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[Purpose] This study reports the effects of the Muslim prayer, known as Salat, on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) while performing and miming the actions of Salat: standing, bowing, prostrating and sitting. [Subjects] Thirty Muslim subjects were asked to perform the actual and mime Salat. [Methods] HR and BP were measured using a Schiller AT-102 Electrocardiograph and an Omron SEM-1 Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor. [Results] The findings revealed that there was a significant difference in the HR of the subjects between performing and miming Salat. The standing and prostration positions of Salat produced the highest and the lowest HR, respectively. A lower HR may be of potential benefit to an individual's health. The systolic and the diastolic BP decreased significantly after performance and mime of Salat, and a greater reduction in BP was observed during performance of Salat. [Conclusion] This is the first study of HR and BP in relation to Salat positions. The findings will encourage further studies to explore the benefits of Salat maneuvers for patients with cardiovascular diseases.
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Assessment of Heart Rates and Blood Pressure in
Dierent Salat Positions
Hazem DoufesH, MSc, Beng1), fatimaH iBraHim, PhD, MScE, BScEE1),
noor azina isma il, PhD, MStats, BSC2), Wan azman Wan aHmaD, MRCP, MBBS3)
1) Medical Informatics and Biological Micro-electro-Mechanical Systems (MIMEMS) Specialized Lab,
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya: 50603 Kuala
Lumpur, Malaysia. E-mail:
2) Department of Applied Statistics, Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya
3) Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya
Abstract. [Pur pose] This study reports the effects of the Muslim prayer, known as Salat, on heart rate (HR) and
blood pressure (BP) while performing and miming the actions of Salat: standing, bowing, prostrating and sitting.
[Subjects] Thirty Muslim subjects were asked to perform the actual and mime Salat. [Methods] HR and BP were
measured using a Schiller AT-102 Electrocardiograph and an Omron SEM-1 Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor.
[Results] The ndings revealed that there was a signicant difference in the HR of the subjects between performing
and miming Salat. The standing and prostration positions of Salat produced the highest and the lowest HR, respec-
tively. A lower HR may be of potential benet to an individual’s health. The systolic and the diastolic BP decreased
signicantly after performance and mime of Salat, and a greater reduction in BP was observed during performance
of Salat. [Conclusion] This is the rst study of HR and BP in relation to Salat positions. The nd ings will encourage
further studies to explore the benets of Salat maneuvers for patients with cardiovascular diseases.
Key words: Salat positions, Blood pressure, Heart rate
(This article was submitted Sep. 14, 2012, and was accepted Oct. 19, 2012)
Salat is a Muslim prayer, it is a form of meditation1), and
it is obligatory in Islam to pray and to show one’s respect
and worship the Almighty. It is a religious activity that
involves recitations and specic positions: standing (qiyam),
bowing (rukuk), prostration (sujud), and sitting (tahiyyat).
Muslims are required to perform Salat ve times daily in
addition to voluntary prayers (Sunnah, Naa) Salat begins
with the takbir, raising one’s hands to face level, and ends
with the salam, turning the head to the right then to the left
Salat serves many purposes. For example, it teaches the
Muslims how to discipline themselves, by practicing good
time management, and complying with the assigned time for
the prayers.
Meditation is known to inuence physiological param-
eters such as heart rate3), blood pressure and respiration
rate4). Therefore meditation can be used as a therapy for
patients who have heart problems such as hypertension or
problems with their musculoskeletal system5).
Heart rate (HR) is an indicator of cardiac function and
a parameter of the heart’s performance. It can be observed
non-invasively using an ECG (electrocardiogram). HR is the
number of heartbeats per unit of time, typically expressed
as beats per minute (bpm). It is the response of the heart to
the demands of the body in many situations and positions6).
HR changes due to many factors such as biological and
physiological responses (sympathetic, parasympathetic
and endocrine)6–8), physical activities (exercises), behav-
ioral and psychosocial factors9), environment (temperature
and altitude)6), body positions and postures10), and others
(medication, drugs, chemical substances and diseases).
All the factors that are mentioned above also affect blood
Blood pressure (BP) is one of the important physi-
ological parameters to be considered in assessing a patients’
health status. BP is the force of the blood pushing against
the walls of the blood vessels as blood ows through the
body. This pressure is generated by the heart pumping blood
around the body and by the resistance of the arteries to the
ow of blood12). Studies have provided strong evidence
that meditation may help decrease BP of the persons who
are moderately hypertensive13–15). Many studies have also
revealed that this positive effect disappears when meditation
is discontinued16, 17).
