Article

The Properties of Lauric Acid and Their Significance in Coconut Oil

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Abstract

The primary fatty acid of coconut oil is lauric acid, which is present at approximately 45–53 %. The metabolic and physiological properties of lauric acid account for many of the properties of coconut oil. Coconut oil is rapidly metabolized because it is easily absorbed and lauric acid is easily transported. Detailed studies have shown that the majority of ingested lauric acid is transported directly to the liver where it is directly converted to energy and other metabolites rather than being stored as fat. Such metabolites include ketone bodies, which can be used by extrahepatic tissues, such as the brain and heart, as an immediate form of energy. Studies on the effect of lauric acid on serum cholesterol are contradictory. Among saturated fatty acids, lauric acid has been shown to contribute the least to fat accumulation. Lauric acid and monolaurin have demonstrably significant antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria and a number of fungi and viruses. Today there are many commercial products that use lauric acid and monolaurin as antimicrobial agents. Because of the significant differences in the properties of lauric acid relative to longer chain fatty acids, they are typically differentiated as medium-chain fatty acids covering C6–C12, and long-chain fatty acids covering C14 and longer.

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... A previous study which was related to absorption and metabolism pathway of fatty acids in rat intestine showed that 72% of lauric acid (C12), 58% of myristic acid (C14), 41% of palmitic acid (C16:0) and 28% of stearic acid (C18:0) were evaded from lymphatic pathway [2]. This obviously suggested that MCFA were directly transported to the liver rather than entering the lymphatic pathway as LCFA [3]. As the result, MCFA do not contribute to weight gain as they are mostly converted into energy and do not convert into fat in adipose tissues as LCFA; therefore, it could be possibly used for preventing and treating obesity. ...
... Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is well recognized as a rich source of MCFA including Caprylic acid (C8), Capric acid (C10), and Lauric acid (C12) which is accounted for 45-53% of the total fatty acid content in VCO. VCO is rapidly metabolized as its MCFA composition is easily absorbed and transported [3]. It was previously demonstrated that the treatment of VCO decreased significantly blood total cholesterol, LDL levels, along with the increase of HDL in the hypercholesterolemic rats [4]. ...
... As shown in Figure 1, the primary fatty acid components in the initial FFA mixture were found to be MCFA in which lauric acid (C12:0) was predominant, about 47.23%. This result was compatible with reported studies [3,13,14]. In this study, three fractions of desirable fatty acids were well developed via the experimental set-up of the vacuum distillation process. ...
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Graphical abstract Abstract This study investigated effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO)-derived fatty acids on the alteration of lipid profiles and liver tissues of high fat diet (HFD) fed mice. The initial fatty acids mixture was successfully obtained via hydrolysis process using Candida rugosa lipase (CRL). Enrichment of medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) from the initial fatty acid mixture using distillation process was developed to achieve 3 fractions of fatty acids mixture including Fraction I (MCFA mainly from C8 to C10), Fraction II of lauric acid (C12), and Fraction III (long chain fatty acids from C14 to C20). Among these agents, VCO only diminished ALT level but the initial FFA mixture decreased both ALT and AST levels compared with HFD-induced mice. Moreover, Fraction I and Fraction II showed an obvious difference in decreasing ALT, AST, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol levels as well as increasing HDL cholesterol level compared to other agents. It was observed a microvesicular steatosis and mild inflammation in liver section of mice fed with HFD whereas VCO, initial fatty acids, and Fraction II showed the beneficial effect on liver damage.
... In contrast to other plant oils which are composed of only long-chain fatty acids, coconut oil including VCO consists of mixtures between short and medium-chain fatty acids, with high lauric acid (LA) content ranging from 45-53 % [3,4]. Therefore, the unique and beneficial properties of VCO have been attributed to the existence of LA, which is a saturated medium-chain fatty acid. ...
... Triglycerides from VCO are known as medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) because the fatty acids which bound as esters are dominated by medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA). The composition of fatty acid is usually determined using gas chromatography (GC) by converting triglycerides to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) [3,22,23]. The conversion process involves the transesterification reaction of triglycerides with methanol using an inorganic base catalyst or lipase enzyme. ...
... Junin virus (JUNV) Cellular viability was measured with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method [3,64] Lauric acid could reduce JUNV growth without cell viability interfere Table 2. Continued. ...
Article
Virgin coconut oil is obtained by wet processing of coconut milk using fermentation, centrifugation, enzymatic extraction, and the microwave heating method. Presently, VCO has several positive effects and benefits to human health, hence, it is regularly consumed and widely known as a unique functional food. VCO contains lauric acid (45 to 52 %). By lipase in the digestive system, VCO can undergo a breakdown into lauric acid, 1‐monolaurin, and 2‐monolaurin. These components have both hydrophilic and lipophilic groups and are also recognized as excellent antimicrobial lipids. Furthermore, lauric acid and monolaurin can be used as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral with broad‐spectrum inhibition. Lauric acid and monolaurin have a strong ability to destroy gram‐positive bacteria, especially S. aureus, fungi such as C. Albicans, and viruses including vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), and visna virus (VV). Lauric acid and monolaurin interact with certain functional groups located in the cell membrane and can cause damage to the cell. In general, the potential of VCO as healthy food is contributed by lauric acid and monolaurin which are antimicrobial agents. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is a functional edible oil, rich with lauric acid. VCO can be converted into partial lipids, i.e., lauric acid, 1‐monolaurin, and 2‐monolaurin by lipase in the digestive system. These compounds are known as antimicrobial lipids based on their excellent activity in inhibiting the growth of broad‐spectrum microbial. The inhibition mechanism of lauric acid and monolaurin as antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral agents is also discussed
... Due to its mineral composition, TCW is a natural isotonic drink (Kadere, 2009). The macro and micro nutrients in TCW provides various health benefits such as lowered total lipids, reduced oxidative stress and antithrombotic effects (Sandhya et al., 2008;Anurag and Rajamohan, 2011;Dayrit, 2015;Zulaikhah, 2019). ...
... In copra pressing, dried coconut meat is crushed for oil extraction using traditional chekkis and rotary ghanis, expellers and hydraulic presses; especially, in India and Sri Lanka (APCC, 2009;Gopala et al., 2010). Coconut oil contains high amounts of saturated fatty acids, with lauric acid (47-55%) being the most abundant saturated fatty acid, apart from other medium chain fatty acids (Kabara, 1984;Enig, 1996;Bawalan and Chapman 2006;Dayrit, 2015). Consequently, the coconut oil is very stable since saturated fats are resistant to rancidity. ...
... Hence, ambient storage is appropriate for this oil (Isaacs, 1986). Despite few controversies, the coconut oil has been linked to low incidences blood clotting, including cardiovascular diseases and strokes (Prior et al., 1981;Srivastava et al., 2013;Dayrit, 2015). ...
... Antimicrobial, anticancer and neuroprotective effects of the major WTI fatty acid i.e., petroselinic acid (also detected in WTK) are previously reported by many scientists (15,35). WTI's stearic acid has antidepressant, antimicrobial, anticancer and hepatoprotective properties linolelaidic acid is an apoptosis inducer and lauric acid is a potential cardio-protective and antimicrobial (36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41). Lauric acid is used to treat viral infections, common cold, genital, genital warts etc. ...
... Canrea Journal: Food Technology, Nutritions, and Culinary, 2022; 5 (1):[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56] ...
... Canrea Journal: Food Technology, Nutritions, and Culinary, 2022; 5 (1): [38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56] ...
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This research paper is aimed to deliver a novel approach to prepare a popular probiotic beverage i.e., kombucha from infusion of tea waste to valorize the by-product of tea industry. In this study, a GC-MS based approach in combination with preliminary in vitro biochemical analysis was used to investigate the metabolic profiles, especially the antioxidant compounds produced during the fermentation of waste tea infusion. Waste tea infusion was found to be rich in xanthosine, the precursor of caffeine while the fermented sample was seen to be rich in more bioactive secondary metabolites derived from the substrate compounds i.e., xanthosine and sucrose. In addition, GC-MS based metabolomics helped to propose biosynthesis pathways of the metabolome which suggest the later breakdown of xanthosine and other substrate components into microbial metabolites during fermentation process. These findings are expected to be useful for further studies on production of bioactive formulations from tea waste.
... BSF larvae are also used in pet food (Wang & Shelomi, 2017). BSF is also considered one of the insects' species with the greatest potential to be used also as food according to the Novel Foods Regulation (European Council Regulations No. 2015/ 2283, 2015. ...
