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Salinity Stress on Growth, Nutrients and Carbon Distribution in Seedlings Parts of Heritiera fomes.

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Present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of salinity on survival and growth of Heretiera fomes Buch.-Ham seedling. It was also examine the distributional pattern of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and carbon in seedlings parts in relation to salinity. This experiment was carried out in hydroponic media for six months. All the seedlings (100%) found to survive at non saline (0 ppt) to moderate (10 ppt) saline conditions and lowest (40%) survival was observed at 35 ppt salinity. Significant (p<0.05) negative correlations were observed among salinity and different indicators of growth (collar diameter, height and oven-dried biomass increment). Significant (p<0.05) difference in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and carbon concentration was observed for different parts of seedlings at different salinity levels. Comparatively (p<0.05) highest concentration of nitrogen (16 to 21 mg/g), phosphorus (2.9 to 3.7 mg/g), potassium (11 to 26 mg/g) and carbon (44.60 to 46.40%) were found in leaves. Conversely, significantly (p<0.05) highest concentration (8 to 48 mg/g) of sodium was observed in roots followed by stem. Potassium and carbon concentration in different parts of seedlings, and nitrogen in leaves and roots showed significant (p<0.05) negative
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71
International Journal of Environmental Engineering IJEE
Volume 1 : Issue 4 [ISSN 2374-1724]
Publication Date : 27 December,2014
Salinity Stress on Growth, Nutrients and Carbon Distribution in
Seedlings Parts of Heritiera fomes
Mahmood Hossain, Sanjoy Saha, Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique, Md. Nazmul Hasan
Abstract- Present study was conducted to
evaluate the effect of salinity on survival and
growth of Heretiera fomes Buch.-Ham seedling.
It was also examine the distributional pattern of
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and
carbon in seedlings parts in relation to salinity.
This experiment was carried out in hydroponic
media for six months. All the seedlings (100%)
found to survive at non saline (0 ppt) to moderate
(10 ppt) saline conditions and lowest (40%)
survival was observed at 35 ppt salinity.
Significant (p<0.05) negative correlations were
observed among salinity and different indicators
of growth (collar diameter, height and oven-dried
biomass increment). Significant (p<0.05)
difference in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
sodium, and carbon concentration was observed
for different parts of seedlings at different salinity
levels. Comparatively (p<0.05) highest
concentration of nitrogen (16 to 21 mg/g),
phosphorus (2.9 to 3.7 mg/g), potassium (11 to 26
mg/g) and carbon (44.60 to 46.40%) were found
in leaves. Conversely, significantly (p<0.05)
highest concentration (8 to 48 mg/g) of sodium
was observed in roots followed by stem.
Potassium and carbon concentration in different
parts of seedlings, and nitrogen in leaves and
roots showed significant (p<0.05) negative
correlation with salinity. Similarly, sodium
Mahmood Hossain
Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline
Khulna University
Bangladesh
Sanjoy Saha
Centre for Integrated Studies on the Sundarbans
Khulna University
Bangladesh
Mohammad Raqibul Hasan Siddique
Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline
Khulna University
Bangladesh
Md. Nazmul Hasan
Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline
Khulna University
Bangladesh
concentration in plant parts showed significant
(p<0.05) negative correlation with potassium and
carbon concentration in the respective plant parts.
The findings of this study indicated that survival
and growth of H. fomes seedling were strongly
influenced by salinity. This influence was
reflected through the nutrients and carbon
distributional pattern in seedling parts; and
antagonistic relationship among sodium
concentration; and potassium and carbon
concentration.
Keywords- Growth, Heritiera fomes, Nutrients,
Salinity, Seedling, Survival
I. Introduction
Heritiera fomes (Buch.-Ham.) is a medium
sized to tall large evergreen mangrove tree. This
species has shown narrow distribution in the
world and almost restricted in South Asian
countries of Bangladesh, India, Myanmar,
Thailand, and Peninsular Malaysia (Spalding et
al. 1997). In Bangladesh, this species found to
occur in the Sundarbans, Chakaria-Sundarbans
and other coastal areas (Das and Alam 2001).
This species is quickly disappearing in many
parts of its range due to a number of localized
threats like coastal development, habitat
destruction and removal of mangrove areas, top-
dying disease, reduction of freshwater flow, and
sea level rise (Rahman 1996; Spalding et al.
