K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, and sucralose. A controversial animal cancer study of aspartame conducted using unusual methodology is currently being reviewed by regulatory authorities in several countries. No other issues about the safety of these 5 sweeteners remain unresolved at the present time. Three other low-calorie sweeteners currently used in some other countries–alitame, cyclamate, and steviol glycosides–are not approved as food ingredients in the United States. Steviol glycosides may be sold as a dietary supplement, but marketing this product as a food ingredient in the United States is illegal. A variety of polyols (sugar alcohols) and other bulk sweeteners are also accepted for use in the United States. The only significant health issue pertaining to polyols, most of which are incompletely digested, is the potential for gastrointestinal discomfort with excessive use. The availability of a variety of safe sweeteners is of benefit to consumers because it enables food manufacturers to formulate a variety of good-tasting sweet foods and beverages that are safe for the teeth and lower in calorie content than sugar-sweetened foods.