... Lauric acid, of which BSF is particularly rich (Caligiani et al., 2018), among all fatty acids is the strongest in the growth inactivation of Gram-positive and Gram-negative such as respectively Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli bacteria (Khoramnia et al., 2013). Many studies showed the same antimicrobial effect for monoglycerides and diglycerides of medium chain fatty acids (including C12:0) (Bergsson et al., 2001;Schiavone et al., 2017) and these are the most studied among all the fatty acid esters for its known bactericidal and antifungal activity (Dayrit, 2015). The targeted determination of this compounds was performed specifically to explain the antimicrobial activity evidenced on our previous work for fermented insect biomasses (Hadj Saadoun et al., 2020). ...
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Black soldier fly (BSF) is being increasingly used for agro-food by-products valorisation. Adult flies, puparia, and excess of prepupae are the by-products of this process, which could be further valorised. Lactic fermentation of BSF biomasses with two different strains (L. rhamnosus and L. plantarum) has been used for this purpose. Deep changes in the molecular composition were observed, without significant differences related to the different strains used. The lipid and protein fractions were the most impacted. Fermentation enriched the biomass in monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids and essential amino acids, significantly improving the nutritional properties of the substrates. Although not particularly marked, a proteolytic activity of lactobacilli was observed on the BSF muscular and cuticular proteins, especially in the samples of adult flies and puparia, where fermentation resulted more effective. Conversely, there was no evidence of chitinolytic activity.
... In addition, diets rich in 12:0 FA have been designed to reduce meat fat content in lambs (Parente et al., 2020), pigs (Teye et al., 2006), and rabbits (Dalle Zotte et al., 2018), because of their high digestibility and their fast oxidation in an organism (Parente et al., 2020). However, medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) have antibacterial agents (Henderson, 1973;Ushida et al., 1992), destroying the cell membrane of gram-positive bacteria and interfering in cellular processes, such as signal transduction and transcription by physicochemical processes (Dayrit, 2015). They may also exert an inhibitory effect on rumen biohydrogenation (BH) (Ushida et al., 1992;Dong et al., 1997), changing the abomasal FA profile which can alter meat FA composition. ...
... Thereafter, during absorption in the small intestine, 12:0 and other MCFAs are transferred directly to the portal vein as non-esterified FAs, unlike LCFA (Bach and Babayan, 1982). The 12:0 FA is expected to then reach the liver through both hepatic and lymphatic transport and be rapidly metabolized in the liver and used as an energy source for extrahepatic organs in the body, contributing to less fat accumulation (Dayrit, 2015). However, our hypothesis that GBB should reduce fat deposition in muscle is not supported by our data, probably due to the lower dietary concentration of 12:0 FA content compared with diets used in others studies (Parente et al., 2020;Jordan et al., 2006), in which experimental diets reached 45.4 g/100 g (with babassu oil addition) and 33.8 g/100 g (with refined coconut oil addition) of 12:0 FA, respectively. ...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of increasing levels of the greasy babassu byproduct (GBB) in the diet of lambs on the fatty acid (FA) profile of abomasal digesta content, meat quality traits, and meat FA profile. Twenty-eight crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês growing lambs (20.6 ± 4.1 kg of initial body weight and 145 ± 12 days old) were fed one of four experimental diets as dry matter (DM): 1) basal diet (i.e. without the GBB, CON), 2) basal diet with 50 g/kg GBB (50GBB), 3) basal diet with 100 g/kg GBB (100GBB) and, 4) basal diet with 150 g/kg GBB (150 GBB). The animals (experimental unit) were distributed in a randomized design, 4 treatments and 7 replications of each treatment. The GBB addition increased the DM intake linearly but decreased nutrient utilization, resulting in no changes in metabolizable energy intake and consequently, growth performance. Meat chemical composition, physical traits, and sensory evaluation were not affected by diet. The GBB diet increased the abomasal contents of 10:0, 12:0 and 14:0 and tended to decrease 18:0, appointing for the negative interference on the rumen biohydrogenation (BH) of 18:2 n–6 and 18:3 n–3. The changes in the abomasal FA content did not affect the meat FA profile, except for a slight increment of 12:0, with increasing dietary GBB. Thus GBB, up to 150 g/kg of dietary DM, can be used as an alternative energy source for lambs, promoting slight changes in FA abomasal contents and rumen BH, without modifying growth performance, meat quality, and meat FA composition.
... MCFAs are a family of straight-chain saturated free fatty acids of 6-12 carbon atoms in length, including lauric acid (C12:0). MCFAs are naturally present in coconut oil (Dayrit 2015), cow's milk, and human breast milk (Jensen 2002). Previous studies have shown that MCFAs can improve the growth performance of piglets and prevent the negative effects associated with weaning (Dierick et al. 2002;Zentek et al. 2011Zentek et al. , 2013Sol et al., 2019). ...
... Previous studies have shown that MCFAs can improve the growth performance of piglets and prevent the negative effects associated with weaning (Dierick et al. 2002;Zentek et al. 2011Zentek et al. , 2013Sol et al., 2019). Furthermore, in vitro studies have shown that MCFAs have antibacterial activity, with great efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria (Lieberman et al. 2006;Skrivanova et al. 2012;Dayrit 2015;De Smet et al. 2016), supporting their use against pathogens relevant in pig farming, such as Escherichia coli and Streptococcus suis. Organic acids possess antimicrobial properties, due to their ability to cross the cell membrane-related to the lipophilic nature of their undissociated forms-and modifying the proton (and associated anion) concentrations in the cytoplasm (G omez-Garc ıa et al. 2019). ...
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Reducing the use of antibiotics is one of the largest challenges for pig production. The scientific community has investigated numerous alternative substances to antibiotics, including medium-chain fatty acids, due to their antimicrobial and protective effects on the gut health of piglets. The present study investigated the effect of lauric acid saponified with calcium (C12-Ca) on the growth performance and gut health parameters in post-weaning piglets. A total of 192 24-day-old piglets were assigned to one of three dietary treatments: CTR (basal diet alone), ANT (amoxicillin, 400 mg/kg) as a positive control diet, or C12-Ca (1 g/kg) for 28 days. C12-Ca did not affect performance, except for feed efficiency (FE), which increased (p < .05) in the C12-Ca and ANT groups from 15 to 28 days. On days 0 to 28, FE was higher (p < .001) in the C12-Ca group than in the CTR group. In the C12-Ca and CTR groups, antibiotic treatments against diarrhoea were reduced. A greater concentration of lactic acid was found in the small intestine in the C12-Ca group and the acetic acid concentration in the caecum decreased under C12-Ca treatment (p < .001). No differences in IL-10, IL-6, IgA, and IgG were found in faecal samples. In the duodenum and ileum, C12-Ca administration provided a higher total antioxidant capacity and lower malondialdehyde level (p < .001). C12-Ca improved the ileal villus height and width (p < .001). Our findings suggest that C12-Ca administration ameliorates the indices of intestinal function and gut health in weaned piglets. • Highlights • Reducing the use of antibiotics is one of the largest challenges for pig production. • Medium-chain fatty acids are important alternative substances to antibiotics. • Lauric acid saponified with calcium represents a promising nutritional strategy for improving piglet gut health.
... However, studies on the effects of C12:0 and C14:0 on human health are often contradictory. Lauric (C12:0), myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids seem to exert atherogenic effects by increasing the synthesis of (low-density lipoprotein) LDL cholesterol and the level of total cholesterol [45] and the potential of C14:0 to increase total serum cholesterol would seem fourfold or even sixfold higher than that of C16:0. However, several studies have demonstrated that lauric acid increases the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) [45]. ...
... Lauric (C12:0), myristic (C14:0) and palmitic (C16:0) acids seem to exert atherogenic effects by increasing the synthesis of (low-density lipoprotein) LDL cholesterol and the level of total cholesterol [45] and the potential of C14:0 to increase total serum cholesterol would seem fourfold or even sixfold higher than that of C16:0. However, several studies have demonstrated that lauric acid increases the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) [45]. The low amount of MCFA, as C12:0 and C14:0, detected in GP+ milk may represent a benefit for the consumer. ...
Article
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing a 10% of grape pomace (GP) on the milk yield, chemical-nutritional characteristics, total phenolic compounds (TPCs), antioxidant activity (AOA), fatty acids and proteins profile of dairy ewe’s milk. Forty-six ewes were dived into two groups: a control group (Ctrl), fed a standard diet, and an experimental group (GP+), whose diet was supplemented with 10% of GP on dry matter. The trial lasted 60 days and milk samples were collected and analyzed at the beginning (T0) and after 60 (T60) days. Dietary enrichment with GP did not affect the yield and the chemical composition of the milk. TPCs and AOA were not affected by the diet. After 60 days, the diet induced an increase in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and a decrease in medium chain saturated fatty acids (MCSFA), but the total saturated fatty acids (SFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), short chain saturated fatty acids (SCSFA) and long chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFA) were not modified. A decrease in the C14 desaturation index and an increase in the C18 index were also detected. Total caseins and whey protein were not affected by GP, even if a lower content of k-casein in GP+ milk compared to Ctrl milk was observed on the 60th day. The results of the present study suggest that 10% of GP can be included in the diet of lactating ewes without modifying milk gross composition but inducing significantly changes the fatty acid profile.
