International Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 2013, 1, 15-18 15
© 2013 Savvy Science Publisher
Alexander K.C. Leung1,*, Benjamin Barankin2 and Kam Lun Hon3
1Department of Pediatrics, University of Calgary, Pediatric Consultant, Alberta Children's Hospital, Canada
2Toronto Dermatology Centre, Canada
3Department of Paediatrics, Chinese University of Hong Kong, China
Abstract: Granuloma annulare is a benign, usually self-limited granulomatous disease of the dermis and subcutaneous
tissue. Several distinct subtypes have been recognized, namely localized granuloma annulare, generalized or
disseminated granuloma annulare, subcutaneous granuloma annulare, papular granuloma annulare, interstitial or patch
granuloma annulare, and perforating granuloma annulare. Localized granuloma annulare is the most common form in
children and comprises 75% of cases. Clinically, the condition is characterized by asymptomatic, flesh-colored or
erythematous-brown papules, frequently arranged in a ring or annular pattern on the distal extremities. It is estimated
that 0.1 to 0.4% of new patients attending dermatologic clinics have granuloma annulare. Most cases of granuloma
annulare occur before the age of 30 years. A delayed hypersensitivity and cell-mediated immune response to an antigen
contributes to the pathogenesis. Histologic examination of the lesion shows central collagen degeneration and mucin
deposition surrounded peripherally by palisading histiocytes and inflammatory cells. Most cases of granuloma annulare
are asymptomatic and self-limited; and reassurance is often sufficient. Treatment is mainly for cosmetic purposes and
various modalities of treatment options are discussed.
Keywords: Granuloma annulare, ring/annular pattern, collagen degeneration, mucin, palisading histiocytes, benign.
Granuloma annulare is a benign, usually self-limited
granulomatous disease of the dermis and
subcutaneous tissue . The condition was first
described in 1895 by Colcott-Fox who reported an 11-
year-old girl with a “ring eruption of the fingers” . The
term “granuloma annulare” was coined by Radcliff-
Crocker in 1902 . Clinically, the condition is
characterized by asymptomatic, flesh-colored or
erythematous-brown papules, frequently arranged in a
ring or annular pattern on the distal extremities .
Several distinct subtypes have been recognized,
namely localized granuloma annulare, generalized or
disseminated granuloma annulare, subcutaneous
granuloma annulare, papular granuloma annulare,
interstitial or patch granuloma annulare, and perforating
granuloma annulare [1, 5].
Although the point prevalence of granuloma
annulare in the community is not known, it is estimated
that 0.1 to 0.4% of new patients attending dermatologic
clinics have granuloma annulare . Most cases of
granuloma annulare occur before the age of 30 years
. The female to male ratio is approximately 2:1 .
*Address correspondence to this author at the #200, 233 – 16th Avenue NW,
Calgary, Alberta, T2M 0H5, Canada; Tel/Fax: (403) 230-3322;
In the majority of cases, the etiology is not known.
Occasionally, granuloma annulare has been reported
to follow trauma, insect bites, tuberculin skin tests,
immunizations (e.g., hepatitis B, diphtheria-tetanus,
bacillus Calmette-Guérin), viral infections (e.g., herpes
zoster, Epstein Barr virus, hepatitis B, hepatitis C,
human immunodeficiency virus), medications (e.g.,
amlodipine, allopurinol, diclofenac), diabetes mellitus,
autoimmune thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, and
malignancy [6-13]. These associations have been
reported mainly in adult populations . Familial cases
of granuloma annulare have also been reported [8, 14].
Certain human leukocyte antigen phenotypes (e.g.,
HLA-A29, HLA-A31, HLA-B8, HLA-B14, HLA-B15,
HLA-B35) occur with increasing frequency in patients
with granuloma annulare .
The presence of T-helper cells with histiocytes in
the inflammatory infiltrate in granuloma annulare
suggests that a delayed hypersensitivity and cell-
mediated immune response to an antigen contribute to
the pathogenesis [7, 8].
Histologic examination of a classic lesion shows
central collagen degeneration and mucin deposition
surrounded peripherally by palisading histiocytes and
inflammatory cells [1, 8, 15]. The presence of mucin is
16 International Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 2013 Vol. 1, No. 1 Leung et al.
a key histological feature that helps to distinguish
granuloma annulare from other non-infectious
granulomatous diseases . In the interstitial variant,
the dermis contains a focal interstitial infiltrate of
histiocytes and giant cells .
Localized granuloma annulare is the most common
form in children and comprises 75% of cases [6, 7, 17].
The lesion starts as a ring of small, smooth, firm,
asymptomatic, erythematous, violaceous, brown or
skin-colored papules [7, 8]. As the condition
progresses, there is some central involution . The
ring of papules often becomes coalescent to form an
annular plaque. The lesion gradually enlarges to
usually less than 5 cm in diameter. Typically, lesions
are solitary or few in number . Sites of predilection
include the lateral or dorsal surfaces of the hands and
feet (Figure 1) . Involvement of the palms is rare, but
has been reported . In most patients, the condition
is often asymptomatic  Rarely, it can be mildly
Figure 1: Classic violaceous lesion of granuloma annulare on
the lateral aspect of the left ankle.
