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New Taxa, New Combinations, and Notes on Chinese Gesneriaceae

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Abstract

Preparation of the Gesneriaceae for the Flora of China has revealed new taxa, including one new genus, Paraisometrum; thirteen new species, Chirita atroglandulosa, C. napoensis, C. pungentisepala, C. pycnantha, C. shouchengensis, C. shuii, C. skogiana, C. wangiana, Didymocarpus subpalmatinervis, Hemiboea wangiana, Opithandra burttii, Oreocharis dentata, Paraisometrum mileense; and seven new combinations, Chirita demissa, Hemiboea subcapitata vat. guangdongensis, Lysionotus microphyllus var. omeiensis, Lysionotus pauciflorus var. ikedae, Oreocharis aurea var. cordato-ovata, Paraboea glutinosa, and Tengia scopulorum vat. potifiora. The new taxa ate described, discussed, and compared with related taxa. The transfer and status changes ate justified.
... Paraisometrum mileense; plastid genome; endangered species; phylogenetic analysis Paraisometrum W. T. Wang is a monotypic genus, including P. mileense W. T. Wang, which is endemic to south-west China (Weitzman et al. 1997;Wang et al. 1998). This species had been considered as extinct for 100 years. ...
... According to its extremely small number of wild individuals (totally 840 mature plants) and vulnerability to human activities, P. mileense can be considered as an endangered (EN) species under the IUCN global species programme. The results of genetic diversity study and phylogenetic analysis indicated that P. mileense had relatively low levels of genetic diversity and indecisive systematic position (Weitzman et al. 1997;Tan et al. 2011;M€ oller et al. 2011;Chen et al. 2014). In this study, we present the complete plastid genome of P. mileense (GenBank accession number: MK342624) for the first time by using Illumina next-generation sequencing techniques and combining de novo assembly. ...
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Paraisometrum mileense is a unique species of Paraisometrum endemic to south-west China, which is a “100-years-lost” plant and was rediscovered in 2006. In this paper, complete plastid genome of P. mileense is firstly assembled and characterized. The length of total plastid genome is 153,259 bp consisting of a large single-copy region (LSC) of 84,293 bp, a small single-copy region (SSC) of 18,162 bp, and two inverted repeat regions (IRs) of 25,402 bp. In total, 113 genes are predicted, including 80 protein-coding genes (PCGs), four rRNA genes and 29 tRNA genes. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that P. mileense with the other eight Gesneriaceae species formed a clade with a 100% bootstrap support.
... The inflorescence and flower morphology indicated that this species belongs to Hemiboea as previously circumscribed; for example, it possesses involucre, its corolla is infundibular-tubular, and has a ring of hairs on the interior above the corolla base. After consulting national floras and the relevant literature (Li 1983(Li , 1987aWei and Wen 1995;Weitzman et al. 1997;Wang et al. 1998;Li and Liu 2004;Li and Wang 2005;Wei et al. 2010;Xu et al. 2010), as well as herbarium specimens, we confirmed that it is an undescribed species. We described and illustrated the new species herein. ...
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A new species of Gesneriaceae from Guizhou, China, Hemiboea kaiyangensis sp. nov. , is described and illustrated. We investigated its phylogenetic position and relationships with 13 other species of Hemiboea C.B.Clarke, which present large morphological diversity in the genus, based on molecular analyses of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and the chloroplast trn L-F intron-spacer sequences. The molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the new species is most closely related to H. ovalifolia . A diagnostic table and discussion of morphological characters are provided to differentiate the new species from H. longisepala , H. flaccida and H. ovalifolia .
... 28 species distributed mainly in southern China (Li 1996;Wang et al. 1998a), based on molecular data and a morphological evaluation, Möller et al. (2011) demonstrate that the traditionally defined Oreocharis was phylogenetically intertwined with ten small and sometimes monotypic Chinese genera: Ancylostemon W.G. Craib (1919), Bournea Oliv. (1893), Dayaoshania W.T. Wang (1983), Deinocheilos W.T. Wang (1986), Isometrum W.G. Craib (1919), Opithandra B.L. Burtt (1956), Paraisometrum W.T. Wang (1997), Thamnocharis W.T. Wang (1981), Tremacron W.G. Craib (1918) and Briggsia W.G. Craib (1919). According to molecular phylogenetic studies, made the additional palynological observation of Bournea to support the taxonomic reassessment of the genus Bournea in Gesneriaceae, and eventually Bournea were isolated (Chen et al. 2020). ...
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Oreocharis repenticaulis , a new species of Gesneriaceae from Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated. The new species is most similar to O.argyreia Chun ex K.Y. Pan, but it differs from the latter by its leaf shape, umbrella inflorescence, corolla color, filament, phenology and some obvious characteristics of rhizomes. Detailed morphological description, illustrations and morphological comparison with similar species are provided.
... Morphological observations and measurements of the new species were made on both freshly collected and dried specimens. The micro morphological characters were studied with a stereomicroscope (Leica S8APO, Leica Microsystems Inc., Germany) and were compared with those reported in the relevant literature (Clarke 1874;Clarke 1883;Hooker 1885;Chatterjee 1948;Wood 1974;Burtt et al. 1988;Weitzman et al. 1997;Wang et al. 1998;Weber et al. 2011;Middleton et al. 2013 (Fig. 1) Diagnosis. The species is remarkably different from all other species of Henckelia by its 5-winged calyx and elliptic-ovate calyx segments. ...