1997). Heretiera fomes is the most important and
dominant tree species in the Sundarbans. It covers
about 52.7 percent of the forest area and
constitutes about 63.8 percent of the standing
volume (Rahman et al. 1983). However, the co-
dominant species of the Sundarbans are
Excoecaria agallocha, Xylocarpus mekongensis,
X. granatum, Sonneratia apetala, Avicennia spp.
(Iftekhar and Saenger 2008). It is reported that H.
fomes dominated areas are replaced by E.
agallocha and other more salt tolerant species
(Das and Alam 2001). Species composition and
vegetation dynamics of the Sundarbans mangrove
forest of Bangladesh are heterogeneous that
seems to be controlled by hydrology, tidal
inundation and salinity (Pethick 2011). This
change in species composition may be due to the
changed scenario of salinity regime and tidal
inundation (Mahmood et al. 1998; Iftekhar and
Saenger 2008). Salinity is one of the major
parameters that influence productivity,
germination, survival, growth and nutrient
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International Journal of Environmental Engineering IJEE
Volume 1 : Issue 4 [ISSN 2374-1724]
Publication Date : 27 December,2014
distribution in plant parts (Rubio Casal et al.
2003; L'opez-Hoffman et al. 2006; Elumalai and
Manikandan 2013).
Increased levels of salinity is primarily
stunted the seedling growth in association of
other environmental factors such as humidity,
temperature, light, tidal inundation. While, plant
growth is directly depends on the availability of
nutrients (Shannon et al. 1994; Hoppe-Speer et al.
2011). Salinity affects nutrient availability to
plants through modification of binding, retention
and transformation of nutrients in the soil and
finally affects the uptake and/or absorption of
nutrients by the root system (Wahome 2001).
Moreover, higher concentration of Na showed
antagonistic relationship to the uptake of the
other nutrients (Cramer et al. 1991; Grattan and
Grieve 1999). There are few studies on salinity
and seedling growth of mangroves at different
areas of the world e.g. Ceriops tagal from
Gujarat and Tamil Nadu of India (Patel et al.
2010a; Sivasankaramoorthy 2012); Avicennia
marina from Gujarat and Tamil Nadu of India
(Patel et al. 2010b; Sivasankaramoorthy 2012)
and Fujian, China (Yan et al. 2007); Rhizophora
mucronata from South Africa (Hoppe-Speer et al.
2011) and Tamil Nadu, India
(Sivasankaramoorthy 2012). Salt tolerance ranges
of different mangrove species were found to vary
significantly and this range of salt tolerance is an
important determinant of plant growth in
mangroves (Nandy Datta et al. 2007). The
influence of salinity on survival, growth and
distribution of different species of the Sundarbans
are not known. The relationships among salinity
and growth; nutrients, carbon and sodium in plant
parts are important to understand the growth
dynamics of mangrove plants and species
composition in the Sundarbans mangrove forest
at different salinity levels. The aims of this study
were to examine the effect of salinity on seedling
survival and growth; and nutrients (N, P, and K),
sodium and carbon distribution in different parts
of H. fomes seedlings in relation to salinity.
II. Materials and methods
A. Seed collection and seedling raising
The mature seeds of H. fomes were collected
during the month of July 2011 from the
Sundarbans mangrove forest of Bangladesh. The
Collected seeds were sorted manually and the
seeds with visible defect were discarded. Seeds
were sown on in a germination bed of coarse sand
layer of 30 cm at non saline condition. This
allowed pulling off the seedlings with their intact
root system for the next experiment.
B. Experiment setup
A total of 96 pet bottles with 9 cm in
diameter and 20 cm in height were taken. Six
month old seedlings were planted in each bottle
with coarse sand. Collar diameter, height and
green biomass of each seedling were measured
and recorded. Some of the seedlings were taken
to the laboratory to calculate the green weight to
oven-dried weight conversion ratio at 80 oC for 4
days. A total of 12 pet bottles with seedlings were
placed in a plastic box (46 cm x 30 cm x 24 cm)
and thus 8 boxes were prepared. In sea water and
thus in mangrove environment NaCl represents
the highest proportion of salts and others are
present only in trace amount. In this study salt
means NaCl. This experiment was carried out in
hydroponic media with Modified Hogland
solution to avoid the complication of Na+ and Cl-
from the original Hogland nutrient solution. Eight
litter of modified Hoagland nutrient solution was
added to each box to get the upto mark of
solution with desired salinity treatments (0, 5, 10,
15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ppt). Initially the salinity of
the nutrient solution was zero. At the second
week, the salinity of the first treatment was
remained zero and all other treatment were
increased to 1 ppt. At the 3rd week, the salinity of
the first treatment was remained zero and other
treatment were increase to 2 ppt. Salinity of the
solution was increased gradually from 0 to 35 ppt
to the respective treatments following the above
method. Gradual increase of salinity levels was
followed to cope the seedlings with the sudden
shock of increased salinity. The nutrient solution
was replaced weekly and salinity levels were
checked regularly. This experiment was
conducted for six month in a glass house of
Forestry and Wood Technology Discipline of
Khulna University.
C. Survival and growth of seedlings
Number of survived seedlings in each
salinity treatments was counted at the end of the
experiment and survival percentage was
estimated. At the end of the experiment, all the
seedlings were harvested and their collar
diameter, height and green weight were measured
according to salinity treatments. The growth
increment in term of diameter, height and oven-
dried biomass were estimated from the initial and
final values.
