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Purpose The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to assess how concerned Norwegians are about fish welfare; (2) to investigate Norwegians’ willingness to pay for salmon filet made from welfare-assured farmed fish with high levels of welfare; and (3) to examine Norwegian opinions about the appropriate way to pay for better welfare standards in fish production. Design/methodology/approach On the basis of two focus group sessions, a survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to a representative sample of 2147 Norwegian households via e-mail. Findings Results showed that the Norwegian public is concerned about fish welfare and is willing to pay a price premium for products made from welfare-assured fish. Norwegian consumers do not, however, want to be the only ones paying for fish welfare, as the main responsibility for fish welfare lies with producers and the Government. Research limitations/implications In this study willingness to pay is measured using a hypothetical choice experiment. Values people express as citizens, however, may not accurately predict true consumer behaviour. This is generally referred to as ‘citizen-consumer duality’ and may have affected our results. Practical implications The study shows that there is a national market for welfare-assured fish products, but education initiatives focusing on fish farming and fish welfare issues would further influence the attitudes and purchasing habits of Norwegian consumers. Originality/value Although concern about animal welfare is growing in the western world, very little attention has been given to the welfare of fish. This article aims to make up for this by presenting a study of how Norwegians view the welfare of farmed salmon.
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... First, we focus on an overlooked issue, which is AW in value chains. This issue is also important given the growing pressure from consumers and other stakeholders, requiring that companies and suppliers increasingly adopt welfare practices (Ellingsen et al., 2015). However, although CSR certifications may influence consumer preferences (Del Giudice et al., 2018) it is often unclear to the general public (consumers, managers, scholars) which issues certifications actually take care of and the extent to which welfare is also taken into account. ...
... Furthermore, as observed in the environmental sustainability literature, informing and educating entrepreneurs and managers may also stimulate the increasing adoption of voluntary-based responsible practices (Graham, 2017). (Veldhuizen et al., 2018); d Ellingsen et al. (2015); e Solgaard and Yang (2011); f Lam (2016); g Mellor and Beausoleil (2015) Stakeholder ...
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Few species are as central to Norwegian society and culture as the potato and the Atlantic salmon. Yet these industries face considerable threats to production by pests, namely potato late blight (Phytophthora infestans) and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis). Current pest-control strategies, such as the use of fungicides and mechanical delousing methods, endanger the sectors' sustainability. Breeding for increased host resistance against these pests offers a strong preventative strategy to ensure future potato and Atlantic salmon production, in a sustainable way. Nevertheless, traditional breeding methods and GMO technology do not offer durable solutions for improved resistance. New breeding technologies like genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 offer a unique, rapid solution to introduce much-needed resistance in these species. CRISPR technology revolutionises how we can target specific genes to strengthen host resistance. In potato, we explored how CRISPR may improve resistance by introducing race-specific (qualitative) and non-race-specific (quantitative) genes as well as by knocking out susceptibility genes. We further investigated how CRISPR may enable pyramiding of resistance and susceptibility genes to achieve durability against P. infestans. Research in Atlantic salmon shows that sea lice resistance can be explained by genetics but that it is a highly polygenic trait, with many genes having minor effects. CRISPR can be deployed as a way to study gene function to identify the causative DNA sequences underlying sea lice resistance. Once discovered, CRISPR can be used to promote certain alleles having the largest effects on resistance (PAGE method), or by harnessing genetic biodiversity from a closely related species (introgression-by-editing), or even by introducing small, novel insertions or mutations in the target genes. We found, however, that if the aim is to release an organism for cultivation and consumption, the type of changes to the DNA determines how that organism will navigate the legal framework. The Gene Technology Act determines that organisms edited using CRISPR are defined as GMO and must undergo the appropriate assessments for deliberate release. Part of that assessment investigates the organism’s contribution to sustainability, a criterion maintained in the Norwegian Biotechnology Advisory Board’s proposal for a tiered regulatory system. A potato demonstrating strong partial to complete resistance against late blight, with minor changes to its DNA might significantly reduce, possibly even eliminate, fungicide use, thereby providing food that positively impacts environmental health and sustainability. Farming of Atlantic salmon with improved resistance not only improves fish welfare and possibly the necessity for delousing, but it may also reduce the concentrating effect of infestations at farm sites and the resultant impacts on wild salmon populations. This thesis shows that with less risky genome edits, done with a sustainable purpose may pave the way for release approval under the Gene Technology Act, securing sustainable food production in Norway. We cannot, however, disrupt the status quo unless policymakers and regulators can strike a fine balance between regulating the risk and fostering technological innovation.
