Conference Paper

Cooperative Partner Nodes Selection Criteria for Cooperative Routing in Underwater WSNs

Conference Paper

Cooperative Partner Nodes Selection Criteria for Cooperative Routing in Underwater WSNs

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Abstract

Underwater environment suffers from a number of impairments which effect reliability and integrity of data being transmitted. Cooperative transmission is well known for reliable data transfer. Hence, cooperative routing can be implemented in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) in order to reduce the impact of existing link impairments on transmitted data. Cooperative routing involves data transmission via partner node (relay/destination node) towards sink. Selection of partner node for cooperative routing is to be performed on basis of a certain criterion so that effective results can be achieved. In this paper, two different partner node selection criteria are implemented and compared. We consider source node's depth threshold (d th ), potential relay/destination nodes's depth, residual energy and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) of the link connecting source node with potential relay/destination node as selection parameters. One criterion considers depth and residual energy while the other also takes link's SNR into account along with depth and residual energy. SNR based criterion is proved to outperform the one involving only depth and residual energy information. Simulation results show that the SNR based criterion achieves better results with respect to stability period and Packet Acceptance Ratio (PAR) along with reduced delay and packet drop.

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... A. Umar, et al., proposed a cooperative routing protocol with the selection of partner node [44] for UWSNs. It uses depth of source and destination and SNR of the link as a selection metrics for selection of partner nodes. ...
... 3.5.1. [44]. The binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation scheme is used [44] for modulating and demodulating received data signals at relay and destination. ...
... [44]. The binary phase shift keying (BPSK) modulation scheme is used [44] for modulating and demodulating received data signals at relay and destination. We consider a two-phase transmit mechanism to avoid an overlapping data transmission from source and relays. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
In this work, we present two routing protocols for circular underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs); circular sparsity-aware energy efficient clustering (CSEEC) and circular depth-based sparsity-aware energy efficient clustering (CDSEEC) with sink mobility. In CSEEC, we divide circular network area into 5 concentric circular regions. We deployed sensor nodes randomly and placed a static sink at the top of the circular underwater network region. We further sub-divided the 5 concentric circles into 10 regions. Then, we identified sparse and dense regions based on the number of nodes in each region. We used cluster based routing approach in dense network regions and introduced sink mobility in least node density region to achieve balanced energy consumption in the network. In CDSEEC, circular network area is divided into upper and lower semi-circles. Sensor nodes are random uniformly deployed in upper and lower semi-circles and a static sink is placed at the surface of the network region. In upper semi-circle, each sensor node send its sensed data to surface sink using depth information of sensor nodes to achieve energy efficiency by selecting forwarder node with minimum depth. In lower semi-circle, we implement cluster based routing approach in high node density regions and used sink mobility in least density network regions to achieve balanced energy consumption. In UWSNs, uneven distribution of sensor nodes and dynamic network topology creates void holes and high collision probability due to channel interference in dense networks. For avoiding void holes and reducing collision probability, we proposed a virtual chain based routing (VCBR) protocol for UWSNs. In VCBR, we build virtual chains between sensor nodes and sinks to avoid void holes. VCBR also minimizes collision probability which is due to channel interference in the network. The proposed VCBR protocol, introduces a mechanism to forward data packet through best suitable virtual chain to manage the energy resources of sensor nodes efficiently during data communication. The shortest virtual chain between source node and destination is calculated based on the location information of sensor nodes. Furthermore, we also exploit cooperative diversity by presenting two routing protocols (i.e., fixed adaptive cooperative virtual chain based routing (FACVCBR) and incremental adaptive cooperative virtual chain based routing (IACVCBR) to achieve data reliability and prolong network lifetime. In FACVCBR, source node broadcasts data to destination and two relays to achieve diversity which results in data reliability. In IACVCBR, retransmission of data packet is done incrementally to improve data reliability and successful delivery of data packets. In proposed FACVCBR and IACVCBR protocols, we introduce adaptive power control mechanism to utilize energy of sensor nodes in an efficient manner. We validate our propositions via simulations. The results verify that our proposed routing protocols outperform baseline protocols in terms of selected performance parameters.
... In [8], a best relay selection algorithm (COBRA) is proposed to minimize the one way packet transmission time. In [9], cooperative routing with the selection of partner node based relay selection algorithm is proposed. The partner nodes are selected on the bases of source and destination nodes' depth and SNR of the link. ...
... The partner nodes are selected on the bases of source and destination nodes' depth and SNR of the link. The techniques in [8] and [9] improve stability period of the network, the packet acceptance ratio while reducing end to end delay and packet drop rate. However, both these techniques lead to high energy consumption of the network nodes. ...