D. Nutrients (N, P and K), sodium and carbon
in seedling parts
Subsamples (100 g) of seedling parts (leaf,
bark, stem and root) were randomly collected
from the harvested seedlings of each treatment
and oven-dried at 80 oC for 4 days. The oven-
dried samples were processed and acid digested
according to Allen (1989) to measure nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium and sodium in the
respective parts. Nitrogen and phosphorus in the
sample extract were measured according to
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International Journal of Environmental Engineering IJEE
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Publication Date : 27 December,2014
Baethgen and Alley (1989) and Olsen and
Sommers (1982), respectively. Potassium and
sodium in the sample extract were measured by
Flame photometer (PFP7, Jenway LTD,
England). Carbon concentrations in samples were
measured according to Allen (1989).
E. Statistical analysis
The survival percentage values of each
salinity treatments were transformed to arcsine
and comparison among the treatments was
performed by one-way Analysis of Variance
followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test.
Moreover, correlation among the survival of
seedlings and salinity treatments was also
conducted by using SAS statistical software.
Diameter, height and oven-dried biomass
increment in different salinity treatments were
compared by one-way Analysis of Variance
followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test; and
correlation among the salinity treatment and the
growth parameters were evaluated by using SAS
statistical software. Nitrogen, phosphorus,
potassium, sodium and carbon concentration in
different parts of seedlings at different salinity
treatments were compared by Two-way Analysis
of Variance followed by Duncan Multiple Range
Test. Relationships among salinity and nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, sodium and carbon were
evaluated through correlation analysis.
Irrespectively, correlation among sodium;
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and carbon
were conducted using SAS statistical software.
III. Results
A. Survival and growth of seedlings
All the seedlings (100%) found to survive at
non saline condition (0 ppt) to moderate (10 ppt)
saline condition. The survival of seedling showed
significant (p<0.05) strong negative correlation
(r=-0.97) with salinity and lowest (40%) survival
was reported at salinity of 35 ppt. Similar
(p>0.05) increment of collar diameter (5.87 - 5.19
mm) was observed at 0 ppt to 15 ppt salinity.
While, similar (p>0.05) increment in height (5.33
- 5.18 cm) and oven-dried biomass (9.86 - 9.96 g)
was found at 0 ppt to 5 ppt salinity.
Comparatively (p<0.05) lower diameter (2.43
mm), height (1.2 cm) and biomass (1.47 g)
increment were observed at the highest salinity of
35 ppt. However, collar diameter, height and
oven-dried biomass increment showed significant
(p<0.05) strong negative correlation with salinity
(Fig. 1).
A
B
C
D
Fig. 1: Effect of salinity levels on seedlings of Heritiera fomes
A) Survival of seedling B) Collar diameter increment C)
Height increment D) Oven-dried biomass increment. Similar
alphabet along the line are not significantly (p>0.05) different
B. Nutrients (N, P and K), sodium and carbon
in seedling parts
Significant difference in nitrogen (F=26.78,
p=0.0001), phosphorus (F=2079.00, p=0.0001),
potassium (F=194.15, p=0.0001), sodium
(F=98.56, p=0.0001), and carbon (F=166.30,
p=0.0001) concentration was observed for
different parts of H. fomes seedlings with
different salinity levels. Comparatively (p<0.05)
A
A
A
B
B
C
C
D
r = - 0.97; p<0.05
0
20
40
60
80
100
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Survival (%)
Salinity (ppt)
A
A
A
A
BC
BC
C
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Diameter (mm)
Salinity (ppt)
r = -0.95; p<0.05
A
AB
BC
C
D
D
D
D
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Height (cm)
Salinity (ppt)
r=-0.94; p<0.05
A
A
AB
ABC
BCD
BCD
CD
D
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Oven-dr ied biomass (g)
Salinity (ppt)
r = -0.97; p<0.05
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International Journal of Environmental Engineering IJEE
Volume 1 : Issue 4 [ISSN 2374-1724]
Publication Date : 27 December,2014
highest concentration of nitrogen (16 to 21 mg/g)
was observed in leaves followed by roots (11 to
16 mg/g) at 0 ppt to 15 ppt salinity. Highest
concentration (2.9 to 3.7 mg/g) of phosphorus
was observed in leaves followed by stem and
roots at different salinity. Comparatively (p<0.05)
highest concentration (11 to 26 mg/g) of
potassium was observed in leaves followed by
stem and lowest (2 to 10 mg/g) was detected in
roots. Comparatively (p<0.05) higher
concentration of carbon was measured in leaves
(44.60 to 46.40%) followed by bark and lowest
(38.32 to 41.69%) was detected in roots.