... CO is conventionally used in food and cosmetics industry, however, recently been used in medicine due to its antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, scar removal and skin barrier effects (Shilling et al 2013, Ismail et al 2014, Muhammad Zulhelmi Muktar 2017, Muktar et al 2018, Vaughn et al 2018. Virgin CO contains triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and free fatty acids (Dayrit 2015). Lauric acid content of CO, which is a component of triglycerides, was determined to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties (Dayrit 2015, Peedikayil et al 2016. ...
... Virgin CO contains triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and free fatty acids (Dayrit 2015). Lauric acid content of CO, which is a component of triglycerides, was determined to have antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties (Dayrit 2015, Peedikayil et al 2016. When used as a mouthwash, CO was shown to reduce dental plaque forming Streptococcus mutans as much as the most effective oral pathogen reducing chemical agent chlorhexidine (Peedikayil et al 2016). ...
Article
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The influence of coconut oil (CO) on a gelatin-based film was investigated when used as a potential wound dressing material. There is limited study on CO in protein-based wound dressing materials. Therefore, in this study a self-supporting, continuous and homogenous CO incorporated gelatin-based film was formulated and obtained by solution casting method. The influence of CO on physicochemical and thermal properties of gelatin-based film was also determined. Moreover, the effect CO in gelatin films on cell viability and cell migration was analysed with a preliminary cell culture study. Homogenous dispersion of 10% (w/w) CO was obtained in films when 3% (v/w) Tween 80, a surfactant, was incorporated to 20% (w/w) plasticized gelatin film forming solution. Effect of CO on gelatin-based film was observed via phase separation by SEM analysis. Water uptake of gelatin film with no CO, GE film; and 10% (w/w) CO incorporated GE film, GE-CO, were 320% and 210%, respectively, after 3 hours in water. FTIR analysis showed triglyceride component of CO and increased hydrogen bonding between NH groups of gelatin in GE-CO films. DSC results suggested a more ordered structure of GE-CO film due to an increase in melt-like transition temperature and melting enthalpy of GE-CO film. CO content also increased cell viability, assessed by XTT Assay since cell viability was approximately 100% when L929 cell culture was incubated with GE-CO of 5-100 μg/mL. Moreover, GE-CO samples within 5-25 μg/mL concentration range, increased proliferation of L929 cells since cell viability was significantly higher than the 100% viable cell culture control (P < 0.05) which is also an indication of efficient healing. However, GE decreased viability of L929 cells significantly at 100-10 μg/mL concentration range (P < 0.05) and were toxic at concentrations of 100, 75 and 50 μg/mL which decreased ∿50% of the viability of the cells. Scratch Assay to assess in vitro wound healing showed cell migration towards scratch after 24 h as an indication of wound healing only in GE-CO samples. This study showed that, CO could efficiently be added to gelatin-based films for preparation of a primary wound dressing biomaterial which is also demonstrated to have a promising wound healing effect for minor wounds.
... In addition, diets rich in 12:0 FA have been designed to reduce meat fat content in lambs (Parente et al., 2020), pigs (Teye et al., 2006), and rabbits (Dalle Zotte et al., 2018), because of their high digestibility and their fast oxidation in an organism (Parente et al., 2020). However, medium-chain FAs (MCFAs) have antibacterial agents (Henderson, 1973;Ushida et al., 1992), destroying the cell membrane of gram-positive bacteria and interfering in cellular processes, such as signal transduction and transcription by physicochemical processes (Dayrit, 2015). They may also exert an inhibitory effect on rumen biohydrogenation (BH) (Ushida et al., 1992;Dong et al., 1997), changing the abomasal FA profile which can alter meat FA composition. ...
... Thereafter, during absorption in the small intestine, 12:0 and other MCFAs are transferred directly to the portal vein as non-esterified FAs, unlike LCFA (Bach and Babayan, 1982). The 12:0 FA is expected to then reach the liver through both hepatic and lymphatic transport and be rapidly metabolized in the liver and used as an energy source for extrahepatic organs in the body, contributing to less fat accumulation (Dayrit, 2015). However, our hypothesis that GBB should reduce fat deposition in muscle is not supported by our data, probably due to the lower dietary concentration of 12:0 FA content compared with diets used in others studies (Parente et al., 2020;Jordan et al., 2006), in which experimental diets reached 45.4 g/100 g (with babassu oil addition) and 33.8 g/100 g (with refined coconut oil addition) of 12:0 FA, respectively. ...
Article
This study evaluated the effects of increasing levels of the greasy babassu byproduct (GBB) in the diet of lambs on the fatty acid (FA) profile of abomasal digesta content, meat quality traits, and meat FA profile. Twenty-eight crossbred Dorper × Santa Inˆes growing lambs (20.6 ± 4.1 kg of initial body weight and 145 ± 12 days old) were fed one of four experimental diets as dry matter (DM): 1) basal diet (i.e. without the GBB, CON), 2) basal diet with 50 g/kg GBB (50GBB), 3) basal diet with 100 g/kg GBB (100GBB) and, 4) basal diet with 150 g/kg GBB (150 GBB). The animals (experimental unit) were distributed in a randomized design, 4 treatments and 7 replications of each treatment. The GBB addition increased the DM intake linearly but decreased nutrient utilization, resulting in no changes in metabolizable energy intake and consequently, growth performance. Meat chemical composition, physical traits, and sensory evaluation were not affected by diet. The GBB diet increased the abomasal contents of 10:0, 12:0 and 14:0 and tended to decrease 18:0, appointing for the negative interference on the rumen biohydrogenation (BH) of 18:2 n–6 and 18:3 n–3. The changes in the abomasal FA content did not affect the meat FA profile, except for a slight increment of 12:0, with increasing dietary GBB. Thus GBB, up to 150 g/kg of dietary DM, can be used as an alternative energy source for lambs, promoting slight changes in FA abomasal contents and rumen BH, without modifying growth performance, meat quality, and meat FA composition.
... However, other studies reported conflicting results, whereas all of the saturated fatty acids (C8 to C16), including lauric acid, increased total cholesterol [58,59]. The effect of lauric acid on serum cholesterol is still controversial because it appears to be influenced by various factors, such as the duration of the experiment [60]. To resolve this, further studies on whether BSFL can reduce serum total cholesterol in dogs with hypercholesterolemia are required. ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of fermented oat (FO) and black soldier fly larva (BSFL) as food ingredients for dogs. A total of 20 spayed female dogs were divided into four treatment groups, with 5 dogs per group. The four treatment groups consisted of a control group, a diet with 10% FO, one with 5% BSFL, and one with 10% FO and 5% BSFL, and each experimental food was fed for 12 weeks. The feeding of FO and/or BSFL did not affect the daily food intake, body weight, body condition score, fecal score, or skin condition of the dogs. In all the experimental groups, no significant differences in serum IgG, IL-10, or TNF-α levels were observed upon the feeding of FO and/or BSFL. Some hematological (white blood cell and basophils) and serum biochemical parameters (phosphorous, globulin, and alkaline phosphatase) showed significant differences with FO and/or BSFL feeding compared to the control group, but they were within the normal reference range. No adverse clinical signs related to these parameters being affected by FO and BSFL were observed. The feeding of BSFL for 12 weeks reduced the serum cholesterol level (p < 0.05) at the end of the experiment. Our findings suggest the suitability of FO and BSFL as food materials for dogs.
... However, tributyrin will be rapidly decomposed into butyric acid and metabolized in vivo, which greatly decreases its stability and physiological activity [23,24]. Meanwhile, lauric acid (C12) is a medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA), its glyceride has antibacterial activity and good resistance to digestion, and is rapidly metabolized into energy after being transported to the liver [25]. Therefore, lauric acid may be a potential option to modify tributyrin structure, which improves its nutritional value and stability. ...