Article
Cooperative routing is an appealing challenge in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). In this paper, we propose a region based cooperative routing protocol (RBCRP) for amplify and forward (AF) technique over Rayleigh faded channels in UWSNs. The source node sends the sensed signal to the destination and available relay nodes. At the destination node, bit error rate (BER) is checked on the basis of which, either positive or negative acknowledgement (ACK or NACK) is sent to the source and relay nodes. We also use mobile sinks (MSs) and energy harvesting techniques to further prolong the network lifetime and maximize the throughput. Our derived mathematical equations for the SNR gain and outage probability are verified by simulations. Results show that RBCRP performs better than the existing incremental best relay technique (IBRT) in terms of throughput, network lifetime and outage probability.Cooperative routing is an appealing challenge in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). In this paper, we propose a region based cooperative routing protocol (RBCRP) for amplify and forward (AF) technique over Rayleigh faded channels in UWSNs. The source node sends the sensed signal to the destination and available relay nodes. At the destination node, bit error rate (BER) is checked on the basis of which, either positive or negative acknowledgement (ACK or NACK) is sent to the source and relay nodes. We also use mobile sinks (MSs) and energy harvesting techniques to further prolong the network lifetime and maximize the throughput. Our derived mathematical equations for the SNR gain and outage probability are verified by simulations. Results show that RBCRP performs better than the existing incremental best relay technique (IBRT) in terms of throughput, network lifetime and outage probability.
... As channels are not dependent therefore total probability of errors decreases, hence system and channel performance increases. In communication systems that fallow cooperation technique, sender transmits a copy of packet to relay and then relay decodes or boosts every packet depending on technique of cooperation which is retransmits to endpoint [4]. ...
... In [4], Analytical approach towards Reliability with Cooperation for Underwater Network (ARCUN) authors proposed technique to route data with least path-loss over the link. It used a function for an optimum channel to the surface sonobuoy. ...
Conference Paper
For the design of a network layer routing scheme for Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN), physical layer cooperation is used in this paper which ensures energy efficiency. For achieving major goal of efficient data routing, a key factor is reliability for application-oriented UWSNs. All the nodes of network fortified by a unidirectional antenna cooperatively perform their propagation of data that lead to major saving of nodes energy. At network layer, hop to hop routing and at physical layer diverse cooperation, minimize the routing energy due to combined optimization. Simulation results depict that as compared to AMCTD and ACE, RACE routing scheme achieves better packet delivery ratio, high stability period, less consumption of energy and minimum end-to-end delay.
... To improve the network throughput, a cooperative scheme is presented [25]. This scheme uses partner nodes mechanism for cooperation and for the selection of each node, SNR of the link and propagational is checked; if the link met the criteria then a node is elected as a partner node to perform cooperation. ...
... These mobile AUVs act as reference nodes for all other underwater nodes. High energy consumption in dense deployment due to redundant transmissions Relay selection and optimization algorithm of power allocation based on channel delay for UWSNs [24] Relay is selected on the basis of BER and propagational delay Improving the network lifetime High end-to-end delay Cooperative partner nodes selection criteria for cooperative routing in UWSNs [25] Partner node selection on the basis of depth threshold and propagational delay ...
Article
Full-text available
Localization is one of the major aspects in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). Therefore, it is important to know the accurate position of the sensor node in large scale applications like disaster prevention, tactical surveillance and monitoring. Due to the inefficiency of the global positioning system (GPS) in UWSN, it is very difficult to localize a node in underwater environment compared to terrestrial networks. To minimize the localization error and enhance the localization coverage of the network, two routing protocols are proposed; the first one is, mobile autonomous underwater vehicle (MobiL-AUV) and the second one is, cooperative MobiL (CO-MobiL). In MobiL-AUV, AUVs are deployed, equipped with GPS and act as reference nodes. These reference nodes are used to localize all the non-localized ordinary sensor nodes in order to reduce the localization error and maximize the network coverage. CO-MobiL is presented in order to improve the network throughput by using the maximal ratio combining (MRC) as diversity technique which combines both signals; received from the source and received from the relay at the destination. It uses amplify and forward (AF) mechanism to improve the signal between the source and the destination. To support our claims, extensive simulations are performed.
... Account for the time varying nature of acoustic communication links, the updated values of such parameters can be calculated as equations (22), (23), respectively. (23) where a (0 < a < 1) is the stability factor indicating the rate of changing the network and underwater environment. ...
... Account for the time varying nature of acoustic communication links, the updated values of such parameters can be calculated as equations (22), (23), respectively. (23) where a (0 < a < 1) is the stability factor indicating the rate of changing the network and underwater environment. The changing rate is characterized by how much the values SN R, T oA of older transmission vary. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper sought to investigate performance of multi-hop underwater acoustic sensor networks (UW-ASNs) when they deploy cooperative routing algorithms combining the cooperative communication and routing methods. Taking into account energy efficiency, the studied schemes are discriminated by different policies of selecting next hop nodes as well as relay nodes of one-hop cooperative communications such that the transmission energy of routing paths is minimized. In order to take full advantage of broadcast nature in wireless communication, we propose to use a node exploited as a joint relay for two-hop cooperative communication. In addition, the unreliable communication of acoustic channels is addressed by incorporated channel-aware mechanism which updates the links by exploiting packet receptions. On the bases of communication, two cooperative routing protocols are developed. Simulation results show that the network employing the proposed schemes achieves an improved performance in terms of energy efficiency, throughput, and end-toend delay as compared to the related works.
