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Wanted: OD more alive than dead!

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Abstract

The authors examine the evolution of organization development (OD) from its exciting startup to its confusing current state, ending with their concern for OD’s future viability. There have been many ups and downs to the OD field, including its faddish rise in the 1960s, its downturn while under attack in the 1970s, and its subsequent morphing into many forms during the 1980s and 1990s. The current diffuse nature ofODsuggests that it is hardly recognizable in most organizations, portending its possible demise as a historical artifact. However, the authors believe that ODstill has a role to play if it can revitalize itself by taking on a strategic role in organizations to focus its core values on solving problems it has largely avoided or ignored in the past.

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... This shift is largely reflective of business realities of recent decades. Globalization, a rapid and uncertain marketplace, an increasingly diverse workforce, and new technologies and innovations have all had an impact on the type of work being done by practitioners in the organizational sciences field in general, and OD in particular (Greiner & Cummings, 2004). The field of OD has evolved over the years as a result of the business environment, trying to maintain its core values and founding principles and ideals, while adapting to the emergent concerns of organizations. ...
... The field of OD has evolved over the years as a result of the business environment, trying to maintain its core values and founding principles and ideals, while adapting to the emergent concerns of organizations. OD practitioners reacted to these changes in various ways, which ultimately fragmented the field as people began to move in different directions (Greiner & Cummings, 2004). The current study sought to address this issue by examining the perceptions of OD practitioners today to see if and how attitudes of the field have changed in the last 20 years since the original study by Church and Burke (1995), and whether the founding principles still inform practice in the field today. ...
... Many of the ideals of early OD aligned with the civil and social movements of the 1960s, and it picked up popularity and became a movement during that time. However, by the 1970s, OD had begun to gradually take on ''fad-like'' characteristics (Greiner & Cummings, 2004). With increased competition in the business environment and changing organizational needs, criticism and skepticism of OD emerged, often attacked as based on naive idealism. ...
Chapter
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Organization development (OD) and the business environment, more generally, have seen many changes in the last 20 years. This chapter describes findings of a research study that investigated current perceptions of the field of OD as compared to data collected in a 1993 study (published in 1994). Survey data collected from 388 OD professionals indicated findings along the following themes: (1) continued perceived weakening of traditional OD values; (2) focus on business effectiveness and fewer perceptions that OD is too "touchy feely"; (3) increase in commitment to organizations and standing against the misuse of power; (4) coaching is seen as an integral part of OD; and (5) practitioners are very optimistic about the future of OD. Implications for the current and future practice of OD are discussed.
... As the optimism of individual and social change faded with the 1960s, the 1970s and 1980s ushered in new priorities. Faced with increasing global competition, inflation, unemployment, recession, and dramatic technological change (Greiner & Cummings, 2004;Johnson & Ouchi, 1974;Sheldrake, 1996), OD changed to meet the needs of the market. In order to cater to what companies wanted, some practitioners began to transform OD into a more results-focused commercial activity (Burnes, 2009;Church, 2001;Dent, 2002;Freedman, 1999;Greiner & Cummings, 2004;Krell, 1981). ...
... Faced with increasing global competition, inflation, unemployment, recession, and dramatic technological change (Greiner & Cummings, 2004;Johnson & Ouchi, 1974;Sheldrake, 1996), OD changed to meet the needs of the market. In order to cater to what companies wanted, some practitioners began to transform OD into a more results-focused commercial activity (Burnes, 2009;Church, 2001;Dent, 2002;Freedman, 1999;Greiner & Cummings, 2004;Krell, 1981). Survey data collected on practitioners in the 1990s, for example, highlighted the presence of a real divide in the field between a belief in humanistic values and promoting bottom-line results in OD work (Church, et al., 1994). ...
... Effectiveness was the new benchmark (Raia & Margulies, 1985). Practitioners faced a dilemma: How could they balance the market driven needs and still promote OD's core humanistic, optimistic, and participative values (Bradford & Burke, 2004;Burnes 2009;Church et al., 1994;Greiner & Cummings, 2004;Worley & Feyerherm, 2003;Worren, Ruddle, & Moore, 1999)? ...
Article
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In this article the researchers look at the seminal literature in the field of Organization Development to determine the historic espoused values of the field. Using the culture metaphor as a framework for the founding values, the researchers explore the urgency and need to investigate current values in practice.
... Theoretically, the tenet of flexibility and adaptability in the intervention content is a well-established premise within OD process consultation models (Reddy 1994;Reddy and Phillips 1992;Schein, 1990Schein, , 1999Schein, , 2006. In particular, contemporary approaches to OD (Greiner and Cummings 2004) recognize the importance of focusing on organizational culture and climate, and specifically acknowledge a need for customized interventions able to withstand adaptations to different organizational contexts as well as adjustments by users throughout the implementation process. Nevertheless, for pragmatic purposes, the specific models and examples of such interventions remain largely unavailable for use by consultants and organizations. ...
