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Scientists at Southern University Ag Center are conducting a research project on Hibiscus sabdariffa, investigating its nutritional value under various growing conditions. The project plans to introduce its products to food markets and to reach out small farmers to increase its marketability and profitability. This bulletin presents the basic information regarding the biological characteristics, food use, and medicinal values of Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa.
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Southern University and A&M College System
AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH AND EXTENSION CENTER
Ashford O. Williams Hall ~ P. O. Box 10010
Baton Rouge, LA 70813
(225) 771-2262 office ~ (225) 771-4464 fax
www.suagcenter.com
CIRCULAR – Urban Forestry Natural Resources and Environment No. 604
“Linking Citizens of Louisiana with Opportunities for Success”
Biological Characteristics, Nutritional and Medicinal
Value of Roselle, Hibiscus Sabdariffa
Yadong Qi1, Kit L. Chin2, Fatemah Malekian3, Mila Berhane4, and Janet Gager5
1Professor, Urban Forestry Program, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA
2Professor, Plant and Soil Science Program, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA
3Associate Professor, Food Science and Nutrition, Southern University Ag Center, Baton Rouge, LA
4Research Associate, Plant and Soil Science Program, Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA
5Research Associate, Food Science and Nutrition, Southern University Ag Center, Baton Rouge, LA
Scientists at Southern University Ag Center are conducting a research project on
Hibiscus sabdariffa, investigating its nutritional value under various growing
conditions. The project plans to introduce its products to food markets and to
reach out small farmers to increase its marketability and profitability. This
bulletin presents the basic information regarding the biological characteristics,
food use, and medicinal values of Roselle,
Hibiscus sabdariffa
.
Hibiscus has more than 300 species which are distributed in
tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Most
hibiscus species are used as ornamental plants, but many are
believed to have certain medicinal properties; among them is
Hibiscus sabdariffa (Fig. 1), commonly named as “red sorrel”
and “roselle”. In this paper, we will call the species by its
common name “roselle”.
Botanic description
Roselle belongs to
Malvaceae family. It is an
erect, mostly branched,
annual shrub. Stems are
reddish in color and up to 3.5
m tall. Leaves are dark
green to red, alternate,
glabrous, long-petiolate,
palmately divided into 3–7
lobes, with serrate margins.
Flowers (Fig. 2) are red to
yellow with a dark center
containing short-peduncles.
The flowers have both male and female organs. Seedpods, as
shown in Fig. 1, are enclosed in their red, fleshy calyces which
are commonly used for making food and tea.
Ecology
Roselle tolerates a
warm and humid
tropical and
subtropical climate,
and is susceptible
to damage from
frost. Its hardiness
zone ranges from 9
to 10. Roselle can
tolerate little shade
and can be grown
in greenhouse (Fig.
3), but it normally
grows best in field
conditions under
the full sunlight
(Fig. 4).
Fig. 2: Roselle flower
Fig. 3: Roselle, grown in a greenhouse condition at
Southern University Agricultural Research and
Extension Center, Baton Rouge, LA.
Fig. 1: Roselle, Hibiscus sabdariffa
CIRCULAR – Urban Forestry Natural Resources and Environment No. 604
Circular UFNR, No.604 March 2005
Southern University Agricultural Research and Extension Center (Southern University AgCenter), an entity of the Southern
University System, Leodrey Williams, Chancellor, Leon Traver, II, System President, S. Albert Gillman, Chairman, Board of
Supervisors. It is issued in furtherance of the Cooperative Extension Work Act of December 1971, and the Agricultural
Research Program, in cooperation with the U. S. Department of Agriculture. All educational programs conducted by the
Southern University AgCenter are provided to all persons regardless of race, national origin, or disability.
Food Uses and Value
Many parts of roselle including seeds, leaves, fruits and roots
are used in various foods. Among them, the fleshy red calyces
are the most popular. They are used fresh for making wine,
juice, jam, jelly, syrup. gelatin, pudding, cakes, ice cream and
flavors and also dried and brewed into tea, spice, and used for
butter, pies, sauces, tarts, and other desserts. The calyces
possess pectin that makes a firm jelly. The young leaves and
tender stems of roselle are eaten raw in salads or cooked as
greens alone or in combination with other vegetables and/or
with meat. They are also added to curries as seasoning. They
have an acid, rhubarb-like flavor. The red calyces contain
antioxidants including flavonoids, gossypetine, hibiscetine and
sabdaretine. The fresh calyces are also rich in riboflavin,
ascorbic acid, niacin,
carotene, calcium, and
iron that are nutritionally
important. The seeds,
are high in protein, can
be roasted and ground
into a powder then used
in soups and sauces.
