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... Having sound judgment is an important aspect of effective leadership (Lawrence, Lenk, & Quinn, 2009), and while morality plays a role, so do other factors, such as the virtues of courage and temperance. Accordingly, the current research views character as a set of virtues that are universally considered to be important to well-being and excellence (Bright, Cameron, & Caza, 2006;Moore, 2005;Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015). ...
... 292). Character, then, helps leaders to engage their competencies (e.g., Irwin, 2009) while also exercising judgment across contexts ( Seijts et al., 2015;Yearley, 1990). Leading others, for example, includes competencies in motivation, teamwork, delegation, and contingent rewards (Mumford, Campion, & Morgeson, 2007), which are often discussed in business school programs and leadership development workshops in firms. ...
... These dimensions create a framework of character that "is not age or culturally bounded because its contents have been suggested throughout history and across cultures by philosophers and theologians and in a wide variety of major psychological theories" (Sosik & Cameron, 2010, p. 252). Recent research on character that extends Peterson and Seligman's (2004) framework and more closely aligns character to practicing leaders identifies 11 dimensions of character: courage, humanity, justice, temperance, transcendence, accountability, drive, collaboration, humility, integrity, and judgment Seijts et al., 2015). One key difference between these frameworks is that, in the eleven-dimension framework, the dimension of judgment-akin to Aristotle's notion of "practical wisdom"-is elevated, with all other dimensions interconnected to it, because judgment allows one to identify and understand the particularities of each situation (Crossan, Seitjs, Reno, Monzani, & Gandz, in press). ...
Article
Transcendent leadership requires strategic leaders to lead at the levels of the self, others, and the organization. We expand this model within a leadership substitutes framework to provide a more realistic view of this phenomenon. Since leading at multiple levels requires a broad range of skills, it may be too much to ask of one single individual, and leaders may need to rely on substitutes to account for their weaknesses. In addition, we help create a comprehensive picture of transcendental leadership by building on the corporate social responsibility and stakeholder management literatures to develop the societal level of this construct.
... In addition, humility has proved to have a significant effect on individuals' effort for learning and personal improvement. Without humility, individuals are unable to understand and learn from their own mistakes and the mistakes of others and use that understanding to improve themselves (Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015). Humility results in better self-awareness which is the first step in continual learning and personal development (Crossan, Mazutis, Seijts, & Gandz, 2013a;Crossan, Vera, & Nanjad, 2008). ...
... Recent research on character which is based on studies on organizational leadership extends Peterson and Seligman's framework and creates a new framework with eleven dimensions. These dimensions include courage, humanity, justice, temperance, transcendence, accountability, drive, collaboration, humility, integrity, and judgment Seijts et al., 2015). In Peterson and Seligman's classification, humility was considered a sub-category of the virtue of temperance. ...
... This is due to the burgeoning research in the leadership literature which highlights humility as one of the important virtues that influence leadership (e.g., Ou et al., 2014;Owens, Johnson, & Mitchell, 2013). As Seijts et al. (2015) explains, humility is one of the main qualities of an individual. It allows one to learn from his/her mistakes and from the mistakes of others. ...
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Leadership competencies are important contributing factors of successful performance among leaders. As theory suggests, humility can have a significant effect on building emotional and social competencies. In this study, we examine the effect of humility on competencies both directly and indirectly, through its effect on judgment. We designed and conducted a self-reported survey to measure humility, judgment, and emotional and social competencies among 165 management students. The results of our study showed that humility had a significant positive effect on emotional and social competencies, including self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management. In addition, judgment had a significant mediating role on the relationship between humility and competencies. These results provide support for the important role of humility on personal learning and development as was previously discussed in the literature. Considering its important role, strategies have been recommended in the discussion section to improve humility both at personal and organizational levels.
... Having sound judgment is an important aspect of effective leadership (Lawrence, Lenk, & Quinn, 2009), and while morality plays a role, so do other factors, such as the virtues of courage and temperance. Accordingly, the current research views character as a set of virtues that are universally considered to be important to well-being and excellence (Bright, Cameron, & Caza, 2006;Moore, 2005;Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015). ...
... These dimensions create a framework of character that "is not age or culturally bounded because its contents have been suggested throughout history and across cultures by philosophers and theologians and in a wide variety of major psychological theories" (Sosik & Cameron, 2010, p. 252). Recent research on character that extends Peterson and Seligman's (2004) framework and more closely aligns character to practicing leaders identifies 11 dimensions of character: courage, humanity, justice, temperance, transcendence, accountability, drive, collaboration, humility, integrity, and judgment Seijts et al., 2015). One key difference between these frameworks is that, in the eleven-dimension framework, the dimension of judgment-akin to Aristotle's notion of "practical wisdom"-is elevated, with all other dimensions interconnected to it, because judgment allows one to identify and understand the particularities of each situation (Crossan, Seitjs, Reno, Monzani, & Gandz, in press). ...
... The extant literature has discussed an array of competencies that can help leaders navigate the increasing demands being placed on them (Conger, 2004;Crossan, Vera, & Nanjad, 2008;Seijts et al., 2015), though the typologies and classifications of competencies are rather varied and depend on context and purpose (Cardy & Selvarajan, 2006;Morales-Sánchez & Cabello-Medina, 2013). For example, Gentry and Sparks' (2012) cross-cultural analysis found resourcefulness, change management, and building and mending relationships to be important competencies while Spreitzer et al. (1997) included being insightful, having broad business knowledge, and having the ability to bring out the best in people, as important competencies. ...
Article
Whereas the micro- and macro-oriented leadership literatures have often studied leader competencies necessary for effective performance, the role of leader character in relation to competencies and performance has been to a large extent neglected. Our work seeks to shift the scholarly dialogue by introducing the concept of character-competence entanglement, which reflects the binding between character and competence over time. The highest degree of entanglement represents the deep and more persistent interconnection and mutually-reinforcing effect between highly-developed leader character and highly-developed leader competence, whereas in cases of low entanglement, character can be activated temporarily in a particular context to help strengthen the relationship between competence and performance. Our core proposition is that high character-competence entanglement will lead to extraordinary performance over time. In addition, we emphasize that relying on naturally-occurring learning opportunities and the processes of “learning-by-living” both outside and inside the organization will positively impact the development of character-competence entanglement.
... This view is supported by Kegan (1982) who stated that individuals develop progressively more complex understandings of their environment through their accumulated experiences. Leaders can enhance their awareness of integrity through deliberated interventions such as training and mentoring and through relationships and challenging experiences (McKenna & Campbell, 2011;Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015;Sosik et al., 2012). In addition, coaching of leaders is considered one of many appropriate interventions for leader development aimed at improving leader behaviours and performance (Anthony, 2017;Grant, 2017a). ...
... Development of leaders' awareness of integrity as a dimension of character is neither well defined nor regularly discussed (Seijts et al., 2015). If leader integrity is important for an effective leadership and sustainable performance, then it is imperative that organisations provide appropriate support to leaders to develop their awareness of integrity. ...
... This fits well with the conceptualisations of Palanski and Yammarino and Six, De Bakker and Huberts, as well as with the view of Peterson and Seligman that integrity is at the crossing between honesty and authenticity (Palanski & Yammarino, 2011;Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Six, De Bakker, & Huberts, 2007). The operationalised version would include behaving consistently with ethical standards, even in difficult situations; others see it as behaving in a way that is consistent with their personal values and beliefs Seijts et al., 2015;Seijts & Gandz, 2018). Integrity is also FIGURE 1: Theoretical perspectives underpinning this research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Purpose: There is a need for leading with integrity to contribute to sustainable effectiveness and performance in the organisational context. The purpose of this research was to provide insight into the elements that could facilitate the development of leaders’ awareness of integrity to support positive leader outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was the research design, and purposive, convenience sampling was utilised to select six leaders. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with these leaders and reflective notes of the researcher as coach to explore leaders’ experience of the contribution of coaching to the development of awareness of integrity. Findings/results: Based on the experiences of these leaders, the findings suggest that even a small number of coaching sessions using a strengths-based approach contributed towards an increase in awareness of the importance of integrity. Positive leader outcomes were also identified. The study supports the use of a strengths-based approach to coaching, such as a solution-focussed cognitive-behavioural (SF-CB) approach, whilst coaching leaders. Practical implications: The findings have implications for organisations and coaches. The findings confirm the selection of coaching as a suitable intervention to develop awareness of integrity and achieve positive leader outcomes. Findings provide evidence to guide human resources professionals whilst deciding on an appropriate intervention for leader development. In addition, coaches could base their selection of an approach on the evidence supporting the use of an SF-CB coaching approach in the context of developing leaders’ awareness of the importance of integrity. Originality/value: The findings highlight the efficacy of using a strengths-based approach – specifically an SF-CB approach – to increase leaders’ awareness of integrity and drive positive leader outcomes.