... Thus, The paper proposes a reliable criterion based on SNR criterion to select the relay node. The Cooperative Partner Nodes Selection Criteria PNS is used referring to [27]. The depth reference d th is set in advance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) is one of the effective methods to acquire ocean observation data, and research on underwater routing technology has become a hot spot. However, the lifetime of UWSN is an important factor affecting the overall performance of routing protocols. Due to the uncertain underwater environment and poor link quality, it will affect data integrity and network survival ability. Cooperative communication is an excellent technique for solving such problems. In this communication, the source node forwards data through a cooperative path to improve network throughput, while the destination node receives data packets that do not contain obvious errors. Therefore, this paper provides a cooperative communication method to solve the packet loss problem and lifetime of UWSN. The underwater-layered routing network structure is adopted to divide the network nodes into clusters for energy balance. Compared with the traditional layered protocol, the cooperative communication can better guarantee the link quality of the underwater channel. The k-means algorithm is also used to cluster nodes, and conditional probability can select cluster heads. During data transmission, relay nodes will amplify the signal and backup the data packets to avoid dropping packets. The proposed protocol is simulated and compared with non-cooperative protocols (LDBR and MLCEE), the results show that the proposed protocol outperformed the other protocols in terms of network lifetime, throughput, energy consumption and end-to-end delay.
... The authors in [16] propose two cooperative routing protocols. The first protocol selects a relay node based on its depth in the depth threshold and residual energy. ...
Article
Full-text available
Cooperative routing mitigates the adverse channel effects in the harsh underwater environment and ensures reliable delivery of packets from the bottom to the surface of water. Cooperative routing is analogous to sparse recovery in that faded copies of data packets are processed by the destination node to extract the desired information. However, it usually requires information about the two or three position coordinates of the nodes. It also requires the synchronization of the source, relay, and destination nodes. These features make the cooperative routing a challenging task as sensor nodes move with water currents. Moreover, the data packets are simply discarded if the acceptable threshold is not met at the destination. This threatens the reliable delivery of data to the final destination. To cope with these challenges, this paper proposes a cooperative energy-efficient optimal relay selection protocol for underwater wireless sensor networks. Unlike the existing routing protocols involving cooperation, the proposed scheme combines location and depth of the sensor nodes to select the destination nodes. Combination of these two parameters does not involve knowing the position coordinates of the nodes and results in selection of the destination nodes closest to the water surface. As a result, data packets are less affected by the channel properties. In addition, a source node chooses a relay node and a destination node. Data packets are sent to the destination node by the relay node as soon as the relay node receives them. This eliminates the need for synchronization among the source, relay, and destination nodes. Moreover, the destination node acknowledges the source node about the successful reception or retransmission of the data packets. This overcomes the packets drop. Based on simulation results, the proposed scheme is superior in delivering packets to the final destination than some existing techniques.
... One base of fitness factor,node calculates a holding time as well. In PNS-DRE-SNR [7], author suggests how to address problems of physical layer which cause higher signal to noise ratio which ultimately decreases reliability as well as throughput of network. Selection of partner node is on base of distance, residual energy as well as signal to noise ratio. ...
... An efficient scheme for UWSN, Coop (Re and dth) [1], employs cooperative routing which involves data transmission via partner node/relay towards sink. In this paper, two different partner node selection criteria are implemented and compared. ...
Article
Full-text available
Reliability is a key factor for application-oriented Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs) which are utilized for gaining certain objectives and a demand always exists for efficient data routing mechanisms. Cooperative routing is a promising technique which utilizes the broadcast feature of wireless medium and forwards data with cooperation using sensor nodes as relays. Here, we present a cooperation-based routing protocol for underwater networks to enhance their performance called Stochastic Performance Analysis with Reliability and Cooperation (SPARCO). Cooperative communication is explored in order to design an energy-efficient routing scheme for UWSNs. Each node of the network is assumed to be consisting of a single omnidirectional antenna and multiple nodes cooperatively forward their transmissions taking advantage of spatial diversity to reduce energy consumption. Both multihop and single-hop schemes are exploited which contribute to lowering of path-losses present in the channels connecting nodes and forwarding of data. Simulations demonstrate that SPARCO protocol functions better regarding end-to-end delay, network lifetime, and energy consumption comparative to noncooperative routing protocol—improved Adaptive Mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized Depth-based routing (iAMCTD). The performance is also compared with three cooperation-based routing protocols for UWSN: Cognitive Cooperation (Cog-Coop), Cooperative Depth-Based Routing (CoDBR), and Cooperative Partner Node Selection Criteria for Cooperative Routing (Coop Re and dth).
... Cooperative routing with the selection of partner node is implemented in [7]. In this protocol, authors implement two different criteria for the selection of the partner node. ...