The roasted seeds can
be used as a coffee
substitute. The young
root is edible, but very
fibrous.
Medicinal Uses
Roselle is used in many folk medicines. It is valued for its mild
laxative effect and for its ability to increase urination, attributed
to two diuretic ingredients, ascorbic acid and glycolic acid.
Because it contains citric acid, it is used as a cooling herb,
providing relief during hot weather by increasing the flow of
blood to the skin's surface and dilating the pores to cool the
skin. The leaves and flowers are used as a tonic tea for
digestive and kidney functions. The heated leaves are applied
to cracks in the feet and on boils and ulcers to speed
maturation. The calyces and seeds are diuretic, laxative and
tonic. The ripe calyces, boiled in water, can be used as a drink
to treat bilious attacks. A lotion made from roselle leaves is
used on sores and wounds.
References
Morton, J. 1987. Roselle. P.281-286. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F.
Morton, Miami, FL.
James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of energy crops.
http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy
Acknowledgement
We world like to thank Dr. James McNitt, professor in agricultural science at
SUAREC for his valuable comments and editorial suggestions.
For more information, please contact:
SU Agricultural Research and Extension Center
Yadong Qi, Ph.D. Professor at 225-771-2262 ext 269
e-mail: yadong_qi@suagcenter.com
Kit. L. Chin, Ph.D. Professor at 225-771-2440
e-mail: kit_chin@cxs.subr.edu
Fig. 4: Roselle, grown under field conditions in Louisiana
Fig. 6: Roselle growers in Louisiana
Fig. 5: “Red Zinger” jelly made from Roselle
calyces, sold in the Red Stick Farmer’s
Market, in downtown Baton Rouge, LA.
... Roselle is found to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and is characterized as a highly acidic fruit with low sugar content. It is also rich in riboflavin (B 2 ), niacin, calcium, and iron (Qi et al., 2005). Roselle calyx is potentially a good source of anthocyanin and antioxidants including flavonoids, gossypetine, and hibiscetine (Hong & Wrostlad, 1990;Vilasinee et al., 2005;Chau et al., 2000). ...
... The heated leaves are applied to cracks in the feet and on boils and ulcers to speed maturation. The leaves and flowers are used as a tonic tea for digestive and kidney functions (Qi et al., 2005). ...
... Flowers contain gossypetin, anthocyanin, and the glucoside hibiscin, which may have diuretic and choleretic effects, decreasing the viscosity of the blood, reducing blood pressure, and stimulating intestinal peristalsis (Duke, 1983;Perry, 1980). It is also used as a tonic tea for digestive and kidney functions (Qi et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) belongs to the genus Hibiscus under the tribe Hibisceae of the family Malvaceae. The genus Hibiscus contains more than 300 species that are grown throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Several species of Hibiscus are economically important, as they provide food, fiber, and medicine. Other species are valuable, as they have esthetic value. Indian sorrel or roselle (H. sabdariffa L.) is cultivated for use as a vegetable and/ or to make drinks and jams. On the other hand, kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is cultivated and extensively used for making fiber. Over the past few decades, two Hibiscus species (namely, roselle and kenaf) have been researched to evaluate them as new crops in different countries. Indian sorrel is an annual or perennial plant. It is cultivated for many useful purposes such as edible calyx, leaves, and seeds or fibers and paper pulp.
... The activity of C. pepo extract against bacteria was credited to phytochemical materials like Flavonoids, phenolics, alkaloids, and tannins which affect the cell wall bacteria 14 . Antibacterial activity differed depending on the cell wall structure of G +ve and G-ve bacteria 15,18 , which leads to the destruction of bacteria 16,18 . In-creased phenolic elements, such as flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes, and phenolic acids, increased DPPH radical scavenging activity. ...