Conversely, significantly (p<0.05) highest
concentration (8 to 48 mg/g) of sodium was
observed in roots followed by stem and lowest
concentration (2 to 13 mg/g) was measured in
leaves (Fig. 2, Table 1). Potassium and carbon
concentration in different parts of seedlings, and
nitrogen in leaves and roots showed significant
(p<0.05) negative correlation with salinity. But,
phosphorus concentration in leaves, stems, and
roots showed not significant (p<0.05) correlation
with salinity (Table 2). Similarly, sodium
concentration in plant parts showed significant
(p<0.05) negative correlation with potassium and
carbon concentration in the respective plant parts.
While, not significant (p>0.05) correlation was
observed for phosphorus concentration in leaves
and roots (Table 3).
A
B
C
D
E
Fig. 2: Effect of salinity levels on seedling parts of Heritiera
fomes A) Nitrogen concentration B) Phosphorus concentration
C) Potassium concentration D) Sodium concentration E)
Carbon concentration
Table 1: Anova result (F-value and p-value) of nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, sodium and carbon in different parts
of Heretiera fomes seedlings
Leaf
Bark
Stem
Root
Nitrogen
F=1.72
p=0.1755
F=24.07
p=0.0001
F=1.84
p=0.1477
F=14.19
p=0.0001
Phosphorus
F=4.83
p=0.0044
F=17.34
p=0.0001
F=7.63
p=0.0004
F=26.85
p=0.0001
Potassium
F=23.66
p=0.0001
F=38.26
p=0.0001
F=3.44
p=0.0193
F=380.29
p=0.0001
Sodium
F=254.72
p=0.0001
F=13.83
p=0.0001
F=31.07
p=0.0001
F=44.67
p=0.0001
Carbon
F=2.91
p=0.0364
F=2.96
p=0.034
F=4.43
p=0.0065
F=14.76
p=0.0001
0
5
10
15
20
25
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Nitrogen conc entration (mg/g)
Salinity (ppt)
Leaf
Bark
Stem
Root
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Phospho rus concentra tion (mg/g)
Salinity (ppt)
Leaf
Bark
Stem
Root
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Pota ssium concen tration (mg/g)
Salinity (ppt)
Leaf
Bark
Stem
Root
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Sodium conc entration (mg/g)
Salinity (ppt)
Leaf
Bark
Stem
Root
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Carbo n concentrat ion (%)
Salinity (ppt)
Leaf
Bark
Stem
Root
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International Journal of Environmental Engineering IJEE
Volume 1 : Issue 4 [ISSN 2374-1724]
Publication Date : 27 December,2014
Table 2: Correlation among salinity level and nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, sodium and carbon in different parts
of seedlings
Leaf
Bark
Stem
Root
Nitrogen
-0.91
0.93
0.92
-0.94
Phosphorus
-0.17*
0.82
0.62*
0.53*
Potassium
-0.99
-0.81
-0.94
-0.93
Sodium
0.98
0.88
0.89
0.98
Carbon
-0.97
-0.97
-0.97
-0.97
* Values are not significant at 95% level
Table 3: Correlation among sodium; and nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, sodium and carbon in different parts
of seedlings
Leaf
Bark
Stem
Root
Nitrogen
0.95
0.73
0.78
-0.94
Phosphorus
0.06*
0.90
0.85
0.65*
Potassium
-0.96
-0.93
-0.81
-0.95
Carbon
-0.91
-0.93
-0.90
-0.98
* Values are not significant at 95% level
IV. Discussion
Survival and growth of mangrove seedling
depends on salinity levels and the range of salt
tolerance is species specific (Gilles et al. 2001;
Nandy Datta et al. 2007). Mangrove seedling
involves most of the energy for their growth at
the lower saline condition. Conversely, the
majority energy found to engage for survival at
the higher salinity (L´opez-Hoffman 2006). This
could be the reason to observe comparatively
higher survival and growth of H. fomes seedlings
at lower salinity. Similar observation was
reported with Ceriops australis and C. decandra
at Australia (Ball 2002); A. germinans at
Venezuela (Lopez-Hoffman 2007). Growth of
some true mangrove species (A. marina, Ceriops
spp., Rhizophora spp.) found to increase at
moderate salinity (Yan et al. 2007; Patel et al.
2010a; Hoppe-Speer 2011). Heretiera fomes
being a non-exclusive mangrove species may
have the characteristics of affecting growth even
at low saline condition. Higher salinity (>15 ppt)
negatively influence the growth of mangrove
seedlings (Smith 1992) through limiting the water
uptake (Clough 1984), causing low leaf
intercellular CO2 concentrations (Andrews and
Muller 1985), decreased photosynthetic rates
(Pezeshki et al. 1990; Sobrado 1999).
Plant uptake nutrients from soil and
translocate to leaves, and synthesized food
thereafter is distributed to different parts.
