ArticlePDF Available

Antibacterial Properties of Hemp and Other Natural Fibre Plants: A Review

Authors:

Abstract

Intervention against pathogenic bacteria using natural plant material has a long history. Plant materials also have been widely used as fillers and/or reinforcers in polymer composites. Some natural fibre plants, such as hemp, are regarded to possess antibacterial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria. Innovative applications can be explored if they are incorporated in polymer composites. This review aims to compile the relevant investigations on antibacterial activity of hemp and other fibre plants such as jute, flax, kenaf, sisal, and bamboo. The antibacterial character might be contributed from cannabinoids, alkaloids, other bioactive compounds, or phenolic compounds of lignin. This review is intended to encourage utilization of hemp and other natural fibre plants in value-added diversified products. Some potential applications are also discussed.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... A few studies have shown that the antimicrobial activity of hemp fibers is linked to their chemical extractives, such as esterified sterols and triterpenes (β-sitosterol and β-amyrin), which are known to have antimicrobial properties (Kiprono et al. 2000;Gutiérrez and Del Río 2005;Ibrahim 2012). However, other studies have shown that hemp contains numerous biologically active compounds known as cannabinoids, which are responsible for their antimicrobial activity (Khan et al. 2014Andre et al. 2016). Cannabinoids are carboxylic acids of C21 or C22 compounds in the form of analogs and transformation products (Appendino et al. 2008). ...
... While, CBD is the primary therapeutic component of hemp, THC is the psychoactive component. Hemp hurds from medicinal Cannabis sativa varieties such as Futura 75 are known to have higher content of lignin and phytochemicals than bast fibers and are thus are superior in their antimicrobial activity (Khan et al. 2014. ...
... Most studies on antimicrobial activity of hemp have been focused on their polar and non-polar solvent extractives. The solvents used for extraction of phytochemicals from hemp and cellulosic fibers for antibacterial functionality are petroleum ether, acetone, methanol, ethanol, hexane, and water (Wasim et al. 1995;Leizer et al. 2000;Ali et al. 2012;Borhade 2013;Mathur et al. 2013;Khan et al. 2014;Zhuang et al. 2016;Tandon and Mathur 2017 (Ali et al. 2012). It has been found that both petroleum ether and methanol extractives showed pronounced or good antimicrobial activity against all selected microorganisms. ...
Article
Full-text available
Antimicrobial activity is one of the most well-studied properties of hemp, with numerous contradictions and anecdotal information. However, most of the studies on antimicrobial activity of hemp have been focused on extractives, obtained by use of polar or nonpolar solvents such as petroleum ether, acetone, methanol, and ethanol, etc. This work compared the antimicrobial activity of unprocessed hemp hurds powder, processed hemp hurds-lignin containing nano-fibrillated cellulose (LNFC), and their ethanol extractives. The hemp hurd shives were pulped (defibrillated) to obtain fibers by employing a hydrothermal, carbonate and kraft pulping process. The obtained cellulose fibers were further processed into LNFC using intensive mechanical processing. LNFC films were prepared using a solvent casting method. The extractives of hemp hurd powder and differently treated pulps were obtained using ethanol and benzene. The obtained extractives were used to treat selected sterilized paper discs and hydrothermal pulped LNFC films. Extractives from the hemp hurds were characterized for the presence of antimicrobial active compounds using GC–MS. The LNFC films and extractives-treated paper substrate were tested against E. coli for their antimicrobial activity. The extractives-treated paper showed a significant reduction in bacterial growth and resulted in a zone of bacterial inhibition up to 1.85 mm in disk diffusion assays. The antimicrobial activity of extractives was confirmed by doing a colony-forming assay, which showed a bacterial inhibition by 98% colony forming units (CFU). However, no significant antimicrobial activity of unprocessed hemp hurd powder or LNFC films was observed. On the contrary, treating LNFC films with obtained extractives led to a reduction of CFU by 99.7%. These results of using hemp extractives and LNFC as antimicrobial coatings creates great potential for valorizing the industrial hemp residues for sustainable antimicrobial applications. Graphical Abstract
... 56 Furthermore, the type of preparation used is essential oil 54,55,56,57 and hashish. 50 In addition, the constituents of the studied cannabinoids are cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD), 58,59 cannabichromene (CBC), cannabigerol (CBG), 61 delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 9 -THC), 60,61 delta-8tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ 8 -THC). 62 Although not all research results show the potential of cannabis as an antimicrobial agent 63 and not all showed significant results against gram-negative bacteria, 50,64,65 These results are very likely influenced by the lack of cannabinoids contained in the extract and preparation of cannabis. ...
