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Fundamentals of Motor Learning in Sports

School of Health Science, PPSK
Fundamentals of Motor Learning in Sports
Introductory Section
Bachelor Course Theoretical Framework
Dr. Srilekha Saha & Dr. Soumendra Saha
Senior Lecturers
First Publication: October 2013
©Department of Exercise and Sports Science
©All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a
retrieval system,or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without prior permission of
author/s or publisher.
Dr. Srilekha Saha
Dr. Soumendra Saha
Prof. Madya Dr. Mohamed Saat Bin Ismail
Published by:
School of Health Sciences, PPSK, USM,
Kubang Kerian,
16150 Kota Bharu
Kelantan, Malaysia
Published in Malaysia
Table of Content
Topics Pages
Introduction 1
Phases of Motor Learning 4
Cognitive Phase 4
Associative Phase 8
Autonomous Phase 12
References 15
Review Questions 17
Further Readings 17
Learning is a process in behavioural science which brings forth a
relatively permanent change in a person’s ability to execute a skill, as a
result of practice or experience in doing the skill. It is a process of
receiving, gaining, recognizing, developing and expanding our scopes.
Now, motor learning could be referred to as a process of acquiring,
completing and using motor information, knowledge, experience, and
motor programs (Adams, 1976). It is closely connected with mental
abilities, motor abilities, the cognitive and affective aspects of an
individual’s behaviour, as well as his/her familiarity with the theoretical
bases of movement technique. Therefore, Motor Learning is a set of
cognitive processes associated with practice, training, or experience that
results in relatively permanent changes in motor behaviour.
Here it is important look at motor learning as a process which involves
perception and in course of its development the perceptions get
restructured into actions and skilled behaviour (Glencross, 1993). It also
does involve sensory processing, motor control, motor skill acquisition,
and the ability to perform the skill under numerous changeable
circumstances and retention/memory of the acquired skill.
Various types of motor learning processes are recognized; viz. -
adaptive, conditioned-associative, non-associative and skill learning.
Process of adaptation however refers to an individual’s ability to modify
a motor output in response to a changing sensory input, which is
possible via conscious effort, or in many situations could be carried out
automatically and without conscious effort via reflex pathways in the
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Purpose of this study was to identify and compare the efficacy of skin conductance (Sc) and electromyography (EMG) biofeedback intervention techniques in regulation of sudomotor nerve activity (SNA) and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) evident in high-performing soccer players having dismal performance. All of the players were assessed with autonomic measures of emotionality (SNA and Sc amplitude); electromyography evaluation of MVC. Fifty-four National-selection group soccer players in Malaysia were randomly categorized into three groups (Gr. A, N = 18, no-intervention control group); Gr. B (who received EMG biofeedback training) and Gr. C (received Sc biofeedback intervention). Players in the intervention groups received their respective trainings for 12 weeks (15 min.s /day for 3 days/ week). Post-intervention analyses revealed marked improvement in the bilateral shooting performance of the soccer players who received Sc and EMG biofeedback intervention training, which were capable of modulating autonomic indices of emotionality as well as the muscle potentiality in the form of enhanced maximal voluntary contraction in the players.
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