... For example, understanding how CREW interventions work requires a greater emphasis on convergent observation of events and processes in context, rather than on tightly controlling all variables except the manipulated ones, as typical in RCTs (cf. Greiner and Cummings 2004;Stiles 1993;Westen et al. 2004). ...
Chapter
This chapter explores the definitions of various forms of workplace mistreatment, contrasting them with a definition of workplace incivility. The chapter considers conceptual models for understanding the causes, processes, and consequences of workplace mistreatment, indicating the potential contribution of the Risk Management Model. A section towards the end of the chapter reflects upon the first two propositions introduced in Chap. 1 regarding the importance of belonging as a motive and the human capacity to perceive and interpret their social world.
... Porras attributes OD scholars' and consultants' individual-orientation to the intensive integration of psychologists into the OD field in the 1950s and 1960s. Organizational psychologists, he says, were trained to see internal motives and personal growth as the main reasons for individuals' behavior and, therefore, were busy developing ways to change people (Greiner & Cummings, 2005). As a result, says Porras (Bradford & Porras, 2005, p. 51), these consultants did not have "a conceptual framework to guide their work, to help them see the big picture from which they could decide what action to take." ...
... However, critical writing on the individualistic orientation indicates the existence of a systemic orientation. Accordingly, effective organizational change processes entail working on the macro level of the organization, on its technology, structure, and culture (Bradford & Porras, 2005;Greiner, 1972;Greiner & Cummings, 2005;Katz & Kahn, 1966). ...
Article
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Using my consulting experience, I offer a practical perspective to problem solving in organization development (OD) interventions, defined as “habitus-oriented consulting” (HOC). Building on Bourdieu’s action theory, HOC frames organizational problems neither only as psychological phenomena derived from individuals’ psychological dispositions, nor only as structural phenomena derived from the social context (defined here as individual and systemic orientations), as mainstream OD often defines them. Instead, HOC frames organizational problems as sociological phenomena, derived from individuals’ social dispositions, or habitus, produced by the organization’s social structure. Using the example of conflict among members of a highly skilled surgical unit in a hospital in Israel, I show how HOC can be used by OD consultants to intervene in organizations by exploring and understanding social structure, participant agency, patterns of habitus, relations between objective positions, and the whole of the organization.
... 40) when OD practitioners are engaged in the practice of OD and change efforts. However, Greiner and Cummings (2005), in reviewing OD trends, indicated that OD's values are shifting from humanistic to both humanistic and organization-effectiveness-oriented. Minahan and Norlin (2013) demand reflection on how stated values influence beliefs and, in turn, influence actions leading to certain unintended consequences. ...
... At the 2nd OD Gathering, one of the participants mentioned, "OD has loose fences with many doors," which resonated with many participants. The OD field has long struggled with how to define itself (see Bradford & Burke, 2004;Church et al., 1999;Golembiewski, 1990;Greiner & Cummings, 2005;Marshak, 2005;Minahan, 2010;Weisbord, 1981;Worren et al., 1999), and given that values are at the core of one's identity (Hitlin, 2003(Hitlin, , 2011, utilizing the results of this study can help clarify what is OD and who is an OD practitioner. Regardless of the domains of practice for OD practitioners, such as team building, coaching, leadership, and whole systems change, one of the key components that holds them together in a cohesive field is core values. ...
Article
This study sought to identify Organization Development (OD) values to guide OD practitioners using a future-oriented perspective to differentiate OD from related fields. Employing six guiding principles, a Delphi study with three rounds was conducted with 42 international OD practitioners and researchers who practice in 58 countries collectively. As a result, this study identified nine OD values (awareness of self and system, continuous learning and innovation, integrity, courageous leadership, trust and respect, diversity, collaborative engagement, strategic practicality, and client growth and development) along with 71 corresponding behavioral indicators. This article compares the identified values with OD values featured in the existing literature, adding temporal external validity and highlighting the consistency of OD values over time. Also discussed are the implications of this research for OD practitioners, the OD field, OD researchers, and other groups.
... Organizational Development emerged as a 10th European Academy of Design Conference -Crafting the Future 2 | P a g e movement in the 1950s based on participatory methods and active involvement of employees of the organization. It was envisioned that OD would democratize life in organizations (Greiner and Cummings, 2005). This would be achieved by implementing changes through action and empowerment, which in turn would lead to economic return in the organizations applying it (Werkman, 2010;Marshak and Grant, 2008;Bradford and Burke, 2005). ...
... In the 1950s new group-based methods of learning and change were introduced in a movement called "organizational development" (OD) (Greiner and Cummings, 2005). The movement was influenced by Levin's participative methods and by Maslow who argued for the potential of individuals to pursue self-actualization (ibid.). ...