... 47,65 However, it is not known which constituent is superior in showing antimicrobial potential. 67,68 Results of the cannabinoids test carried out by Abdelaziz 60 and Appendino and colleagues 61 showed that the cannabinoids they tested tended to be active against gram-positive and acidfast bacteria, but not against gram-negative bacteria. ...
... 12,24,65,66,67,74 Therefore, new antimicrobial products are urgently needed to repeat the "golden years" of antimicrobials. 11, [75][76][77] This can be achieved by changing the strategy that must be carried out by the pharmaceutical industry around the world; stop the production of synthetic antimicrobials 24,60,71,75 and switch to alternative sources, namely plants. 24,75,68 The postulation on which this strategy is based is the rarity of diseases in wild-growing plants and the search for plants that can cure human ailments is an idea that has existed since ancient times. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cannabis sativa, or widely known as ganja and other names in Indonesia, is a plant that could not be used in the health care system in Indonesia. It is because cannabis is still a Class 1 Narcotic. However, trends within the last few years show that cannabis has medicinal properties, and is already approved as medicine and (even) for recreational means in several nations/countries-Thailand is the first nation in Southeast Asia that did. This article aims to emphasize the antimicrobial potential that cannabis has. Since conventional antibiotic is considered unable to provide, it is important to find another source to counter the high rates of antibiotic (antimicrobial) resistance. Moreover, this article is also aimed to introduce one of the potentials that cannabis have to Indonesia since scientific article written in Bahasa is rare.
... The microbes include yeasts and bacteria while organic matters include organic acids. The activities of these microbes can produce an organic matter, and, in turn, generate carbon dioxide, methane, and organic acids such as succinic, acetic, and lactic acids [81,82]. The different acidic conditions found in the wastes are therefore generated by these bacterial activities. ...
... The agro-food waste corrosiveness towards cement-based buildings is associated with their bacterial and fungal components and biochemical compounds, particularly carbon dioxide and organic acids [18,81,82]. Developing cement-based materials that operate well in such conditions needs an understanding of the corrosion mechanisms by different aggressive substances contained in the wastes. ...
... The systematic review has also concentrated on nitrates' reactivity under abiotic environment apart from the acid-cement paste interaction [27,81]. In conditions identical to those taking place in repositories such as the anoxic conditions and alkaline pH, the reduction of nitrates have been indicated to be potential in the presence of various kinds of steel. ...
Article
In almost all damp environments or aqueous medium, cement-based materials can be exposed to microbes, for which water is the essential life development condition, i.e., algae, bacteria, and fungus. The microorganism activities may be accountable for micro-structural, mineralogical, and biochemical damages to materials (bio-deterioration). Also, damaging effects can concern the quality of indoor air effects (microorganism existence in damp structures) or building aesthetics (proliferations of colored biological stains on roofs and facades). Nevertheless, microorganisms may also have positive impacts (substance healing) and their action is examined via the creation of bio-oriented shielding system intended for construction materials. In all scenarios, the comprehending interaction of cement-based materials with microbes is an important step towards the development of safer, more sustainable, and better-quality buildings in various conditions. This critical review provides two illustrations in which the microorganism actions are expected to have or have robust effects on the safety and durability of cement-based materials. The first illustration regards the cement-based bio-deteriorations in the agro-food and agricultural conditions. The second illustration is that of the biotic and abiotic nitrate reactivity in repositories of long-lived and intermediate-level nuclear waste. The critical review provides the approaches applied in exploring and comprehending the bio-geo-chemical interaction phenomenology in these multifaceted conditions. Notably, this work consist of the development of experimental pilots and test approaches to allow these assessments to be conducted. Present limitations in the standardization environments and scientific literature are also outlined.
... Since the discovery of its main psychomimetic constituent, ∆9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), about half a century ago [116], studies have shown that it produces many additional compounds, including various phytocannabinoids [117]. The concentration of these compounds depends on tissue type, age, variety, growth conditions (nutrition, humidity, light level), harvest time, and storage conditions [118], leading to a wide range of pharmaceutical effects [119]. To date, out of the ±150 cannabinoids that have been identified, the most studied and most active are THC and CBD [32]. ...