There are many studies that describe the correlation
between meditation and its body positions or physical
activities and their effects on HR, BP, and other hemody-
namic parameters10, 18–22). For example23), a previous study
compared three styles of yoga asana practice: the yoga
posture, breathing exercises, and relaxation or resting
posture. Some studies have reported that the heart rate
decreases during meditation and while performing other
J. Phys. Ther. Sci.
25: 211–214, 2013
J. Phys. Ther. Sci. Vol. 25, No. 2, 2013212
meditation techniques24, 25). Nonetheless, long time practi-
tioners of meditation have been shown to have a marked
decrease in heart rate25, 26).
While changes in HR in relation to Salat positions have
been reported27), the changes of HR and BP during perfor-
mance of Salat relative to its positions have not been studied.
Understanding these changes would help enhance the under-
standing of the dynamic response of the cardiovascular
system during Salat. Thus the aim of this study was to assess
the changes in HR and BP during and after performance of
actual and acting Salat, and to reveal the effect of Salat on
the human body. We also investigated at the effect of HR
and BP during prayer recitations while performing the Salat.
Thirty male Muslim volunteers between the ages of 20
and 30 years old were recruited for this study. All of them
were free from cardiac, pulmonary, metabolic and other
diseases. These subjects had a decent knowledge of Salat,
including the various positions and movements. They were
asked not to perform any strenuous physical activity or take
any meal for at least two hours prior to the experiment.
Electrocardiography (ECG) data were recorded by three
electrodes that were attached to a subjects’ chests in the
standard Lead II conguration10) and connected to a Schiller
AT-102 electrocardiograph. BP was measured using an
Omron SEM-1 Automatic Blood Pressure Monitor.
The experimental protocol was divided into two sections,
the actual performance and the mime action of Salat. Each
session commenced and ended with the subjects lying on a
bed to rest in the supine position for 5 minutes before their
HR and BP were recorded.
In the rst session, the subjects performed Salat in two
cycles. The rst cycle began with standing (qiyam) for 60–90
seconds, then the bowing (rukuk) at 90-degrees for 5–10
seconds; it is obligatory to bend at the waist until the palms
can reach the knees. The subjects then stood up from this
bowing position to standing for 2–5 seconds, before going
down on their knees, and placing the forehead on the oor
about 1–2 feet in front of the knees in prostration (sujud)
for approximately5–10 seconds. After that, they sat up from
the prostration position for 2–5 seconds, then performed a
second prostration from the sitting position. This prostration
is similar to the rst prostration, and is followed by standing
up for the second cycle. The only difference between the rst
and the second cycle exists after the second prostration in the
second cycle, when the subjects remain in the sitting position
(tahiyyat) for 20–30 seconds to nish Salat. A subject must
recite Quranic verses or specic supplications during each
of Salat positions.
In the second session (miming Salat), the subjects were
asked to perform the four different Salat positions in the
proper sequence (standing, bowing, prostration, and sitting),
without reciting any Quranic verses or supplications. This
sequence was repeated in two cycles of 15 s. The Salat
positions during the measurement are illustrated in detail in
Figure 1.
Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version
15 (SPSS Inc. USA). The Paired t-test was used to compare
thepre and post-experimental measurements. A probability
value of less than 5% was accepted as signicant.
Table 1 shows a comparison between the positions
of actual and mimed Salat . The results of the actual and
mimed Salat reveal that the prostrate positions had recorded
the lowest HR, while the standing positions had the highest
HR. This shows that HR of the prostration position lower
than that of the supine position. The Paired t-test indicates
that there were signicant differences in the means of HR
between actual and mimed Salat for all positions (p<0.05).
The paired t-test, also indicates that there were signicant
differences (p< 0.05) in HR between the supine and standing,
the supine and bowing, the supine and prostrating, and
between the supine and sitting positions in both the actual
and mimed Salat positions.
Table 2, shows the systolic and the diastolic blood
Fig. 1. Description and illustration of Salat positions during HR measurement
Tab le 1 . Mean ± SD of the heart rate of actual and mimed Salat
Pair Position Mean ± SD Heart Rate (bpm)
Actual Salat Mimed Salat
1Standing 85 ± 8 82 ± 5*
2Bowing 80 ± 7 78 ± 5*
3Prostrating 69 ± 6 67 ± 4*
4Sitti ng 74 ± 5 71 ± 4*
* Signicant difference (p<0.05) from actual Salat
pressures of both the actual and mimed Salat practice. The
average systolic and diastolic blood pressures in actual Salat
were lower than their respective values in mimed Salat:
systolic BP was reduced by 2.5% after actual Salat and by
1.7% after the mimed Salat; diastolic BP was reduced by
2.8% after actual Salat and by 1.6% after mimed Salat.
In this study, HR was measured during actual and mimed
Salat. However, BP was measured immediately before and
5 minutes after performance of both actual and mimed Salat.