Nutrients are effective for different physiological
function (such as respiration, transpiration and
photosynthesis) and normal growth or
metabolism of plants (Jones et al. 1991;
Marschner 1995). Nutrients concentration not
only varies from species to species but also varied
among the plant parts and stages of growth (Jones
et al. 19991; Mahmood et al. 2006). Nitrogen,
phosphorus and potassium are more abundant in
physiologically active and photosynthetic tissue
like leaves (Marschner 1995). This could be the
reason to observe comparatively higher
concentration of N, P and K concentration in
leaves compared to other parts of seedlings.
High salinity affects plant growth due to
sodium toxicities, nutrient deficiencies or
combination of these (Khan et al. 2000). Salinity,
in general, does not show much of interaction
with nitrogen and phosphorus concentration in
seedling parts of H. fomes. Level of salinity does
not affect necessarily the overall uptake of
nitrogen by plants which may continue to
accumulate nitrogen in the presence of excess
salts despite a reduction in yield of dry mass
(Silveira et al. 2001, Wahid et al. 2004). A recent
study indicated that nitrogen uptake in mangrove
seedlings is not inhibitory by salinity (Kao et al.
2001). The final impact of salinity on the
concentration of phosphorus in plants depends
heavily on plant species, phase of ontogenesis,
and level of salinity (Grattan and Grieve 1999).
In most cases, excess of salts in soil solution
leads to a reduction in phosphorus concentration
in the tissues of plants, but the results of some
studies show that salinity may increase but that
does not affect the uptake and accumulation of
phosphorus (Sonneveld and de Kreij 1999; Kaya
et al. 2001). The antagonistic relationship among
sodium and potassium of this study suggested
that sodium inhibited the uptake of potassium.
Moreover, it is well documented that high
concentrations of Na showed antagonistic
relationship with uptake of N, P and K and the
extent of this relationship found to vary with
species and plant parts (Cramer et al. 1991,
Grattan and Grieve 1999). Salinity reduces the
net photosynthesis (Pezeshki et al. 1990; Sobrado
1999) and results in lower sequestration of carbon
in plant parts. Similarly, the negative correlation
values (Tables 2-3) indicate the antagonistic
relationship for salinity and carbon; and sodium
and carbon in plant parts. The findings of this
study indicate that salinity is an important factor
of regulating the survival and growth of H. fomes
seedlings. It also demonstrates the impact of
salinity on nutrient distributional pattern in
different parts of H. fomes seedlings. Significant
increase in sodium concentration and decrease in
potassium and carbon concentration in seedling
parts may inhabit the growth of seedling at higher
saline condition.
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International Journal of Environmental Engineering IJEE
Volume 1 : Issue 4 [ISSN 2374-1724]
Publication Date : 27 December,2014
Acknowledgement
We are thankful to United States Department
of Agriculture (USDA) for their financial
support; Ministry of Education and University
Grants Commission, Bangladesh for their
monitoring and smoothing the project activities.
We also acknowledge the Sundarbans East Forest
Division, and Forestry and Wood Technology
Discipline, Khulna University for the logistic
support.
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... The salinity is a special characteristic of the mangrove habitats. This salinity has influences on the seed germination, sprouting of propagules, seedling growth and survival of mangroves plant species (Downton, 1982;Elumalai & Manikandan, 2013;Lovelock et al., 2004;Mahmood et al., 2014a;Naidoo, 2006). ...
... The higher amount of uptake and accumulation of Na + and Cl − in plant tissues have a negative influence on plant growth and development by influencing the nutrient uptake mechanisms. High salinity level reduces nutrient uptake and accumulation (Fernández-García et al., 2004); affects the nutrient partitioning within the parts of the plant (Mahmood et al., 2014a). Moreover, higher salinity causes the physiological inactivation of a given nutrient that results in increasing demand of that particular nutrients by the plants (Grattan & Grieve, 1999) and ...
... Studies have shown that the growth of some mangrove species was higher at lower salinities (e.g. Chen & Ye, 2014 for Excoecaria agallocha; Mahmood et al., 2014a for Heritiera fomes). Some other studies observed higher growth at moderate salinities (e.g. ...
... Eight treatments of salinity (0 to 35% at 5% intervals) with three replications of each treatment were applied randomly to the seedlings of each saline zone. Full strength (1.0) modified Hoagland solution was given in each plastic box as a source of nutrient according to Mahmood et al. (2014) . Initially, the salinity of the growth medium was maintained at zero to prevent the seedlings from sudden stress of salinity. ...
... Initially, the salinity of the growth medium was maintained at zero to prevent the seedlings from sudden stress of salinity. Salinity in each treatment level was increased gradually by following Mahmood et al. (2014) . The nutrient solution was replaced weekly. ...