... Since the discovery of its main psychomimetic constituent, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), about half a century ago [116], studies have shown that it produces many additional compounds, including various phytocannabinoids [117]. The concentration of these compounds depends on tissue type, age, variety, growth conditions (nutrition, humidity, light level), harvest time, and storage conditions [118], leading to a wide range of pharmaceutical effects [119]. To date, out of the ±150 cannabinoids that have been identified, the most studied and most active are THC and CBD [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Depression and anxiety disorders are two of the most common and growing mental health concerns in adolescents. Consequently, antidepressant medication (AD) use has increased widely during the last decades. Several classes of antidepressants are used mainly to treat depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorders by targeting relevant brain neurochemical pathways. Almost all randomized clinical trials of antidepressants examined patients with no concomitant medications or drugs. This does not address the expected course of therapy and outcome in cannabis users. Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance globally. Substantial changes in its regulation are recently taking place. Many countries and US states are becoming more permissive towards its medical and recreational use. The psychological and physiological effects of cannabis (mainly of its major components, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD)) have been extensively characterized. Cannabis use can be a risk factor for depressive and anxiety symptoms, but some constituents or mixtures may have antidepressant and/or anxiolytic potential. The aim of this literature review is to explore whether simultaneous use of AD and cannabis in adolescence can affect AD treatment outcomes. Based on the current literature, it is reasonable to assume that antidepressants are less effective for adolescents with depression/anxiety who frequently use cannabis. The mechanisms of action of antidepressants and cannabis point to several similarities and conjunctions that merit future investigation regarding the potential effectiveness of antidepressants among adolescents who consume cannabis regularly.
... Alkaloids, flavones and saponins are active antibacterial constituents found in hemp fiber [151]. Hemp fiber shows activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [152]. In addition, hemp has anti-mildew properties, and fabric produced from hemp is hypoallergenic [153]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Global warming as a result of climate change has become a major concern for people all over the world. It has recently drawn the attention of the entire conscious community, with the fear that if not addressed properly, it will result in the extinction of numerous species around the world. At the same time, it will pose a threat to human health, food security, living environment and standard of living. Thereby, possible solutions are being explored accordingly, regulations have been imposed in places binding green production practices, limiting the emission of CO2 and emphasis is given on renewable resources along with the search for alternatives to carbon-positive materials. Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) has received a lot of attention because of its multipurpose usability, short production cycle, low capital demand in cultivation, possibility of carbon-negative transformation and easy carbon sequestering material. This paper reviews hemp as a very promising renewable resource including its potential uses in paper, textiles, composites, biofuel, and food industry.
... The presence of antibacterial β-sitosterol, β-amyrin, alkaloids, flavones, saponins have been suggested for antimicrobial attributes in hemp fiber [209,247]. On the other hand, hemp hurd contains a high amount of lignin, and lignin-related compounds including phenolics, alkaloids and cannabinoids may be involved in hurd's antimicrobial features [247,248]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance has emerged as a global health crisis and, therefore, new drug discovery is a paramount need. Cannabis sativa contains hundreds of chemical constituents produced by secondary metabolism, exerting outstanding antimicrobial, antiviral, and therapeutic properties. This paper comprehensively reviews the antimicrobial and antiviral (particularly against SARS-CoV-2) properties of C. sativa with the potential for new antibiotic drug and/or natural antimicrobial agents for industrial or agricultural use, and their therapeutic potential against the newly emerged coron-avirus disease (COVID-19). Cannabis compounds have good potential as drug candidates for new antibiotics, even for some of the WHO's current priority list of resistant pathogens. Recent studies revealed that cannabinoids seem to have stable conformations with the binding pocket of the M pro enzyme of SARS-CoV-2, which has a pivotal role in viral replication and transcription. They are found to be suppressive of viral entry and viral activation by downregulating the ACE2 receptor and TMPRSS2 enzymes in the host cellular system. The therapeutic potential of cannabinoids as anti-inflammatory compounds is hypothesized for the treatment of COVID-19. However, more systemic investigations are warranted to establish the best efficacy and their toxic effects, followed by preclinical trials on a large number of participants.