Conference Paper
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Design Thinking is a rather new concept for increasing innovation capabilities in organizations. Organizational Development is a concept from the 1950s aiming at modernizing organizations through participatory methods. As organizations struggle with constant change and to become more innovative we will compare and discuss design thinking and organizational development and explore what we can learn from these concepts that have many similar aspects. Design is argued to be moving into new territories, changing its focus towards the ideas that organizes a system or environment (Buchanan, 2001). At the same time there are clear resemblances to new organizational development not the least regarding participatory methods (Eneberg, 2012). In this paper we describe the ontological and epistemological development of organizational theory, change, and development with the aim to discuss the role of design thinking as an enabling concept in the revitalization of organizational development that includes a reintroduction of democratic values in organizational change.
... Some are questioning whether OD has become too inwardly focused (Worley, 2014) or marginalized (Minahan, 2016). Others are taking the field to task for "a gradual morphing into a variety of applications that may or may not represent OD in its original form" (Greiner & Cummings, 2004). Or for being overly focused on a debate of "what are the values of the field?" ...
... (Worley, 2014). It's been pointed out that OD has been absent from the table for top management decision making, strategic thinking, merger and acquisition planning and governance (Beer, 2014;Bradford & Burke, 2004;Greiner & Cummings, 2004). ...
Article
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How can organization development be more innovative? In what ways can organization development professionals do more inspired work? Using inspiration provided by Hamilton: An American Musical, this essay explores connections between Alexander Hamilton, the founding father of American Democracy, and Kurt Lewin, the founding father of organization development. These connections are then examined for insight into ways of sustaining energy and relevance in organization development over time and across successive generations.
... These factors have been discussed in the literature with more frequency and vigor over the last decade as the "crisis in OD" (Bradford & Burke, 2004;Burke, 2011;Shull, Church, & Burke, 2013). From articles which have examined and questioned the relevance of OD's historic methods to those which have expressed a need to "reinvent" it (Bradford & Burke, 2004;Bushe & Marshak, 2009;Greiner & Cummings, 2004), one thing is clear-values play a critical role in the past, present, and future of OD. ...
... While there have been recent studies measuring attitudes about values in the field of OD (Church & Burke, 1995;Schull, Church, & Burke, 2013), no recent study that the authors are aware of has explored values from the perspective of practitioner attitudes (beliefs, attitudes, value definitions) and actions (interventions, norms, and practice approaches). Second, having a rich history that has evolved from the contributions made by multiple tributaries, OD is challenged by diversity in discipline, and more recently by the vast changes in labor, technology, and the economy (Greiner & Cummings, 2004). How can a field that crosses multiple disciplines and countries (and thus likely multiple value sets) attain value alignment or shared identity? ...
Chapter
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Organization development (OD) is consistently described as an applied and values-driven field. While much has been written on the theory of values in the field, little has been written about values from the perspective of practitioner. Because values influence the way we think, feel, and act, it is essential to OD practice (from intervention and design to processes and methods) that dialogue which calls forth a value consciousness be kept alive. In this chapter, the topic of values in OD is explored in three stages. First, with an historic overview of values in the field; second, with an in-depth of account of a three-year collaborative research project exploring the topic; and finally, with a collaborative process which invites others to join in and expand the conversation.
... A positive approach to organizational development and change (ODC) is one of the latest trends in organizational development (Greiner & Cummings, 2004). Cameron (2008) asserts that although positive organizational change can result from both the positive and the negative, more emphasis should be given to the positive to mitigate negative tendencies and stimulate positive organizational change. ...
... These as well as on all aspects involved in this process, such as resource utilization and benefits to be achieved. The definition of the problem to be overcome, identifying the issues to be addressed and planning, are nevertheless fundamental in the early stages of this organizational process cycle (Greiner & Cummings, 2004;Gupta, 2013;Nakhoda & Alidousti, 2011). ...
Conference Paper
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This work present a restructuring of the NPD process held in an Institution of Science and Technology, which is one of the world leaders in their field. The survey was conducted along the lines of Action Research. The results were obtained from the understanding of R&D as the Operations Area.
... The consequent notion that OD was "out of ideas" resonated throughout academe (Quinn, 1993;Weick, 1990) and the "crisis in the field" was featured in a 2004 JABS' special issue (Bradford & Burke, 2004). In that volume, Greiner and Cummings (2004) made the case that organizations were facing complex challenges (e.g., globalization, the IT revolution, workforce diversity, restructuring, and M&A) requiring new models and methods of change. Meanwhile, Sull (2003) identified the phenomenon of "active inertia"-showing how organizations fail by routinizing their methods and "keep on keeping on" despite changes in their context. ...