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Ultrasound is a green technology for intensifying enzymatic reactions. In this study, an ultrasonic water bath with equipment parameters of 28 kHz, 1750.1 W/m², 60% duty cycle was used to assist the synthesis of butyric acid-lauric acid designer lipid (BLDL), which was catalyzed by Lipozyme 435. A convincing three-layer feed-forward artificial neural network (ANN) model was established (R²=0.949, RMSE=4.759, ADD=7.329) to accurately predict the optimal parameters combination, which was described as 13.72 mL reaction volume, 15.49% enzyme loading, 0.253 substrate molar ratio (tributyrin/lauric acid), 56.58°C reaction temperature and 120 min reaction time. The ultrasonic assistance increased actual butyric acid conversion rate by 11.38%, and also enhanced the consumption rate of tributyrin and lauric acid during the reaction. Meanwhile, the esterification activity of Lipozyme 435 was enhanced and its effectiveness up to 6 cycles. Structurally, ultrasound assistance significantly disrupted the secondary structure of the Lipozyme 435: reduced the content of α-helices, increased the content of β-sheet and β-turn. In addition, sonication caused an increase in crevice and micro-damage on the surface of the immobilized enzyme. In conclusion, low-intensity ultrasound at 28 kHz improved the synthesis efficiency of BLDL, which was scientifically predicted by ANN model, and the change of enzyme structure may be the vital reason for ultrasound enhanced reaction. However, the effect of ultrasound on immobilized enzymes’ activity needs to be further explored.
... Jucker et al. (2017) found a high level of lauric acid (68%) when BSFL was fed with fruit waste. Lauric acid is associated with many health benefits, such as prevention of cardiovascular disease (Liau et al., 2011;Dayrit, 2015;Ma & Lee, 2016), anti-viral properties (Bartolotta et al., 2001), prevention of cancer (Lappano et al., 2017), reducing the risk of Alzheimer's disease (Chatterjee et al., 2020) and reducing obesity (Liau et al., 2011). ...
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Meeting the increasing consumer demand for affordable, sustainable and nutritious food is a great challenge. The rapidly growing population will have unprecedented demand for meat and meat‐based products. The livestock sector is a significant contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and a major user of land and water resources. Excessive animal farming adversely affects the environment, accelerating climate change. This review article emphasises on edible insects as an alternative and sustainable food source. Edible insects can transform a wide variety of organic products, including agricultural and food wastes, into high‐quality proteins with essential amino acids. Edible insect oil contains healthy fatty acids such as lauric acid, oleic acid and omega‐3 and 6 commonly found in coconut oil, olive oil and fish oil with health benefits. Substitution of edible insects in some food products with low nutritional value can increase protein content up to 100%. Farming edible insects can be an effective solution to food waste management which is a global problem.
... Lauric acid is the major fatty acid in coconut oil constituting about 50% of the total fatty acid composition. Considering lauric acid makes up a large portion of the constituents of coconut oil it is hypothesized to contribute greatly to the physiologic effects of coconut oil (14). Coconut oil, a common plant product locally consumed has been renowned throughout history for its medicinal and nutritional value. ...
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Sperm quality is impaired in diabetic conditions. Coconut oil (CO) possesses anti-diabetic properties and ameliorative effects on testicular dysfunction. Lauric acid (LA) being the most abundant constituent of CO is hypothesized to be responsible for its physiologic actions. This study investigated some testicular and sperm parameters in diabetic male wistar rats treated with lauric acid and coconut oil. Thirty animals were divided into six groups of five each. Group I: Control; Group II: Diabetic untreated; Group III: Diabetic treated with LA (90 mg/Kg). Group IV: Diabetic treated with LA (180 mg/Kg); Group V: Diabetic treated with LA (360 mg/Kg). Group VI: Diabetic treated with CO (1.42 ml/Kg). Compared to Group I, there was a significant decline (p < 0.05) in gonadosomatic index, serum testosterone level, sperm quality and testicular structure in Group II. Compared to Group II; the gonadosomatic index, sperm quality were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in Group VI. Compared to Group II; Group V and Group III had significantly higher (p < 0.05) percentages of normal and progressively motile sperm cells respectively. Testicular histoarchitecture was improved in Groups 5 and 6. Sperm quality was largely improved by coconut oil but not by lauric acid. This contradicts the assumption that lauric acid may be largely credited for this physiologic action of coconut oil.
... [2][3][4] VCO triglycerides on ingestion is broken down by lipases present in our body into various monoglycerides, diglycerides and free fatty acidsincluding Lauric Acid and Monolaurin. [5] Monolaurin, Coconut Fatty Acids, Coconut Oil polyphenols and other components have been shown to exhibit antiinflammatory response in various in-vitro and in-vivo studies. [6][7][8][9][10] Mechanistically these components are shown to modulate the activities of enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism (phospholipase A2, COX) and arginine metabolism (NOS), as well as the modulation of the production of other proinflammatory molecules. ...
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Inflammation related pathogeneis is on rise given the modern-day lifestyle and dietary choices. The present exploratory study is aimed at evaluating the effect of virgin coconut oil (VCO) ingestion by healthy subjects on inflammation related biomarkers and health conditions. 60-day pilot study was conducted on healthy Indian subjects with ingestion of 30 ml/day VCO (post meals) for a period of 2 months. Significant reduction in C-Reactive Protein levels from baseline and IL-6 levels from control group were recorded. The inflammation reduction effect was further substantiated with lower incidences for common infections (physician observation) & improvement in pain related conditions (self-assessment scale). In order to propose VCO as nutraceutical in controlling inflammation related pathogenesis, more elaborate studies – with larger sample size and diverse population set – need to be conducted.
... The current knowledge on alleviating H. pylori infections through the use of some commonly known natural products: bench to bedside such as Syzygium aromaticum, chinese tea, green tea (catechin), matcha tea, Casearia sylvestris leaf, propolis, bulgarian propolis, curcumin and nigella (Yee & Koo, 2001;Stoicov & Houghton, 2013;Boyanova et al., 2003;Yanagawa et al., 2003;Kurauchi et al., 2019;Dı´az-Go´mez et al., 2013;Baltas et al., 2016;Vetvicka et al., 2016;Muniyappan et al., 2021;Khan et al., 2019b;Salem et al., 2010;Chahardoli et al., 2018). Plant extracts with biomedical potential, such as olive oil, licorice roots, and coconut oil, have piqued the interest of researchers, owing to their anti-inflammatory, anti-biotic, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-bacterial, antiplaque, and antiprotozoal activity, which can act as an antiulcer agent (Spo´sito et al., 2019;Karkanis et al., 2018;Pandey, 2017;Thakur & Raj, 2017;Ghani et al., 2018;Marina et al., 2009;Ngnameko et al., 2019;Romero et al., 2007;Foscolou et al., 2018;Wittschier et al, 2009;Hajiaghamohammadi et al., 2016;Meng et al., 2019;Dayrit, 2014). ...
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Eco friendly and green synthetic approach for the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles gained much importance in the recent era. In the present study, an environmental friendly and plant mediated synthetic approach was used for the synthesis of gold coated iron ([email protected]) nanoparticles using extract solution of olive oil, licorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra) and coconut oil (OLC). These extracts were acted as a reducing agent during the formation of core–shell nanoparticles that provides long-time stability, lower toxicity and higher permeability to specific target cells. In order to achieve the small sized, regular spherical shaped, and homogeneous nanoparticles optimum conditions were ensured. In fact, the use of microwave irradiation was offered higher reaction rate and better product. The [email protected] have been characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy, Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), High resolution Transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), High angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), Particle-Size Distribution (PSD), and Magnetic hysteresis loops. The synthesized gold coated iron nanoparticles showed significant antioxidant potential with maximum inhibition rates, the biosynthesized nanoparticles were also found effective against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and ulcer.
... Lauric acid (C 12:0 ) has antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria such as Clostridium perfringens while being less effective against gram-negative bacteria. Its mechanism of action is unclear, but it is known to interfere with bacterial cell signal transduction and gene transcription following cell membrane destruction (Dayrit, 2015). ...
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Background Sustainable nutrition and food security are central topics in the current global agenda. Insect production represents a promising food source that has received growing attention in the food and feed industry due to its high nutritional value and positive effect on animal health. The resilience of insects to infections by different parasites indicates they are an excellent type of biomass for the extraction of various antimicrobial compounds. Scope and approach The antimicrobial potential of insects is illustrated through a description of the different sources of antimicrobial compounds. Distinctions between intrinsic and extrinsic insect antimicrobials are presented in terms of their constituent components and metabolites produced. An updated overview of potential applications in food and feed sectors is presented to identify key reasons to invest in this food source and to stimulate further research in this field. The main aspects supporting the development of this industry in the future are summarized. Key findings and conclusions Processing extracted insect fractions will lead to the development of new application possibilities and an increase in the edible insect sector value. The possibility of producing new generation antimicrobials from a sustainable supply chain involving insect rearing contributes to green economy policies and reduction of antibiotic resistance.
... These acids are present in high proportion (60%) in coconut oil, which provides 10 per cent of the world's kitchen oil production. MCFAs are also present in palm oil (8%) and cuphea oil, but in much lower proportions (Bhatnagar et al., 2009;Dayrit, 2015;Wang et al., 2015). ...