... While various approaches to understanding and defining character are described in the scholarly literature (see Conger and Hollenbeck 2010), we adopt the definition as earlier articulated by Bright et al. (2006) such that character is the habit of cognition, emotion, and behavior that embodies excellence and produces social betterment. Unpacking that definition, we recognize that character is a multi-dimensional construct such that it is rooted in virtues, values, and personality traits that enable excellence (e.g., Crossan et al. 2017;Hackett and Wang 2012;Seijts et al. 2015). Virtues are contextually appropriate behaviors that are widely seen as emblematic of good leadership. ...
... Crossan, Seijts and colleagues sought to understand how the virtues and character strengths that Peterson and Seligman identified are understood, accepted, and enacted in leadership practice through a three-phase, multi-method approach (e.g., Crossan et al. 2017;Seijts et al. 2015). They sought input from over 2500 leaders in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors. ...
... Research on leader character is burgeoning. Leaders in the public, private, and notfor-profit sectors agree that character is important to achieve sustained excellence (e.g., Crossan et al. 2016;Seijts et al. 2015). Empirical evidence shows that character is related to individual, team, and organizational performance (e.g., Cameron et al. 2004;Cohen et al. 2014;Crossan et al. 2017;Gentry et al. 2013;Kiel 2015;Owens and Hekman 2016;Sosik et al. 2012). ...
... This view is supported by Kegan (1982) who stated that individuals develop progressively more complex understandings of their environment through their accumulated experiences. Leaders can enhance their awareness of integrity through deliberated interventions such as training and mentoring and through relationships and challenging experiences (McKenna & Campbell, 2011;Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015;Sosik et al., 2012). In addition, coaching of leaders is considered one of many appropriate interventions for leader development aimed at improving leader behaviours and performance (Anthony, 2017;Grant, 2017a). ...
... Development of leaders' awareness of integrity as a dimension of character is neither well defined nor regularly discussed (Seijts et al., 2015). If leader integrity is important for an effective leadership and sustainable performance, then it is imperative that organisations provide appropriate support to leaders to develop their awareness of integrity. ...
... This fits well with the conceptualisations of Palanski and Yammarino and Six, De Bakker and Huberts, as well as with the view of Peterson and Seligman that integrity is at the crossing between honesty and authenticity (Palanski & Yammarino, 2011;Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Six, De Bakker, & Huberts, 2007). The operationalised version would include behaving consistently with ethical standards, even in difficult situations; others see it as behaving in a way that is consistent with their personal values and beliefs Seijts et al., 2015;Seijts & Gandz, 2018). Integrity is also FIGURE 1: Theoretical perspectives underpinning this research. ...
Article
Full-text available
Coaching for development of leaders‘ awareness of integrity: An evidence-based approach Purpose: There is a need for leading with integrity to contribute to sustainable effectiveness and performance in the organisational context. The purpose of this research was to provide insight into the elements that could support facilitating development of leaders’ awareness of integrity to support positive leader outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was the research design and purposive, convenience sampling was utilised to select six leaders. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews with these leaders and reflective notes of the researcher as coach to explore leaders’ experience of the contribution of coaching to the development of awareness of integrity. Findings: Based on the experiences of these leaders, the findings suggest that even a small number of coaching sessions using a strengths-based approach contributed towards an increase in awareness of the importance of integrity. Positive leader outcomes were also identified. The study supports the use of a strengths-based approach to coaching, such as a solution-focused cognitive-behavioural (SF-CB) model, when coaching leaders. Practical implications: The findings have implications for organisations and coaches. The findings confirm the selection of coaching as a suitable intervention to develop awareness of integrity and achieve positive leader outcomes. Findings provide evidence to guide human resources professionals when deciding on an appropriate intervention for leader development. In addition, coaches could base their selection of an approach on the evidence supporting the use of a SF-CB coaching model in the context of developing leaders’ awareness of the importance of integrity. Originality/value: The findings highlight the efficacy of using a strengths-based approach – specifically a SF-CB approach – in increasing leaders’ awareness of integrity and driving positive leader outcomes.
... While various approaches to understanding and defining character are described in the scholarly literature (see Conger and Hollenbeck 2010), we adopt the definition as earlier articulated by Bright et al. (2006) such that character is the habit of cognition, emotion, and behavior that embodies excellence and produces social betterment. Unpacking that definition, we recognize that character is a multi-dimensional construct such that it is rooted in virtues, values, and personality traits that enable excellence (e.g., Crossan et al. 2017;Hackett and Wang 2012;Seijts et al. 2015). Virtues are contextually appropriate behaviors that are widely seen as emblematic of good leadership. ...
... Crossan, Seijts and colleagues sought to understand how the virtues and character strengths that Peterson and Seligman identified are understood, accepted, and enacted in leadership practice through a three-phase, multi-method approach (e.g., Crossan et al. 2017;Seijts et al. 2015). They sought input from over 2500 leaders in the public, private and not-for-profit sectors. ...
... Research on leader character is burgeoning. Leaders in the public, private, and notfor-profit sectors agree that character is important to achieve sustained excellence (e.g., Crossan et al. 2016;Seijts et al. 2015). Empirical evidence shows that character is related to individual, team, and organizational performance (e.g., Cameron et al. 2004;Cohen et al. 2014;Crossan et al. 2017;Gentry et al. 2013;Kiel 2015;Owens and Hekman 2016;Sosik et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Despite the critical leadership role that corporate boards play in organizations, the character of their members has been neglected in research studies. We used a multi-method data collection approach to explore whether current directors in the public, private, and not-for-profit sectors believe that leader character plays an important role in board governance, particularly with regards to how boards make decisions, recruit new members, lead their organizations, and work together to perform their fiduciary and other responsibilities. Despite the perceived importance of leader character as reported by highly experienced corporate directors, we found that leader character is not commonly attended to in board conversations as a means to purposively improve the way boards operate. We outline practical implications of our findings as well as offer a call to action for future research on character in the context of board governance with the intent to improve governance in the public, private, and not-for-profit sectors and hence to foster sustained excellence in organizations. © 2018 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature
... Leader character forms an indisputable aspect of these models of leadership. As a result, researchers (e.g., Seijts, et al., 2015;Sosik, 2006) have acknowledged the role of character in leadership. To date, minimal attention has been attributed to the role of character in leadership within intercollegiate athletics administration, which served as a catalyst for the current study. ...
... The purpose of the current study was to examine the concept of character in leadership within Canadian intercollegiate athletics programs. Specifically, the present study investigated the leader character of Canadian intercollegiate athletics administrators (i.e., Athletic Directors and Associate Athletic Directors/Coordinators) using the Leader Character Insight Assessment (Seijts et al., 2015). Hackett and Wang (2012) suggested that the most recent theoretical developments in leadership (e.g., servant leadership, transformational leadership, visionary leadership, and charismatic leadership) are based on elements of leader character. ...
... Hackett and Wang (2012) suggested that the most recent theoretical developments in leadership (e.g., servant leadership, transformational leadership, visionary leadership, and charismatic leadership) are based on elements of leader character. Recent developments in servant leadership (Greenleaf, 1977;Hammermeister, Burton, Pickering, Chase, Westre, & Baldwin, 2008), which places the interests of followers before those of the leaders (Sendjaya, 2015), underscores and emphasizes the role of character in leadership and leadership effectiveness (Brooks, 2015;Hu & Liden, 2011;Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015) and thus provides a useful theoretical framework for the current research. ...
... Second, we provide a robust framework of leader character, which has been validated by practitioners through an engaged scholarship approach, serving to bring leader character into mainstream leadership research. We extend the traditional competency and interpersonal focus on leadership to embrace the critical component of leader character (Seijts, Gandz, Crossan & Reno 2015;Thompson, Grahek, Phillips & Fay, 2008;Tsui, 2013). We articulate how leader character complements and strengthens several existing theories of behavioral approaches to leadership, responding to the call for more integrative theorizing and research in the field of leadership (Avolio, 2007). ...