Conference Paper
In this paper, we propose a region based cooperative routing protocol (RPCRP). This protocol performs analysis of amplify and forward technique over Rayleigh fading channels. The source node sends the sensed signal to the destination and available relay nodes. At the destination node, bit error rate (BER) is checked on the basis of which, either positive or negative acknowledgement (ACK or NACK) is sent to the source and relay nodes. If the positive feedback is received from the destination node, the relay nodes drop the packet. However, in case of negative feedback, the best relay node amplifies the signal. After the signal is amplified, it is forwarded to the destination node. Moreover, the mobile sinks (MSs) change their position after some time and cover the whole network are also deployed. The nodes that lie within the transmission range of MSs forward their data directly to the sink. Also, the mathematical equations for the total SNR gain and outage probability are verified by simulations. Results show that RBCRP outperforms incremental best ralay technique (IBRT) in terms of throughput and network lifetime. Also, the mathematical analysis for outage probability shows that RBCRP is 62 % more better than IBRT.
... Radio Frequency (RF) signaling is not feasible for underwater wireless sensor network due to attenuation [13]. The acoustic signaling is a better solution for underwater environment because acoustic signaling speed is 1500 m/s [14]. However underwater sensor network faces the many more challenges like: acoustic signaling has the limited bandwidth due to the water current, dynamic network topology due to the node movement on water pressure, effect on acoustic channel due to path loss, noise and Doppler spread and link between sensor nodes remain highly prone [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) is the well interesting area for research community due to its versatile applications like: ocean monitoring, underwater mineral extraction, tactical surveillance, marine internal wild life, offshore explorations and ocean monitoring. Majority of the researchers have used deployment and topological structure of the terrestrial Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) for UWSN but almost these kinds of structures are failure due to the environmental conditions of underwater environment. This research article covers the dynamic structure, route discovery, route maintenance and data forwarding mechanisms of routing protocols based on protocol operations. This research further covers the analytical analysis and numerical simulations results of the routing protocols based on protocol operations and will guide to the researcher to further research in the area of routing protocols.
... Another efficient scheme for UWSN, Coop (Re and dth) [45] employs cooperative routing which involves data transmission via partner node/relay towards sink. In this paper, two different partner node selection criteria are implemented and compared. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), particularly Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) and Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are important building blocks of upcoming generation networks. Sensor networks consist of less expensive nodes having the features of wireless connectivity, very less transmission power, limited battery capacity and resource constraints. Due to low cost and small size, sensor nodes allow very big networks to be installed at a viable price and develop a link between information systems and the real globe. Cooperative routing exploits the transmission behavior of wireless medium and communicates cooperatively by means of neighboring nodes acting as relays. Prospective relays as well as the destination nodes are chosen from a set of near-by sensors that use distance and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) of the link conditions as cost functions – this contributes to significant reduction in path-loss and enhanced reliability. In this dissertation, we propose three schemes Link Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (LAEEBA), Incremental relay-based Cooperative Critical data transmission in Emergency for Static wireless BANs (InCo-CEStat) and Cooperative Link Aware and Energy Efficient protocol for wireless Body Area networks (Co-LAEEBA). These protocols are efficient in terms of link-losses, reliability and throughput. Consideration of residual energy balances load among sensors, and separation and SNR considerations entrust reliable data delivery. As a promising technique to mitigate the effect of fading, cooperative routing is introduced in the functionality of LAEEBA and Co-LAEEBA protocols. Similarly, incremental relaying in InCo-CEStat account for reliability. Simulation results show that our newly proposed schemes maximize the network stability period and network life-time in comparison to other existing schemes for WBANs. In Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks, demand of time-critical applications leads to the requirement of delay-sensitive protocols. In this regard, this disserta- tion presents five routing protocols for UWSNs; Cooperative routing protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (Co-UWSN), Cooperative Energy-Efficient model for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (Co-EEUWSN), Analytical ap- proach towards Reliability with Cooperation for Underwater sensor Networks (AR- CUN), Reliability and Adaptive Cooperation for Efficient UWSNs (RACE) and Stochastic Performance Analysis with Reliability and COoperation for UWSNs (SPARCO). In these protocols, physical layer’s cooperative routing is explored for the design of network layer routing schemes that prove to be energy-efficient as well as path-loss aware. The concentration is focused on Amplify-and-Forward (AF) scheme at the relay nodes and Fixed Ratio Combining (FRC) technique at the destination nodes. Nodes cooperatively forward their transmissions taking benefit of spatial diversity to reduce energy consumption. Simulations are conducted to validate the performance of our proposed schemes in comparison to the selected existing ones. Results demonstrate the validity of our propositions in terms of selected performance metrics.
... When a node sends data packets, its one-hop neighbor nodes cooperate with each other and send the data packets to the terminal nodes or sink node in cooperative routing. In [26], the routing considers source node's depth threshold, potential relay/destination nodes' depth, residual energy and signal to noise ratio of the link connecting source node with potential relay/destination node as selection parameters. The proposed protocol reduces end-to-end delay and PDR. ...