Article
Full-text available
The majority of recent studies have focused on obtaining MRI materials for internal use. However, this study focuses on a straightforward method for preparing gelatin-based materials with iron oxide nanoparticles (G–Fe2O3 and G–Fe3O4) for external use. The newly obtained materials must be precisely tuned to match the requirements and usage situation because they will be in close touch with human/animal skin. The biocompatible structures formed by gelatin, tannic acid, and iron oxide nanoparticles were investigated by using FTIR spectroscopy, SEM-EDAX analysis, and contact angle methods. The physico-chemical properties were obtained by using mechanical investigations, dynamic vapor sorption analysis, and bulk magnetic determination. The size and shape of iron oxide nanoparticles dictates the magnetic behavior of the gelatin-based samples. The magnetization curves revealed a typical S-shaped superparamagnetic behavior which is evidence of improved MRI image accuracy. In addition, the MTT assay was used to demonstrate the non-toxicity of the samples, and the antibacterial test confirmed satisfactory findings for all G-based materials.
Article
Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, office workers were displaced from their places of employment. This situation caused a heightened interest in understanding viral disease transmission in indoor spaces including offices. Although data has been published on the survival of various coronaviruses including SARS-CoV-2 on a variety of surfaces, most related to impermeable materials common to healthcare environments. Methods: We studied two typical contract fabrics (polyester and wool) and cotton for HCoV-OC43 (ATCC #VR-1558) persistence up to 24 h using a modified ISO 18184 test protocol. Results: We found that HCoV-OC43 was undetectable after 12 h on cotton fabric, 24 h on polyester fabric, and was reduced by 93 +/− 6% within 24 h on wool fabric compared to an inoculum-only control. Differences in droplet-fabric contact angles were observed for the three fabrics, and absorption correlated with virus inactivation. Conclusions: Polyester and wool exhibit virus-inactivating properties similar to cotton, although the degree of inactivation is different between the three materials. Liquid absorption is likely a key factor involved in the inactivation process. When the results are extrapolated to real-world environmental temperature and relative humidity conditions, commonly used fabrics in interior offices spaces are determined as unlikely sources of human coronavirus transmission.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we aim to obtain biomaterials with antibacterial properties by combining poly(vinyl alcohol) with the extracts obtained from various selected plants from Romania. Natural herbal extracts of freshly picked flowers of the lavender plant (Lavandula angustifolia) and leaves of the peppermint plant (Mentha piperita), hemp plant (Cannabis sativa L.), verbena plant (Verbena officinalis) and sage plant (Salvia officinalis folium) were selected after an intensive analyzing of diverse medicinal plants often used as antibacterial and healing agents from the country flora. The plant extracts were characterized by different methods such as totals of phenols and flavonoids content and UV-is spectroscopy. The highest amounts of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, respectively, were recorded for Salvia officinalis. Moreover, the obtained films of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) loaded with plant extracts were studied concerning the surface properties and their antibacterial or cytotoxicity activity. The Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared analysis described the successfully incorporation of each plant extract in the poly(vinyl alcohol) matrix, while the profilometry demonstrated the enhanced surface properties. The results showed that the plant extracts conferred significant antibacterial effects to films toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and are not toxic against fibroblastic cells from the rabbit.
Chapter
The use of additive manufacturing (AM) has widespread over the years in different areas, including the biomedical field. In particular, the design of customized orthoses, external medical devices used in the treatment of specific pathologies, was proposed in different studies mainly concerning upper limbs, while few investigations are reported relatively to the cervical area. In this paper a new design of a bespoke neck orthosis is reported. The manufacturing of a light device with a good transpiration allows to increase the patient’s comfort and, compatibly with the structural requirements, is a main goal to pursue. With this aim, various aspects were considered in the design and manufacturing of the orthosis. At the design stage, the geometry was conceived with a ventilation pattern based on Voronoi cells, which generally allows a better performance in terms of breathability with respect to a pattern made with uniform geometrical features, keeping at the same time structural requirements, as assessed by numerical finite elements simulations. At the manufacturing stage, a new composite material was used, namely Hemp Bio-Plastic® (HBP) filament, composed by polylactic acid (PLA) and hemp shives which provided lightweight, improved superficial finish and antibacterial properties. In order to assess the thermal comfort, an experimental analysis was finally conducted on a prototype of the orthosis, worn by a volunteer subject, with a thermal imaging camera. The beneficial effect of the ventilation pattern considered in terms of temperature and, accordingly, for the patient’s comfort, was highlighted also in relation to a neck orthosis previously designed.