... 27). Therefore, in further unpacking Bright et al.'s (2006) definition of character, it is important to recognize that virtuous character (henceforth, character) is an amalgam of virtues, personality traits and values that enable excellence, as discussed by Seijts et al. (2015). Virtues refer to situationally-appropriate behaviors that are widely considered emblematic of good leadership. ...
Article
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While the construct of character is well grounded in philosophy, ethics, and more recently psychology, it lags in acceptance and legitimacy within management research and mainstream practice. Our research seeks to remedy this through four contributions. First, we offer a framework of leader character that provides rigor through a three-phase, multi-method approach involving 1,817 leaders, and relevance by using an engaged scholarship epistemology to validate the framework with practicing leaders. This framework highlights the theoretical underpinnings of the leader character model and articulates the character dimensions and elements that operate in concert to promote effective leadership. Second, we bring leader character into mainstream management research, extending the traditional competency and interpersonal focus on leadership to embrace the foundational component of leader character. In doing this, we articulate how leader character complements and strengthens several existing theories of leadership. Third, we extend the virtues-based approach to ethical decision making to the broader domain of judgment and decision making in support of pursuing individual and organization effectiveness. Finally, we offer promising directions for future research on leader character that will also serve the larger domain of leadership research.
... This paper reports on part of a wider study that attempted to validate existing measures of individual and organisational virtue and examine their interaction within a wider range of concepts related to ethics 1 . Indeed, although studies have developed measures at the individual Riggio et al., 2010;Sarros et al., 2006;Seijts et al., 2015;Shanahan and Hyman, 2003;Thun and Kelloway, 2011;Wang and Hackett, 2016), team (Palanski et al., 2011;Rego et al., 2013Rego et al., , 2015 and organisational level (Cameron et al., 2004(Cameron et al., , 2011Chun, 2005;Fernando and Moore, 2015;Kaptein , 2008;Moore, 2012a) limited work has taken place to validate these measures after they have been created. It is important to establish credible measures of virtue and that existing measures undergo critical examination and testing. ...
... Moving beyond the business ethics literature, several measures of leadership virtues relevant to business have been developed Thun and Kelloway, 2011;Sarros et al., 2006;Seijts et al., 2015;Wang and Hackett, 2016). Sarros et al.'s (2006) Virtuous Leadership Scale (VLS), that is based on seven items measuring humility, courage, integrity, compassion, humour, passion and wisdom generated by a qualitative study of leaders in Australian business organisations conducted by Barker and Coy (2003), is an early example. ...
Article
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This paper argues that Shanahan and Hyman’s (J Bus Eth 42:197–208, 2003) Virtue Ethics Scale (VES) should be abandoned and that work should begin to develop better-grounded measures for identifying individual business virtue (IBV) in context. It comes to this conclusion despite the VES being the only existing measure of individuals’ virtues that focuses on business people in general, rather than those who hold specific leadership or audit roles. The paper presents a study that, in attempting to validate the VES, raises significant concerns about its construction. In particular, investigation of the VES items leads to adjustments in the language used and examines participants’ understanding of the virtue terms and their descriptors. Confirmatory factor analysis of data collected from a sample of 137 HR practitioners establishes that the 6-factor solution identified by Shanahan and Hyman is not appropriate for the sample under examination. Rather, exploratory factor analysis results in three dimensions based in 13 items focusing on the individuals’ reliability, resourcefulness, and leadership. Finally, multiple regression establishes that these dimensions do not on the whole show associations with MA or PRESOR, two measures through which it would be expected to establish convergent and divergent validity. The paper concludes by suggesting guidelines for the development of future measures of IBV.
... The purpose of this proposal is to introduce a promising practice for governing sport organizations. Organizations have focused largely on competence development, but have neglected character development (Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015). Developing and embedding leader character in governing sport organizations is essential to enhance decision-making, which will not only mitigate corruption, but elevate performance and provide a sustainable competitive advantage (Crossan, Furlong, Gandz, & Seijts, 2018). ...
... The leader character framework developed by the Western University Ivey Business School leader character research team includes 11 character dimensions, presented as virtuous behaviours that are interconnected: judgment, transcendence, drive, collaboration, humanity, humility, integrity, temperance, justice, accountability, and courage. A character dimension can become a vice when deficient or unsupported by the other character dimensions (Seijts et al., 2015). For example, courage unsupported by temperance becomes reckless. ...
... The United States (11 studies), China (3 studies), and the United Kingdom (3 studies) stand out. Some articles discussed research results referring to two countries (Bai et al., 2020;Beekun et al., 2005;Hudecek et al., 2020;Seijts et al., 2015). Some studies recruited respondents via platforms, such as remote workers on Amazon Mturk (Bernabe-Valero et al., 2020;Colombo et al., 2021;Kim et al., 2021;Mansur et al., 2020). ...
... In their Character Strengths in Leadership scale, Thun and Kelloway (2011) find the factors humanity (4 items), wisdom (5), and temperance (5), while Seijts et al. (2015) discuss character as an amalgamation of virtues, personality traits, and values, describing 11 elements of character and their importance to the leadership. Finally, Mansur et al. (2020) suggest that moral courage contributes to ethical leadership and group citizenship behavior. ...
Article
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Objective: to investigate how scales for the concept of moral virtues are constructed and measured, in studies associated with business ethics and the tradition of virtue ethics. Methods: a systematic literature review was conducted to select empirical articles on moral virtues that design or apply scales. Based on search, selection, and analysis criteria, five databases were consulted, and 37 papers were selected, with subsequent analysis of the scales development and measurement procedure (items, sample, factor analysis) and emerging factors. Results: the study gathers scales of multiple moral virtues (19) and of specific virtues (18), showing limitations in the generation of items, and in the item-sample proportion in some scales, as well as theoretical contributions in leadership and relationship strengthening, making a theoretical and methodological discussion in the light of the assumptions of virtue ethics in the Aristotelian-Thomistic tradition. Conclusions: the article intends to contribute to a better understanding of moral virtues in management, by discussing the scales from the unity of virtues and the phronesis-moral virtues connection, with implications for human behavior and business ethics. Procedures are recommended for future qualitative and quantitative studies in new research contexts.
... Finally, "practitioners" skillfully draw on their practices as a result of habituation and enact, through praxis, their practices, giving them a particular moral contour (an ethos or normative style), in particular contexts and in light of their experiences (Lockwood, 2013). What is important about practitioners is not only what organizational roles and positions they occupy, as strategy-aspractice research has mainly assumed (Jarzabkowski et al., 2016: 252), but what character they have formed (Crossan et al., 2013;Seijts et al., 2015). ...
... Where is morality in, say, "spontaneous re-engineering"? From a virtue ethics perspective, the performance of any role and the enactment of any routine are shot through with a particular ethos, expressive of character (Seijts et al., 2015: 66)-how one should treat others and respond to situations (Benner, 2004: 195;Sayer, 2011: 144;Spinosa et al., 1997: 20-22). Moreover, in contrast with other moral philosophies, such as utilitarianism and Kantianism (Chappell, 2009), virtue ethics is not about suggesting optimizing formulae or universal rules concerning what is the right thing to do, but becoming a certain sort of person-"the sort of person who lives a life expressive of the virtues" (McAleer, 2008: 49). ...
Article
Strategy-as-practice research has usefully built on earlier strategy process research by taking into account the social embeddedness of strategy making. While such an approach has generated valuable insights, it has curiously left unexplored the moral dimension of practice. In this article, we show how the potential of strategy-as-practice research may be more fully realized if the moral dimension of practice is conceptualized through virtue ethics (especially MacIntyre’s version). Specifically, we first reconceptualize, through virtue ethics, the three main concepts of strategy-as-practice—practice, praxis, and practitioners—underscoring the inherently moral constitution of actions undertaken in strategy-related work. Moreover, we suggest that strategic management is viewed as a particular kind of practice (what we call “competitive institutional practice”), charged with “values articulation work” and “balancing work.” While the former articulates a good purpose for the organization, the latter seeks to care for both excellence and success through balancing “capabilities development work” with “differentiation work.” Illustrations are provided to support this argument, and several suggestions for further research are offered.
... It is no surprise, therefore, that scholars have urged that character be elevated alongside competencies in leadership research and practice (e.g. Hannah and Avolio, 2011;Seijts et al., 2015;Sturm et al., 2017;Wright and Quick, 2011). ...
