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Development of Low Glycemic Foods with The use of Pearl Millet and Finger Millet

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Abstract

The glycemic index (GI) is a numeric system of measuring how much of a rise in circulating blood sugar a carbohydrate triggers- the higher the number, the greater the blood sugar response. So a low GI food will cause a small rise, while a high GI food will trigger a dramatic spike. A GI of 70 or more is high, a GI of 56 to 69 inclusive is medium, and a GI of 55 or less is low .Consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) is hypothesized to contribute to insulin resistance, which is associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers. Twenty normal subjects aged between 20 to 25 yrs (female) students of SHIATS were selected. They were clinically normal and non diabetic. They were divided into two groups. One group was given Cheela as control food 50g and test food 50g and the other group was given Uthapam 50g as control food and test 50g. All subjects for investigation fasted overnight (10-12) hr. The determination of blood sugar was taken at intervals i.e. 0 fasting, 15mins, 45mins, 60mins, 90mins, and 120mins after feeding the experimental diets. The glycemic index of finger millet and pearl millet flours based cheela (36.83±1.23) and uthapam (38.72±1.879) was found to be lower than control cheela (44.07±1.67) and uthapam (39.9±1.14). The glycemic load of finger millet and pearl millet flours based cheela (12.5±0.525) and finger millet and pearl millet flours based uthapam (11.36±0.533) were found to be lower than control cheela (13.37±0.794) and control uthapam (14.72±0.418) respectively. The present study indicates that foods made from finger millet and pearl millet are low glycemic index.
IJSR - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 193
Volume : 3 | Issue : 8 | Aug 2014 • ISSN No 2277 - 8179
Research Paper
Home Science
Kumari Nidhi Research Scholar
Gupta Alka Assistant Professor
Sheikh Sarita Dean and Head Ethelind School Home Science
Development of Low Glycemic Foods
with The use of Pearl Millet and Finger
Millet
KEYWORDS : Glycemic index, glycemic
load,Uthapum and Cheela.
ABSTRACT The glycemic index (GI) is a numeric system of measuring how much of a rise in circulating blood sugar
a carbohydrate triggers- the higher the number, the greater the blood sugar response. So a low GI food will
cause a small rise, while a high GI food will trigger a dramatic spike. A GI of 70 or more is high, a GI of 56 to 69 inclusive is medium,
and a GI of 55 or less is low .Consumption of foods with a high glycemic index (GI) or glycemic load (GL) is hypothesized to contribute
to insulin resistance, which is associated with increased risk of diabetes mellitus, obesity, cardiovascular disease, and some cancers.
Twenty normal subjects aged between 20 to 25 yrs (female) students of SHIATS were selected. They were clinically normal and non
diabetic. They were divided into two groups. One group was given Cheela as control food 50g and test food 50g and the other group
was given Uthapam 50g as control food and test 50g. All subjects for investigation fasted overnight (10-12) hr. The determination of
blood sugar was taken at intervals i.e. 0 fasting, 15mins, 45mins, 60mins, 90mins, and 120mins after feeding the experimental diets.
       
       
                 

and pearl millet are low glycemic index.
INTRODUCTION
Glycemic index (GI) describes the blood glucose response af-
ter consumption of a carbohydrate containing test food rela-
tive to a carbohydrate containing reference food, typically
glucose or white bread. GI was originally designed for people
with diabetes as a guide to food selection, advice being given
to select foods with a low GI. The amount of food consumed
is a major determinant of postprandial hyperglycemia, and
the concept of glycemic load (GL) takes account of the GI of a
food and the amount eaten. Glycemic index measures how fast
a given food raises your blood sugar level .
Finger millet (Eleusinecoracana L.) also known as Ragi.Finger
millet contains important amino acids viz., isoleucine, leucine,
methionine and phenyl alanine which are not present in other
starchy meals. It has the highest amount of calcium (344 mg
%) and potassium (408 mg %) . Ragi is a great source of iron
        -
els.
Pearl millet (Pennisetumglaucum) also known as Bajra. Pearl
millet contains important amino acids viz. Methionine and
leucine. It has the highest amount of phosphorus (296mg %)
,energy (361kcal) and protein (11.6gm)
The objectives of this study were 1). To develope products by
   -
termine the glycemic index of the developed products.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present work of dissertation entitled “Development of
low glycemic index foods with the use of Pearl millet and Fin-
        