Article
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A sampling of fifty years of articles published in the Journal of Applied Behavioral Sciences highlights the integration of theory and practice from JABS’ founding years to the mid-1980s, then a steady shift toward scholarship on “change knowing” and away from “change doing”. This review anchors JABS in the development of the applied behavioral sciences and organization development (OD) and reports on the author’s personal experiences as a budding practical scholar. JABS turn away from application is traced to the normalization of scientific progress in this arena and routinization of practice as change management. The paper then takes up the long-debated question “Is OD dead?” and considers how “something more”—concepts extending beyond conventional behavioral science—has led to revolutionary advances in the practice of change these past two decades. It then highlights how ideas from the arts, spirituality, and chaos-and-complexity sciences have added new dimensions to scholarly practice for the field (and for me) and today beckon sharper theorizing. JABS has of late stretched into these subjects but could do more so. The paper concludes with a call for more artsy, spiritual, and/or off-the-wall publications in JABS’ next fifty years.
... However, as Agocs (1997) writes, a typical organizational change project places the OD practitioner or scholar accountable to those who hold power in the organization and POS succumbs and reinforces this truism even more by ignoring structures and resources that shape power in organizations and communities. Greiner & Cummings (2004) point out how in the 1970s OD was criticized for its cult-like activities, for forcing organizations to undergo its ideology of openness and use of T-groups. The emerging critique against POS appears similar in flavor -cult-like and evangelistic in its efforts to proselytize and one sided in its focus. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper, we contribute to the current dialogue between Positive Organizational Scholarship (POS) and Critical Theory Approach to initiating and managing change. We argue that the exclusive focus of POS on the positives can be as limiting as the 'deficit' view that they critique. We particularly focus on application of POS to Organization Development & Change (ODC) in social contexts. We argue that POS has the potential to become an even more sophisticated co-opting mechanism for maintaining existing structures by creating a system in which contentious and critical issues are silenced while creating an illusion of openness, inclusion, and virtuosity. We also problematize the neglect of power issues by positive organizational scholars in an effort to lift up the goodness and virtuosity of humankind in general. Drawing from post-colonial social experiments and their narratives, we argue for a dialogic approach that can co-hold positives and negatives of organizational life and also that in that interplay lies generative potential.
... Veteran OD consultants, who are typically well informed in planned change (Burke, 2006;Cusick, 2005;Greiner & Cummings, 2004), provided perspectives on the research problem by recounting and reflecting upon their experiences with integration theory and practice in the various processes of sociocultural integration of acquisitions. ...
Thesis
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Acquisitions fail to deliver on their stated objectives at a rate of 50% to 80%. One of the most prevalent explanations places blame on conflicting organizational cultures and associated sociocultural morès. Acquisitions that successfully integrate sociocultural components more likely achieve the stated objectives of the acquisition, and failure to meet the stated objectives of an acquisition can negatively influence the viability of an organization. Most organizational development (OD) consultants view sociocultural integration of acquisitions from a systems perspective, affording consideration of multiple facets of an organization in sociocultural integration activities. Yet little scholarly research exists on sociocultural integration of acquisitions from the perspective of veteran OD consultants. Veteran OD consultants' experiences with sociocultural integration of acquisitions comprised this qualitative exploratory inquiry. Literature on organizational culture and leadership, OD and large-scale change, acquisitions, and sociocultural integration were critically reviewed, and data from qualitative in-depth telephone interviews with 15 participants informed the question of how veteran OD consultants describe and explain their experiences in sociocultural integration of acquisitions. The participants in this study indicated that acquisitions are chaotic, complex, and typically overwhelming to senior managers and organizational members. The study participants indicated that senior management teams that exhibit collective certainty regarding the purpose of the acquisition can positively influence integration. These veteran OD consultants also indicated that senior managers who communicate the purpose of the acquisition with certainty, and communicate effectively throughout the newly formed organization during all steps of the integration process could positively influence integration. The study participants indicated that organizational members' understanding of what the acquisition means to them on a practical level can influence integration positively. The participants also indicated that at times senior managers are distracted by the demands of ensuring profitability of the newly formed organization and do not have the time to attend to the people side of integration. These veteran OD consultants indicated that senior managers who do not make decisions based on assumptions, and demonstrate trustworthiness in how they communicate and facilitate employee redundancy, retention, and recruitment during integration can positively influence integration.
... Något renlärigt "bottom up" är det dock inte fråga om, snarare ett "bottom up" inom ramen för ett traditionellt "top down"-perspektiv (jfr. Greiner och Cummings, 2004). ...
... Pillutla & Thau, 2013;Rynes, Bartunek, & Daft, 2001), the legacy and future of the field (e.g. Greiner & Cummings, 2004;Woodman, 2005), or types of scholarship (e.g. Tsui, 2013), each of these is preceded by recognition of the place of phenomena. ...