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Chapter
The aquaculture sector stands at a crossroad because of the important changes in the business environment. Demand and competition for food is growing worldwide, fishery sector reached its limits and in this regard farmed fish sector represents a viable solution for food supply. A sustainable development of small business is recommended in order to develop knowledge and skills to support the growth of world population. In this view knowledge management for innovation is crucial to promote sustainable business models (BM) that can achieve a solid economic performance and at the same time take care of the natural environment. The purpose of this chapter is to contribute to the literature about sustainable BMs by an in-depth case study of a small fish farming company which developed competitiveness based on own tacit knowledge. The exemplary case study of a sustainable BM in aquaculture has been analyzed by use of an enhanced BM canvas that links various market oriented elements of a BM with the needs of society.
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Article
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Chapter
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Vaccine-induced side effects (adhesions and melanin deposits) were subjectively evaluated in this study for 150 full-sib families of Atlantic salmon from Salmo Breed AS (year-class 2007). There were four experimental fish groups of which three received a commercial six-component vaccine with an injection volume of 0.1 ml per fish. The groups are described as follows: 1) Pre-smolts kept in freshwater at high temperature (17 °C) and evaluated three months after vaccination (FW); 2) Post-smolts evaluated six months after sea transfer (SW6); 3) Post-smolts evaluated 12 months after sea transfer (SW12); 4) Post-smolts that received an experimental vaccine with a reduced injection volume of 0.05 ml per fish and evaluated six months after sea transfer (SW6-RV). Adhesions between intraperitoneal organs and melanin deposits on internal organs were scored. The FW group had the largest adhesion scores (2.06, SD = 0.49) (P < 0.05) but the smallest melanin scores (0.95, SD = 0.44) (P < 0.05). The SW6 group had greater adhesion scores (1.68, SD = 0.65) than the SW12 group (1.46, SD = 0.56) (P < 0.05), but similar melanin scores (1.49 vs. 1.45; P = 0.12). The SW6-RV group had smaller adhesion scores (0.93 vs. 1.68) and melanin scores (1.04 vs. 1.49) (P < 0.05) than the parallel SW6-group. For the fish groups given the commercial vaccine, the heritability estimates for adhesion scores were 0.31 ± 0.05 (FW), 0.19 ± 0.04 (SW6) and 0.16 ± 0.05 (SW12), and for melanin scores 0.27 ± 0.05 (FW), 0.28 ± 0.05 (SW6) and 0.30 ± 0.05 (SW12). For the SW6-RV group the heritabilities were smaller; 0.08 ± 0.03 (SW6-RV) for adhesion score and 0.11 ± 0.03 (SW6-RV) for melanin score. The genetic correlation between adhesion scores and melanin scores within groups was intermediate for the FW group (0.52 ± 0.11) but greater for the SW6 (0.89 ± 0.06) and SW12 groups (0.87 ± 0.06). The genetic correlation between the SW6 and SW12 groups was large for both adhesion (0.89 ± 0.07) and melanin (0.92 ± 0.11) scores. However, the genetic correlations between FW group and the SW6 and SW12 groups were smaller for adhesions (0.62 ± 0.12 and 0.48 ± 0.14, respectively) and for melanin (0.84 ± 0.08 and 0.61 ± 0.11, respectively). These results show that vaccine-induced side effects can be reduced through selective breeding, but that a reduction can also be achieved by other factors such as improvement of the vaccine.