... Crossan, Gandz, Seijts and their colleagues initiated a comprehensive research program to examine character in organizational and managerial contexts (e.g. Crossan et al., 2016Crossan et al., , 2017Seijts et al., 2015Seijts et al., , 2019 and, in doing so, they extended the seminal work of Peterson and Seligman (2004) on virtues and character strengths to organizational settings. Both qualitative and quantitative studies involving over 2,500 leaders from the public, private and not-for-profit sectors led to the identification of 11 character dimensions and 61 character elements (see Figure 1). ...
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Purpose There has been a surge of interest in leader character and a push to bring character into mainstream management theory and practice. Research has shown that CEOs and board members have many questions about the construct of leader character. For example, they like to see hard data indicating to what extent character contributes to organizational performance. Human resource management professionals are often confronted with the need to discuss and demonstrate the value of training and development initiatives. The question as to whether such interventions have a dollars-and-cents return on the investment is an important one to consider for any organizational decision-maker, especially given the demand for increased accountability, the push for transparency and tightening budgets in organizations. The authors investigated the potential dollar impact associated with the placement of managers based on the assessment of leader character, and they used utility analysis to estimate the dollar value associated with the use of one instrument – the Leader Character Insight Assessment or LCIA – to measure leader character. Design/methodology/approach The authors used field data collected for purposes of succession planning in a large Canadian manufacturing organization. The focus was on identifying senior management candidates suitable for placement into the most senior levels of leadership in the organization. Peers completed the LCIA to obtain leader character ratings of the candidates. The LCIA is a behaviorally based and validated instrument to assess leader character. Performance assessments of the candidates were obtained through supervisor ratings. Findings The correlation between the leader character measure provided by peers and performance assessed by the supervisor was 0.30 ( p < 0.01). Using the data required to calculate ΔU from the Brogden-Cronbach-Gleser model leads to an estimate of CAD $564,128 for the use of the LCIA over the expected tenure of 15 years, which is equivalent to CAD $37,609 yearly; and CAD $375,285 over an expected tenure of 10 years, which is equivalent to CAD $37,529 yearly. The results of the study also indicate that there is still a positive and sizeable return on investment or ROI associated with the LCIA in employee placement even with highly conservative adjustments to the basic utility analysis formula. Originality/value Utility analysis is a quantitative and robust method of evaluating human resource programs. The authors provide an illustration of the potential utility of the LCIA in a selection process for senior managers. They assert that selecting and promoting managers on leader character and developing their character-based leadership will not only leverage their own contributions to the organization but also contribute to a trickle-down effect on employees below them.
... Crossan, Seijts, and their colleagues sought to understand how the virtues and associated character strengths that Peterson and Seligman (2004) identified in their seminal work are understood, accepted, and enacted in the practice of leadership in contemporary organizations in the public, private, and not-for-profit sectors (Crossan, Seijts, and Gandz 2016;Crossan et al. 2017;Seijts et al. 2015). Their qualitative (e.g., focus groups, interviews) and quantitative (e.g., Q-sort methodology, surveys) research involving over 2,500 leaders in the public, private, and not-for-profit sectors led to the development of the leader character framework shown in figure 1. ...
... We acknowledge that character is a poorly developed construct in political science-it has often been used in a cavalier way despite its apparent importance in political leadership. Leaders in the public, private, and not-for-profit sectors expressed the need for a contemporary, practice-focused vocabulary with which to address character in the workplace including political office (Crossan, Seijts, and Gandz 2016;Seijts et al. 2015). In our study, we explored how the character of three leaders-Justin Trudeau, Hillary Clinton, and Donald Trump-are perceived in relation to the dimensions that Crossan et al. (2017) identified through rigorous research. ...
Article
In exploratory research, we investigate whether a recently developed framework of leader character, grounded in the business administration literature, has any utility for understanding how citizens value the character of modern political leaders. We are interested in whether the entire leader character framework, or only a subset of its dimensions, are valued by Canadians in political leaders. An opinion poll of 506 Canadians in the fall of 2016 examines how they responded to the framework, which dimensions of leader character they value highly, and how they employed it to evaluate three well-known politicians who were then in the media spotlight: Canadian prime minister Justin Trudeau; and American presidential candidates Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump. The results suggest Canadians possess a clear, distinct set of preferences with respect to the ideal shape of leader character. This finding is salient toward understanding the modern political culture of Canada, as well as addressing speculation that the rise of populism in many countries suggests voters might embrace a leader in the mould of American president Donald Trump.
... Senior directors and executives consistently perceive character to play an important role in professional organisations, yet indicate that character is rarely given precedence in organisational cultures, professional training and recruitment processes (e.g. Seijts et al. 2015Seijts et al. , 2019. Such discussions are set within a wider context of constraining socio-economic initiatives focused on efficiencies, budget cuts and new management practices, which have had a substantial impact on many professional contexts (see Evetts 2009;Lewis et al. 2017). ...
... Consequently, when judgement is not synergised with dimensions of character, it may be directed in a vicelike manner towards self-serving or vicious ends (Aristotle 2009). These practitioners depict the very profile that MacIntyre cautions against as they may be less likely to draw upon qualities of character to guide their decision-making when dealing with changeable professional scenarios (Carr 2018;Seijts et al. 2015). The realisation of this judgement-only profile offers a basis for further research to explore whether professionals with such a profile may be more prone to incidents of systematic malpractice and professional misconduct. ...
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Dimensions of character are often overlooked in professional practice at the expense of the development of technical competence and operational efficiency. Drawing on philosophical accounts of virtue ethics and positive psychology, the present work attempts to elevate the role of ‘good’ character in the professional domain. A ‘good’ professional is ideally one that exemplifies dimensions of character informed by sound judgement. A total of 2340 professionals, from five discrete professions, were profiled based on their valuation of qualities pertaining to character and judgement. Profile differences were subsequently examined in the self-reported experience of professional purpose towards a wider societal ‘good’. Analysis of covariance, controlling for stage of career, revealed that professionals valuing character reported higher professional purpose than those overweighting the importance of judgement or valuing neither character nor judgement, F(3, 2054) = 7.92, p < .001. No differences were found between the two groups valuing character, irrespective of whether judgement was valued simultaneously. This profiling analysis of entry-level and in-service professionals, based on their holistic character composition, paves the way for fresh philosophical discussion regarding what constitutes a ‘good’ professional and the interplay between character and judgement. The empirical findings may be of substantive value in helping to recognise how the dimensions of character and judgement may impact upon practitioners’ professional purpose.
... How "foundational to effective decision-making and functioning" of leaders (Crossan, Seijts & Gandz, 2016: 6). However, whereas prior studies focused on the outcomes of leader character, such as performance potential (Crossan, Byrne, Seijts, Reno, Monzani, & Gandz, 2017;Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015), less is known about the antecedents of leader character (Crossan, Mazutis, Seijts, & Gandz, 2013). ...
Article
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Leader role schemas as well as aspirations for leadership are shaped by stereotypes embedded and reinforced in a cultural context often at an unconscious level. Efforts towards gender equality in leader roles are generally targeted either at the organizational level or at the individual level, but rarely is an integrated approach used. Leader identity offers such an integrated approach where mechanisms of individual leader identity development are understood within the stereotype embedded context. Steele (2010) suggests that environments are organized by social identities and that contingencies and cues about a setting’s inclusivity can add or counter identity threats that speak to marginality. The papers presented in this symposium offer organizations and individuals new narratives of leader identity by focusing on aspects of leader identity that are not primed by gender, race, age, or other social identities: critical mass, leader uniqueness, leader character, leader moral identity, and granted versus claimed leader identity.
... Character strengths associated with the virtue of courage counteract inherent human tendencies to avoid danger, hardship, labor, or social awkwardness (Peterson & Seligman, 2004). Considered as an aggregate, strengths of courage are associate with leadership effectiveness (Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015), perceived military leadership capability (Boe et al., 2015), and ethical behavior in work settings (Hannah, Avoli, & Walumbw, 2011). Peterson and Seligman (2004) identified four character strengths of courage. ...