We note that in both performance of actual and mimed
Salat, the change of heart rate was associated with postural
change. The results of this study show that when the subjects
stood, the highest HR was recorded and that HR decreased to
the lowest rate in the prostrate position compared to the supine
baseline, the results show that the mean HR in the standing,
bowing, and sitting positions increased signicantly, while
HR in the prostrate position reduced signicantly. We
hypothesise that in the standing position, venous return
decreased due to “venous pooling” in the lower limbs arising
from the gravitational effects28). This decrease in venous
return would have lead to a reduced cardiac output, leading
to a reduction in baroreceptor stimulation in the aorta and
carotid arteries29). This reduction in baroreceptor response
would have produced a decrease in parasympathetic nervous
activity and an increase in sympathetic nervous activity30,
31), directly affecting the cardiovascular center, consequently
increasing HR. Whereas, in the prostrate position, the venous
return would have increased to the highest level. In this
position the brain, and head, are lower than the heart, hence,
for the rst time, the blood would ow towards the brain
with the maximum gravitational pull. In this position, due
to an increase in the amount of blood reaching the head, the
amount of oxygen in the brain cells would have increased32).
The brain depends on oxygen to function, and brain cells
die without oxygen. High blood oxygen in the brain leads to
enhances concentration, memory, vision and hearing33). This
is the reason why people who practice Salat on a regular
basis can overcome many physical and mental problems.
They have fewer headaches, psychological problems, and
other cognitive difculties32). Our ndings are in accord
with Ibrahim and Ahmad 2008 and Jones et al. 2003 who
have reported a decrease in heart rate, with decrease in the
distance of the heart from the ground and the position of the
head relative to the heart27, 38).
The difference in the results between the actual and
mimed Salat in all the positions were statistically signicant
at the 5% level (Table 1). The actual Salat positions often had
higher HR than the corresponding mimed Salat positions.
As indicated in the introduction, Salat is a worshipping
procedure involving movements and recitations. In this
study subjects recited verses from the Holy Quran during
actual Salat, but not during mimed Salat. Various muscles
and joints of the body are exercised byrecitation. There is
also a need to increase the blood ow to the face, tongue,
the sensory and motor areas of the mouth, and the upper
pre-motor cortex of the brain during recitation. Thus, heart
rate would have increased during creative speech, but once
the recitation had nished, the pulse rate would have slowly
returned to its resting heart rate (set point). The set point
is established and modulated by lifestyle and the physi-
ological processes of the internal organs over the years20).
A temporal increase of the load on the heart during actual
Salat, if practiced is daily over a long period, would decrease
the set point level and strengthen the heart muscles, as well
as improve the blood circulation within the heart muscles20).
A similar effect was achieved by miming Salat, but it was
not as great as actual Salat, and subjects performing actual
Salat had a higher HR. This result is in agreement with the
ndings of Cacippo39).
BP before and after actual and mimed Salat were also
measured (Table 2). The results of the paired sample t-test
indicate that there was a signicant reduction in both systolic
and diastolic BP fter actual and mimed Salat. These signif-
icant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressures
indicate a trend of gradual shift in autonomic equilibrium
toward relative parasympathodominance due to a reduction
in sympathetic activity34).
Salat as a physical exercise is quite similar to the tai
chi and yoga. It involves the movement of the whole
body. Recent studies of yoga35) show that a decrease in the
systolic pressure is observed when an individual performs
yogic relaxation and meditation. Our study showed that
Salat decreased systolic BP. This reduces the sympathetic
discharge resulting in and predominance of the parasympa-
thetic system14).
Salat is a gentle exercise, which is regularly performed
by Muslims. It is similar to other aerobic exercises such as
tai chi and yoga, and as such may improve physical tness.
A study covering 17,000 Harvard alumni who entered
college from 1916 to 1950 provides strong evidence that
moderate aerobic exercise is equivalent to jogging about 3
miles a day36). Ibrahim et al. 200837) suggests that subjects
who perform Salat regularly, ve times a day, would have a
healthy body composition, increase the basal metabolic rate
and reduced body fat mass. Elevated cholesterol increases
the risk of cardiovascular disease. It has been shown that
people in professions where physical exertion is required,
Tab le 2 . Mean ± SD of blood pressure before and after actual and mimed Salat
Systolic Diastolic
Before After Before After
Actual salat 118.0 ± 5.6 115.0 ± 4.7* 72.2 ± 5.2 70.2 ± 4.0*
Mimed salat 119.3 ± 4.9 117.1 ± 4. 2* 73.3 ± 3.8 72.1 ± 3.2*
* Signicant difference (p<0.05) from the mean value obtained before Salat, unit-mmHg
J. Phys. Ther. Sci. Vol. 25, No. 2, 2013214
have lower cholesterol in their bodies37).