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Antibacterial and antioxidant effects of alcoholic extract for the Cucurbita pepo plant were studied. Properties optical (UV-visible spectrophotometer ) and morphological surface(scanning electron microscopy ) detection of the alcoholic extract was done, and the antibacterial activity was investigated against pathogenic microbes (E.coli, Staphylococcus aureus). Results showed the highest effect for crud extract in the growth of E.coli by the zone of inhibition diameter reached (16.33±0.58 ), followed by Staph. Aureus by the diameter of the inhibition zone reached (12.33±2.30mm). The results indicate that the plant C. pepo can be considered a valuable source of effective antioxidant agents at a 0.8 µg/ml concentration. Keywords. Cucurbita pepo plant: Alcoholic extract: Antioxidant: Antibacterial Activity
... Hibiscus is a plant species that has more than 300 species in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. Hibiscus species is used as an ornamental plants, but it is believed that Hibiscus sabdariffa has also some medicinal properties (Qi et al., 2005). It is known by many names such as "Florida hibiscus", "Florida cranberry", "Roselle" and "Indian sorrel" in USA; "Asam silent", "Asama paya" and "Asam kumbang" in Malaysia; "Sorrel" or "Jamaican sorrel" in the Caribbean; "Karkade" or "Carcade" in Sudan and Egypt; "bisap" in Senegal and "Zobo" in Nigeria (Omemu et al., 2005;Mounigan and Badrie, 2007;Mohamed et al., 2012). ...
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In this study, it was aimed to examine and compare the effects of Hibiscus (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) and poppy (Papaver rhoeas L.) extracts on some chemical, physical, microbiological and sensory properties of bread dough and bread. The pH, L, b, chroma, hue values of the dough decreased by usage of hibiscus extract, while the a value was increasing. It was determined as the lowest pH was 4.13; L 39.23; b 5.08; chroma was 6.55, hue angle was 54.65 and the highest a value was 7.20. Counts of total mesophilic aerobic bacteria and yeast/mold were found lower in dough with hibiscus extract. Hibiscus extract application gave the lowest specific volume value (2.15 mL/g). In terms of hardness, gumminess and chewiness, the highest values were obtained in hibiscus bread as 24.96 N, 16.13 N and 147.86 mj, respectively. Sensory properties scored of the breads were lower than the control bread. Keywords: Hibiscus, poppy, dough, bread, texture
... The perennial and temperate-zone tree-form Roselle plant is referred to as Red roselle and Sorrel in English-speaking countries, and it is locally called Zobo leaf or Isapa leaf in Nigeria (Adebayo-tayo & Samuel, 2009). Among the edible parts of Hibiscus sabdariffa plant, the fleshy red calyces are the most commonly found around the world (Qi, Chin, Malekian, Berhane, & Gager, 2005). In Nigeria, the dried red roselle calyces are processed into a clean non-alcoholic beverage recognized as Zobo, which is a frequent drink among the low and middle-income people. ...
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Consumers expect greater functionality from food and beverage products. Celebrated for a range of health benefits, polyphenols have been linked to a preventive role for chronic diseases and viral infections and have the ability to relieve oxidative stress. A drink made with roselle calyces (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and sweet basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L) may provide therapeutic or preventive effects against chronic and infectious diseases. Damage caused by oxidative stress may be alleviated by the polyphenols found in roselle calyces and sweet basil leaves. The roselle-basil samples at different blend ratio were analysed for pH, total soluble solids, total titratable acidity, vitamin C, lycopene, total phenolic contents, antioxidant properties, and storage stability at different temperature (4 and 29°C). The incorporation of sweet basil leaves to roselle calyces slightly decreased the vitamin C and lycopene content of the processed drink but increased the total carotenoid and antioxidant activities (ABTS and ORAC) of the drink. The radical scavenging properties of the processed drink increased with the addition of the dried sweet basil leaves and samples kept at a higher temperature of 29°C showed a rise in antioxidant activities compared to samples stored at 4°C. The increase in the free radical scavenging power of the drinks show that the roselle-basil drink may serve as health drink and addition of sweet basil leaves up to 5% may be suitable to produce roselle-basil drink.
... The color of the flower ranges from white to pale yellow, with delicate and fleshy calyces, while the petals might differ from white to pink, red, yellow, orange, or purple (Ansari, 2013). The fruit's bright red color indicates it is a ripe fruit (Chin et al., 2016;Halimatul et al., 2007;Morton, 1987). ...