... In this study, 100% survival of S. apetala seedlings originated from LSZ, MSZ and HSZ of the Sundarbans was observed up to 10% salinity. Similarly, seedlings of Heritiera fomes ( Mahmood et al., 2014 ) and A. officinalis ( Alam et al., 2018 ) of the Sundarbans survived 100% up to 10% salinity, which indicates the facultative halophytic nature of these species ( Tomlinson, 1986 ). The halophytic nature of S. apetala explained the competitive advantage over the other species to survive and grow in a wider range of environmental conditions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Salt adaptive variability facilitates mangroves to cope with salinity increase due to climate change. Sonneratia apetala is a pioneer mangrove species growing in the less-saline, moderate-saline and high-saline zones of the Sundarbans. A growth study with S. apetala seedlings of the three saline zones was conducted at different salinities in randomized block design to examine the parental effects on the variability in salt adaptability of this species along the salinity gradient in the Sundarbans. The highest survival (100%) from 0 to 10 ‰salinities indicates the facultative nature of S. apetala. The survival, chlorophyll, diameter, height and biomass increment, proline, nutrients (N, P and K) and Na accumulation in different parts of the seedlings collected from the less-saline, moderate-saline and high-saline zones didn't vary significantly (p>0.05) up to 20 ‰ salinity. However, at higher salinities, all the growth traits of the seedlings of the moderate-saline and high-saline zones were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the less-saline zone. These results demonstrated that the seedlings of S. apetala of the moderate-saline and high-saline zones are more salt adaptive than those of less-saline zone and clearly reflect the parental effects of S. apetala on its seedlings growth under different salinities. This divergence in salt adaptability among different saline zones due to parental effects makes S. apetala survive and grow in a wider salinity range in the Sundarbans and coastal plantations in Bangladesh.
... Several researchers have revealed the effect of different levels of salinity on the growth of mangrove species. For instance, Hoppe-Speer et al. (2011), Mahmood et al. (2014) and Chen & Ye (2014) reported maximum biomass occurred when salinity ranged from 0 to 10 practical salinity units (PSU) (Rhizophora mucronata at salinity 8 PSU). investigated growth and physiological responses of Rhizophora mucronata and reported optimum growth of seedlings at 50% seawater. ...
... Several studies had already been conducted regarding the growth performances of mangrove species under different salinity regimes. Studies of Hoppe-Speer et al (2011), Mahmood et al (2014a), and ChenandYe (2014) found out that some mangrove species have maximum growth performances in minimum salinity, ranging from 0 to 10 psu. However, an increase in salinity can decrease the biomass growth of the mangrove seedlings (ChenandYe 2014; Mahmood et al. 2014b;Kodikara et al. 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Raganas AFM, Magcale-Macandog DBM. 2020. Physicochemical factors influencing zonation patterns, niche width, and tolerances of dominant mangroves in southern Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. Ocean Life 4: 51-62. Physicochemical factors are known for having a strong influence on the spatial patterns and structural complexity of mangroves. In this regard, we aimed to contribute to filling up this information gap in the six mangrove ecosystems on the southern coast of Oriental Mindoro, Philippines. In each of the six mangrove ecosystems, the dominant mangrove species were identified in four mangrove ecotypes-seaward, riverine, middle, and landward-using a stratified random sampling method for vegetation survey. Physicochemical parameters of water, air, and soil were also obtained from these ecozones. Results of the Principal Component Analysis revealed that temperature and water salinity are the factors that show a strong influence on the spatial distribution of the dominant mangrove species. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that Avicennia marina, Sonneratia alba, and Rhizophora apiculata, are species associated with a highly saline environment, while Xylocarpus granatum, Ceriops decandra, Avicennia rumphiana, and Rhizophora mucronata are species associated with low to optimum saline environment. Most of these dominant species preferred ecotypes with low to optimum salinity levels as revealed by their individual niche width and tolerances. The different adaptations and dominance of these mangrove species provide insights into the identification of appropriate species that could be used as planting materials for the rehabilitation endeavors of the respective mangrove ecosystem.
... Consequently, the habitat conditions in terms of the availability of nutrients and water for the mangroves in these three salinity zones are different due to the differences in the salinity stress (Siddiqi 2001;Mahmood 2015;Alam et al. 2019). As a result, mangrove species distribution and dominance in the three salinity zones of the Sundarbans varies greatly (Siddiqi 2001;Mahmood et al. 2014). For example, Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham., Excoecaria agallocha L., and Ceriops decandra (Griff) Ding Hou are the dominant species in the LSZ, MSZ, and HSZ, respectively (Siddiqi 2001;Alam et al. 2018a). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mangroves adaptive plasticity in the changing environmental conditions is of vital importance for conservation management. Genetic diversity of mangrove brings about adaptive plasticity, enabling a species to cope with different habitat conditions. The Sundarbans of Bangladesh is the largest coastal wetland and mangrove forest with diversified habitat conditions that support a wide diversity of flora and fauna. Avicennia officinalis L. is the pioneer species in mangrove succession in the low-salinity, medium-salinity and high-salinity zones of the Sundarbans. Adopting RAPD-PCR analysis, the genetic diversity of A. officinalis was studied to explore the ecotypes of this species in the Sundarbans. The genetic distances of A. officinalis between the low-salinity and medium-salinity zones (0.50) and between the low-salinity and high-salinity zones (0.52) are significantly (p \ 0.05) higher than that between the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones (0.09). The expected heterozygos-ity of A. officinalis of medium-salinity (0.54 ± 0.14) and high-salinity zones (0.55 ± 0.10) are higher than that of low-salinity zone (0.37 ± 0.12). The genetic diversity of A. officinalis of medium-salinity (0.5417 ± 0.3167) and high-salinity (0.5458 ± 0.3189) zones is significantly (p \ 0.05) higher than that of low-salinity zone (0.3750 ± 0.2313). This genetic diversity of A. offic-inalis bears significant ecological consequences. A. officinalis growing in the low-salinity zone is the low salt-adapted ecotype while that growing in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones is the high salt-adapted ecotype in the Sundarbans. These two ecotypes of A. officinalis are of both in-situ and ex-situ conservation importance for the Sundarbans and coastal plantations of Bangladesh to face the climate change induced salinity regime changes in the future.