In conclusion we found that Salat maneuvers are
equivalent to moderate exercise in terms of their physical
exercise value. Salat also contributed towards increased in
the cardiovascular system capability. The low value of HR
in the prostrating position decreased systolic BP in both
actual and mimed Salat. Salat, in this sense, can be used
as a therapy for patients who have heart problems such as
hypertension or problems in the musculoskeltal system.
HR in actual Salat was slightly higher than in mimed
Salat, due to its recitation activity, providing good additional
physiological benets for the body. This pilot study will thus
motivate further studies to discover the benets of Salat on
human health.
Future work, can be enhanced by taking into consider-
ation other parameters such as the electroencephalography
(EEG), electromyography (EMG), and respiration rate
(RSP) in correlation to HR and BP.
This research was supported and funded by the Prime
Minister’s Department, project no (66–02-03–0061/H-
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... Therefore, tahajjud fulfills the criteria of physical activity or moderate-intensity exercise, which has been established as a non-pharmacological therapy for hypertension. On the other hand, the consensus among scientists state that practicing prayer can be considered a physical activity that promotes health and well-being (Doufesh et al., 2013;Nazish & Kalra, 2018). Several studies have shown that including regular physical activity can be used as a primary and an adjuvant therapy for people who have hypertension as well as a preventive approach (Farinatti et al., 2021;Hayes et al., 2022;Pescatello et al., 2015Pescatello et al., , 2019. ...
... Tahajud is a Muslim prayer that consists of several specific movements that implicate most of the muscles and joints, making it beneficial for maintaining balance and promoting joint and cardiovascular health (Osama et al., 2019). Prayer movements are mostly similar to yoga and Tai Chi movements (Doufesh et al., 2013;Wang et al., 2022). As a result, the impact of prayer on heart health tends to be similar to yoga in general (Kamran, 2018). ...
... The acute response to blood pressure is affected by the vasodilatory response (reduction of local vasodilation), increased bioavailability of vasodilators, and endothelial activation (Farinatti et al., 2021;Hamer & Steptoe, 2012). Increased parasympathetic modulation, decreased sympathetic activity, and increased baroreflex sensitivity which contribute to postexercise hypotension (Doufesh et al., 2013;Nascimento et al., 2017). Another study found that moderate and high-intensity exercise reduced blood pressure, with a significant reduction in SBP after 10 and 20 minutes of post-exercise (Conceição et al., 2021). ...
Full-text available
Tahajjud, a type of sunnah worship for Muslims, involves standard rules and complex movements that contribute to cardiovascular health and blood pressure regulation. Aims and scope: This study aimed to analyze the effect of a single bout of tahajud, on systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in normotensive young men. The study employed an experimental design with healthy men aged 18-25 and normal blood pressure (normotensive). It included a control group (n = 12) that did not perform Tahajjud and a trial group (n = 12) that regularly practiced Tahajjud for over six weeks. The treatment involved performing Tahajjud consisting of 11 raka'at from 3:30-4:30 a.m., lasting 25-35 minutes. Blood pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer before and after Tahajjud, and data analysis utilized a t-test (p < .05). These findings indicate that there is a non-significant difference in the mean of SBP and DBP after midnight between the control and trial groups, SBP (mmHg): 110.42±9.16 and 114.58±4.98 vs 120±6.03, p = .11 and 115±6.74, p = .08. DBP (mmHg): 76.77±4.92 and 77.50±4.52, p = .58 vs. 81.67±8.35 and 79.17±5.15, p = .19, SBP and DBP decreased by 5 mmHg and 2.5 mmHg in the trial group. Tahajjud, regardless of regularity, can elicit a modest but non-significant reduction in both SBP and DBP. These results indicate that Tahajjud may have a potential role in promoting cardiovascular health. Further research is warranted to examine the long-term effects and underlying mechanisms of Tahajjud on BP regulation.
... As depicted by the images provided in Supplementary file 1, Salat involves the motion of the human body in a variety of directions and angles (23). In this way, it is similar and equivalent to tai chi yoga as investigated in a number of studies. ...
... Second, due to scarcity of resources, we could not standardize Salat in terms of exercise intensity and amount of energy burnt. While these are important aspects of Salat that need to be investigated to accurately know its physiological benefits in more detail, some previous investigations (18,23,29,30) reported that Salat is equivalent to yoga in terms of intensity and many possible health benefits. Third, the sample size of 30 seems to be a small sample. ...
... Any exercise protocol that has been proven to be beneficial to human health should be, therefore, considered beyond its religious aspect (34). Given that Salat may be a good alternative to moderate physical activity (18,23,29), the older persons may spend 50-80 min in a day while offering Salat. This will be in compliance with the WHO's recommendations of moderate aerobic activity for older persons (4,35,36). ...