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ABSTRACT In our experiment, coconut and palm oil supplementation was added to the diet of broiler chickens to prove the hypothesis that medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) can reduce the occurrence of potential pathogens (Clostridium perfingens, Coliform) in gut microflore and therefore improve bird welfare. Cobb 500 cockerels were divided in five groups. Control birds were fed commercial broiler diet, while birds in the four treatment group diets were supplemented with coconut, palm oil, or a combination of the two, respectively. As a positive control, sunflower oil supplementation was included in the diet of the fifth group. During the 28 days of the study (from 14 to 42 days of life), 5 samplings were scheduled, when excreta samples were taken from the litter to analyse total microbial count and the number of Clostridia, Coliforms, and Salmonella. According to the results of microbiological analysis, coconut oil supplementation led to the continuous decline of Clostridium perfringens numbers until they vanished by the end of the experimental period. A similar but faster decline was found as a result of palm oil and the combined (palm oil+coconut oil) treatment. However, the number of Coliforms and total microbial count changed only slightly by the end of the study. No Salmonella spp. was present in the samples throughout the experiment. Altogether, coconut and palm oil supplementation has a beneficial effect on the microbiological composition of poultry litter.
... Although BSFL fat contains SFAs as the main constituents of the FA profile, it can modulate the microbiota composition through the relatively high concentration of lauric acid. It is well known that lauric acid has strong antimicrobial, antiviral, and antiparasitic properties (Dayrit, 2015;Ushakova et al., 2016;Zeitz et al., 2015). Furthermore, organic acids, mainly MCFA preparations, are frequently studied as growth promoters in poultry nutrition (Hejdysz et al., 2018;Rashid et al., 2020). ...
Article
This study aimed to evaluate the partial or total replacement of soybean oil with cold-extracted Hermetia illucens larvae (BSFL) fat in young turkey diets on growth performance, coefficients of apparent ileal nutrient digestibility, pancreatic enzyme activities, selected gastrointestinal tract (GIT) segment measurements, microbial community modulation, selected biochemical blood indices, hormone concentrations, immune status traits, and muscle and liver tissue traits. A total of 216 7-day-old female turkeys (B.U.T. 6) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments. Each group contained 6 replicate pens with 12 birds per pen. The birds were fed a soybean-maize basal diet enriched with 50 g/kg dietary fat, i.e., soybean oil (SO) in the control group, 50:50 SO and H. illucens larvae fat in the BSFL50 treatment group, and BSFL fat as the sole energy source in the BSFL100 group. The experiment lasted 28 days. The provided BSFL fat was characterized by high lauric and palmitic acid contents, as well as saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while concentrations of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids were higher in the SO group. The growth performance parameters were not affected (P>0.05) by BSFL fat substitution. However, the apparent ileal digestibility of the ether extract was significantly increased (P<0.001) after BSFL fat inclusion as the sole energy source with simultaneous enhancement (P<0.001) of lipase activity. Partial or total replacement of SO with BSFL fat improved cecal microbiota communities by limiting (P<0.001) Bacteroides-Prevotella cluster counts. Additionally, the beneficial effect of BSFL100 was observed in the case of a decreased (P=0.004) IL-6 concentration. In conclusion, it is possible to partially or totally substitute SO in turkey diets with cold-extracted BSFL fat without any negative effect on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, physiological traits, or immunological status traits. Furthermore, the cold-pressing technique can be adopted and recommended to obtain BSFL fat as a dietary energy source in turkey nutrition.
... The medium-chain SFA (8-12 carbon atoms) is linked to lower blood pressure, better cardiac function, lower cancer risk, lower atherosclerosis risk, and lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol 24,25 . Moderate myristic acid consumption improves long-chain omega-3 fatty acid levels in plasma phospholipids, positively impacts cardiovascular health, and regulates key metabolic processes 26 . ...
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Microalgae could be an excellent resource of functional and essential fatty acids. To achieve viable microalgal biomass production, mass cultivation of microalgae is required; however, the high cost of nutrients is the obstacle. An inexpensive and nutritious material is required to feed Chlorella vulgaris in the pharmaceutical and food sectors. Citrus peel waste with a valuable nutritional quality could be one of the promising and inexpensive candidates. In this study, the fatty acid extract from different citrus peels was used as the organic nutrient source for the cultivation of Chlorella . The proximate composition of bitter orange, sweet orange, grapefruit, and mandarin peels were determined, and their nutritional quality was evaluated. Total fatty acids from the citrus peel were prepared by acidic methanol hydrolysis and hexane extraction. Fourier transforms infrared (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) was used to analyze the fatty acid composition and nutrient composition. Fatty acids from the citrus peels were added to the Chlorella culture medium to study their influences on biomass, lipid production, fatty acid profile, and nutritional quality of Chlorella . The most predominant citrus peel fatty acids were linoleic, palmitic, oleic, linolenic, and stearic acids. The citrus peels contain polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids. The most unsaturated fatty acids were omega-6, omega-3, omega-9, and omega-7. The citrus peel had acceptable atherogenicity, thrombogenicity, omega-6/omega-3, peroxidizability, hypocholesterolemic, and nutritive value indices. The major fatty acids of Chlorella were palmitic, linoleic, oleic, alpha-linolenic, gamma-linolenic, 4,7,10,13-hexadecatetraenoic, palmitoleic, 7,10-hexadecadienoic, 7,10,13-hexadecatrienoic, lauric and 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acids. Chlorella contains polyunsaturated, saturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids. The most unsaturated fatty acids contain omega-6, omega-3, omega-9, and omega-7. Chlorella had acceptable atherogenicity, thrombogenicity, omega-6/omega-3, hypocholesterolemic, peroxidizability, and nutritive value indices. Supplementation of Chlorella with citrus peels fatty acid increases total biomass, lipid content, and nutritional quality of Chlorella . The present research shows that citrus peels have good nutritional quality and could be used for the inexpensive cultivation of Chlorella biomass with potential utility for food application.
... The compound was identified by the presence of characteristic mass fragment peaks at 60, 73, 115, 129 and 157 as shown in Fig. 3e. It is the primary component of coconut oil and results in least fat accumulation and synthesis of many other metabolites when ingested [44]. Quinoline, a compound of significant therapeutic importance was identified in the methanolic stem extract due to the presence of signature mass fragmentation pattern with M + peaks at 102 and 129 (Fig. 3f). ...
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Comparative metabolite profiling of crude extracts of leaf and stem of two medicinally important species of genus Cissus was performed. Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) of methanoloic extracts of leaf and stem of Cissus rotundifolia revealed the presence of around 30 compounds, out of which 15 were identified through NIST14 library based on their mass spectral pattern. Some of the important metabolites included betulinaldehyde, methyl palmitate, β-amyrin acetate, 2-naphthol, 2-phenylethanol and myristic acid. Among these metabolites, betulinaldehyde was the most abundant compound with 36.44% relative abundance. In contrast, 36 compounds were detected in the aqueous and methanolic extracts of C. quadrangularis stem, out of which 21 compounds were identified through NIST14 library. Saturated fatty acids and ascorbic acid derivatives constitute the major fraction with 44.30% and 36.40% of the total peak area. In addition to these, coumaran, quinoline and trans-phytol were also identified in the extracts of C. quadrangularis. The comparative metabolite profiling showed higher percentage of betulinaldehyde (~ 36%) and lauric acid (19.42%) in C. rotundifolia while that of methyl palmitate (~ 0.76%) and coumaran (1.48%) in C. qudrangularis. Cissus species are medicinally known for their bone healing properties and the metabolic profiling of these herbs will further be utilised for identification and characterization of the novel bioactive compounds responsible for various medicinal properties. Graphical Abstract
... Lauric acid attributes anti-microbial and antiinflammatory properties to the oil. [2,3] Similarly, newer studies on oil pulling therapy that uses edible oils such as sunflower oil, sesame oil, and coconut oil were found to promote oral health. [4,5] For oil pulling therapy, the patient is asked to take one to two tablespoons of oil in the mouth or till the mouth is half-filled, which is done on an empty stomach early in the morning. ...