Article
Full-text available
Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) is facing a great challenge in designing a routing protocol with longer network lifetime and higher packet delivery rate(PDR) under the complex underwater environment. In this paper, we propose an energy-aware and void-avoidable routing protocol (EAVARP). EAVARP includes layering phase and data collection phase. During the layering phase, concentric shells are built around sink node, and sensor nodes are distributed on different shells. Sink node performs hierarchical tasks periodically to ensure the validity and real-time of the topology. It makes EAVARP apply to dynamic network environment. During the data collection phase, data packets are forwarded based on different concentric shells through opportunistic directional forwarding strategy (ODFS), even if there are voids. The ODFS takes into account the remaining energy and data transmission of nodes in the same shell, and avoids cyclic transmission, flooding, and voids. The verification and analysis of simulation results show that the effectiveness of our proposed EAVARP in terms of selecting performance matrics in comparison to existing routing protocols.
... The data forwarding from seabed to water surface through routing is complicated task due to node mobility, water pressure and water temperature (Ahmed, Salleh, & Channa, 2016;Moon, Iqbal, & Bhat, 2016;Rani et al., 2017). The existing routing protocols have used the multi-hop techniques for data forwarding from seabed to water surface and it is observed that performance of existing routing protocols is not reasonable due to the long propagation delay and large distance from seabed to water surface (Diao et al., 2015;Faheem, Tuna, & Gungor, 2017;Javaid et al., 2015;Umar et al., 2015). The forwarder nodes may be affected due to the water pressures and larger distance from seabed to sea surface and may degrade the network overall performance (Jain et al., 2015;Javaid et al., 2014;Zhou et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Routing in undersea environment is one of the challenging research areas due to the nature of acoustic channel and underwater harsh environment. In underwater environment the major challenges are propagation delay, high bit error rates, limited bandwidth, uncontrolled node mobility, water current, 3D deployment, and limited resources. Hence, designing an efficient and communication protocols for underwater environment is a challenging issue. To control the node mobility and prolong the battery power of the nodes, we proposed Clustered-Based Energy Efficient Routing (CBE2R) protocol. CBE2R controls the node mobility and prolongs the battery power of nodes by dividing the water depth into seven numbers of layers from top to seabed. CBE2R prolongs the battery power through powerful static courier nodes which are deployed from sea surface to seabed on different layers. Clustered-based routing mechanism with highest weighted value for data forwarding is based on seabed to bottom layer courier nodes through ordinary nodes. Bottom layer courier nodes collects the information from ordinary nodes and forwards to surface sink nodes by maximum power levels (p1, p2, ….., pn-1) through courier nodes which are deployed in different layers. For performance analysis the NS2.30 with AquaSim is used. The simulation results of CBE2R are compared with energy efficient REEP, EMGGR, and DRP. From simulation results it is observed that the performance CBE2R is higher than REEP, EMGGR, and DRP.
... In [22], two partner forwarder nodes and the destination node transmit the information packets. The selection criteria of the destination and forwarder nodes are classified in two ways. ...
Article
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Mitigation of channel unfavorable circumstances during data routing in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) has utmost significance. It guarantees saving packet corruption along unfavorable channels so that vital data is not lost or become meaningless. This paper proposes two routing protocols for UWSNs: localization free energy efficient routing (LFEER) and its improved version, localization free energy efficient cooperative routing (Co-LFEER). The LFEER makes decision of choosing a relay based on its maximum residual energy, number of hops and the bit error rate of the link over which packets are transmitted. These metrics are chosen to save packets from corruption to the maximum limit and maintain stable paths (where nodes do not die soon). Since a single link is used in the LFEER for packets forwarding, the link may become worse with changing circumstances of the channel. To deal with this issue, cooperative routing is added to the LFFER to construct the Co-LFEER protocol, in which some copies of packets are received by destination to decide about packets quality. Converse to some prevalent protocols, both LFEER and Co-LFEER are independent of knowing the sensor nodes’ positions, which increases computational complexity and wasteful utilization of resources. Based on extensive simulations, the proposed schemes are better than Co-DBR in reducing energy utilization and advancing packets to the desired destination.
... In [24], the authors describe that data packets can be made robust against the different channel factors. In this approach, a cooperation scheme is applied to sensor nodes to send data. ...
Article
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Underwater deployed sensors nodes are energy-constrained. Therefore, energy efficiency becomes crucial in underwater wireless sensor networks (U-WSNs). The adverse channel corrupts the packets and challenges their reliability. To handle these challenges, two routing schemes are introduced in this paper. They are effective energy and reliable delivery (EERD) and cooperative effective energy and reliable delivery (CoEERD). In EERD, the packets follow single-path routing and the best forwarder node is selected using a weight function such that packets are transferred via the reliable paths with low energy usage. Packet transfer via a single route in EERD has, however, compromised reliability as the undersea links bear harshness and unpredictability. Therefore, the CoEERD scheme adds cooperative routing to EERD, in which a relay node is introduced between a source-destination pair. The destination requests the relay when the packets it gets from the source are corrupted beyond a threshold value. Selection of weight function is unique and considers many factors to ensure low energy usage with reliability while considering nodes for data transfer. This also helps in selecting a single relay node rather than many relays in the conventional cooperative routing model. Based on simulation results, the EERD and CoEERD protocols have improved performance in energy usage, reliable packet transfer and delay.