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Background Decline in cardio-metabolic health, immunity, and physical activity is associated with old age. Old people also find it difficult to engage in structured exercise programs. Therefore, there is a need to investigate common daily chores as an alternative for exercise that may also help in maintaining cardio-metabolic and immune health. Objective We aimed to investigate whether Salat , an obligatory Islamic prayer involving various physical movements and closely resembling yoga, enhances the benefits conferred by the current guidelines for physical activity. Methods A total of 30 overweight adults (mean (SD) age of 53.5 (8.7) years) participated in this study. For a 4-week duration, we compared the effects of Salat before/after meals (Pre-MS/Post-MS) on selected immunological and metabolic parameters in serum samples. We also compared the effects of both Pre-MS/Post-MS regimens in young and old subjects to observe any age-related effects. Results Most of the baseline metabolic parameters and the count of immune cells were normal. Post-MS resulted in a significant reduction in body weight and percent body fat (%BF). Overall, Post-MS resulted in a clear leukocytosis with a significant increase in granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes. When analyzing the lymphocyte compartment, a clear numerical increase was noted for T, B, and NK cells. The number of CD8+ T cells showed a statistically significant increase. Similarly, Post-MS induced leukocytosis in both young and old individuals, while the increase in granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes was statistically significant in old subjects only. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the Islamic obligatory and congressional Salat practice is capable of mimicking desirable pro-immune and pro-metabolic health effects. Clinical trial registration (UMIN000048901).
... Each position requires the movement of parts of the body, which in turn encourages health and well-being, and every Muslim must perform Salah (Mahboob, 2018). Salah increases basal metabolic rate, reduces body fat, and gives healthy body composition (Doufesh et al., 2013). The process of Salah is low to moderate-intensity form of regular exercise spanning 10-20 minutes up to five times daily (excluding nawafils). ...
... This raises the heartbeat, increasing blood flow around the body and giving strength and stamina to the heart muscles. Walking from the house or place of work to the mosque for salaah earns a weekly 30 minutes requirement of exercise per day, at least five times per week (Umar et al., 2008;Umar et al., 2010;Doufesh et al., 2013;Umar et al., 2016;Kamran, 2018;Dikko et al., 2020). Prayer also helps to bring about relaxation, reducing stress levels (Routldege, 2014). ...
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Religion is one of the many aspects believed to very influential in health promotion. One of the major components of Islamic religion is Salah/prayer performed by majority of Muslims five times daily. Thus, there is need to broach on the religious and health benefits of prayer. A review of related literatures was performed and the results were obtained. It was observed that prayer has several religious and health benefits to the adherents hence can serve as health promotion tool. Religiously, performing prayer is the fulfillment of major pillar of Islam and Allah's commandment. From health point of view, performing Salah is a very important exercise which is severally beneficial to health. It improve physical and spiritual domains of health. Mental health is also improved because of Salah. Conclusively, Salah is both beneficial to health and religion in a multifold fashions .
... Shalat dhuha merupakan aktivitas fisik dan psikis sekaligus, menginduksi aktivitas saraf parasimpatis dan menekan aktivitas saraf simpatis melalui pelepasan gelombang alfa otak (Doufesh et al., 2018). Shalat dhuha berasal dari bahasa Arab yang berarti shalat di waktu dhuha, dilakukan oleh umat Islam, terdiri dari beberapa postur yang berbeda termasuk berdiri, rukuk, sujud dan duduk (Koubaa dkk., 2020 (Doufesh et al., 2013). Sementara itu perubahan tekanan darah terhadap jumlah rakaat shalat belum dipelajari. ...
... Sebuah penelitian di Malaysia melaporkan bahwa terjadi penurunan tekanan darah sistolik dan diastolik yang signiifkan pada laki-laki dewasa setelah melaksanakan Shalat. Penelitian tersebut mencatat bahwa penurunan yang signifikan pada tekanan darah sistolik dan diastolik menunjukkan tren pergeseran bertahap dalam hemostasis dari simpatomimetik menuju parasimpatomimetik relatif (Doufesh et al., 2013). ...
The prevalence of hypertension increases with age, more than 1 in every two elderly has hypertension, dominated by women. The primary prevention of hypertension is a worldwide public health concern. Salat dhuha is a moderate-intensity physical activity. Salat 2 movement cycles demonstrated improved systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults. Our study purpose was to assess the effect of 2 and 8 movement cycles (rakaat) of salat dhuha to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in healthy Muslim elderly women. Muslim elderly women in a government senior residence (aged 60-74 years) participated in a 6 weeks controlled trial. We completed formal physical, clinical, and blood assessments before admission. Participants with hypertension history were excluded. The participants were randomized into 2 groups. The intervention group performed 8 rakaat of salat dhuha (n=13) and the control group performed 2 rakaat of salat dhuha (n=13). Two participants were dropped out of this study. At baseline and at the end of 6 weeks, a blood pressure examination is recorded. Parametric and nonparametric methods were used to analyze the data. The baseline characteristics of the two groups of participants were homogeneous. Compared to the control, the 8 rakaat of salat dhuha achieved a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure (P0.05) at the end of the 6-weeks period. The findings show that salat dhuha has significant potential to improve blood pressure.
