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Neoliberalisation and 'Lad Cultures' in Higher Education

Authors:

Abstract

This article links HE neoliberalisation and ‘lad cultures’, drawing on interviews and focus groups with women students. We argue that retro-sexist ‘laddish’ forms of masculine competitiveness and misogyny have been reshaped by neoliberal rationalities to become modes of consumerist sexualised audit. We also suggest that neoliberal frameworks scaffold an individualistic and adversarial culture amongst young people that interacts with perceived threats to men’s privilege and intensifies attempts to put women in their place through misogyny and sexual harassment. Furthermore, ‘lad cultures’, sexism and sexual harassment in higher education may be rendered invisible by institutions to preserve marketability in a neoliberal context. In response, we ask if we might foster dialogue and partnership between feminist and anti-marketisation politics.
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#
##
i#This#is#where#men#offer#women#lifts#home,#but#abandon#them#miles#from#their#destinations#–#
however,#it#should#be#noted#that#there#has#only#been#one#reported#incident.#
ii#‘Lad#culture’#is#a#potentially#problematic#term,#implying#a#homogeneity#and#cohesiveness#which#may#
not#exist#across#communities#or#over#time,#suggesting#deterministic#links#to#masculine#behaviour#
which#we#do#not#necessarily#wish#to#endorse,#and#giving#sexism#a#veneer#of#respectability.#
Nevertheless,#this#became#a#media#buzzword#and#was#the#focus#of#our#commission#from#NUS,#so#we#
use#the#term#here#(changing#it#to#‘lad#cultures’#where#we#can).##
iii#Again,#this#is#a#problematic#term#which#we#do#not#necessarily#endorse.#
iv#Despite#our#best#efforts,#we#were#not#able#to#access#participants#from#Wales#and#Northern#Ireland.#
v#It#is#possible#that#the#focus#group#setting#in#particular#was#not#conducive#to#personal#disclosures.##
vi#These#pages#were#used#by#students#of#all#genders#and#so#speak#to#cultures#which#do#not#just#affect#
women:#however,#our#research#suggests#that#normative#masculinities#and#femininities#play#a#
significant#role#in#the#evaluative#criteria#being#used.##
vii#Uni#Lad#is#perhaps#the#most#popular#such#site#currently#operating#in#the#UK:#at#the#time#of#writing,#
its#associated#Facebook#page#had#been#‘liked’#by#almost#600,000#users.##
... al. 2015). Importantly, however, there is evidence that laddism is partly a response to felt oppression, and is enacted by relatively advantaged men who perceive their privilege as under threat (Phipps 2016;Phipps and Young 2012; see also Dempster 2009;Phipps and Young 2015). Some understandings of lad culture have failed to make this crucial distinction, which risks falsely attributing campus GBV exclusively to underprivileged, working-class men (Phipps 2016). ...
... Laddish masculinities (like other masculinities) are not exclusively enacted by men, and the more extreme aspects appear to be performed by a minority of socially privileged young, heterosexual cis men (Phipps and Young 2012;Phipps and Young 2015). Further, prior assumptions about 'the lad' as a static personality type are problematic-instead, men (and less commonly, women) who perform laddishness are "reflexive, self-aware agents" (Nichols 2018, 80), and may present themselves as lads in some contexts/moments and not others (Phipps and Young 2012). ...
... We understand lad culture to be facilitated by a masculinised, neoliberal framework embedded within institutions and perpetuated by people in positions of power (see Phipps and Young 2015). Concerns have been raised, for example, about sexual misconduct perpetrated by staff against students and the ways in which institutions often fail to address misconduct (see, for example, Oman and Bull 2021). ...
Article
Research on ‘lad culture’ and gender-based violence (GBV) in student communities has examined ‘hypermasculine’ gender performances, with little attention paid to hierarchies of masculinity. We explore ‘lad culture’ by analysing qualitative, in-depth interviews with students. Our findings challenge simplistic constructions of ‘good guys’ as allies/protectors in opposition to hypermasculinised, deviant ‘bad guys’. We demonstrate how such binary constructions are premised upon gendered norms of men-as-protectors/women-as-weak, and bolster problematic hierarchies of masculinity. We also highlight the crucial role of complicit masculinity in maintaining GBV-tolerant cultures. Our research suggests academic understandings of lad culture could benefit from a more comprehensive picture of the relationship between masculinity/ies and campus GBV. By theorising complex negotiations of hegemonic masculinity in this context, the paper also advances conceptual debates around the promise/limitations of changing, ‘softer’ masculinities. Practice implications include rethinking how/whether prevention education can deploy ‘softer’ masculinities whilst avoiding reinstating gender hierarchies that ultimately scaffold GBV.
... Brown (2015) identifies neoliberalism as a dominant force, pervading forms of governance and ways of thinking and being, a 'market rationality' which positions people as rational, economic actors motivated solely by self-interest. This engenders lack of empathy, including among students, towards those who are socio-economically deprived or victimised and therefore deemed to be individual 'failures' (Phipps and Young 2015), thus denying structural causes and state responsibilities (Phipps 2014). The dominance of neoliberalism and increased visibility and power of far-right movements are complementary forces in suppressing critical thought (Giroux 2021); Koulouris (2018) views them as working against solidarities of 'class consciousness, collectivism, and egalitarianism' (Koulouris 2018, 750). ...