Article
Phenomenon-driven research (PDR) is problem-oriented research that focuses on capturing, documenting, and conceptualizing an observed phenomenon of interest in order to facilitate knowledge creation and advancement. As an ideas-led and interpretive way of researching, and with an emphasis on exploring issues and challenges that bother those experiencing observed problems, PDR is an engaging way to develop new contributions to organizational change debates. Generating knowledge this way thereby allows for a variety of research paths and outcomes that may lead to a series of associated debates and research opportunities. Yet although it is widely acknowledged, this pathway to knowledge has not been properly described and documented, thus potentially leading to poor and fragmented understanding of what PDR is and how to pursue it. In order to understand better PDR, in this paper ? and through this special issue ? we showcase this orientation. Describing the core features of a PDR paper, demonstrated through examples, we show what published PDR looks like and describe how organizational change researchers can better accommodate this approach. With this focus on engagement with phenomena we aim to inspire researchers to return to or take up more PDR, specifically challenging organizational change scholars to develop and extend knowledge with this orientation.
... There have been many fluctuations in the popularity of OD (Greiner & Cummings, 2004). Nevertheless, OD plays an important role in shaping organizational change (Rothwell, Stravros, & Sullivan, 2010) and can be strategically critical for organizations if it is linked to "substantive content with social process" (Greiner & Cummings, 2004, p. 389). ...
... Porras attributes the individual orientation to the intensive integration of psychologists into the OD field in the 1950s and 1960s. Organizational psychologists, he says, were trained to see internal motives and personal growth as the main reason for individuals' behavior and therefore were busy developing ways to change people (Greiner & Cummings, 2005). As a result, says Porras (Bradford & Porras, 2005, p. 51), these organizational psychologists did not have "a conceptual framework to guide their work, to help them see the big picture from which they could decide what action to take." ...
... This shift which started almost since the beginning of the field but has accelerated reflects business conditions of re cent decades, including factors such as globalization, the pace of change, growing diversity, and technology and innovation. These factors have all had an impact on the type of work being done by practitioners in the organizational sciences field in general, and OD in particular (Greiner & Cummings, 2004;Church & Burke, 2017). It is both broader and yet more specialized at the same time. ...
Chapter
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As a field, organization development (OD) is deeply grounded in a set of core values and principles of practice about how one should work with and in organizations. These perspectives are based on a wide range of theoretical influences on the evolution of the field, including social psychology, group dynamics, psychotherapy, industrial-organizational psychology, participative management, and sociology. Early OD also operationalized new management and behavioral science research that provided evidence of better ways to treat people and run organizations (see Jamieson & Gellermann, 2014, for an overview). It is also the result of a number of external forces including the social milieu of the 1950–1960s, and a response to many of the troubling organization, management, and Human Resources (HR) practices that dominated in the industrial age. At that time, overtly negative, oppressive, bureaucratic, inhumane, and unfair practices were commonplace, and OD practitioners were developing interventions and processes to drive positive changes and instill more empowering and developmental ways of managing organizations and their people. It was an uphill battle early on in the field and still is in many places; however, the values and practices of the field are a key differentiator of OD, particularly when compared to other types of management consulting and change approaches (Church & Jamieson, 2014).
... OD practitioners have even started their own journals, such as Practicing Social Change (http://www.ntl-psc.org/). But considerable concern has been expressed in recent years that OD is no longer stimulating academic scholarship, thatthere are increasing disconnects between OD practice and academic theorizing (e.g., Argyris, 2005;Bartunek & Schein, 2011;Bunker, 2010;Bunker, Alban, & Lewicki, 2004;Greiner & Cummings, 2004). ...
... There is already a lot of ongoing discussion and introspection published on this state and its risks or benefits (see Alvesson, Gabriel, & Paulsen, 2017;Beverungen, Bohm, & Land, 2012;Miller, Taylor, & Bedeian, 2011;Schwarz, Cummings, & Cummings, 2017). Pointedly, this debate is not new to the JABS readership with recognition of these deliberations as early as the 1970s (e.g., Burke, 1976;Kahn, 1974) through the 2000s (e.g., Bradford & Burke, 2004;Greiner & Cummings, 2004), culminating with deep reflection on its 50th anniversary (e.g., Bartunek, 2014;Mirvis, 2014;Schwarz & Stensaker, 2014). JABS therefore faces these landscape challenges and allied pressures but does so from a good space. ...
... There have been many fluctuations in the popularity of OD (Greiner & Cummings, 2004). Nevertheless, OD plays an important role in shaping organizational change (Rothwell, Stravros, & Sullivan, 2010) and can be strategically critical for organizations if it is linked to "substantive content with social process" (Greiner & Cummings, 2004, p. 389). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to consider how process consultants can effectively manage challenges both within and across cultures. This study investigates the multidimensional aspects of process consultation for workgroups that consist of diverse individuals in postmodern organizations. A proposed conceptual framework is developed to include factors that are useful for process consultants to consider when working in multicultural contexts. The micro-multicultural framework integrates the cultural mosaic with Schein’s ORJI (Observation, Reaction, Judgment, and Intervention) cycle. The framework represents the multidimensional aspects of cultural identities and explores verbal and nonverbal communication patterns during process consultation. A checklist for micro-multicultural process consultation is also proposed to demonstrate how a process consultant can perform his or her primary role comprehensively while considering process consultation as group-level phenomena.