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The use of character strengths in the workplace is associated with increased levels of employee well-being and organizational effectiveness. Researchers have investigated the use of the Using Your Signature Strengths in a New Way (UYSSNW) exercise in work settings, but this intervention has been only marginally successful in increasing employees’ self-reported strengths use. The specific problem that prompted this research was research about UYSSNW efficacy to enhance strengths use in work settings was needed to inform stakeholders charged with facilitating employee well-being and organizational effectiveness. The purpose of this quantitative experimental study was to determine the efficacy of the UYSSNW to increase strengths use in work settings by comparing the effectiveness of the UYSSNW in two intervention types: a standard UYSSNW exercise and a UYSSNW exercise combined with a structured debriefing. A total of 69 employees from a variety of occupational groups working in a single mediumsized manufacturing firm in the United States completed the study. The independent variable was intervention type and the dependent variables were number of goals set and strengths use. The data for this study were collected via a web-based survey administered immediately after the intervention period. The results of the MANOVA revealed significant between-groups differences on the linear combination of both dependent variables. Analysis of ANOVAs indicated significant between-groups differences on both strengths use and number of goals set. Effect size estimates revealed a moderate magnitude of between group differences for both strengths use and number of goals set. The study findings suggest the UYSSNW exercise combined with a structured debriefing is superior to the standard UYSSNW exercise in enhancing strengths use and iv number of goals set. The results of the current study suggest organizational stakeholders should adopt the UYSSNW exercise combined with a structured debriefing to help employees increase their strengths use in work settings. Future research recommendations include replicating this study with a more diverse sample, adding a long-term follow-up measure of strengths use, examining the clarity of goals set by participants, and comparing the effectiveness of the video-based coaching employed in this study with traditional one-one-one coaching.
... Dette innebaerer altså vektlegging av hvert av de 14 underkriteriene presentert i tabell fire. Nyere forskning kan indikere at fremtidig forskning også bør vektlegge lederens karakter, eller iboende egenskaper (Seijts, Gandz, Crossan & Reno, 2015). Teorier som vektlegger karakter, egner seg likevel ikke nødvendigvis for kvalitative undersøkelser der intervjuobjektene skal beskrive egen lederatferd. ...
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Published in Magma, a Norwegian peer-reviewed journal of economy and leadership. The article outlines "Transcendent leadership" as a theoretical framework to study and describe leadership behaviour. The findings are based on an empirical study of leadership in the Norwegian media industry.
... While a formal definition of leader character has yet to be agreed on (Cohen & Morse, 2014;Conger & Hollenbeck, 2010), we align our work in virtuous character, which reflects the habits of cognition, emotion, volition, and behavior that embody human excellence and produce social betterment (Bright, Cameron, & Caza, 2006;Moore, 2005). In further unpacking this definition, we suggest that virtuous character (henceforth character) is an amalgam of virtues, personality traits, and values that enable excellence (Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015). Virtues are situationally appropriate behaviors, such as temperance and integrity, that are widely considered by individuals as emblematic of good leadership. ...
Article
Business schools strive to develop leadership excellence in their students. In this essay, we suggest that educators should find ways to help students develop and deepen leader character, a fundamental component of exemplary leadership. Frequently, business school students have preconceived ideas of leadership, often neglecting leader character. We argue that educators can and should teach students that leader character is pivotal to leadership excellence and that they should actively develop students’ leader character. The foundational learning theories of Piaget and Kolb provide a useful framework to help achieve the development of leader character. We propose that leader character development arises from using accommodation learning strategies of crucible experiences, paired with assimilation learning methods of critical reflection, and further developed through equilibrium learning strategies where students can incorporate new information and work toward their personal character growth. While numerous teaching approaches can be used, we describe an experiential course, codesigned with members of the Canadian Forces, using these learning strategies to foster leader character development.
... For example, some evidence suggests that authentic transformational leadership leads to reduced leaders' work stress and higher satisfaction in the action of leading others (Lopez & Ramos, 2015). Finally, as suggested by Sosik (2006), adopting an authentic transformational leadership style may be a pathway to the development of leader character (Crossan, Gandz, & Seijts, 2012), and its associated organizational performance outcomes (Seijts, Gandz, Crossan, & Reno, 2015). ...
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For two hundred years Argentina has been entrapped in a vicious cycle of economic collapse (and recovery) that prevented Argentinean firms from achieving sustainable and veritable growth. To understand this vicious cycle in more detail, I unpack the peculiarities of Argentinean leadership, describing its toxic nature. More precisely, as the main thesis, I elaborate how the corporate Machiavellianism of certain key actors in the Argentine economic and political context facilitated the emergence of pseudo-transformational leaders and their colluding followers. As antithesis, I propose a model of positive leadership, tailored to the Argentinean context. My model of positive leadership relies on identification as a key mechanism that binds authentic leadership, organizational identity, and broader organizational constructs such as climate, culture, and justice, into three spheres of virtue.
... Good governance creates prerequisites for better leadership to emerge by putting in place supra-individual institutional mechanisms that counter human tendencies to feel superior or to abuse power (Keltner, 2016). It can be agreed that good leadership is founded in part upon the character of the leaders (Moccia, 2012;Seijts et al., 2015) but maintaining virtuous leadership is a much more challenging endeavour (Rego, Cuhna & Clegg, 2012) than leaving leaders presumed to be virtuous to their own devices. Good governance tempers the potential imbalances of leadership. ...
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Presenting the emergence of new organizational designs in a novel way, this insightful book blends theory and practice to examine major trends and directions, the key ideas that underpin organizational design and how these ideas might be applied. The authors explore how, in a world characterized by relentless change and volatility, traditional bureaucracies of the past are increasingly regarded as being too slow and centralized. Instead, emerging ideas, such as platforms, ecosystems, holacracies, agility and improvisation are gaining purchase. Focusing on key trends and forms of design, the book offers an approach to organizing that accommodates paradoxes and offers a fresh view on managing organizational design. Rich in anecdotes and examples, the Elgar Introduction to Designing Organizations will be a useful guide for business and management scholars and advanced students with a focus on organizational studies and innovation. It will be beneficial for business managers thinking about how to design their organization so that it is fit for contemporary purposes.
... The concluding discussion explores the implications of our findings given the extensive lack of political trust and confidence that has characterised the attitudes of British citizens for at least the last decade (Clarke et al., 2018;Stoker, 2017; 1 The qualities of political leaders: competence, integrity and authenticity There has been some variability in the findings and terminology of previous studies on the personal traits of politicians: while most of these find two distinct dimensions relating to competence on one hand and integrity on the other, there is less consistency on other potential dimensions (Brown et al., 1998;Garzia, 2011;Miller et al., 2006). A third dimension has been called "charisma", described as the ability of leaders to persuade voters, but also sometimes including traits such as warmth and humility (Miller et al., 2006;Seijts et al., 2015). Relatedly, there is emerging evidence that it has become more important to citizens in recent decades that politicians appear more "human" to them (Clarke et al., 2018;Garzia, 2011). ...
Article
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There are three broad sets of qualities that citizens might expect politicians to display: competence, integrity and authenticity. To be authentic, a politician must be judged to be in touch with the lives and outlooks of ordinary people and previous research has suggested that this expectation has grown more prevalent in recent times. In this paper, we use survey evidence from Britain – from citizens, parliamentarians and journalists – to explore which groups are prone to judge politicians by which criteria. While all groups give the highest absolute importance to integrity traits, we establish that distrusting citizens are significantly more likely to prioritize authenticity. For political elites and journalists, we find indications that authenticity is less valued than among citizens: politicians place more relative importance on integrity traits while journalists value competence most. We reflect on these findings and how they help us understand the growing crisis afflicting British politics.
... Others have remained more closely aligned with philosophical virtue ethics (Hackett & Wang, 2012;Newstead et al., 2019;Sison, 2006). There have also been proposals to integrate approaches (e.g., Bright et al., 2014) and helpful practice-oriented schemas that have focused less on theories of character than the practical application of virtues in leadership, leadership development, and assessment (Seijts et al., 2015;Crossan et al., 2016). There are strengths in each of these approaches, but the distinctions are not immaterial, and different conceptual understandings shape practical emphases and approaches when it comes to character and leadership development. ...