... This significant decrease indicated a gradual change from sympathetic to parasympathetic activity. 12 It was also thought to be related to the position and movement of salat that was similar to yoga and Tai chi, causing replacement of sympathetic nerve activity by parasympathetic nerves and resulting in lowered BP. 13 The difference in statistical analysis results between actual salat and imitation of salat could be due to the activity of reading verses from the Al Quran during actual salat that was not done in the imitation of salat. A study of nine Muslims with EEG recordings during duha salat showed higher alpha wave amplitude in the parietal and occipital lobes of the brain during prostration, causing activation of parasympathetic nerves and relaxed feeling. ...
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Background: Hypertension is included in 15 major causes of death in the United States. Primary prevention and prompt treatment of hypertension can prevent mortality. Previous research on salat revealed that prayer provides a feeling of relaxation and activates parasympathetic activation, affecting the cardiovascular system. Objective: This study aims to investigate the effect of salat on blood pressure (BP) and pulse in patients with stage one primary hypertension.Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study with a non-equivalent pre- and post-test control group design. The sample was taken by purposive sampling method. Thirty-six outpatients with stage one primary hypertension who met the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included. The data were analysed by the Friedman and Wilcoxon post-hoc follow-up tests.Results: The statistical analysis showed significant differences in systolic BP (SBP) at 5 minutes after salat, 10 minutes after salat, and 5 minutes vs 10 minutes after salat, both in the treatment and control groups. For the diastolic BP (DBP), a significant difference was found at 5 minutes after salat and 10 minutes after salat in the treatment group, as well as at 10 minutes after salat and 5 minutes after salat vs 10 minutes after salat in the control group. For the pulse variable, a significant difference was found at 5 minutes after salat and 10 minutes after salat in the treatment group, and 5 minutes after salat in the control group.Conclusion: There is a decrease in BP and pulse rate in patients with stage one hypertension after salat.
... Gerakan-gerakan salat juga hampir mirip dengan gerakan yoga, di mana akan mengaktifkan tujuh energi chakra di tubuh manusia (Imamugluo, 2016). Salat teratur 5 kali sehari akan meningkatkan rata-rata basal metabolic dan menurunkan lemak tubuh (Doufesh H, et al., 2013). Salat menyeimbangkan fungsi fisiologis tubuh (AlAbdulwahab, Kachanathu and Oluseye, 2013). ...
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Umat muslim diperintahkan oleh Alloh SWT untuk menjalankan ibadah sesuai dengan perintahNya. Beberapa rutinitas ibadah muslim diantaranya Sholat, Puasa dan Bersuci (Thoharoh). Ada hikmah dari ibadah puasa, sholat dan thoharoh terhadap kesehatan tubuh manusia. Puasa adalah ibadah yang memiliki banyak hikmah dan manfaat bagi manusia, termasuk hikmah dari sisi kesehatan. Puasa yang dijalankan sesuai syariat Islam dan mengikuti sunnah-sunnah Rasulullah akan berdampak baik terhadap kesehatan tubuh manusia secara keseluruhan. Sebaliknya, puasa yang dijalankan tidak sesuai syariat justru akan membahayakan kesehatan. Beberapa syariat yang semestinya dijalankan umat Islam agar puasanya mendapatkan pahala dan juga manfaat kesehatan secara optimal adalah: Niat, mengakhirkan sahur, menyegerakan berbuka, serta berbuka dengan yang manis-manis untuk mengganti glukosa yang turun drastic ketika puasa. Selain itu, umat muslim juga perlu memperhatikan menu sehat yang dikonsumsi saat sahur ataupun berbuka. Pastikan memiliki kandungan gizi yang seimbang dan memperhatikan kecukupan cairan. Ibadah lain seperti sholat yang dilakukan secara khusyuk, gerakan yang tepat dan pada waktu yang tepat akan memberikan dampak yang bagus terhadap kesehatan tubuh. Di sisi lain, thoharoh juga bermanfaat bagi kesehatan. Thoharoh yang dilakukan dengan cara yang tepat memberikan manfaat kebersihan dan kesehatan pada manusia. Buku ini mengulas hikmah puasa, sholat dan bersuci (thoharoh) secara rinci berdasarkan kajian dan penelitian terkini. Semoga bermanfaat dan semakin memotivasi pembaca untuk beribadah dengan lebih semangat.