... Consequently, the habitat conditions in terms of the availability of nutrients and water for the mangroves in these three salinity zones are different due to the differences in the salinity stress (Siddiqi 2001;Mahmood 2015;Alam et al. 2019). As a result, mangrove species distribution and dominance in the three salinity zones of the Sundarbans varies greatly (Siddiqi 2001;Mahmood et al. 2014). For example, Heritiera fomes Buch.-Ham., Excoecaria agallocha L., and Ceriops decandra (Griff) Ding Hou are the dominant species in the LSZ, MSZ, and HSZ, respectively (Siddiqi 2001;Alam et al. 2018a). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mangroves adaptive plasticity in the changing environmental conditions is of vital importance for conservation management. Genetic diversity of mangrove brings about adaptive plasticity, enabling a species to cope with different habitat conditions. The Sundarbans of Bangladesh is the largest coastal wetland and mangrove forest with diversified habitat conditions that support a wide diversity of flora and fauna. Avicennia officinalis L. is the pioneer species in mangrove succession in the low-salinity, medium-salinity and high-salinity zones of the Sundarbans. Adopting RAPD-PCR analysis, the genetic diversity of A. officinalis was studied to explore the ecotypes of this species in the Sundarbans. The genetic distances of A. officinalis between the low-salinity and medium-salinity zones (0.50) and between the low-salinity and high-salinity zones (0.52) are significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that between the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones (0.09). The expected heterozygosity of A. officinalis of medium-salinity (0.54 ± 0.14) and high-salinity zones (0.55 ± 0.10) are higher than that of low-salinity zone (0.37 ± 0.12). The genetic diversity of A. officinalis of medium-salinity (0.5417 ± 0.3167) and high-salinity (0.5458 ± 0.3189) zones is significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of low-salinity zone (0.3750 ± 0.2313). This genetic diversity of A. officinalis bears significant ecological consequences. A. officinalis growing in the low-salinity zone is the low salt-adapted ecotype while that growing in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones is the high salt-adapted ecotype in the Sundarbans. These two ecotypes of A. officinalis are of both in-situ and ex-situ conservation importance for the Sundarbans and coastal plantations of Bangladesh to face the climate change induced salinity regime changes in the future.
... A higher concentration of Na ? has an antagonistic relationship with nutrient uptake by mangroves (Saenger, 2002;Mahmood et al., 2014). Therefore, salinity is physiologically stressful for mangroves (Janousek & Folger, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutrient resorption efficiency is an important nutrient conservation and ecophysiological mechanism of mangroves growing in saline environments. This study investigated the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium resorption efficiency of Avicennia officinalis L. growing across a salinity gradient with seasonal variations in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Due to decreasing salinity during the monsoon and postmonsoon seasons, the nutrient availability in soil and nutrient resorption efficiency did not vary significantly among the low-salinity, medium-salinity, and high-salinity zones. However, the nutrient availability in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones was significantly lower than that in the low-salinity zone during the premonsoon season due to increased salinity. Consequently, nutrient resorption efficiency in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones was significantly higher than that in the low-salinity zone during the premonsoon. Further, leaf vein density of Avicennia officinalis in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones was significantly higher than that in the low-salinity zone. This modification in vein density was the mechanism for the higher nutrient resorption efficiency of Avicennia officinalis in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones than that in the low-salinity zone. This plasticity in nutrient resorption efficiency is a physiologically adaptive mechanism that enables Avicennia officinalis to persist in increasingly saline environments due to climate change.