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Our aim is to provide a fresh, practical perspective for leader development. To hit this target, we offer a framework that should be of shared interest to leaders and to those who have roles and responsibilities to develop leaders. Most readers likely appreciate that an organization’s capacity to perform relies in part upon leader development. In nearly every circumstance, however, it is not safe to assume that development occurs naturally. Development requires intentionality across a range of activities. We call this activity purposeful engagement. Our proposal provides a practical developmental philosophy that informs a roadmap to achieve it. Purposeful engagement rests upon two foundational components: leader fundamentals and theories of adult learning. Knowing what leaders do and how leaders learn are prerequisites to planning meaningful leadership opportunities, accomplishing meaningful assessment, and evaluating the effectiveness of developmental interventions.
... Constructive dissensus means that both leaders and followers are willing to interact and share their points of view, and it provides the necessary openness and optimism. For example, conscientiousness and openness are considered to be virtuous traits [39]. Reflection in leaders and followers constructively aligns them because it clarifies comprehension, moving towards a common understanding that implies a relationship of trust. ...
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This paper examines how leaders and followers can interact positively under complex and bounded conditions. For this purpose, this paper conceptualizes and measures the concept of constructive dissensus. Constructive dissensus relates to a mutual understanding leading to a situation of coregulation. In addition, the relationship between constructive dissensus and happiness at work is examined on the basis of affective events theory. Furthermore, the mediating role of organizational virtuousness is assessed. Through structural equation modeling, a multilevel analysis was performed. Data from 130 bank branches and 606 employees were gathered. The results reveal a direct effect of constructive dissensus on employees’ happiness at work. Moreover, a partial mediation effect of organizational virtuousness was found in the relationship between constructive dissensus and happiness at work.
... Beside Kilburg (2012) noted that temperance is directly related with leader's balance behaviours in the organisation. Additionally, Seijts et al. (2015) found a weak correlation between leaders' effectiveness and temperance. Concerning the weak findings of the current literature about temperance and leadership effectiveness and team performance following hypotheses are developed: ...
Article
Ethical leadership is one of the influential factors on the organisational success. According to Al-Ghazali’s conceptualisation justice, wisdom, temperance and courage have significant impact on the leader’s effectiveness and in turn on team performance. In this respect, this study aims to investigate the relationship between ethical leadership and team performance with these virtues. Data of the study were collected from 408 employees among private companies in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Based on data analysis there is a positive correlation between ethical leadership (based on Islamic ethics) and leadership effectiveness and team performance. Regarding the dimensions of ethical leadership, justice, wisdom, and temperance are positively associated with leadership effectiveness and team performance whereas the relationship between courage and dependent variables is insignificant. The study contributes to ethical leadership and Islamic leadership literature by proposing a unique model based on Al-Ghazali’s virtue of ethics perspective and providing empirical evidence regarding the effects of Islamic ethics on leadership effectiveness and team performance.
... Leaders who are knowledgeable and with effective communication skills as well as other capabilities motivate and guide their workforce to achieve set goals [28]. Competence according to Seijts et al. is defined as the ability of an individual to accomplish obligations by application of natural talents, motivation skills, conflict management mechanisms, delegation, and collaborative team member roles among others [32]. Kouzes and Posner consider competent leaders as those talented and effective [21]. ...
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Leadership practice that is founded on values is the new order in contemporary organizations that operate under complex and dynamic environments. The survival of such organizations requires the review of classical leadership theories and the adoption of newer approaches that have heightened the demand for effective leadership. Leaders' misdeeds such as those witnessed in Enron and WorldCom, hypocrisy in the pulpit, infidelity in the family unit, politics of deceit, and so on have dented the leader's image and the followers have lost the confidence they had in them. These developments justify the need to embrace authentic and credible leadership as an alternative leadership approach to rebuild followers' trust and sustain operations of the organizations. The principles of authenticity and credibility are more critical than ever before in the restoration of confidence to followers where credibility has waned. It is on this basis that this qualitative study was undertaken to understand authentic and credible leadership development. The objective of the study was to identify how credibility and authenticity relate and the values and qualities that leaders perceive as important for defining credible and authentic leaders. The study adopted a qualitative research design. Three congregants from a Baptist church located in Nairobi city, Kenya were interviewed for their views about leadership, differences between authenticity and credibility, qualities of credible leaders, how credible leadership can be developed, outcomes of credible leadership, and the followers' role incredible leadership development. The findings resonated with what is known in literature and in theory. The qualities that were found to define credible leaders included being forward-looking, visionary, compassionate, supportive, good listener, having integrity, being firm, being fair, and acting as role models. The fear instilled by leaders to the followers was found to be an impediment to the followers to effectively play their oversight role. The conclusion drawn was that credibility is a must-have tool for leaders to meaningfully engage their followers with a view to providing solutions to the problems faced at the workplace and addressing their needs. It smoothens the relationship and provides an enabling environment where leaders and followers can freely engage.
... Humility and honorability are core values in research (Schaffner 2020). Seijts et al. (2015) assert that humility is a character's dimensions, a mix of qualities, values, and personality traits that influence behavior. They look at humility as a fundamental strength that is often at the core of fostering quality and candid conversations. ...
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A narrative is an ancient approach that has guided humanity in organizing its experiences. Narrative inquiry is the study of experience understood narratively. Engaging in the narrative inquiry process and its consequences can raise several issues related to research and researcher. Representing and interpreting another’s voice is not a simple task and needs to be done with respect and humility. This paper discusses the critical role of narrative inquiry in research and how to engage in narrative inquiry ethically and honorably. It examines how significant it is when writing about people’s lives and a community’s experiences, to adhere through dialog and critical consciousness, and through an intersubjective lens to the principles of respect, beneficence, and justice to ensure that the research is supporting the participant and facilitates their transformation to achieve empowerment.
... Leadership is about the disposition to lead rather than a position to lead; therefore, leadership is applicable to all individuals (Seijts et al., 2015). Gandz et al. (2010) designed a leader character framework following the 2008 Global Financial Crisis in an attempt to provide a common understanding of the meaning of character and why it matters. ...
Conference Paper
This research aims to examine the reasons for fans’ resistance to technological in-stadium innovations using the case of augmented reality apps. The following research questions are addressed: RQ1. Which specific barriers result in resistance behavior towards augmented reality apps? RQ2. How do these barriers influence different forms of resistance behavior (postponement, rejection, opposition)?
... Beside Kilburg (2012) noted that temperance is directly related with leader's balance behaviours in the organisation. Additionally, Seijts et al. (2015) found a weak correlation between leaders' effectiveness and temperance. Concerning the weak findings of the current literature about temperance and leadership effectiveness and team performance following hypotheses are developed: ...
Article
Ethical leadership is one of the influential factors on the organisational success. According to Al-Ghazali's conceptualisation justice, wisdom, temperance and courage have significant impact on the leader's effectiveness and in turn on team performance. In this respect, this study aims to investigate the relationship between ethical leadership and team performance with these virtues. Data of the study were collected from 408 employees among private companies in Kurdistan region of Iraq. Based on data analysis there is a positive correlation between ethical leadership (based on Islamic ethics) and leadership effectiveness and team performance. Regarding the dimensions of ethical leadership, justice, wisdom, and temperance are positively associated with leadership effectiveness and team performance whereas the relationship between courage and dependent variables is insignificant. The study contributes to ethical leadership and Islamic leadership literature by proposing a unique model based on Al-Ghazali's virtue of ethics perspective and providing empirical evidence regarding the effects of Islamic ethics on leadership effectiveness and team performance.
... Quanto ao contexto, as pesquisas foram realizadas em 15 diferentes países: Estados Unidos (11 estudos), China (3), Reino Unido (3), entre outros. Algumas analisam resultados de dois países (Bai et al., 2020;Beekun et al., 2005;Hudecek et al., 2020;Seijts et al., 2015). Outras recrutaram respondentes em plataformas, como na Amazon MTurk, de trabalhadores remotos (Bernabe-Valero et al., 2020;Colombo et al., 2021;Kim et al., 2021;Mansur et al., 2020). ...