... This shift which started almost since the beginning of the field but has accelerated reflects business conditions of re cent decades, including factors such as globalization, the pace of change, growing diversity, and technology and innovation. These factors have all had an impact on the type of work being done by practitioners in the organizational sciences field in general, and OD in particular (Greiner & Cummings, 2004;Church & Burke, 2017). It is both broader and yet more specialized at the same time. ...
Chapter
While anyone can implement a certain set of interventions, one of the key aspects that makes organization development (OD) unique is its core values. It is critical then to take the pulse of and understand the values and perceptions of practitioners in the field of OD periodically in order to understand how things have changed or stayed the same over time. Recently, we undertook such a survey research study as a follow-up to one that had been conducted back in the early 1990s. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize the key highlights of that research. While additional findings can be found elsewhere, the intent here is to focus on the highlights and reflect on what these findings tell us about the current and future state of the values inherent in the OD community today. More specifically, how have we evolved in the last 20 years and where are we heading in the future as a profession?
... With respect to management, a key point is that once a need is met, it no longer provides motivation (Maslow). Consequently, Maslow approached organizational design from the humanistic view rather from a structural or strategic one (Greiner & Cummings, 2004). ...
Article
In this paper, we provide a comprehensive view on the concept of psychological capital (PsyCap) and develop an agenda for future research. PsyCap describes an individual’s psychological capacity that can be measured, developed, and managed for performance improvement. The higher-order construct comprises the psychological resources self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience, and has been linked with a range of desirable work attitudes, behaviors, and other outcomes. By analyzing and structuring the existing literature on PsyCap, we identified several research gaps that require further analysis. In particular, we encourage researchers to expand the research on the effects of PsyCap to other workplace-related domains, especially the field of strategic decision-making, we call for researchers to further study the relationship between emotions and PsyCap, and we suggest to analyze the effects of PsyCap in the context of strategic human resources management. Also, future studies should establish transparency on the interaction between organizational change processes and PsyCap as well as the relative importance of the four components of PsyCap. We close by discussing the implications of our findings for corporate practice, such as employee selection and development.
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Mit Wandel umzugehen ist seit jeher eine zentrale Herausforderung der Unternehmensführung. Die Geschwindigkeit des Wandels in Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft hat sich jedoch im letzten Jahrzehnt erneut erhöht. Aus diesem Grunde ist Agilität gegenwärtig in aller Munde. Auf der Grundlage empirischer Studien geht der Beitrag davon aus, dass in der gegenwärtigen Diskussion Agilität zwar überhöht wird, dass es sich aber nicht um einen vorübergehendes Phänomen handelt. Damit stellt sich die Frage, ob der Organisationsentwicklung (OE) mit der Einführung agiler Arbeitsweisen und dem Wachstum der „Agile Consultancies“ ein Bedeutungsverlust droht? Der Beitrag geht davon aus, dass dies nicht der Fall sein wird. Ganz im Gegenteil: Die OE kann zur erfolgreichen Einführung agiler Arbeitsweisen in den Unternehmen einen gewichtigen methodischen und vor allem konzeptionellen Beitrag leisten. Denn während die OE über jahrzehntelang gewachsenes methodisches und theoretisches Fundament verfügt, liegen für das Thema Agilität bislang nur eine Reihe von praxisbezogener Methoden vor, die wenig theoretische Fundierung aufweisen. Der Beitrag geht aber auch davon aus, dass sich die OE erneuern muss, will sie für die anstehenden Entwicklungen anschlussfähig bleiben. OE und Agilität könnten in diesem Entwicklungsprozess ziemlich beste Freunde werden und viel voneinander lernen.
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This article explores the relationship between the interpersonal skills required by professional actors and those required by organization development (OD) practitioners. The objective is not to turn OD practitioners into actors but rather to indicate what might be a useful source of skill development for OD professionals. Although the end uses for the skill sets diverge, the skills themselves seem similar if not the same, especially the foundational skills of self-awareness, listening, and observing. Traditional methods of learning interpersonal skills may only address traditional OD problems that require diagnostic, positivistic control of behavior change. However, acting training such as improvisational techniques may develop more advanced skills such as reciprocity and collaborating, which are needed to practice dialogic forms of OD grounded in postmodern premises of shared meaning making, multiple realities, and collaborative solutions as proposed by Bushe and Marshak.