... Therefore, packets transfer reliability is compromised. Several routing schemes exist in the literature that incorporate reliability in packets transfer through cooperative routing [16][17][18][19]. In this type of routing, at least one relay sends a copy of the signal it receives from the sender to the destination. ...
Article
Full-text available
Owing to the harsh and unpredictable behavior of the sea channel, network protocols that combat the undesirable and challenging properties of the channel are of critical significance. Protocols addressing such challenges exist in literature. However, these protocols consume an excessive amount of energy due to redundant packets transmission or have computational complexity by being dependent on the geographical positions of nodes. To address these challenges, this article designs two protocols for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). The first protocol, depth and noise-aware routing (DNAR), incorporates the extent of link noise in combination with the depth of a node to decide the next information forwarding candidate. However, it sends data over a single link and is, therefore, vulnerable to the harshness of the channel. Therefore, routing in a cooperative fashion is added to it that makes another scheme called cooperative DNAR (Co-DNAR), which uses source-relay-destination triplets in information advancement. This reduces the probability of information corruption that would otherwise be sent over a single source-destination link. Simulations-backed results reveal the superior performance of the proposed schemes over some competitive schemes in consumed energy, packet advancement to destination, and network stability.
... A. Umar et al. [47] proposed two different approaches to select partner nodes: Partner node selection based on depth and residual energy (PNS-DRE) and partner node selection based on depth, residual energy and SNR (PNS-DRE-SNR). Reliability and integrity of data is monitored based on cooperative techniques. ...
Preprint
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Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) play a sig- nificant role in ocean exploration and monitoring by gathering information and routing it to the ground stations. Therefore, the design of efficient routing protocols is necessary as it guarantees robust and reliable data delivery from the source nodes to the des- tination nodes. However, the effects of underwater environment, dynamic nature of the channel for acoustic, radio and optical waves, and harsh underwater noise conditions, make the routing protocol design a challenging task. This article overviews various issues which are faced in designing the routing protocols and summarizes the popular routing protocols for UWSNs alongside their pros and cons. More specifically, the routing protocols are characterized into three main categories; localization-based, localization-free and cooperative schemes. The performance of these protocols are discussed with respect to various network parameters such as energy consumption, network lifetime, delay, reliability, and communication overheads. Towards the end, new directions for potential research in improving routing protocols performance in UWSNs are highlighted.
... A. Umar et al. [47] proposed two different approaches to select partner nodes: Partner node selection based on depth and residual energy (PNS-DRE) and partner node selection based on depth, residual energy and SNR (PNS-DRE-SNR). Reliability and integrity of data is monitored based on cooperative techniques. ...
Article
Full-text available
Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) play a significant role in ocean exploration and monitoring by gathering information and routing it to the ground stations. Therefore, the design of efficient routing protocols is necessary as it guarantees robust and reliable data delivery from the source nodes to the destination nodes. However, the effects of underwater environment, dynamic nature of the channel for acoustic, radio and optical waves, and harsh underwater noise conditions, make the routing protocol design a challenging task. This article overviews various issues which are faced in designing the routing protocols and summarizes the popular routing protocols for UWSNs alongside their pros and cons. More specifically, the routing protocols are characterized into three main categories; localization-based, localization-free and cooperative schemes. The performance of these protocols are discussed with respect to various network parameters such as energy consumption, network lifetime, delay, reliability, and communication overheads. Towards the end, new directions for potential research in improving routing protocols performance in UWSNs are highlighted.
... H2-DAB [3] implements the dynamic addressing scheme among sensor nodes without requiring the localization information. Another efficient scheme for UWSN, Coop (Re and dth) [4], employs cooperative routing which involves data transmission via partner node/relay towards sink. In this paper, two different partner node selection criteria are implemented and compared. ...
Article
Sensor networks feature low-cost sensor devices with wireless network capability, limited transmit power, resource constraints and limited battery energy. Usage of cheap and small-sized wireless sensors allow very large networks to be deployed at a feasible cost to provide a bridge between information systems and the physical world. Cooperative routing exploits the broadcast nature of wireless medium and transmits cooperatively using nearby sensor nodes as relays. It is a promising technique that is a mixture of a routing protocol and cooperative communication to improve the communication quality of single-antenna sensor nodes. In this paper, we propose a cooperative transmission scheme for UnderWater Sensor Networks (UWSNs) to enhance the network performance. Cooperative diversity has been introduced to combat fading. Cooperative UWSN (Co-UWSN) is proposed, which is a reliable, energy efficient and high throughput routing protocol for UWSN. Destination and potential relays are selected from a set of neighbor nodes that utilize distance and signal-to-noise ratio computation of the channel conditions as cost functions. This contributes to sufficient decrease in path-losses occurring in the links connecting sensors in UWSN and transferring of data with much reduced path-loss. March 11, 2015 DRAFT 2 Simulation results show that Co-UWSN protocol performs better in terms of end-to-end delay, energy consumption and network lifetime. Selected protocols for comparison are non-cooperative routing protocols Energy-Efficient Depth-Based Routing (EEDBR) and Improved Adaptive Mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized Depth-based routing (iAMCTD) and a cooperative routing protocol for UWSN, Cooperative Partner Node Selection Criteria for Cooperative Routing (Coop Re and dth).