... The second extract captures a student's reflections on their relatively privileged position, having not encountered social issues such as poverty prior to studying on the course. This runs counter to neoliberal and post-truth reactionary discourses which undermine empathy and concern for the other (Phipps and Young 2015) and reproduce dominant hegemonies (Mondon and Winter 2020), discounting marginalised experiences: ...
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This paper considers critical reflection as a pedagogical strategy in UK higher education at a moment of an amplification of populist, reactionary discourses. It draws on written reflections of foundation-level students in a case study cohort and offers insights into their lived learning experiences and perceptions of the value of reflection. This is situated within the UK ‘Brexit’ context, alongside a proliferation of far-right populist voices, emboldened supremacies and rising fascism. Accompanying this has been a normalisation of reactionary ‘anti-social justice’ discourses. It is vital that HE practitioners recognise, pre-empt and interrupt such discourses, developing pedagogies and curricula in response. Yet there are inherent challenges in a climate of ‘post-truth’ anti-intellectualism. This paper argues that critical reflection contributes a useful approach to learning, fostering development of students’ personal, intellectual and political capacities to navigate this complex socio-political terrain and engage with social justice.
... This can be seen through such examples as the prolific adjunctification of academia, dramatically increased tuition costs and institutional value systems where learning and teaching are replaced by a concern with metrics and outcomes (Brady, 2012;Doyle, 2015;Olssen & Peters, 2006;Phipps & Young, 2015). Appropriately, neoliberalized education has earned several monikers such as "Academic Capitalism", "Higher Education, Inc., " and the "corporate university" (Seal, 2018). ...
... Statistics on campus sexual violence paint a much less utopian picture than admissions offices would like-the startling truth is that some young women consider sexual violence the "new normal" (Hlavka, 2014;Phipps & Young, 2015). ...
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This article investigates the ways sexual violence experienced on college campuses in the United States is situated within the neoliberal university. Feminist theories are utilized to explore the relationship between sexual violence and neoliberal ideologies. The authors evaluate how neoliberal tenets imbedded in higher education have contributed to, and exacerbated, an environment where sexual victimization is common. An institutional level of analysis is utilized to examine the neoliberal influence on campus sexual violence and investigate the utility of the term everyday terrorism. The authors also address “crimes of omission”, institutional betrayal, and the significance of institutional bravery/courage. The authors provide recommendations for future research in the areas of everyday terrorism and campus violence.
... Consequently, competitive individualism becomes "a core attribute of citizenship that continually reshapes the entrepreneur" (p. 9), with student life moving towards pursuing self-interest and acquisition [25]. In this market-based system, HE students are increasingly regarded as consumers in the UK [11]. ...
Article
p>The role of universities in preparing students to be active citizens within civil society has gained increasing attention. However, only limited research has been conducted on students’ views of universities as sites to learn representative democracy. To address the research gap, this article conducts eight semi-structured interviews with staff, student leaders and students without any positions in a case university. The students are undergraduate and post-graduate from different academic majors. Community of practice theory is employed to help understand students’ views of their experiences of representative democracy at the university. After analysing the interview data, the article finds that student leaders regard their role as mainly representing students and that all students in the study realise the importance of such democratic representation through participation. Importantly, through participation in representative democracy, students, especially student leaders, gain knowledge and skills on voting and elections. Interestingly, students’ sense of belonging is a result of participation in student union, society and club activities, which very likely includes voting and engagement with elections. Learning and belongingness are likely to make students participate more in future democratic representation activities. Although students give credit to the university’s role in promoting representative democracy, there are challenges. Specifically, the university is supposed to promote more participation in voting and elections for first-year students, and there is also concern that the short-term nature of positions in the student union may not allow real changes to be made. The findings shed some light on how students learn representative democracy in universities in neoliberal countries.</p
... Yet these progressive narratives are disrupted by realities where academic workload policies, interpersonal networks, and institutional cultural ideologies are all shaped by the dominant discourse of masculinity [2]. The masculine 'ideal' unencumbered worker [20] and a 'lad culture' where problematic and harmful behaviours are routinely justified or excused as 'just a bit of fun' have become emblematic of neo-liberal university culture [36]. These practices reproduce an unequal playing field where men's advancement is favoured. ...
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Australian Universities consistently rank highly on lists that celebrate the most gender equal higher education institutions in the world. Despite participation in institutional frameworks for gender equity accreditation, what often lies beneath the outward display of gender equality is a lived experience of inequality. Whilst there is relative gender equality amongst academics employed at universities overall, men continue to dominate appointments at the professorial or senior executive levels. At the same time, gender asymmetries make women’s access to the opportunities and resources that are highly valued by the sector difficult. Women who experience intersections with care, mothering, race, sexual identity, class, and ability face additional obstacles. In this paper, three women in Australian academia attempt to disrupt the dominant masculine ideology and value system by sharing our lived experience of gender (in)equality in the academy.