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Aim: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aim to evaluate randomized control trials (RCTs) to answer the question “Can oil pulling with coconut oil help patients with poor oral health?” Materials and Methods: A literature search was conducted for RCTs till January 2021. A total of 47 articles were retrieved through five electronic databases, i.e., Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane Review, SCOPUS, and Embase using key words related to the topic. The selection of articles was based on the PICOS criteria and the PRISMA protocol for systematic reviews. The studies which discussed coconut oil and its effect on the plaque, gingival index, and Streptococcus mutans count were included in the study. Results: The final selection included 13 articles from which data were extracted for further evaluation. The articles included show coconut oil’s efficiency as an antimicrobial agent to reduce bacterial colonization with significant improvement in oral hygiene by practicing oil pulling. However, the quality of evidence is low and more well-designed clinical trials with a wide range of oral health outcomes are required. Conclusion: Based on the results of the systematic review, there is a significant statistical difference in plaque and gingival index between individuals with and without using coconut oil. Hence, further research is mandatory to clearly explain the role of microbiota and their transformations in the oral cavity. We conclude that continued surveillance of patients in a long-term study design with holistic alternatives and early management of complications are important in lifelong care and well-being of patients with a compromised oral cavity
... Although a saturated fatty acid, lauric acid was reported to have decreased the mRNA expression of apolipoprotein, decrease low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels, but raise high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, such that the total cholesterol level decline (Arunima and Rajamohan, 2018). Studies have shown that lauric acid was responsible for the pharmacological properties of coconut oil such as antioxidant (Alves et al., 2017), antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties (Dayrit, 2015). This study was therefore designed to evaluate the potential benefits of lauric acid on leucocytes infiltration in BALF, concentration of TNF-Wistar rats. ...
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Lauric acid is a medium-chain fatty acid that has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antibacterial properties. Diabetic complication in the lungs is characterized by infiltration of inflammatory mediators and structural alteration of the lung parenchyma. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of lauric acid on leucocytes infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), concentration of tumor necrosis factor-histology of type II diabetic male Wistar rats. A total of thirty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups of five rats each as follows: Group I served as normal control; group II were normoglycemic rats, administered 125 mg/Kg bwt lauric acid. Group III served as diabetic control. Groups IV, V, VI and VII were diabetic Wistar rats treated with 125 mg/Kg bwt, 250 mg/Kg bwt, 500 mg/Kg bwt lauric acid and 100 mg/Kg bwt metformin respectively. The results obtained, showed a significant (P cell count and differential count of lymphocytes, neutrophils and macrophages in blood and BALF of the diabetic control compared to the normal control. However, there was a significant decrease in total and differential white blood cell count in blood and BALF of the diabetic groups treated with lauric acid compared to the diabetic control (P-concentration was significantly reduced after treatment with lauric acid (P also reversed the reduced alveolar spaces in diabetic lungs. These results indicate that lauric acid reduced inflammation and reversed the histoarchitectural alterations in the lungs of type II diabetic male Wistar rats.
... Belghit et al. [65] reported that dietary supplementation of BSF oil decreased liver triacylglycerol levels in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) suggesting that lauric acid content of BSF may act as a low-deposition and rapid-oxidation medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) in the aquatic animals. In addition to their rapid absorption and oxidation, MCFAs have also been reported to possess antimicrobial and antiviral properties [66][67][68]. MCFA transportation is less dependent on chylomicrons and lipoproteins due to higher polarity of MCFAs compared to long-chain fatty acids. Therefore, the oil fraction and bioactive compounds in BSF could be a reason for the enhanced shrimp growth and immune responses observed in this study. ...
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This study was conducted to examine digestibility of insect meals for Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei ) and their utilization as fish meal substitutes. The tested insect meals were mealworm, silkworm, black soldier fly, rice grasshopper, two-spotted cricket, dynastid beetle and white-spotted flower chafer. Apparent digestibility coefficients of the tested insect meals were 83–89% for protein, 91–98% for lipid, 84–90% for energy, 77–81% for dry matter, 28–36% for chitin, 76–96% for amino acids and 89–93% for fatty acids. The amino acid availability of insect meals was high in taurine (93–96%), arginine (91–95%) and lysine (90–95%). Availability of fatty acids were 89–93% for saturated fatty acids, 90–93% for monounsaturated fatty acids and 88–93% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. For a feeding trial, a control diet was formulated using 27% tuna byproduct meal as a fish meal source and seven other diets were prepared replacing 10% tuna byproduct meal in the control diet with each insect meal. Triplicate groups of shrimp (initial body weight: 0.17 g) were fed the diets for 65 days. The growth performance was significantly improved when the shrimp were fed black soldier fly or dynastid beetle included diet. Dietary supplementation of insect meals significantly improved non-specific immune responses and antioxidant enzyme activity in the shrimp. These results indicate that the tested insect meals have high potentials to be used as a protein source that could replace fish meal in diets for the shrimp.
... Lauric acid, which is the dominant fatty acid in BSFLO, may have contributed to lower LD in trout fed 10% BSFLO (Dayrit, 2015;Li et al., 2016;. Values of efficiency of lipid deposition (eLD) above 100% indicated lipid synthesis outweighed lipid catabolism in all treatments. ...
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The ide (Leuciscus idus) is a native European species of rheophilic cyprinid fish whose wild population status is dependent on conservation efforts, particularly regular restocking. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of including insect meals as a component in the diet of ide juveniles on their growth performance, feed utilization, and nutriphysiological status. Four diets were formulated: three with insect meals, HI-with 20% Hermetia illucens meal, TM-with 20% Tenebrio molitor meal, and ZM-with 20% Zophobas morio meal, and the control group diet, CON-fish meal with no insect component. The effects of the various diets on the efficiency of rearing ide juveniles were assessed based on fish growth parameters, feed utilization parameters, somatic indices, and intestinal and hepatopancreatic histomorphology. The highest increase in fish weight gain and the protein efficiency ratio was observed in the HI and TM groups, while the lowest values were observed in the CON and ZM groups. Comparable results were noted for the feed conversion ratio, which was most favorable in the HI and TM groups and increased in the ZM group. The use of black soldier fly and mealworm larval meal in the diets of ide juveniles had a positive effect on rearing results and overall fish health.
... The result in the composition of FFAs mixture was compatible with reported studies (Dayrit 2014;Pontoh 2016;Shilling et al. 2013). The antimicrobial activities of three fractions after the distillation process were evaluated. ...
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Free fatty acids (FFA) have been previously shown to be an effective bactericidal agent. In this study, the FFA mixture was attempted to isolate from virgin coconut oil (VCO) using lipases and was fractionated to obtain the enriched medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to compare its antibacterial efficacy against food pathogens. Three types of lipases-namely, lipozyme TL 100L, Candida rugosa lipase (CRL), and porcine pancreas lipase (PPL)-were used to compare their efficacy in VCO hydrolysis, in which CRL was found to be the most efficient lipase for the process of VCO hydrolysis at the water: buffer ratio of 1:5, lipase concentration of 5310 U/g, pH 7, and temperature of 40 °C. The vacuum-distillation process was successfully found to fractionate the initial FFA into three fractions: Fraction I containing MCFA (C8-C12) plus Fraction II (C12-C14) and Fraction III containing LCFA (C14-C20). Among these fractions, Fraction I was observed to be the most effective anti-agent against four out of five food pathogens (negative result against Salmonella typhimurium), followed by Fraction II and initial FFA. Antimicrobial activities of study fractions were found effective on both Gram-positive strains and Gram-negative strains.
... Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) are saturated 6-12 carbon fatty acids that are abundant in milk lipids and oil fractions of various plants such as coconuts, palm kernels and cuphea seeds (1). They can be efficiently absorbed and metabolized even by newborn and suckling young, and provide many physiological benefits including metabolism modulation, immune enhancement and pathogen inhibition (2)(3)(4). ...
Article
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Lauric acid (LA) is a crucial medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) that has many beneficial effects on humans and animals. This study aimed to investigate the effects of LA on the intestinal barrier, immune functions, serum metabolism, and gut microbiota of broilers under lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. A total of 384 one-day-old broilers were randomly divided into four groups, and fed with a basal diet, or a basal diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg antibiotic (ANT), or a basal diet supplemented with 1000 mg/kg LA. After 42 days of feeding, three groups were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mg/kg Escherichia coli- derived LPS (LPS, ANT+LPS and LA+LPS groups) for three consecutive days, and the control (CON) group was injected with the same volume of saline. Then, the birds were sacrificed. Results showed that LA pretreatment significantly alleviated the weight loss and intestinal mucosal injuries caused by LPS challenge. LA enhanced immune functions and inhibited inflammatory responses by upregulating the concentrations of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, and IgY), decreasing IL-6 and increasing IL-4 and IL-10. Metabolomics analysis revealed a significant difference of serum metabolites by LA pretreatment. Twenty-seven serum metabolic biomarkers were identified and mostly belong to lipids. LA also markedly modulated the pathway for sphingolipid metabolism, suggesting its ability to regulate lipid metabolism. Moreover,16S rRNA analysis showed that LA inhibited LPS-induced gut dysbiosis by altering cecal microbial composition (reducing Escherichia-Shigella, Barnesiella and Alistipes, and increasing Lactobacillus and Bacteroides), and modulating the production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). Pearson’s correlation assays showed that alterations in serum metabolism and gut microbiota were strongly correlated to the immune factors; there were also strong correlations between serum metabolites and microbiota composition. The results highlight the potential of LA as a dietary supplement to combat bacterial LPS challenge in animal production and to promote food safety.