... The acute decrease of BDNF expression after Namaz that is repeatedly perceived might have a compensatory or restoring function to decline the effect of acute stress and decrease the long-term effect of stress on the normal expression of BDNF. Some studies showed several beneficial effects of Namaz on mental and physical health, such as relaxation and wellness, that confirmed the current study results [4,20,38,39]. ...
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Islamic praying (Namaz) can be considered a mental, spiritual, and physical practice. The study aimed to investigate the early effect of Namaz on stress-related hormones and the expression of stress-induced genes such as IL6 and BDNF. Eighty-three healthy women and men who continually practice Namaz participated in the study. The saliva samples were taken before and after Namaz to measure cortisol and alpha-amylase hormone levels. Also, to evaluate the expression of BDNF and IL6 genes, 11 specimens were selected randomly. Based on baseline sampling, the participants were classified into three groups: cortisol levels lower than 5, between 5-15, and upper than 15 ng/ml. The results indicated that cortisol significantly increased and decreased in the first and third groups after Namaz, respectively. In addition, the increase of alpha-amylase also occurred in subjects with a low baseline level of its concentration. Regarding genetic expression examination, there was a significant decrease in BDNF gene expression after the Namaz. In addition, the change of cortisol and alpha-amylase hormones after Namaz related to the baseline level changed to approach the optimal range after Namaz. These findings were reported for the first time and need more studies.
Salat is a routine for Muslims and involves some physical movement. The process of Salat promotes many physical and psychological benefits. One of the movements is the foot in flexion position during prostration and sitting. According to reflexology, flexing the foot and toes in foot massages techniques may increase blood flows and lead to the immediate hemodynamic effect. Thus, this paper investigates the immediate effect of flexing toes during performing prostration and sitting position in Salat on hemodynamic status. Fifty-two subjects have been recruited in this study and divided into two groups; control (n = 33) and uncontrolled (n = 19). Both groups were taught to perform Salat movement, but the proper movement and postures during prostrating were only emphasized in the control group, while it was not emphasized in the uncontrolled group. The subjects were required to perform two cycles of Salat movement. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiograph signals were recorded before and after the Salat movement. Our finding indicates that the toes flexion movement shown a significant effect on the hemodynamic status by lowering blood pressure both systolic and diastolic. Thus, it can be suggested as a supplementary to mimic the effect of reflexology massage.KeywordsSalatFoot flexionBending toesBlood pressureHeart rate
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Almost all religions incorporate some form of meditation. Muslim prayer is the meditation of Islam. It is an obligatory prayer for all Muslims that is performed five times a day. Although a large body of literature exists on EEG changes in meditation, to date there has been no research published in a peer-reviewed journal on EEG changes during Muslim prayer. The purpose of this pilot study is to encourage further investigation on this type of meditation. Results of EEG analysis in twenty-five trials of Muslim prayer are reported. Some of the findings are consistent with the majority of the previous meditation studies (alpha rhythm slowing, increased alpha rhythm coherence). However, Muslim prayer does not show an increase in alpha and/or theta power like most of the results of other meditation studies. The possible cause of this discrepancy in meditation-related studies is highlighted and a systematic and standardised roadmap for future Muslim prayer EEG research is proposed.
Conference Paper
Manual blood pressure measurement is not practical if it is taken frequently. Therefore, in this paper, an automatic measurement system that can measure systolic blood pressure (SBP) incessantly based on its relationship with a heart rate is introduced. The system examines the heart rate based on the electrocardiography (ECG) and its relationship with SBP from the healthy subjects. The data analysis involved resting period, exercise period and recovery period of the subject (human). The results show that the system is capable of determine an incessantly blood pressure monitoring technique based on heart rate using ECG. The use of liquid crystal display (LCD) to display a quick result demands more practical in measuring the blood pressure. KeywordsHeart rate–Electrocardiography (ECG)–Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP)
This paper describes the changes in the heart rate (HR) for 24 healthy subjects (10 males and 14 females) during performing different Salat’s positions. Salat is the muslim prayer which involve performing certain physical postures as well as spiritual act. Heart rate was measured using Schiller AT-102 augmented Electrocardiogram (ECG) at each of the following Salat’s positions: standing (qiyyam), bowing (rukuk), prostration (sujud) and sitting (tashahhud) including 5 minutes resting before perfoming the Salat’s positions. The result shows that the HR differs at the different Salat’s positions. The HR was lowered from the standing (qiyyam) to the bowing (rukuk) position, and drops further when the subjects were in the prostration position. The HR however, increases back when subjects were in the tashahhud position. The pattern shows that the prostration position has the lowest HR value. There are many factors that have influenced those results.