Chapter
Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are an odd organizational phenomenon. Although they fail to achieve their financial or strategic goals in about 75% of all cases, leaders regularly use them to achieve desired organizational growth and change. The manner in which most M&As are conceived runs counter to rules of effective leadership and change management—they are characterized by inadequate vision, communication, resources, and teamwork. How does one apply organization development (OD) values and practices in a situation like this? This chapter describes the M&A process and discusses incongruences between OD values and common leadership practices in M&A. It concludes with a look ahead to the emerging threats to and opportunities for utilizing OD in M&A.
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Growth and development refer to different processes in organizations. Not every growth leads to organizational development and not every development is demonstrated in company's growth. This paper seeks to answer a question about the relationship between company's growth and its organizational development. Is quantitative increase in size associated with management transformation, qualitative change and greater excellence in studied companies? The study was carried out in 150 Polish small, medium and large companies and strategic management practices were its subject. The study concentrated on establishing whether bigger companies are also more advanced in organizational development, demonstrated in more integrity, systems approach and adaptability in their strategic management practice.
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PORTFOLIO PROJECT MANAGEMENT (PPM) IN RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT AND INNOVATION (RD&I) FOCUSED ON SHARES OF NA INSTITUTION OF SCIENCE AND TECHHNOLOGY (IST) Abstract Regarding the objective of this study was to scope the development of an indicator of economic and financial order to delimit the extent of investment that corporations have in your corporate structure through a set of economic and financial indexes related to liquidity, profitability, indebtedness and profitability, arising out of economic and financial statements of the corporations studied. This study characterized in the context of typology applied, objective descriptive design literature, the extent of the problem, is characterized as quantitative, comprising a population of 70 Brazilian corporations recognized by the international certification, Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch Ratings, which held the degree of corporate investment in 2008. The findings were based on the results presented by the evolution of the statistical treatment, which were consistent for the model developed. The reliability of the model of investment grade corporate coming of factor analysis was testified by the Cronbach's alpha coefficient, which showed values of 0.768, indicating satisfactory consistency to the study. Keywords: investment grade. Indicator. corporations
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»Das einzige, was sich nicht ändert, ist, dass sich ständig alles ändert!« — so lautet ein in vielen Unternehmen verbreitetes Bonmot! Insofern wäre der ständige Wandel von Organisationen gewissermaßen ein Teil ihrer »Natur«, die zu erklären wiederum ein philosophisches Problem darstellt. Die Arbeits- und Organisationspsychologie kann sich dagegen nur mit bestimmten Arten des Wandels auseinandersetzen — den Versuchen, eine Änderung der Organisation gezielt herbeizuführen, gilt dabei ihr besonderes Interesse. Solche Versuche tragen viele Namen, am bekanntesten ist wohl der Begriff Organisationsentwicklung. Das damit Gemeinte und einige Weiterentwicklungen wie die sog. »lernende Organisation« und die vielfältigen Ansätze zur Gestaltung von Innovationen werden im Folgenden etwas genauer beleuchtet.
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English: In recent years, there has been widespread interest in the implementation of information and communication technologies (ICT) in schools. While most efforts have been directed to studying their introduction in teaching and learning as tools to facilitate the access, management, and processing of information, empirical investigation has not yet paid proper attention to the specific ways ICT foster and support social interaction and community involvement. Adopting a community approach, this PhD dissertation focuses on the incorporation of ICT, and particularly the internet, into the organization and everyday functioning of classrooms and schools in a broad sense, including students’ and teachers’ interactions, patterns of collaboration amongst the teaching staff, school administration, and the opening of the school to families, other professionals, and the local community. To do so, the dissertation is based on a compilation of research papers developed as part of the “Schooling in the network society: The internet in primary and secondary education” and “Integration of the internet in Spanish school education: The current situation and prospects” projects. This research reveals that the Catalan education system is a sparsely connected system where the introduction of the internet does not appear to spark a substantial revolution in the established community-oriented practices, as well as one that plays a secondary role in the promotion of the digital inclusion of children and young people in the Catalan society. Spanish: Durante los últimos años, ha habido un gran interés en el proceso de introducción de las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación (TIC) en las escuelas. Aunque la mayoría de los esfuerzos se han dirigido al estudio de su incorporación en los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje como herramientas para facilitar el acceso, la gestión y el procesamiento de la información, la investigación no ha dedicado suficiente atención a la forma en que las TIC promueven i dan apoyo a