... Lauric acid and monolaurin have antibacterial action against Gram-positive bacteria, fungi, and viruses. [27] conclusIon From this review, it can be concluded that VCO is beneficial for various dermatological disorders. It has antifungal and antibacterial properties and also acts as an immunomodulator. ...
Article
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Background: Coconut oil is of two varieties: virgin and refined oil. Virgin coconut oil (VCO) is made by cold-pressing the liquid from the fresh part of coconut meat. It has a milky appearance. This oil extraction method prevents the loss of vitamin E, pro-vitamin A, and polyphenols. It has various properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer. Skin is the general structure of the body. It is the first line of protection against traumatic injuries and microorganisms. Aim: This review is focussed on the existing data on the effect of VCO on the skin. Materials and Methods: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched for citations for keywords "virgin coconut oil and dermatology" and "virgin coconut oil and skin." In search of the various databases, 13 articles were found on VCO related to skin. Result: Virgin coconut oil is used as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, as skin protector, in Alzheimer's disease, in wound healing and as moisturizer. Conclusion: From this review, it can be concluded that VCO is beneficial for various dermatological disorders. It is antifungal and antibacterial and also acts as an immunomodulator. It also has anti-inflammatory, angiogenic, wound-healing, and skin protective properties.
... LA and Mel are endogenous molecules that can be degraded by endogenous biochemical pathways, such as mitochondrial β-oxidation and lysosomal oxidation, while the insulant material, PCL, is known to be biodegradable. LA can be metabolized to ketone bodies, which can contribute to cellular energy stores [27]; Mel can be metabolized to its quinone derivatives [28]; and PCL can be biodegraded via a process that produces nontoxic metabolites, such as acetyl-CoA [29]. Our hematological and histological assessments of mice treated with Mel/LP/hIn implants support the biocompatibility of the materials. ...
Article
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Here, we constructed 3D-printed multiunit implants to enable remote light-controlled protein drug delivery in a spatiotemporal manner. Multiunit implants were designed to be 3D printed using polycaprolactone, lauric acid, and melanin as a matrix, and a polycaprolactone scaffold as a multiunit divider. As a model drug, insulin was loaded to each unit of the implant. The 3D printing yielded a rectangular matrix with multiunit sectors segregated by polycaprolactone lanes. Irradiation with near infrared light (NIR) triggered controlled release of insulin from the irradiated locus: Upon NIR irradiation, heat generated from the melanin melted the polycaprolactone/lauric acid matrix to release insulin from the scaffold. In the absence of melanin in the matrix, the implant did not show NIR-responsive insulin release. When lauric acid was absent from the matrix, the NIR-irradiated unit did not undergo dismantling. When the insulin-loaded multiunit implant was applied to a mouse diabetic model and irradiated with NIR, repetitive insulin release resulted in an efficient decrease of the blood glucose level over multiple days. Together, these results suggest that 3D printing technology-based multi-dosing of insulin on demand can enable convenient treatment of diabetes through external NIR irradiation, potentially avoiding the pain and discomfort of repeated insulin injections.
... In addition to AMPs, BSFL is a source of additional compounds that may also modulate the immune responses of the animals to which they are fed, including lauric acid and chitin. Lauric acid is a saturated, medium-chain fatty acid with a 12-carbon backbone and is naturally found in high concentrations in oils such as those from coconut, palm, and BSFL (Dayrit, 2015). Compared to longer-chain fatty acids, lauric acid has increased energy potential in animal feeding systems due to the reduced need for lipolysis before absorption in the GI tract, and because enterocytes are able to use lauric acid directly as an energy source (Greenberger et al., 1965;Guillot et al., 1993). ...
Article
Insect-derived ingredients, including whole larvae, protein-rich meal, and oil, have been extensively studied in recent years and shown to be a sustainable source of quality nutrition for virtually all animal species and life stages. In addition to the ability to use these ingredients as a source of essential nutrition, more recent research has demonstrated the potential for the immunomodulatory activity of various components of insect-derived ingredients. For all insects studied, antimicrobial peptides make up a critical part of the insects' innate immune system and these peptides have antimicrobial efficacy when purified from hemolymph and tested in vitro. From black soldier fly larvae, in particular, lauric acid is a predominant fatty acid deposited into the insect, and lauric acid also has potential antimicrobial activity in vitro and in vivo. Finally, the chitin and chitosan components of the insect exoskeleton may modulate microbial activity in a variety of ways. In companion animals, poultry, and livestock species, insect-derived ingredients have shown the potential to reduce the impact of actual or simulated disease challenge on several parameters of animal health and well-being. This review describes the current state of knowledge of the immunomodulatory potential of insect-derived ingredients.
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are a leading cause of mortality worldwide, and dietary habits represent a major risk factor for dyslipidemia; a hallmark of CVD. Saturated fatty acids contribute to CVD by aggravating dyslipidemia, and, in particular, lauric acid (LA) raises circulating cholesterol levels. The role of red blood cells (RBCs) in CVD is increasingly being appreciated, and eryptosis has recently been identified as a novel mechanism in CVD. However, the effect of LA on RBC physiology has not been thoroughly investigated. RBCs were isolated from heparin-anticoagulated whole blood (WB) and exposed to 50–250 μM of LA for 24 h at 37 °C. Hemoglobin was photometrically examined as an indicator of hemolysis, whereas eryptosis was assessed by Annexin V-FITC for phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure, Fluo4/AM for Ca2+, light scatter for cellular morphology, H2DCFDA for oxidative stress, and BODIPY 581/591 C11 for lipid peroxidation. WB was also examined for RBC, leukocyte, and platelet viability and indices. LA caused dose-responsive hemolysis, and Ca2+-dependent PS exposure, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), cytosolic Ca2+ overload, cell shrinkage and granularity, oxidative stress, accumulation of lipid peroxides, and stimulation of casein kinase 1α (CK1α). In WB, LA disrupted leukocyte distribution with elevated neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) due to selective toxicity to lymphocytes. In conclusion, this report provides the first evidence of the pro-eryptotic potential of LA and associated mechanisms, which informs dietary interventions aimed at CVD prevention and management.
Article
Renewable thermoplastic starch (TPS) was modified by poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) with varying degrees of polymerization (DPs) or scCO2-assisted processing to prepare TPSxPVAyz or scCO2TPSxPVAyz fully biodegradable blends. The TPSxPVAyz (or scCO2TPSxPVAyz) films showed the smallest free volume characteristics and oxygen transmission rates (OTRs), as their PVA loadings approached an optimum value. The smallest free volume characteristics and OTRs evaluated for each optimal TPSxPVAyz (or scCO2TPSxPVAyz) films reduced noticeably as their DPs reduced from 2400 to 300. Considerably smaller OTRs and free volume characteristics were acquired for scCO2TPSxPVAyz films than those of corresponding TPSxPVAyz films prepared without the assistance of scCO2. An essential result is that the OTR of the optimal scCO2TPSxPVAyz film with a moisture content of 4wt% was merely 4.6 cm3/m2∙day∙atm. This OTR is as good as that of the polyvinylidene chloride oxygen barrier packaging. Dynamic mechanical relaxations and WAXD characterizations revealed that TPS and PVA are miscible, as PVA loadings were ≤ the optimum values. The enhanced oxygen barrier resistance and reduced free volume characteristics for optimal TPSxPVAyz and scCO2TPSxPVAyz films are partly ascribed to the strengthened molecular interactions between O–H groups of TPS and PVA, as they were processed with the assistance of scCO2, optimum PVA loadings or diminished DPs.
Article
Insect-based food or ingredients have received tremendous attention worldwide because of their potential to ensure food and nutrition security, mitigating the reliance on land-dependent agricultural products. Indeed, insect-farming has low environmental impacts with reduced land, water and energy input. More importantly, insects are rich in high quality proteins and fats. They are also excellent sources of minerals, vitamins and bioactive compounds. Insect-based lipids are intriguing because they may contain high levels of unsaturated fatty acids particularly linoleic and α-linolenic acids. Besides, the insect-based lipids also show a considerable amount of bioactive components such as tocols, sterols and carotenoids. However, their fatty acid compositions and the nutritional values may vary depending on species, feed composition, developmental stage, geographical locations, and extraction techniques. Therefore, the present article aims to provide a comprehensive review on the fatty acid composition, the minor bioactive constituents and the physicochemical properties of fats and oils derived from insects of different orders (Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera and Diptera). The various parameters affecting the nutritional compositions of the insect-based lipids will also be highlighted. These information will definitely provide a detailed insight on the potential applications of these fats in various food systems based on their unique properties.