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RESUMO Objetivo: investigar como as escalas para o conceito de virtudes morais são construídas e mensuradas, em estudos associados à ética empresarial e à tradição da ética das virtudes. Métodos: realizou-se uma revisão sistemática da literatura para selecionar artigos empíricos sobre virtudes morais que elaboram ou aplicam escalas. Com base em critérios de busca, seleção e análise, foram consultadas cinco bases de dados e selecionados 37 trabalhos, analisando-se o procedimento de desenvolvimento e mensuração de escalas (itens, amostra, análise fatorial) e fatores emergentes. Resultados: o estudo reúne escalas de múltiplas virtudes morais (19) e de virtudes específicas (18), evidenciando limitações na geração de itens e na proporção item-amostra em algumas escalas, como também contribuições teóricas em liderança e fortalecimento de relações, fazendo uma discussão teórico-metodológica, à luz dos pressupostos da ética das virtudes na tradição aristotélico-tomista. Conclusões: o artigo intenciona contribuir para uma melhor compreensão sobre as virtudes morais em administração, ao discutir as escalas a partir da unidade das virtudes e da conexão phronesis-virtudes morais, com implicações no comportamento humano e na ética empresarial. Recomendam-se procedimentos para estudos futuros qualitativos e quantitativos em novos contextos de pesquisa.
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From the 1950s onwards, trust, as a concept has served as an untapped resource for countless disciplines. Several fields of science, from several perspectives examined trust as a phenomenon and the impact of the lack of trust in different context. These issues identify the most important research areas in the scientific world that have focused on trust in recent decades. In our accelerating economic world, building and maintaining trust is primarily necessary to strengthen the economic performance of companies. Researchers sought to answer the following questions during their scientific research: Why is research of trust important, how can the organization recognize a trustful atmosphere, how can trust be built up, what advantage does a company get if the workers have trust in the organization or how large is the damages if the company has not sufficiently invested in trust. This article is an extended literature review in connection with the concept of organizational trust, which defines a problem area in the relationship between knowledge management and leadership. In our study, we researched scientific journals by using the phrase organization trust as the keyword, and within these, we highlighted the areas of research where the most significant relevant scientific literature was to be found, which was in close connection with our research field. The aim of this article is to summarize the most important issues of this literature, which have been studied within each discipline. The conclusion from this literature identifies a positive correlation between economic performance and organizational trust; its measurability can be the key question for companies. In our study, we appointed the measurability of trust as the goal of future research.
Chapter
When people think about the concept of power, they often think about political leaders. In fact, Forbes’s annual ranking of the most powerful leaders in the world usually ranks a number of top governmental officials and heads of state from different countries as their most powerful. In 2015, for example, Vladimir Putin (of Russia), Angela Merkel (of Germany), Barack Obama (of the United States), and Xi Jinping (of China) were all listed within the top five most powerful leaders of the world. What is it about these leaders that make them so powerful? According to Forbes, the actions of these leaders can “move the planet” because of four dimensions: a) they have power over lots of people; b) they control financial resources that are relatively large compared to their peers; c) they are powerful in multiple spheres; and d) they actively use their power. These dimensions still raise the question though of what exactly is power? And also, poses the provocative question that many of us have also thought: do these powerful leaders use their power for good? In other words, are these leaders moving the planet towards positive, prosocial outcomes for the collective well-being?
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic provided an opportunity to explore the relationships among character, identification-based trust, and perceptions of leadership effectiveness in the context of crisis leadership. Focusing on the leadership of Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, we first explore whether Canadians of voting age believe character is important in political leadership during the pandemic. Second, we examine voter perceptions of the importance of the dimensions of character identified by Crossan et al. (2017) and to what extent voters perceive Trudeau demonstrates the behaviors associated with these dimensions. Third, we explore the role of identification-based trust in the relationship between character and perceptions of leadership effectiveness. Fourth, we study the relationships between character, trust, and effectiveness during dynamic conditions where the stakes for citizens with respect to health and social well-being are high. The results of our study connect character to trust and perceived effectiveness of a political leader during a crisis.
Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of leadership credibility on employees' behaviours and attitudes towards organisational change through the lens of employee commitment to change. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a quantitative study in which 239 participants from diverse organisations participated. Findings Using structural equation modelling techniques, the results reveal that leadership credibility has a positive effect on both affective and normative commitment to change but a negative effect on continuance commitment to change. The authors also report that change success is positively impacted by affective commitment to change and negatively impacted by continuance commitment to change but is not significantly affected by normative commitment to change. Research limitations/implications Thus, the authors contribute to closing a knowledge gap in change management theory while making practical recommendations for leading people during times of organisational transition. Originality/value This study sheds light on the role of leadership credibility and employee commitment during organisational change.
Article
Using a rich dataset of mayors and municipal party committee secretaries from 289 prefecture-level cities for the period 1994–2018, this paper analyzes the influence of government officials’ educational background, political capital and individual characteristics on tourism economic growth by the panel model. Results suggest that mayors and municipal party committee secretaries with higher academic qualifications and social science backgrounds focus more on the development of inbound tourism. Longer tenure has a positive impact on the overall tourism income, domestic tourism income and inbound tourism income. In contrast, there is no direct positive relationship between officials’ involvement in politics in their hometowns and the regional tourism economy. The age and gender of officials have no effect on the development of regional tourism. These conclusions can help predict China’s regional tourism development based on the government official appointment and provide practical implications on the appointment process itself.
Chapter
In today’s economy, organizations are distinguishing themselves by qualified leaders. These decisively determine the success or failure of an organization and thus are an elementary part of personnel development. But before leaders can be effectively deployed, they need be identified as potentials and further developed. Hereby, it is of importance to identify the professional and interdisciplinary qualifications of leaders and to prepare them to success-fully meet future organizational requirements and thus to contribute to its success. The present work examines which modern approaches to leadership development predominate in both theory and practice. The result shows that there is an enormous wealth of opportunities that organizations can embrace. It would therefore make sense for further research to empirically investigate whether and which measures are known to the organizations and, above all, if they are actually being used effectively. This article is an excerpt from the author’s dissertation, with the subject “Modern Leadership Development as a Competitive Advantage of Organizations—Analysis of Approaches to Developing Leaders in Selected Financial Institutions”, published in 2020 at the Comenius University in Bratislava.
Chapter
We propose music as a methodology to activate and develop character. Music has emerged in its own right as an important area of research linked to a variety of outcomes, many of which are shared interests in the field of leader character including well-being, transformation, and various performance outcomes. We forge critical connections between music and leader character with a focus on how music can be used to activate and develop character. Offering a music-based workshop for 80 MBA’s, we illustrate the core ideas by offering participant insights on the experience and conclude with reflections for management research and practice.
Article
We investigate whether a framework drawn from the field of organizational management can be used by citizens of two countries with different political history and culture to assess character. Drawing on a survey administered two weeks before the 2016 US presidential election, we report that Canadians and Americans are the same in how they evaluate eleven dimensions of character: both considered all dimensions as essential in political leaders. The results also showed an appreciable gap between the perceived importance of the character dimensions and whether respondents believe three national leaders—Donald Trump, Hillary Clinton and Justin Trudeau—live up to these expectations. However, the two groups differ in their evaluation of the specific dimensions of character among these political leaders. Canadians are less supportive of Trump’s character array than that of Clinton or Trudeau. Also, Canadian Conservatives are less supportive of Trump’s character than are American Republicans.
Article
Our understanding of leadership (and its failures) depends on understanding the moral challenges particular to leadership. This article describes 7 challenges: resisting the temptation of personal gain at collective expense; foregoing the attractions of tyranny; managing justice; pursuing a moral mandate; avoiding mission failure; minimizing collateral damage in pursuit of the mission; and doing good. I close by noting the morally neutral bias of top-down leadership selection typical of real-world social organizations and by drawing out implications for relevant practitioner groups.
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The progress of a country cannot be separated from the existence of human resources, but to achieve a developed country, requires the productive, creative, and innovative human resources in managing the resources in Indonesia. To create the productive human resources, the role of the government and private sectors is needed for the progress of Indonesia. Through Djarum Foundation, PT. Djarum does the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), one of the CSR program is giving the scholarship (Djarum Scholarship Plus) to the college student which aims to create the future leaders. The aim of this research is to find out how CSR of Djarum Foundation in preparing Indonesian future leaders and what soft skill training programs can enhance the character of leadership in character building. This research is a descriptive qualitative research which uses interview for gaining the data, the target of this research is the representative of Djarum Scholarship Plus grantees of 28th-32nd generation. The result of this study showed that in preparing and creating the Indonesian future leaders, Djarum Foundation through CSR actively conducted the soft skill training programs (Character Building, Leadership Development, and Nation Building) and the implementation programs (Community Empowerment, Competition Challenge, and International Exposure) to bring about good changes for the progress of Indonesia.Keywords: corporate social responsibility, djarum foundation, leadership, soft skill
Article
The virtue of humility and “humble leaders” have attracted increasing attention in leadership given the positive effects it can have on team and firm performance. In spite of what we know about the favorable outcomes of leader humility, we do not know much about how personality influences humble behaviors. How is leader humility related to personality? How can leaders develop humility? In this paper, we look at how the personality factors of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Neuroticism, Openness to Experience, and Extraversion, lead to specific humble behaviors: self-awareness, appreciation of others, low self-focus, teachability, and self-transcendent pursuits. We find that the personality mix of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness to Experience represents the substantial base for leader humility. At the same time, a humble leader can be introvert or extrovert, and can demonstrate different degrees of emotional stability. We offer recommendations and a behavioral inventory of leader humility that can be used by emerging leaders and by organizations to recruit and promote for humility, engage in behavioral modeling and coaching, and create interventions to develop leader humility.