la interacción social y el desarrollo comunitario. Adoptando una perspectiva comunitaria, esta tesis doctoral estudia la incorporación de las TIC, y particularmente de internet, en la organización de la actividad cotidiana y el funcionamiento de las aulas y escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las relaciones entre los estudiantes y los profesores, las formas de colaboración del profesorado, la participación de los diferentes colectivos en la gestión de los centros y la apertura de la escuela a las familias, otros profesionales y la comunidad local. Con este propósito, la tesis se estructura a partir de un compendio de publicaciones desarrolladas en el marco de los proyectos de investigación “L’escola a la societat xarxa: internet a l’educació primària i secundària” y “La integración de internet en la educación escolar española: situación actual y perspectivas de futuro”. Esta investigación muestra el sistema educativo de Cataluña como un sistema poco conectado, donde la incorporación de internet no parece responder a una revolución en las prácticas comunitarias, así como un sistema que parece jugar un papel secundario en la promoción de la inclusión digital de los niños y jóvenes en nuestra sociedad. Catalan: Durant els darrers anys, hi ha hagut un gran interès en el procés d’introducció de les tecnologies de la informació i de la comunicació (TIC) a les escoles. Tot i que la majoria dels esforços s’han dirigit a l’estudi de la seva incorporació als processos d’ensenyament i aprenentatge com a eines per facilitar l’accés, la gestió i el processament de la informació, la investigació no ha parat prou atenció a la forma en què les TIC promouen i donen suport a la interacció social i el desenvolupament comunitari. Adoptant una perspectiva comunitària, aquesta tesi doctoral estudia la incorporació de les TIC, i particularment d’internet, a l’organització de l’activitat quotidiana i el funcionament de les aules i escoles, tenint en compte les relacions entre els estudiants i els professors, les formes de col·laboració del professorat, la participació dels diferents col·lectius en la gestió dels centres i l’obertura de l’escola a les famílies, altres professionals i la comunitat local. Amb aquest propòsit, la tesi s’estructura a partir d’un compendi de publicacions desenvolupades en el marc dels projectes d’investigació “L’escola a la societat xarxa: internet a l’educació primària i secundària” i “La integración de internet en la educación escolar española: situación actual y perspectivas de futuro”. Aquesta investigació mostra el sistema educatiu de Catalunya com un sistema poc connectat, on la incorporació d’internet no sembla respondre a una revolució en les pràctiques comunitàries, així com un sistema que sembla jugar un paper secundari en la promoció de la inclusió digital dels nens i joves en la nostra societat.
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This article moves beyond descriptives of how we "do" change in a test of whether there is an empirical basis for knowing where in its life cycle is organizational change research. Questioning typical assumptions about change, it indicates what progress in the field looks like by plotting the patterning of temporal effects and life cycle in articles published in eight journals between 1947 and 2008 (n = 473). Findings indicate that the publication of more on change has not equated with more developed knowledge. As a community, change researchers are overwhelmingly focused on the most conservative type of progress, resulting in research that replicates rather than extends or develops, which ranks fairly low on a knowledge development scale. This illusion of knowledge development is described and explained by researcher reliance on existing idea mobilization and on belief prisons. The article concludes with discussion of implications for research and publishing practice.
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Organisationsentwicklung (OE) als geplanter organisationaler Wandel versucht, durch geeignete Maßnahmen der Führung und der Kooperation die Effektivität der Abläufe in der Organisation zu sichern und gleichzeitig die Lernfähigkeit bzw. die Flexibilität und Innovationsfähigkeit der Organisation zu stärken. Historisch gesehen hat OE drei Wurzeln: das gruppendynamische Verfahren der Laboratoriumsmethode, die Datenerhebungs- und Rückkopplungsmethode sowie die soziotechnische Systemtheorie. Beim strukturalen Ansatz wird versucht, die Strukturen der Organisation zu ändern, damit sich das Verhalten ändert. Der prozessuale Ansatz konzentriert sich auf die zwischenmenschlichen Prozesse und der personale Ansatz versucht die Individuen zu verändern. Durch Prozessberatung sollen die Betroffenen ihre Aktivitäten geplant steuern und die Zusammenarbeit entsprechend ihren Zielen gestalten. OE-Maßnahmen beeinflussen sowohl psychologische als auch betriebswirtschaftliche Kenngrößen positiv.
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Organisationsentwicklung (OE) als geplanter organisationaler Wandel versucht durch Führung und Kooperation die Effektivität der Abläufe in der Organisation zu sichern. Historisch gesehen hat OE drei Wurzeln: das gruppendynamische Verfahren der Laboratoriumsmethode, das Survey Feedback und die soziotechnische Systemtheorie. Beim strukturalen Ansatz wird versucht, die Strukturen der Organisation zu ändern, damit sich das Verhalten ändert. Der prozessuale Ansatz konzentriert sich auf die zwischenmenschlichen Prozesse. Der personale Ansatz setzt an Individuen an. Durch Prozessberatung sollen die Betroffenen ihre Aktivitäten geplant steuern und die Zusammenarbeit entsprechend ihren Zielen gestalten. Sogenannte dialogische Methoden der OE unterscheiden sich nicht wesentlich von den klassischen Maßnahmen. Organisationale Innovation kann u. a. durch flexible Führung befördert werden. OE-Maßnahmen beeinflussen sowohl psychologische als auch betriebswirtschaftliche Kenngrößen positiv.
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