Laboratory of Department of Foods and Nutrition, Ethelind
School of Home Science, Sam Higginbottom Institute of Agri-
culture, Technology and Sciences, Allahabad.
Procurement of ingredients: Procurement of raw materials:
    
        
curd, curry leaves, mustard seeds, onion, tomato, chilli, ginger,
garlic used for the product development were obtained from
the local market of Allahabad.
Formulation of food products:The proportions of the in-
gredients used are mentioned in the Table 1.
       
     -
        
at three different levels of incorporation. The Finger millet
         
Research Laboratory of Department of Foods and Nutrition.
    -
           

Table 1.Formulation for Uthapam
Products
Treatment


main ingredient.
Uthapam
Semolina
Pearl
millet
Flours
Finger
millet

Tomato
Onion
T0(control)
100%
-
-
-
-
T1
40%
20%
20%
10%
10%
T2
30%
25%
25%
10%
10%
T3
20%
30%
30%
10%
10%
Pick, wash and soak the semolina for 1 hour
Add water to make thick batter
Mix onion, tomato and green chilli pieces also
Heat non-stick pan & spread a little oil on it
Then spread the batter properly
Pour few drops of oil again on the side of the set batter
194 IJSR - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
Volume : 3 | Issue : 8 | Aug 2014 • ISSN No 2277 - 8179 Research Paper
Spread curry leaves and fry mustard seeds over the uthapam.
Fry both the sides till crispy and golden
Table 2. Formulation for Cheela
Products
Treatment
Besan
Pearl
millet
Flours
Finger
millet

Tomato
Onion
T0(control)
100%
-
T1
40%
20%
20%
10%
10%
T2
30%
25%
25%
10%
10%
T3
20%
30%
30%
10%
10%
 
Add water to make thick batter
Mix onion and tomato pieces also
Heat non-stick pan & spread a little oil on it
Then spread the batter properly
Pour few drops of oil again on the side of the set batter
Fry both the sides till crispy and golden.
2. Subjects
Twenty normal subjects aged between 20 to 25 yrs (female)
students of SHIATS were selected. They were clinically nor-
mal and non diabetic. They were divided into two groups. One
group was given Uthapam as Test food and control food and
the other group was given Cheela as Test food and control
food .The subjects was appraised about the experiment and
their consent was taken.
Ethical Approval
The protocol was approved by Institutional Ethical Commit-
tee for Biomedical Research on Human Participants, Faculty of
Health Science, SHIATS.
Analysis of blood glucose in the subjects
All subjects for investigation fasted overnight (10-12) hr.
        
a hypodermic needle. Each blood sample was inserted into a
calibrated glucometer (Accu-check/ one touch) which (princi-
ple in Appendix F) gave direct reading after 45 seconds based
on glucose oxidase assay method. The determination of blood
sugar will be taken at intervals i.e. 0 fasting, 15mins, 45mins,
60mins, 90mins, and 120mins after feeding the experimental
diets.
Experimental diets
(i)Reference foods :
After fasting for 10-12 hours, subjects were required to ar-
rive at the laboratory at 8 O’ clock in the morning and a blood
sample was obtained. Fasting blood sugar was estimated and
postprandial blood sugar was taken at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and
120 minutes after consumption of 50g glucose dissolved in
200 ml drinking water.
(ii) Control food :
Uthapam and Cheela (control food containing 50g carbohy-
drate) standardized in the Nutrition lab was used as control
food. Fasting blood glucose of the subjects after 10-12 hours
overnight fasting was obtained and postprandial blood sugar
(PPBS) was taken at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 minutes interval
after consumption of test food. One group was given Uthapam
as control food and the other group was given Cheela was
control food.
     