... Essentially, it is a power struggle of a socially constructed binary and the oppositely gendered world where masculine men must obey rigid traditional power structures, often scaffolding harassment and violence (Phipps & Young, 2015). Laura Thompson (2018) found in her research that men who are faced with rejection, attempt to shame women to (re)position femininity as subordinate to masculinity. ...
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The aim of this article is to explore the audience and moderator types on Instagram's misogynist content exposé pages (MCEPs)-where people share and shame screenshots depicting gendered online hate, harassment, and men's sexual entitlement. We have framed our study with concepts like refracted publics, imagined audiences, and shaming as a social practice, and we set out to look for communicative shaming practices beyond the theoretically well-established reintegrative/disintegrative distinction. Analysis of qualitative online interviews with the moderators of MCEPs (n = 6), combined with both qualitative and quantitative content analysis of the posts' captions (n = 100) and comments (n = 1325) helps us understand the mechanisms, types, and aims of online shamings and dive deeper into understanding the different roles people take in these communicative practices. Results of this study present five main types of shamings and the linked moderator and audience types: pedagogic shaming (moderators as Educators, audiences as Instructors), denunciatory shaming (Judges and Angry Mobbers), recreational shaming (Entertainers and Jokesters), participative shaming (Community Builders and Support Squadders) and reflective shaming (Looking Glasses and Mirrors). Theoretical types can be combined and modified in practice, based on the strategies the moderators are using, aims of communication, and specific constellations of audiences.
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Despite increased awareness of sexual harassment in higher education and more students moving to online classes, research on sexual harassment in online classes is virtually nonexistent. I report on the first study of its type. My study addresses the issue of student-to-student sexual harassment in online writing classes using data gathered through a survey and interviews with writing teachers and administrators. I discuss how 1) hostile environment sexual harassment can occur within online writing classrooms, 2) instructors and administrators may be unaware of this harassment, and 3) policies that address on-campus sexual harassment may not apply to online classes. To begin I share narratives of student-to-student sexual harassment that occurred in two of my online writing classes. To gather data, I use a survey distributed to instructors and administrators with an interest in online education and/or sexual harassment; I sent this survey through the WPA listserv and two Facebook groups. I follow up with interviews from survey participants who volunteered. Survey data compared with interview data reveals that educators may not realize the degree to which sexual harassment occurs in online classes, yet they often claim to be able to deal with any sexual harassment situation that may occur in online classes. Educators need a stronger understanding of sexual harassment in online class spaces as a real problem and of the necessity for more research and better policies in dealing with this form of harassment.
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This article studies how Northern Ireland’s media represented rape culture in relation to the 2018 Ulster Rugby Rape Trial. Thematic analysis was employed to analyse newspaper articles and social media posts to determine common themes surrounding the perpetuation of rape culture. While there were portrayals of perpetrator support and victim-blaming in the media, there was a surprising wealth of criticism surrounding the culture of misogyny, female subordination and sexual violence acceptance in Northern Ireland. This suggests Northern Irish society is becoming increasingly aware and intolerant of the damage rape culture acceptance can cause to all levels of society.
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In this research anthology, inequality in Swedish working life in a Sweden marked by increased inequality, is studied. Racialised inequality, racism and discrimination in individual workplaces are focused, but inequalities based on class and gender are also studied. The concept of inequality regime is used by several of the authors to analyse work organizations. The workplaces studied are found in different sectors, not least in healthcare. The book also includes contributions that provide comparative international perspectives and studies of the development of inequality over time. The anthology contains 12 chapters based on empirical studies of working life, one chapter that analyses working life inequality from a political theory perspective, an introduction and a closing chapter that frames and draws conclusions from the different studies, as well as an afterword. The authors are 22 researchers from different social science disciplines.
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Our aim in this chapter is to examine what we see as a ‘turn to agency’ within feminism, in the context of the widespread take-up and popularisation of postfeminist ideas. Our particular area of focus lies in the field of media and cultural studies, and, more specifically, the growing interest in the ‘sexualisation’ of culture - a much contested notion that speaks to the growing sense of Western societies as saturated by sexual representations and discourses. We will argue that whilst agency has always been important to feminist theorising, in some recent writing it seems to have become a veritable preoccupation, endlessly searched for, invoked, and championed. In this chapter, we will explore the striking parallels between what we argue is a neoliberal and postfeminist sensibility circulating in popular culture and some contemporary feminist theorising in which agency, choice, and empowerment are given prominence. Both the feminist writing about agency considered here, and the popular cultural postfeminist sensibility are marked by a celebration of the capacity of female subjects to make free and autonomous choices and by a corresponding downplaying or even complete evacuation of any notion of influence, let alone coercion or oppression. Both focus upon areas of women’s lives in which trenchant feminist critiques have been articulated - and are now contested. Both rely on highly individualistic formulations of agency, which are thought in terms of personal acts rather than collective struggles. Moreover, both frequently position themselves as critical of feminism and indict feminists not only for ignoring women’s agency but also for imposing an orthodoxy of ideological constructs that are variously harmful to women or stand in the way of them acting in their own true interests.
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