Article
Full-text available
The phytochemistry and antimicrobial potential of Corchorus olitorius leaf extracts on four bacterial isolates was investigated using both agar diffusion and tube dilution methods. Aqueous and methanolic extracts were tested against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus. Extracts concentration of 500, 125, 125 and 62.5 mgml -1 were used while tetracycline was used as the standard drug. The phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of hydrocyanin, cardiac glycosides (+++) and tannins (+), flavonoids (++), anthraquinones (++) and saponins (++). Agar and tube dilution tests of both aqueous and methanolic extracts indicated that the extracts had antimicrobial activities against the four bacterial isolates, though the methanolic extracts had wider diameter of inhibition and activity indices than the aqueous extracts. Susceptibility increased with concentrations and highest susceptibility was observed against E. coli and other isolates at 500 mgml -1. The extracts exhibited the high antimicrobial activity (Activity Index, A.I with respect to the standard drug used). This could be adduced to the presence of phytochemical constituents and can be of prophylactic importance. Its highest potency against E. coli justifies its therapeutic use by traditional healers in South-Western Nigeria for gastroenteritis with good results.
Article
As part of our program to study the phytochemistry of high potency Cannabis sativa L. [1,2], seven new non-cannabinoid constituents were isolated, namely 5-acetoxy-6-geranyl-3-n-pentyl-1,4-benzoquinone (1), 4,5-dihydroxy-2,3,6-trimethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (2), 4-hydroxy-2,3,6,7-tetramethoxy-9,10-dihydrophenanthrene (3), 4,7-dimethoxy-1,2,5-trihydroxyphenanthrene (4), α-cannabispiranol (5), cannflavin C (6) and β-sitosteryl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside-2'-O-palmitate (7). In addition, four known compounds, chrysoeriol (8), 6-prenyl-apigenin (9), cannflavin A (10) and β-acetyl cannabispiranol (11), were identified, with 8 and 9 being reported for the first time form cannabis. The antimicrobial, antileishmanial, antimalarial and anti-oxidant activities of these isolates were evaluated. Furthermore the analgesic activity of 2, 3 and 4 was evaluated in mice using the hot-plate and tail-flick nociception models. Acknowledgements: The project described was supported by Grant Number 5P20RR021929–02 from the National Center for Research Resources and by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, contract # N01DA-5–7746. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Center for Research Resources or the National Institutes of Health. We are grateful to Dr. Bharathi Avula for assistance with the HR-ESI-MS, and to Dr. Melissa Jacob, Ms. Marsha Wright and Dr. Babu Tekwani for conducting the antimicrobial and antiprotozoal testing. References: 1. Radwan, M.M., et al. (2008). Planta Med. 74: 267–272. 2. Ahmed, S.A., et al. (2008)J. Nat. Prod. (In press).
Article
Cannabis sativa L., one of the oldest plants known in medicine, is the most widely used illicit drug in the world today. A total of almost 500 natural constituents have been isolated and/or identified from cannabis [1], with Δ⁹-THC the main biologically active component [2]. The availability of high potency marijuana on the illicit market with unprecedented Δ⁹-THC concentrations (> 20% by dry weight)[3] has renewed our interest in the discovery of new constituents from cannabis. Phytochemical investigation of a high potency variety of C sativa L. resulted in the isolation of six new metabolites, (±)-6,7-trans-epoxycannabigerolic acid (1), (±)-6,7-cis-epoxycannabigerolic acid (2), (±)-6,7-cis-epoxycannabigerol (3), (±)-6,7-trans-epoxycannabigerol (4), 5ʹ-methyl-4-pentylbiphenyl-2,2ʹ,6-triol (5), and 7-methoxycannabispirone (5), along with seven known compounds (cannabigerolic acid, 5ʹ-methoxycannabigerolic acid, cannabispirone, β-cannabispiranol, dehydrocannabifuran, cannaflavin B and cannabigerol). The antimicrobial and antileishmanial activities were investigated. Acknowledgements: This work is supported by the Center of Research Excellence in Natural Products Neuroscience, The University of Mississippi, contract # 1P20RR021929-01, and by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, contract # N01DA-5-7746. We are grateful to Dr. Bharathi Avula for assistance with the HR-ESI-MS, and to Dr. Melissa Jacob and Ms. Marsha Wright for conducting the antimicrobial testing. References: [1] Grotenhermen F, Russo E, In Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. Grotenhermen F, Russo E, Ed.; The Haworth Press, Inc.: Binghamton, New York, 2002; Definitions and Explanations, pp. xxvii–xxxi. [2] Clarke RC, Watson DP, In Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. Grotenhermen F, Russo E, Ed.; The Haworth Press, Inc.: Binghamton, New York, 2002; Chapter 1 – Botany of Natural Cannabis Medicines, p.3–14.