Uthapam and Cheela):
Uthapam and Cheela developed by incorporating Finger millet
at 20% and Pearl millet at 25 % percent level was taken as a
test food as it scored best in terms of organoleptic character-
istics.
RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
Fig4.(a) Postprandial blood sugar (PPBS) values were highest
for reference food at 45 minutes followed by control uthapum
    -
 
Fig4. (a) Graphical presentation showing the glucose re-
sponse area of reference food (glucose), Control food
(uthapum) and test food (Pearl millet and Finger millet

Fig 4.(b). Results shows that PPBS values of reference food
ranged between 80 to 125.1 mg/dl with the peak value at 60
minutes. Peak values for reference food, control food and test
food were highest at 60 minutes .The peak for test food (90.9)
was lowest in comparison to control food (92.4) PPBS was
highest for reference foods followed by control cheela and

Fig4.4. (b). Graphical presentation showing the glucose
response area of reference food (glucose), control food
        

Table 4.(c). Mean glycemic index of control and developed
  
S.No
Name
of the
products
Control
products
FingerMillet
and
PearlMillet

products
Cal.
Value
of t
Table
value at
(5%)
1
Uthapum
39.91±1.14


2.101
2
Cheela

36.83±1.23

2.101
IJSR - INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH 195
Volume : 3 | Issue : 8 | Aug 2014 • ISSN No 2277 - 8179
Research Paper
REFERENCE
                 
foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses. Jounal of the international society of sports nutrition vol:8. | B J Venn and T
         
                -
                
         
(GL) Values -2002 E-mail: mendosa@mendosa.com. | Washington, C.D.(2013). Study Finds That More Nutritious Pearl Millet Can Meet Full Iron Needs of Children Journal of

Fig4. (c). Mean glycemic index of control and developed
 
CONCLUSION
          
       
in comparison to their control product. Finger millet and
      
         -
         -
         
     