Article
Management educators have been advised to cultivate their students’ character. Yet they lack the instructional resources they need to do so. We were inspired by the principles and techniques of the Jewish spiritual practice of Mussar to put students on a personalized path of continuous character improvement. According to Mussar, everyone has some measure of a given character trait and needs to calibrate it to fill in a deficiency or tone down an excess. Although correcting character deficiencies and excesses requires a commitment of effort, we can, and should, become better versions of ourselves by applying that effort—that is, engaging in reflection, setting goals, monitoring our progress, and making adjustments—to move each of our character traits ever closer to its respective virtuous mean. We have designed materials to increase students’ awareness of character and its importance in organizations, give them a vocabulary of character traits, help them identify the character traits they would like to address, and provide them with a sustainable process for self-enhancement. In this article, we introduce these materials and provide evidence of their effectiveness.
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With the increasing complexity in leadership research, a shift in scholarly interest towards leadership character and competency is observed. However, the studies are fundamentally specific to each domain, and there is a lack of understanding and theoretical construct between the two domains and specifically the effect of one domain on the other. The current research provides a framework concerning the latent perception (character) and its effect on the actual execution (competency) through empirical testing. The sample contains leaders from all hierarchal positions to observe and analyse the character and the competency levels comprehensively. The results illustrated a significant trend between the two domains through different echelons of leadership. Rigorous statistical testing concluded that the latent perception (character) indeed has a positive effect on the actual execution. The current research provides various practical and theoretical implications in leadership theories.
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How does character‐based leadership affects followers and what conditions/contexts determine the effectiveness of this type of leadership? Hayat and Amini address these questions while considering the role of power and position.
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Our objective is to encourage and enable leadership character development in business education. Building on a model of character strengths and their link to virtues, values, and ethical decision making, we describe an approach to develop leadership character at the individual, group, and organizational levels. We contrast this approach to existing practices that have focused on teaching functional content over character and address how business educators can enable leadership character development through their own behaviors, relationships, and structures. Most important, we provide concrete suggestions on how to integrate a focus on character development into existing business programs, both in terms of individual courses as well as the overall curriculum. We highlight that the development of leadership character must extend beyond student engagement in a course since "it takes a village" to develop character.
Book
This book focuses on leadership character and how to develop it. The book begins by setting the context for leadership character in business and then focuses on each of 11 character dimensions, defining it, exploring its elements and identifying whether and how it can learned, developed, molded or changed and applied in a business setting. It concludes with a summary of the key insights, an exploration of the key interactions of the 11 dimensions, and suggestions to readers as to how they can develop their own leadership character as well as the character of others.
Article
To be a 21st century leader you must have two things: competence and character. I have met a lot of leaders who were very, very competent, but they didn’t have character... and I’ve seen a lot of leaders who had superb character but lacked competence. . .you must have both! In May 1991, having recently returned from commanding the triumphant coalition forces in Desert Storm, and just days before his retirement after 35 years of honorable service, General H. Norman Schwarzkopf (‘‘Stormin Norman’’) addressed the corps of cadets at West Point for the last time, to impress upon those emerging leaders the key leadership lessons from his career. The excerpt from his speech in the epitaph above reflects his core message, which was powerful in its simplicity — leaders must have both character and competence — and either by itself is deficient. Followers and organizational stakeholders must not only possess trust that the leader has the necessary skills and abilities to functionally lead the group or organization, but also faith that the leader will use those capabilities not to serve himself or herself, but to serve the interests of others in ways that are honorable and aligned with the values and mores of the organization. Together these two forms of trust/faith give the leader credibility. Character is thus requisite to the leader’s ability to influence others and to align the organization and inspire success toward socially valued outcomes.
Article
Character is an indispensable component of leadership and its development, and thus warrants future research focus. Before a purposeful research stream on character can proceed, however, it is critical that we fully define and conceptualize the character construct (the ontological basis) and then consider how we might best measure this construct and test it across a diverse array of contexts (the epistemological basis). We pursue these ends by first unpacking the definition of leader character and then by posing a series of questions. Following our initial thoughts related to the locus of character and how leader character is transmitted to and received by followers, we proceed by discussing how character relates to or serves as an antecedent to exemplary leadership styles, how character is contextualized, and how character is developed.
Article
Purpose This paper examines the relationship among leadership skills, management skills and individual success and failure in formal organizations. Design/methodology/approach A model is presented depicting the interactive relationship among the three variables and explaining why some high potential employees suffer derailment while other individuals with similar skills continue to develop and achieve organizational success. Findings The model indicates that there is not one combination of management and leadership skills related to individual success. Practical implications Developmental activities should be ongoing regardless of the individual's level in the organization. Originality/value This paper synthesizes several streams of research into a coherent model that can be used as a guide for leadership development activities.
Article
Purpose With half of those in leadership positions maybe falling short, the purpose of this paper is to review literature on why leaders fail. Design/methodology/approach A number of recent journal articles, book chapters and books were examined. Findings The paper identified common causes of failure and possible remedial actions. Leaders that fail behave in ways reflective of their personality that limit or derail their careers. These flaws include arrogance, aloofness, perfectionism, insensitivity, selfishness and betraying the trust of others. Research limitations/implications Very little research on this important topic has been conducted. Practical implications Solutions highlight the role of early feedback in reducing leadership failures. Originality/value This paper raises a topic important in leadership development but ignored by both researchers and managers.
Why Leaders Fail: Exploring the Dark Side 91-100; D. Dotlich and P. Cairo, Why CEOs Fail: The 11 Behaviors that Can Derail Your Climb to the Top-and How to Manage Them
  • Burke
Burke, ''Why Leaders Fail: Exploring the Dark Side,'' International Journal of Manpower, 2006, 27, 91-100; D. Dotlich and P. Cairo, Why CEOs Fail: The 11 Behaviors that Can Derail Your Climb to the Top-and How to Manage Them (San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, 2003); and W. McCartney and C. Campbell, ''Leadership, Management, and Derailment: A Model of Individual Success and Failure,'' Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 2006, 27, 190-202.
We have written on leader character in several publications including M
  • J Crossan
  • G Gandz
  • G Seijts
  • J Seijts
  • M Gandz
  • M Crossan
  • Reno
Trial: A Manifesto for Leadership Development (London, Ontario: Richard Ivey School of Business, 2010). We have written on leader character in several publications including M. Crossan, J. Gandz and G. Seijts, ''Developing Leadership Character,'' Ivey Business Journal, 2012, January-February, hhttp://iveybusinessjournal.com/ topics/leadership/developing-leadership-characteri and G. Seijts, J. Gandz, M. Crossan and M. Reno, ''Character: The Essence of Leadership,'' Developing Leaders, 2013, 10, 11-
He holds the Ian O. Ihnatowycz Chair in Leadership. He received his Ph.D. in organizational behavior and human resource management from the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto. His areas of research are leadership, teams, performance management, and organizational change
Gerard Seijts is a professor of organizational behavior at the Ivey Business School at Western University in London, Ontario. He holds the Ian O. Ihnatowycz Chair in Leadership. He received his Ph.D. in organizational behavior and human resource management from the Rotman School of Management at the University of Toronto. His areas of research are leadership, teams, performance management, and organizational change. He is the author of two recent books: Leadership on Trial: A Manifesto for Leadership Development (2010) (with Jeffrey Gandz, Mary Crossan and Carol Stephenson) and Good Leaders Learn: Lessons from Lifetimes of Leadership (2013). (Ivey Business School, Western University, London, Ontario, N6A 3K7 Canada. Tel.: +1 519 661 3968; fax: +1 519 661 3485;