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Henckelia siangensis, a new species from Arunachal Pradesh of Northeast India, is described and illustrated here. The new species is remarkably different from all other allied species by its 5-winged calyx and elliptic-ovate calyx segments. It superficially resembles H. calva in glabrous stem and petioles, but differs from it in having persistent bracts, a campanulate 5-winged calyx and a style with glandular indumentum. A detailed morphological description, photographic illustration, and distribution of the new species are presented.
... It is also the only species with coherent anthers amongst species in the previous, narrower concept of Oreocharis. In the current wider delimitation of Oreocharis, the corolla tube is more similar in shape, though not in size, to those species previously placed in Ancylostemon Craib and Paraisometrum Wang (Wang et al. 1990(Wang et al. , 1998Weitzman et al. 1997;Chen et al. 2014). ...
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Two new species of Oreocharis Benth. from Fan Si Pan, the highest mountain in Vietnam (Sa Pa) are described and illustrated. Oreocharis grandiflora W.H.Chen, Q.H.Nguyen & Y.M.Shui, is similar to O. flavida Merr. from Hainan province, China, but differs mainly by its larger and infundibuliform corolla, stamens adnate to the base of the corolla tube and stamens coherent in two pairs. The second, Oreocharis longituba W.H.Chen, Q.H.Nguyen & Y.M.Shui, is similar to O. hirsuta Barnett, endemic to northern Thailand, but mainly differs in its pubescence, coherent stamens and glabrous filaments.
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Oreocharis repenticaulis, a new species of Gesneriaceae from Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated. It is the first described Oreocharis with repent stem. A detailed description, color photographs, distribution and habitat, as well as its morphological relationship with relevant similar species are also provided.
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We transfer Chirita crassifolia to Primulina as P. crassifolia and provide detailed amended descriptions for this species and for P. quanbaensis, both species found in the karst habitats in the Bat Dai Son mountains in Ha Giang province, northern Vietnam.
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Allocheilos W.T.Wang in Gesneriaceae was described in 1983 and is characterized by its 4-lobed adaxial lip and undivided abaxial lip with acute apex. The genus is endemic to the karst regions in southwestern China and is classified as endangered due to habitat loss. During surveys of the karst areas in Yunnan of southwestern China in 2017, we collected two unknown species of the genus and later confirmed their novelty to science based on the detailed observation of their morphological characteristics, viz. A. maguanensis W.H.Chen & Y.M.Shui and A. rubroglandulosus W.H.Chen & Y.M.Shui. Their relationships with the similar species and provisional conservation status are discussed.
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Information about seed dormancy cycling and germination in relation to temperature and moisture conditions in the natural environment is important for the conservation and restoration of rare species, including Begonia guishanensis and Paraisometrum mileense , two sympatric perennial limestone (karst) species. Dry afterripening (DAR) and wet and dry (WD) cycles at 15/5 and 25/15°C as well as moist chilling (MC) at 15/5°C were used to mimic the natural environment at different times of the year. A field experiment was conducted to monitor seasonal changes in germination responses of the seeds. About 40–65% of B. guishanensis and 5% of P. mileense seeds were dormant at maturity. DAR at 25/15 and 15/5°C as well as MC and WD cycles at 15/5°C alleviated dormancy for B. guishanensis but not P. mileense , and WD cycles at 25/15°C induced a deeper conditional dormancy for both species. Seeds of B. guishanensis exhibited dormancy cycling in the field, with increased dormancy under natural WD cycles at relatively high temperatures during the transition from the dry to the wet season in April to May and decreased dormancy during the wet season from June to October. KNO 3 mitigated the dormancy-inducing effect of both artificial and natural WD cycles at relatively high temperatures for B. guishanensis. The field experiment indicated that seeds of B. guishanensis may be able to form a persistent soil seed bank, while almost all seeds of P. mileense germinate at the beginning of the wet season in the field.
Article
Oreocharis mileense (W.T. Wang) M. Möller & A. Weber is endemic to China and was considered to be extinct because it had not been seen in the wild since the first collection in 1906. In 2006, the species was rediscovered in Shilin County, Yunnan Province. Oreocharis mileense was considered critically endangered for its narrow geographic range and extremely small population. An efficient method to preserve plant germplasm by in vitro culturing of O. mileense has not been reported. In this study, an orthogonal array with three factors (6-benzyladenine, BA; α-naphthaleneacetic acid, NAA; and sucrose), at four levels was performed, and shoot induction as well as shoot proliferation were recorded. The results were analyzed to determine the most significant components and the optimum combination for micropropagation of O. mileense. The results showed that: (1) organogenesis was easily induced by different combinations of plant-growth regulators and sucrose; (2) NAA and sucrose had the most significant effect on shoot induction and shoot multiplication, and (3) the optimum induction and proliferation media were 0.5 mg L⁻¹ BA + 0.2 mg L⁻¹ NAA + 30 g L⁻¹ sucrose and 1 mg L⁻¹ BA + 0.1 mg L⁻¹ NAA + 30 g L⁻¹ sucrose, respectively.
Studies in the Gesneriaceae of the Old World XII: Opithandra, a genus with sterile anticous stamens. Notes Roy Keys to the Gesneriaceae of China
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Richard & John E. Taylor, London. Burtt, B. L. 1958. Studies in the Gesneriaceae of the Old World XII: Opithandra, a genus with sterile anticous stamens. Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 22: 301-303. ? 1992. Introduction. Pp. 5-6 in W. T. Wang, K. Y. Pan & Z. Y. Li, Keys to the Gesneriaceae of China. Edinburgh J. Bot. 49: 5-74.