RECOMMENDATIONS
        
obeses and in helpful in several diseases.
... Various low GI millet-based food products which may be used as a complete meal or breakfast items or snacks have been developed. Pearl millet, finger millet, and semolina based uttapam (a thick fermented pancake made traditionally from a mixture of rice and lentils or semolina) had a GI of 38.7 and pearl millet, finger millet, and besan (Bengal gram flour) made cheela (pancake traditionally made from Bengal gram flour) had a GI of 36.8 as compared to 38.9 and 44.07 for their respective controls (Kumari et al. 2014). ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Millets or nutri-cereals are high-energy foods; that were domesticated and cultivated as early as 10,000 years ago. The millets cultivation is taken up usually in degraded and marginal lands that receive very less rainfall and are poor in soil nutrient content. Seven important millets cultivated globally are finger millet, pearl millet, foxtail millet, barnyard millet, proso millet, kodo millet, and little millet. Overdependence on cereals after the green revolution and the present-day sedentary lifestyle of people has proliferated health-related disorders like obesity, diabetes, coronary diseases, gastrointestinal disorders and risk of colon, breast, and oesophageal cancer. The only way to fight back is through the introduction of nutritionally rich millets in our daily diets. Millets are unique for their richness in dietary fibers, antioxidants, minerals, phytochemicals, polyphenols, and proteins; that act as elixir to fight against health-related disorders. Recent global phenomenon of climate change has lead to a decrease in the yield of major staple cereals and has paved path for introduction of millets into agriculture production system to formulate climate resilient cropping systems because millets are C4 plants with very superior photosynthetic efficiency, short duration, higher dry matter production capacity, and a high degree of tolerance to heat and drought. Keeping the above advantages of millets, the efforts have hastened to collect, conserve, and utilize germplasm of millets in breeding programs. Of late, several private and government agencies have ventured into value addition of millets to manufacture food and non-food products. But, the governments have a key role in formulating policies to promote cultivation and consumption of millets.
Chapter
Today human race is suffering from host of diseases owing to behavioral changes and genetic predisposition. Health foods can play a crucial role in prevention and control of health disorders. Functional foods which are interchangeably termed as designer food, health food or nutraceuticals are in demand because of their efficacy in allaying the symptoms of ever-rising health disorders. Small millets which are natural, low-cost resource with tremendous nutritional and therapeutic properties can be explored as an ingredient in functional foods designed to manage diseased conditions like diabetes, cardiovascular disorders (CVDs), cancer, obesity, and celiac disease. The special attributes such as good content of dietary fiber, micronutrients, phytochemicals, and non-gluten-forming protein content present in small millets impart them with the therapeutic characteristics to be an apt ingredient in development of functional foods. Many human and animal researches have proved the efficiency of small millets as a functional food ingredient; however more studies in this arena are required.
Full-text available
Article
Millets (including sorghum) are known to be highly nutritious besides having a low carbon footprint and the ability to survive in high temperatures with minimal water. Millets are widely recognised as having a low Glycaemic Index (GI) helping to manage diabetes. This systematic review and meta-analyzes across the different types of millets and different forms of processing/cooking collated all evidences. Of the 65 studies that were collected globally, 39 studies with 111 observations were used to analyze GI outcomes and 56 studies were used to analyze fasting, post-prandial glucose level, insulin index and HbA1c outcomes in a meta-analysis. It is evident from the descriptive statistics that the mean GI of millets is 52.7 ± 10.3, which is about 36% lower than in typical staples of milled rice (71.7 ± 14.4) and refined wheat (74.2 ± 14.9). The descriptive, meta and regression analyses revealed that Job's tears, fonio, foxtail, barnyard, and teff were the millets with low mean GI (<55) that are more effective (35-79%) in reducing dietary GI than the control samples. Millets with intermediate GI (55-69) are pearl millet, finger millet, kodo millet, little millet, and sorghum which have a 13-35% lower GI than the control with high GI (>69). A meta-analysis also showed that all millets had significantly (p < 0.01) lower GI than white rice, refined wheat, standard glucose or white wheat bread except little millet which had inconsistent data. Long term millet consumption lowered fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels significantly (p < 0.01) by 12 and 15%, respectively, in diabetic subjects. There was a significant reduction in HbA1c level (from 6.65 ± 0.4 to 5.67 ± 0.4%) among pre-diabetic individuals (p < 0.01) who consumed millets for a long period. Minimally processed millets were 30% more effective in lowering GI of a meal compared to milled rice and refined wheat. In conclusion, millets can be beneficial in managing Anitha et al. Millets to Manage Diabetes and reducing the risk of developing diabetes and could therefore be used to design appropriate meals for diabetic and pre-diabetic subjects as well as for non-diabetic people for a preventive approach.
Chapter