Thesis
Recently, the underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) have been proposed for the exploration of the aqueous resources and to obtain information about the aquatic environment. The noise in UWSNs challenges a successful transmission of packets from a source to the destination. There are many protocols in the literature that address noise reduction/avoidance during underwater communication. However, they require localization information of each node that itself is a challenging issue. This thesis presents a depth and noise-aware routing (DNAR) protocol for UWSNs, which considers the minimum channel noise and the lowest depth of the sensor node in order to send the packets reliably from a sender node to a surface sink. In the DNAR protocol, more energy is assigned to the sensor nodes that have a depth level ≤ 150m. Therefore, the nodes which are deployed nearby to a surface sink have more capability of transmission and will not die quickly. Also, the proposed protocol selects the forwarder candidate that has the lowest depth and minimum channel noise at the receiver. The proposed scheme requires no geographical information of the nodes for data routing. The DNAR protocol is validated by Matlab and compared with the DBR scheme. The simulation demonstrates that the DNAR has better results in terms of total energy consumption, packet delivery ratio (PDR), and the network lifetime. Additionally, in this thesis, a cooperative depth and noise aware routing for UWSNs is proposed. As compared to the existing cooperative routing protocols, the CoDNAR protocol selects the destination node based on both the lowest depth and lowest channel noise. In CoDNAR, a cooperative diversity technique is used that combat fading and high noise. A Source node uses two paths that forwards a data packet to the destination node. The one path is directly from a source to the destination, while the other one is via the relay node(s) to the destination. The destination node receives multiple copies that combining it by using a maximal ratio combining technique (MRC). The CoDNAR has the best performance in data delivery than counterpart techniques, as validated by Matlab simulation.
Thesis
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The smart grid plays a vital role in decreasing electricity cost via Demand Side Management (DSM). Smart homes, being a part of the smart grid, contribute greatly for minimizing electricity consumption cost via scheduling home appliances. However, user waiting time increases due to the scheduling of home appliances. This scheduling problem is the motivation to find an optimal solution that could minimize the Peak to Average Ratio (PAR) and electricity cost with minimum user waiting time. There are many studies on Home Energy Management (HEM) for cost minimization and peak load reduction. However, none of the systems gave sufficient attention to tackle multiple parameters (i.e., electricity cost and peak load reduction) at the same time where user waiting time is considered to be minimum for residential consumers with multiple homes. Hence, in contribution 1, we propose an efficient HEM scheme using the well-known meta-heuristic Genetic Algorithm (GA), the recently developed Cuckoo Search Optimization Algorithm (CSOA) and the Crow Search Algorithm which can be used for electricity cost and peak load alleviation with minimum user waiting time. The integration of a smart electricity storage system is also taken into account for more efficient operation of the HEM System. Furthermore, we took the real-time electricity consumption pattern for every residence, i.e., every home has its own living pattern. The proposed scheme is instigated in a smart building which is comprised of thirty smart homes (apartments). Critical Peak Pricing (CPP) and Real-Time Pricing (RTP) signals are examined in terms of electricity cost assessment for both a single smart home and a smart building. In addition, feasible regions are presented for multiple and single smart homes, which show the relationship among the electricity cost, electricity consumption and user waiting time. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of our proposed scheme for multiple and single smart homes concerning electricity cost and PAR minimization. Moreover, there subsists a tradeoff between electricity cost and user waiting. With the emergence of automated environments, energy demand by consumers is increasing rapidly. More than 80% of total electricity is being consumed in the residential sector. This brings a challenging task of maintaining the balance between demand and generation of electric power. In order to meet such challenges, a traditional grid is renovated by integrating two-way communication between the consumer and generation unit. To reduce electricity cost and peak load demand, DSM is modeled as an optimization problem and the solution is obtained by applying metaheuristic techniques with different pricing schemes. In contribution 2, an optimization technique, the Hybrid Gray Wolf Differential Evolution (HGWDE) is proposed by merging the Enhanced Differential Evolution (EDE) and Gray Wolf Optimization (GWO) schemes using the same RTP and CPP tariffs. Load shifting is performed from on-peak hours to off-peak hours depending on the electricity cost defined by the utility. However, there is a trade-off between User Comfort (UC) and cost. To validate the performance of the proposed algorithm, simulations have been carried out in MATLAB. Results illustrate that using RTP, the PAR is reduced up to 53.02%, 29.02% and 26.55%, while the electricity bill is reduced up to 12.81%, 12.012% and 12.95%, respectively, for 15-min, 30-min and 60-min operational time intervals (OTI). On the other hand, the PAR and electricity bill are reduced up to 47.27%, 22.91%, 22% and 13.04%, 12%, 11.11% using the CPP tariff. Microgrid is a community-based power generation and distribution system that interconnects smart homes with renewable energy sources. Microgrid generates power for electricity consumers and operates in both islanded and grid-connected modes more efficiently and economically. In contribution 3, we propose optimization schemes for reducing electricity cost and minimizing PAR with maximum UC in a smart home. We consider a grid-connected microgrid for electricity generation which consists of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) panel. First, the problem was mathematically