Generalized granuloma annulare occurs in
approximately 15% of patients with granuloma
annulare . The condition manifests as numerous (at
least 10, often hundreds to thousands) small,
asymptomatic, erythematous, violaceous, brown or
skin-colored papules . Lesions are symmetrically
distributed on the trunk, extremities, and neck .
Generalized granuloma annulare has a bimodal peak
age of presentation, in the first decade of life and
between the fourth and sixth decades of life . It has
been associated with diabetes mellitus .
Subcutaneous granuloma annulare is diagnosed
primarily in children and young adults . The lesion
usually presents as a painless flesh-colored
subcutaneous nodule with no inflammatory appearance
at the skin surface [1, 23]. Sites of predilection include
the pretibial areas, feet, forearms, hands, fingers,
scalp, and forehead [5, 6, 23]. It rarely occurs in the
periocular area. When it does occur, the annular
pattern is often absent .
Papular granuloma annulare presents as
asymptomatic, skin-colored or hypopigmented papules
. The papules usually measure 1 to 3 mm in
diameter and the consistency is firm. Papular
granuloma annulare most commonly affect children,
predominately on the dorsal surface of the hands .
Interstitial granuloma annulare manifests as
asymptomatic erythematous or light brown patches
without scales or papules that may or may not have an
annular configuration . Sites of predilection include
the trunk and extremities .
Perforating granuloma annulare is rare. It presents
with papules that are 1 to 5 mm in diameter and occur
more often on the dorsal aspects of the hands and feet
[21, 22]. Characteristically, these papules have central
umbilication or crusts and are well demarcated .
Perforation occurs in the central portion of the lesion
through which mucoid material consisting of
degenerated collagen is eliminated [13, 22]. Itching
occurs in up to 25% of cases, especially when there
are lesions on palms .
Children with granuloma annulare are generally
healthy and no laboratory investigations are usually
necessary . Nevertheless, a recent case-control
study shows that adult patients with granuloma
annulare are more likely to develop dyslipidemia (odds
ratio: 4.04; 95% confidence interval: 2.53-6.46) . It
has been suggested that it is reasonable to test for
fasting serum lipid levels in adult patients with
granuloma annulare, especially if there are other risk
factors for dyslipidemia [13, 27]. Patients with
generalized granuloma annulare should be checked for
the presence of diabetes mellitus.
DIAGNOSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
The diagnosis is mainly clinical. The differential
diagnosis of localized granuloma annulare includes
tinea corporis, pityriasis rosea, pityriasis rotunda,
erythema annulare centrifugum, nummular eczema,
discoid lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, sarcoidosis,
Granuloma Annulare International Journal of Pediatrics and Child Health, 2013 Vol. 1, No. 1 17
mycosis fungoides (plaque stage), mastocytoma,
dermatofibroma, necrobiosis lipoidica, morphea,
hypertrophic lichen planus, or erythema chronicum
migrans [7, 8, 28]. Subcutaneous granuloma annulare
has to be differentiated from sarcoidosis, rheumatoid
nodule, and panniculitis . The differential diagnosis
of generalized granuloma annulare includes eruptive
xanthoma, lichen nitidus, lichen scrofulosorum,
sarcoidosis, interstitial granulomatous dermatitis, non-X
histiocytosis, and papular xanthoma [9, 29, 30]. On the
other hand, perforating granuloma annulare may mimic
elastosis perforans serpiginosa, perforating
collagenosis, perforating folliculitis, and perforating
sarcoidosis . The clinical features of granuloma
annulare are so distinct that usually there is little
difficulty in diagnosis for an experienced physician. In
particular, lack of symptoms, scaling or associated
vesicles helps to differentiate granuloma annulare from
most other skin conditions. If the diagnosis is in doubt,
a biopsy should be considered.
In the adult population, granuloma annulare is
associated with diabetes mellitus in 16-19% of cases
. Dyslipidemia is more common in patients with
granuloma annulare . Rarely, granuloma annulare
may be complicated by nerve involvement as a result
of granulomatous inflammation surrounding cutaneous
nerves and perineural infiltrates of histiocytes in the
Localized granuloma annulare usually resolves
without scarring within one to two years [15, 32]. Other
forms may persist for a few years or longer . Shorter
duration is associated with younger age and recent
onset . The recurrence rate is approximately 40%
Most cases of granuloma annulare are
asymptomatic and self-limited, treatment is usually not
required other than reassurance [6, 15]. For patients
who insist on treatment for cosmetic reasons, options
include topical or intralesional corticosteroids,
imiquimod cream, topical calcineurin inhibitors
(tacrolimus, pimecrolimus), cryotherapy, and pulsed
dye laser [7, 15, 34-36]. Surgical removal is an option
for the nodular lesion seen in subcutaneous granuloma
annulare . Systemic therapy may be required for
generalized granuloma annulare which is often
resistant to treatment . Interventions that have been
used with varying degrees of success include oral
corticosteroids, fumaric acid esters, dapsone,
isotretinoin, hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate,
cyclosporine, niacinamide, calcitriol, vitamin E, tumor
necrosis factor (TNF)- inhibitors (adalimumab and
infliximab), and several variants of phototherapy [7, 13,
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Received on 28-10-2013 Accepted on 01-11-2013 Published on 26-12-2013
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