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia owing to insufficient or inefficient insulin secretion. Globally half a billion people are living with diabetes and in India the rate is increasing at an alarming rate. This possesses a large and increasing burden and therefore immediate and collective actions are required to prevent diabetes. The four identified pillars of managing diabetes are drugs, exercise, education, and diet. Diet can play an important role in treatment and prevention of diabetes. Millets can be effectively explored to incorporate in the diet of diabetics. Millets contain certain bioactive components like non-starch polysaccharides, flavonoids, polyphenols, protein, certain vitamins, and minerals which attribute antioxidative, anti-inflammatory properties, and reduce insulin sensitivity. The nutraceutical potency of millets aids in lowering the glycemic index (GI) of food containing millets. The present chapter deals with the incorporation of millets in developing food products for diabetics. Various millet-based low GI value-added food products have been developed and proven to reduce blood glucose, lipid profile, glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics through intervention studies. Thus, millets the underutilized but potential grains can be effectively used to formulate functional food products and can form an integral part of the diet for diabetics.
Full-text available
Article
ABSTRACT: Τhe aim of this study was to examine the effects of the consumption of foods of various glycemic index values on performance, β-endorphin levels and substrate (fat and carbohydrate) utilization during prolonged exercise. Eight untrained healthy males underwent, in a randomized counterbalanced design, three experimental conditions under which they received carbohydrates (1.5 gr. kg-1 of body weight) of low glycemic index (LGI), high glycemic index (HGI) or placebo. Food was administered 30 min prior to exercise. Subjects cycled for 60 min at an intensity corresponding to 65% of VO2max, which was increased to 90% of VO2max, then they cycled until exhaustion and the time to exhaustion was recorded. Blood was collected prior to food consumption, 15 min prior to exercise, 0, 20, 40, and 60 min into exercise as well as at exhaustion. Blood was analyzed for β-endorphin, glucose, insulin, and lactate. The mean time to exhaustion did not differ between the three conditions (LGI = 3.2 ± 0.9 min; HGI = 2.9 ± 0.9 min; placebo = 2.7 ± 0.7 min). There was a significant interaction in glucose and insulin response (P < 0.05) with HGI exhibiting higher values before exercise. β-endorphin increased significantly (P < 0.05) at the end of exercise without, however, a significant interaction between the three conditions. Rate of perceived exertion, heart rate, ventilation, lactate, respiratory quotient and substrate oxidation rate did not differ between the three conditions. The present study indicates that ingestion of foods of different glycemic index 30 min prior to one hour cycling exercise does not result in significant changes in exercise performance, β-endorphin levels as well as carbohydrate and fat oxidation during exercise.
Full-text available
Article
Glycemic index (GI) describes the blood glucose response after consumption of a carbohydrate containing test food relative to a carbohydrate containing reference food, typically glucose or white bread. GI was originally designed for people with diabetes as a guide to food selection, advice being given to select foods with a low GI. The amount of food consumed is a major determinant of postprandial hyperglycemia, and the concept of glycemic load (GL) takes account of the GI of a food and the amount eaten. More recent recommendations regarding the potential of low GI and GL diets to reduce the risk of chronic diseases and to treat conditions other than diabetes, should be interpreted in the light of the individual variation in blood glucose levels and other methodological issues relating to measurement of GI and GL. Several factors explain the large inter- and intra-individual variation in glycemic response to foods. More reliable measurements of GI and GL of individual foods than are currently available can be obtained by studying, under standard conditions, a larger number of subjects than has typically been the case in the past. Meta-analyses suggest that foods with a low GI or GL may confer benefit in terms of glycemic control in diabetes and lipid management. However, low GI and GL foods can be energy dense and contain substantial amounts of sugars or undesirable fats that contribute to a diminished glycemic response. Therefore, functionality in terms of a low glycemic response alone does not necessarily justify a health claim. Most studies, which have demonstrated health benefits of low GI or GL involved naturally occurring and minimally processed carbohydrate containing cereals, vegetables and fruit. These foods have qualities other than their immediate impact on postprandial glycemia as a basis to recommend their consumption. When the GI or GL concepts are used to guide food choice, this should be done in the context of other nutritional indicators and when values have been reliably measured in a large group of individuals.
The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses
  • Research Paper
  • Reference Athanasios
  • Z Jamurtas
  • Trifon Tofas
  • Ioannis Fatouros
  • G Michalis
  • Nikolaidi
  • Vassilis
Research Paper REFERENCE Athanasios Z Jamurtas*, Trifon Tofas, Ioannis Fatouros, Michalis G Nikolaidi, Vassilis. (2007). The effects of low and high glycemic index foods on exercise performance and beta-endorphin responses. Jounal of the international society of sports nutrition vol:8. | B J Venn and T