formulated through Multiple Knapsack (MKP) then it is solved by existing heuristic techniques: GWO, binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), GA and Wind Driven Optimization (WDO). Furthermore, we also propose three hybrid schemes for electricity cost and PAR reduction: (1) hybrid of GA and WDO named as WDGA; (2) hybrid of WDO and GWO named as WDGWO; and (3) WBPSO, which is the hybrid of BPSO and WDO. In addition, a battery bank system has also integrated to make our proposed schemes more cost-efficient and reliable to ensure stable grid operations. Finally, simulations have been performed to verify our proposed schemes. Results show that our proposed schemes efficiently minimize the electricity cost and PAR. Moreover, our proposed techniques: WDGA, WDGWO and WBPSO outperform the existing heuristic techniques. The advancements in smart grid, both consumers and electricity providing companies can benefit from real-time interaction and pricing methods. In contribution 4, a smart power system is considered, where consumers share a common energy source. Each consumer is equipped with a Home Energy Management Controller (HEMC) as scheduler and a smart meter. The HEMC keeps updating the electricity proving utility with the load profile of the home. The smart meter is connected to power grid having an advanced metering infrastructure which is responsible for two way communication. Genetic teaching-learning based optimization, flower pollination teaching learning based optimization, flower pollination BAT and flower pollination genetic algorithm based energy consumption scheduling algorithms are proposed. These algorithms schedule the loads in order to shave the peak formation without compromising UC. The proposed algorithms achieve optimal energy consumption profile for the home appliances equipped with sensors to maximize the consumer benefits in a fair and efficient manner by exchanging control messages. Control messages contain energy consumption of consumer and RTP information. Simulation results show that proposed algorithms reduce the PAR by 34.56% and help the users to reduce their energy expenses by 42.41% without compromising the comfort. The daily discomfort is reduced by 28.18%.
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Chapter
Recently, Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs) have attracted much research attention from both academia and industry, in order to explore the vast underwater environment. However, designing network protocols is challenging in UWSNs since UWSNs have peculiar characteristics of large propagation delay, high error rate, low bandwidth and limited energy. In UWSNs, improving the energy efficiency is one of the most important issues since the replacement of the batteries of such nodes is very expensive due to harsh underwater environment. Hence, in this paper, we propose an energy efficient routing protocol, named EEDBR (Energy-Efficient Depth Based Routing protocol) for UWSNs. Our proposed protocol utilizes the depth of the sensor nodes for forwarding the data packets. Furthermore, the residual energy of the sensor nodes is also taken into account in order to improve the network life-time. Based on the comprehensive simulation using NS2, we observe that our proposed routing protocol contributes to the performance improvements in terms of the network lifetime, energy consumption and end-to-end delay. KeywordsUnderwater wireless sensor networks–routing–network life-time–residual energy
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Providing scalable and ecient routing services in underwater sensor net- works (UWSNs) is very challenging due to the unique characteristics of UWSNs. Firstly, UWSNs often employ acoustic channels for communications because radio signals do not work well in water. Compared with radio-frequency channels, acous- tic channels feature much lower bandwidths and several orders of magnitudes longer propagation delays. Secondly, UWSNs usually have very dynamic topology as sen- sors move passively with water currents. Some routing protocols have been proposed to address the challenging problem in UWSNs. However, most of them assume that the full-dimensional location information of all sensor nodes in a network is known in prior through a localization process, which is yet another challenging issue to be solved in UWSNs. In this paper, we propose a depth-based routing (DBR) protocol. DBR does not require full-dimensional location information of sensor nodes. Instead, it needs only local depth information, which can be easily obtained with an inex- pensive depth sensor that can be equipped in every underwater sensor node. A key advantage of our protocol is that it can handle network dynamics eciently with- out the assistance of a localization service. Moreover, our routing protocol can take advantage of a multiple-sink underwater sensor network architecture without intro- ducing extra cost. We conduct extensive simulations. The results show that DBR can achieve very high packet delivery ratios (at least 95%) for dense networks with only small communication cost.
Conference Paper
Significant progress has been made in terrestrial sensor net- works to revolutionize sensing and data collection. To bring the concept of long-lived, dense sensor networks to the un- derwater environment, there is a compelling need to develop low-cost and low-power acoustic modems for short-range communications. This paper presents our work in design- ing and developing such a modem. We describe our design rationale followed by details of both hardware and software development. We have performed preliminary tests with transducers for in-air communications.
Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet
  • H Yan
Yan, H., et al. "DBR: depth-based routing for underwater sensor networks," NETWORKING 2008 Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks, Wireless Networks, Next Generation Internet. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 72-86, 2008.
iAMCTD: Improved Adaptive Mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized DBR Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
  • M R Jafri
Jafri, M. R., et al. "iAMCTD: Improved Adaptive Mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized DBR Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks," Broadband and Wireless Computing, Communication and Applications (BWCCA), Eighth International Conference on. IEEE, 2013.