Article
Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the pharmaceutical and scientific communities and various publications have documented the therapeutic value of natural compounds in a bid to validate claims of their biological activity. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of plants and their metabolites due to the challenge of growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens. Some plants have shown the ability to overcome resistance in some organisms and this has led to researchers’ investigating their mechanisms of action and isolating active compounds. Particular focus is on establishing the effect of the plant(s) extracts in terms of their microstatic and microcidal action and the spectrum of organisms affected. This has enabled exploitation of plants for the treatment of microbial infections and in the development of new antimicrobial agents. This requires rigorous research and it is therefore imperative to follow standard methods to authenticate claims of antimicrobial action. Results comparability is largely dependent on the techniques employed in the investigations and conclusive results can only be obtained if methods are standardized and universal. This paper reviews the current methods used in the investigations of the efficacy of plants as antimicrobial agents and points out some of the differences in techniques employed by different authors.
Article
The etiologic agents and food vehicles associated with the 7458 outbreaks (involving 237,545 cases) of foodborne disease reported to the Centers for Disease Control between 1973 and 1987 were examined. Bacterial pathogens accounted for 66% of outbreaks and 87% of cases, viruses 5 and 9%, parasites 5 and <1%, and chemicals 25 and 4%, respectively. Salmonella accounted for 42% of outbreaks and 51% of cases due to bacterial pathogens. When data from 1973-75 were compared with 1985-87, a 75% increase in the proportion of outbreaks and 130% increase in the proportion of cases due to Salmonella were observed; in particular, outbreaks due to Salmonella enteritidis increased markedly. The proportion of Salmonella outbreaks with a known vehicle that were associated with beef (the food most frequently associated with Salmonella outbreaks) peaked at 30% in 1981, dropped to 4% in 1982, and has since risen gradually. The proportion of Salmonella outbreaks due to chicken and eggs increased over the study period. Bacteria not previously recognized as important foodborne pathogens that emerged during the study period include Campylobacter jejuni, Escherichia coli 0157:H7, and Listeria monocytogenes. Bacterial pathogens accounted for 90% of deaths, with L. monocytogenes (317/1,000 cases) and Clostridium botulinum (192/1,000 cases) having the highest death-to-case ratios. The proportion of outbreaks in which the food was prepared in a commercial or institutional establishment and the median outbreak size both increased. Investigation and analysis of foodborne disease outbreaks continue to play a key role in understanding foodborne illness and in designing and evaluating control measures. Copyright © International Association of Milk, Food and Environmental Sanitarians.
Article
Four flavonoid glycosides, astragalin (kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside), tolifolin (kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside), isoquercetin (quercetin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside) and juglanin (kaempferol 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside), oleanolic acid, glyceryl monopalmitate, β-sitosterol and β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside were isolated from the leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. locally called nalta jute in Egypt. Isoquercetin and β-sitosterol glucoside showed a moderate inhibitory activity on retro-virus reverse transcriptase from AMV.
Article
The fresh green and yellow banana peel of, (Musa, cv. Cavendish) fruits were treated with 70% acetone, which were partitioned with chloroform (CHCl3) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), sequentially. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using the thiocyanate method, ß-carotene bleaching method and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical elimination. While, antimicrobial activities of the extracts and isolated components were evaluated using paper disc methods and Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC). The EtOAc and water soluble fractions of green peel displayed high antimicrobial and antioxidant activity, respectively. Antioxidant activity of water extracts was comparable to those of synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene. Among all isolated components ß-sitosterol, malic acid, succinic acid, palmatic acid, 12-hydroxystrearic acid, glycoside, the d-malic and 12-hydroxystrearic acid were the most active against all the Gram-negative and positive bacterial species tested. The MIC of d-malic and succinic acid was varying between 140-750 ppm, respectively.
Article
An exhaustive literature survey on the secondary metabolites of Corchorus species has been carried out. Cardiac glycosides, triterpenoids, sterols, phenolics, ionones, carbohydrates and fatty acids have been reported from different species. Many of these compounds have been found to possess significant biological properties e.g. digitalis glycosides like action, anticonvulsive activity, antiesterogenic action, anticancer activity and antipyretic activity etc.