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The totalnumberof Hibiscus species, tropical and subtropical, exceeds 300 (Anderson, 2006). Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa), or roselle, is a rare plant bred in many temperate climates for its seeds, stems, leaves, and calyces; the dried calyces are used to make drinks, syrups, jams, and jellies (Eslaminejad & Zakaria, 2011). Roselle is an annual plant that takes approximately 6 months to grow (Ansari, 2013). The morphologic features of this plant are shown in Fig. 1.1. The leaves of roselle are separated into three to five lobes on the stem and arranged alternately (Ansari, 2013). In each calyx lobe of the roselle flower, there is a notable center and two marginal ribs (Ansari, 2013). This trait puts the plant in the Furcaria group (America et al., 1993). The color of the flower ranges from white to pale yellow, with delicate and fleshy calyces, while the petals might differ from white to pink, red, yellow, orange, or purple (Ansari, 2013). The fruit’s bright red color indicates it is a ripe fruit (Chin et al., 2016; Halimatul et al., 2007; Morton, 1987). Roselle is recognized throughout the Indian subcontinent traditionally as “Mesta” and “Meshta” (Grubben & Denton, 2004; Halimatul et al., 2007; Udayasekhara Rao, 1996). In different nations, roselle is generally called by many names, as shown in Table 1.1 (Ansari, 2013). Owing to its market value as a natural food and staining component that could replace a variety of synthetic products, this plant has gained the attention of food, beverage, and pharmaceutical companies (Eslaminejad & Zakaria, 2011). This chapter is a review of the production and applications of roselle plants and points out roselle as a promising crop for medicinal uses and polymer composites, which is an aspect that has not been widely studied to date.
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Man has known since the dawn of time the medicinal herbs and their curative benefits. In spite of the tremendous development in pharmacology and the emergence of huge numbers of therapeutic agents in various fields, the past era witnessed a return to medicinal herbs as one of the most important branches of alternative medicine. Among the medicinal plants that have been widely used is the Hibiscus sabdariffa L.(Roselle) plant. It is considered a sedative, an antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, and tonic for the heart and in lowering the blood pressure and temperature. Hibiscus sabdariffa L plant has been extensively utilized in medicines and foods. Roselle is rich in anthocyanins which have antimicrobial impacts. The percentage of oil that can be extracted from hibiscus seeds is 17% and the seeds and fiber are considered a by-products because the main crop is the sepals (calyx) and the petals that are collected for the manufacture of drinks and carbonated water. One of the chemical properties of the oil is that it is a stable oil and its ground seeds are not affected much by the enzymatic degradation. The oil is characterized by fairly high resistance to oxidation and spoilage. This chapter reviews the results of recent research concerning antimicrobial properties of the Hibiscus sabdariffa L.
Chapter
Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) plants are still considered as potential sources of nutrients and pharmaceutical compounds. This chapter discussed the available data in ethnobotanical uses of Roselle, it’s fermented products, nutritional potential and sensory acceptance. Through database search, Bikalga, Mbuja, dawadawa botso, Fururndu and datou were the most seasoning agents prepared from Roselle seeds. As the preparation of seasoning agents varies from one country to other as well as within the same country, important differences in nutritional value and sensory acceptance were observed. These products are usually fermented by Bacillus spp. (such as Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens) in an alkaline fermentation brought about by the extensive hydrolysis of the proteins to amino acids and volatiles. Roselle calyces’ juices were mostly prepared by traditional fermented (microflora) or mixed culture of yeasts and fungi. This chapter underlined that not enough is known about the ethnobotanical uses of Roselle calyces and seeds.
Chapter
This chapter explored the nutritional properties and feeding values of Hibiscus sabdariffa and their products. Essentially, Roselle is a medicinal plant with a global fame and is estimated to have more than 300 species distributed in tropical and subtropical regions. Roselle known as functional foods contains significant levels of active biological components, mainly anthocyanins, flavonoids, vitamins, and polyphenolic acids, which provide specific health benefits to humans beyond the traditional nutrients. Many parts of Roselle including seeds, leaves, fruits, and roots are used in various foods as well as in herbal medicine as a potential nonpharmacological treatment. Roselle is primarily cultivated commercially for its calyx, which comes in three types: red, green, and dark red. Products produced from Roselle include Roselle tea, Roselle powder, Roselle tablets, Roselle juice, Roselle extracts, Roselle jam, and Roselle seed oil, among others.
Handbook of energy crops
  • Miami Morton
  • Fl A James
  • Duke
Morton, Miami, FL. James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of energy crops. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/duke_energy
Handbook of energy crops
  • J Morton
Morton, J. 1987. Roselle. P.281-286. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of energy crops.