Yoga is often recommended for stress relief, yet some of the more fitness-oriented styles of yoga can be vigorous forms of exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in heart rate during the physical practice of yoga postures, breathing exercises, and relaxation. Sixteen participants were led through three different styles of yoga asana practice. Polar S610 heart rate monitors were used to measure one minute average heart rates throughout each session. Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated that there was a significant difference (P<0.05P<0.05) in heart rate between astanga yoga (M=95M=95, SD=12.84) and the other two styles, but not between the hatha (M=80M=80, SD=9.32) and gentle (M=74M=74, SD=7.41) yoga styles. These results indicate that there may be different fitness benefits for different styles of yoga practice.
Did you know that in a landmark study, aerobic exercise was shown to be as effective as antidepressants? That women who exercise lower their chances of developing dementia by 50 percent? That a revolutionary fitness program helped put one U.S. school district of 19,000 kids first in the world in science? That, in fact, exercise sparks new brain-cell growth? The evidence is incontrovertible: aerobic exercise physically transforms our brains for peak performance. In Spark, John J. Ratey, MD, takes you on a journey through the mind-body connection, presenting new research to prove that exercise is truly the best defense against everything from mood disorders to ADHD to addiction to menopause to Alzheimer's. He explains that the brain works just as muscles do--growing with use, withering with inactivity--and shows why getting your heart and lungs pumping can mean the difference between a calm, focused mind and a harried, inattentive self. Filled with science and case studies, Spark is the first book to explore the connection between exercise and the brain. And with a simple, targeted regimen to get your body moving and your mind in peak condition, it will change the way you think about your morning run--and, for that matter, the way you think. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in cyclic meditation (CM) and supine rest (SR). CM included yoga postures followed by guided relaxation. Forty-two male volunteers were assessed in CM and SR sessions of 35 minutes, where CM or SR practice was preceded and followed by 5 minutes of SR. During the yoga postures of CM and after CM, low frequency power and the low frequency to high frequency power ratio decreased, whereas high frequency power increased. Heart rate increased during the yoga postures and decreased in guided relaxation and after CM. There was no change in SR. Hence, it appeared that predominantly sympathetic activation occurred in the yoga posture phases of CM while parasympathetic dominance increased after CM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
To examine the physiological effects of Korean traditional Qi-training, we investigated the changes in blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates before, during and after ChunDoSunBup (CDSB) Qi-training. Twelve normal healthy CDSB Qi-trainees (19–37 years old; trained for 1·3 ± 0·2 years; 9 men and 3 women) volunteered to participate in this study. Heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure and rate–pressure product were significantly decreased during Qi-training. From these results, we suggest that CDSB Qi-training has physiological effects that indicate stabilization of cardiovascular system.
One hundred and one patients, 70 experimental and 31 controls, with a diagnosis of essential hypertension, were examined for the effects of group relaxation training and thermal biofeedback on blood pressure and on other psychophysiologic measures: heart rate, forehead muscle tension, finger temperature, depression, anxiety, plasma aldosterone, plasma renin activity, and plasma and urinary cortisol. Eighty percent of the participants were medicated. Treatment yielded a short-term success rate, defined as a decrease in mean arterial pressure of 5 mm Hg, of 49% in the experimental group. Other significant short-term changes included a reduction of forehead muscle tension, state anxiety, plasma aldosterone, and increased finger temperature. Follow-up measurements were made approximately 10 months after treatment in 36 patients, 51% of the treatment completers. Twenty of the 36 were short-term treatment failures, while 16 were treatment succeeders. Thirty-seven percent of the short-term succeeders continued to meet blood pressure criterion at follow-up. In short-term succeeders, continued practice of relaxation may influence long-term maintenance of decreased blood pressure. It is suggested that group relaxation training can be beneficial for short-term and long-term adjunctive treatment of essential hypertension in selected individuals.
A prospective investigation was designed to test whether the altered behavior of the regular practice of a relaxation, meditational technique might lower blood pressure in 22 borderline hypertensive subjects. The investigation was unbiased with regard to the presence of antihypertensive agents; subject familiarity with blood pressure measurement or with the observer; observer error; and the effects of blood pressure variability. During the control period, blood pressures averaged 146.5 mm Hg systolic and 94.6 diastolic. During the experimental period, they decreased to 139.5 mm Hg systolic (p < 0.001) and 90.8 mm Hg diastolic (0.001 < p < 0.002). The results of this relaxation, meditational technique are consistent with a hypothesized integrated hypothalamic response associated with decreased sympathetic nervous system activity. It is possible that the decreased blood pressures are unrelated to the proposed mechanism of decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and represent, instead, a placebo effect. Regardless of mechanism, the described relaxation, meditational technique is an effective method of lowering borderline hypertensive blood pressures. The relaxation technique is learned easily and inexpensively, practiced at no cost, and has no pharmacologic side effects.