Article
Mangroves are recognised as an important carbon sequester and therefore demand accurate biomass and carbon stock estimations. This study aimed to develop additive biomass models for Heritiera fomes, the most dominant tree species of the Sundarbans Reserved Forest in Bangladesh. Using a non-destructive method, 219 small branches (diameter < 7 cm) were harvested from 97 individual trees to develop biomass models for leaves and smaller branches. The biomass of bigger branches (diameter > 7 cm) and stem was calculated from the volume and mean wood density value after debarking while the biomass of all other components was derived from the determined fresh to oven dry weight conversion ratio. Finally, the biomass of one individual tree was calculated by adding the biomass of trimmed and untrimmed leaves, small and large branches, foliage and stem. An independent data set was used to validate the best-fit model. A component-wise (leaves, branches, bark and stem) biomass model was developed by recovering subsequent cross-component correlations which were then aggregated using the weighted Gaussian maximum likelihood estimation method. Among the components model, D (diameter at breast height) alone performed best for leaves and branches while the product of D and H (total tree height) proved the better results for stem and bark. Our best-fit model (Biomass = 0.0389D2.3773 H0.4178 + 0.0492D2.3027 + 0.0112D1.1144 H1.4572 + 0.0306D1.8507) showed the highest model efficiency with the lowest AIC, RMSE%, MAE, and MPE values. The efficiency of our non-destructive model has shown that it is as effective as other widely used pan-tropical models. Our built models can therefore be used for accurate estimation of biomass and carbon stock in H. fomes of the Sundarbans Reserved Forest, Bangladesh.
Chapter
The Sundarbans, the single largest mangroves forest in the World is shared by Bangladesh and India. It is situated in the delta of the Ganges, Brahmaputra and the Meghna rivers. The Sundarbans ecosystem interacts with the coastal processes of the Bay of Bengal and the Ganges River and its distributaries. The mangrove forest is sensitive to sea surface and surface temperatures, precipitation, fresh water flows, saline water intrusion and sedimentation. The value of the ecosystem services of the Sundarbans is enormous. Salinity intrusion due to reduced flow of the Ganges since the commissioning of the Farakka Barrage in 1975 has been affecting the Bangladesh part of the Sundarbans. The Sundarbans is also vulnerable to frequent occurrences of cyclones and associated storm surges. Livelihoods of the people living in and around Sundarbans are also affected by the changes that are taking place there. Future climate change and sea level rise together with human interventions on the upstream water flows may affect the Sundarbans ecosystem significantly. The possible impacts can be reduced by mainstreaming adaptation in the national policies and programmes of the departments/institutions involved with the management of the Sundarbans. However, many challenges are associated with the mainstream process which need to be addressed. India and Bangladesh can work together for the sustenance of the Sundarbans ecosystem and to safeguard livelihoods of millions of people.
Article
Full-text available
Nutrient resorption efficiency is an important nutrient conservation and ecophysiological mechanism of mangroves growing in saline environments. This study investigated the nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium resorption efficiency of Avicennia officinalis L. growing across a salinity gradient with seasonal variations in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Due to decreasing salinity during the monsoon and postmonsoon seasons, the nutrient availability in soil and nutrient resorption efficiency did not vary significantly among the low-salinity, medium-salinity, and high-salinity zones. However, the nutrient availability in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones was significantly lower than that in the low-salinity zone during the premonsoon season due to increased salinity. Consequently, nutrient resorption efficiency in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones was significantly higher than that in the low-salinity zone during the premonsoon. Further, leaf vein density of A. officinalis in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones was significantly higher than that in the low-salinity zone. This modification in vein density was the mechanism for the higher nutrient resorption efficiency of A. officinalis in the medium-salinity and high-salinity zones than that in the low-salinity zone. This plasticity in nutrient resorption efficiency is a physiologically adaptive mechanism that enables A. officinalis to persist in increasingly saline environments due to climate change.
Article
Full-text available
Growth, ionic and water relations of three mangrove species viz. Avicennia marina, Ceriops tagal and Rhizophora mucronata were studied in different seawater concentrations (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%). All mangrove species showed optimal growth at 50% seawater. Relatively more biomass was accumulated by R. mucronata while C. tagal had the tallest individuals. Tissue water potential became more negative with the increase in salinity and stomatal conductance was decreased in all plants. Higher stomatal conductance was noted in R. mucronata, followed by A. marina and C. tagal. Sodium and Chloride ions increased with the increase in salinity and this accumulation was much higher in A. marina.
Book
An understanding of the mineral nutrition of plants is of fundamental importance in both basic and applied plant sciences. The Second Edition of this book retains the aim of the first in presenting the principles of mineral nutrition in the light of current advances. This volume retains the structure of the first edition, being divided into two parts: Nutritional Physiology and Soil-Plant Relationships. In Part I, more emphasis has been placed on root-shoot interactions, stress physiology, water relations, and functions of micronutrients. In view of the worldwide increasing interest in plant-soil interactions, Part II has been considerably altered and extended, particularly on the effects of external and interal factors on root growth and chapter 15 on the root-soil interface. The second edition will be invaluable to both advanced students and researchers.