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Rice sheath blight, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is one of the major rice diseases. In order to better understand the inhibitory mechanism of lauric acid on the disease, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was used to analyze the transcriptome changes in Rhizoctonia solani treated with lauric acid for 3 h, 6 h, 18 h, and 24 h, including 2306 genes; 1994 genes; 2778 genes; and 2872 genes. Based on gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses, we found that protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum (KO04141), carbon metabolism (KO01200), and starch and sucrose metabolism were significantly enriched. Most oxidoreductase, dehydrogenase, reductase, and transferase genes are downregulated in this process. Lauric acid can affect ergosterol content, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, hydrogen peroxide content, electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species balance, and can induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Lauric acid also increased the expression levels of ER chaperone glucose regulatory protein Grp78 (BIP), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and Calpain (CNX), and decreased the expression levels of HSP40, HSP70, and HSP90 genes. Lauric acid affected the ergosterol content in the cell membrane of R. solani, which induces ER stress and increases the BiP level to induce the apoptosis of Rhizoctonia solani. These results indicated that lauric acid could be used to control rice sheath blight.
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Medium chain triglycerides (MCT) are esters of fatty acids with 6 to 12 carbon atom chains. Naturally, they occur in various sources; their composition and bioactivity are source and extraction process-linked. The molecular size of MCT oil permits unique metabolic pathways and energy production rates, making MCT oil a high-value functional food. This review details the common sources of MCT oil, presenting critical information on the various approaches for MCT oil extraction or synthesis. Apart from conventional techniques, non-thermal processing methods that show promising prospects are analyzed. The biological effects of MCT oil are summarized, and the range of need-driven modification approaches are elaborated. A section is devoted to highlighting the recent trends in the application of MCT oil for food, nutraceuticals, and allied applications. While much is debated about the role of MCT oil in human health and wellness, there is limited information on daily requirements, impact on specific population groups, and effects of long-term consumption. Nonetheless, several studies have been conducted and continue to identify the most effective methods for MCT oil extraction, processing, handling, and storage. A knowledge gap exists and future research must focus on technology packages for scalability and sustainability.
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The fatty acid profile of fats and oils are always the main target of the discussions on how cholesterol body levels could be increased or decreased by the feed habits. Specially, medium chain saturated fatty acids and palmitic acid are related to the blood LDL increase, promoting cardiovascular diseases. Otherwise, the same fatty acids are also related to a better digestion, increasing the popularity of some oils, such as coconut oil. This work was then aimed to contribute with this discussion in a thermodynamic point of view. Mixtures with cholesterol and these fatty acids (caprylic, capric, myristic and palmitic acids) were formulated in several concentrations and their crystallization and melting profiles analyzed. Solid-liquid equilibrium phase diagrams were built and evaluated by using classical thermodynamic models. Results showed that lower fatty acids were significantly able to modify the cholesterol crystal structure, forming solid solutions. The performance of the thermodynamic models was mild good. The UNIFAC model showed limitations in representing the cholesterol structure, as expected, with highlights that its literature's parameter databank should be improved, considering the complexity of molecules such as cholesterol. Additionally, coconut and palm oils were also evaluated in mixtures with cholesterol, showing that despite its high melting temperature and molecular complexity, cholesterol could be solubilized in such oils. The palm oil, specially, presented liquid crystalline structures when mixed with cholesterol. All these phenomena observed could probably affects cholesterol solubility in lipidic media, being a factor that could influence their absorption in the gastrointestinal tract.
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The ultrasound‐assisted extraction (UAE) was applied to enhance the extraction efficiency of oil from babassu kernel (BKO) using n‐hexane as solvent. For this purpose, the effects of temperature (30 to 60 °C), solvent to kernel ratio (6 to 10 mL g‐1) and time (10 to 30 min) on oil yield (YO) were determined, in addition to assessing the effect of these variables in the characteristics of the obtained oil. In the condition of maximum extraction, the chemical composition of the oil was determined and the results were compared with the Soxhlet extraction. In the evaluated experimental range, the amount of solvent used in the process influenced the YO, while time and temperature had no effect on the response variable. With this a high oil removal of kernels (89.5% of obtained by Soxhlet) was obtained in low conditions of time (10 min) and temperature (30 °C), in addition to using smaller amount of solvent (10 mL g‐1) in relation to conventional technique (30 mL g‐1). The lowest evaluated temperature (30 °C) was also indicated to obtain an oil with higher content of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. BKO showed a predominance of lauric (~49.9%) and myristic acids (~15.6%), and high oxidative stability. The quality of the oil extracted by UAE was superior in terms of phytosterols, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and color parameters.
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In the present work, the interaction between the B12N12, B12N12-16Hm, B23N5 and B47N53 fullerenes and lauric acid is analyzed. We perform In silico calculations at the Kohn-Sham scheme into the framework of density functional theory using the HSEh1PBE/6-31G(d) level of theory, in order to evaluate the adsorption of lauric acid neutral on [B12N12 (pristine), B12N12-16Hm (Hm=homonuclear bonds), and B47N53] and anionic fullerene [B23N5]. The neutral systems present adsorption energy values in the range from -0.98 eV up to -2.26 eV, these are indicating a chemisorption generated between the oxygen atom of the lauric acid and a boron of the fullerenes. According to the quantum parameters, the most systems are stable and could be improve their solubility when complexes are formed with lauric acid. Also, the whole set of systems exhibit re-distribution and transfer of charge, which it helps to the stabilization of them. In general, B12N12, B12N12-16Hm, and B47N53g present good performance to adsorb lauric acid, and they may be proposed as nanovehicles to transport this particular molecule in biological applications and so on.
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From the health viewpoint, consumers monitor their food uptake in terms of both quality and quantity, due to awareness of the link between food ingredients and health. Accordingly, many people tend to buy healthy food products that are low in or free of sugar, salt and fat. However, in baked products, the sugar, fat and salt are needed to create unique characteristics. The role of sugar, salt and fat in baked products is discussed in this chapter to understand their functions. The understanding is necessary to design proper techniques to reduce the amount of sugar, salt and fat. Ingredients and additives that can substitute for fat, sugar and salt in bakery characteristics are reviewed in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. In addition, alternative processes to reduce the use of fat, sugar and salt are proposed in this chapter.
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Crystals of Sodium Laurate, Lauric Acid (NaLLA) were obtained and the structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The new crystal form is monoclinic of space group P21/c. The asymmetric unit contains two independent laurate molecules whose carboxylic/carboxylate groups are linked by a low barrier O-H…O hydrogen bond. Two lauric/laurate molecules are in a head-to-head configuration and the elongated hydrophobic chains are parallel to the long b axis. The carboxylic hydrogen atom was found to be disordered, bound on each of the two carboxylate groups in an unsymmetrical way. The non-symmetrical character of the hydrogen bond is related to the presence of two independent fatty acid molecules in the asymmetric unit and is in accordance with the different lengths of the four C-O bonds present in the molecular structure. The crystal structure was analyzed in terms of interactions on the Hirshfeld surface. The packing is stabilized by hydrogen bonds and O…Na ionic interactions in the hydrophilic layer and by C-H…H-C contacts in the hydrophobic layers which are the most enriched major contacts.
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The anti-bacterial properties of lauric acid (LA) and its glycerides had been studied. However, their effects on gut microbiota remain unclear. Moreover, LA and its glycerides performed controversial influences on lipid metabolism. This study evaluated the regulation of LA, glycerol monolaurate (GML) and lauric triglyceride (GTL) on metabolic health and gut microbiota in high fat diet-fed mice. Serum metabolomics and lipidomics contributed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. LA and its glycerides ameliorated hyperlipidemia, while GML performed more pronounced modulation on glucose metabolism and inflammation. LA and its glycerides modulated gut microbiota with increased Bifidobacterium and decreased Desulfovibrio, which closely related with metabolic improvements. Furthermore, the integrative multiomics analyses identified that the regulation of phospholipid metabolism, intestinal microbial metabolites (bile acids and indole derivatives) and endogenous unsaturated fatty acids synthesis conduced to the more evident modulation of GML. Our findings suggested an effective strategy of GML for improving metabolism and gut health.
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Background Glycerol monolaurate (GML) is a fatty acid monoglyceride, which richly exists in coconut oil, palm oil, and human milk. Except for the recognized emulsifying properties, GML's good antibacterial ability and low energy density also make it an ideal functional additive and food quality improver. Scope and approach This review discusses GML synthesis, health benefits, positive effects on food storage and quality, and critically discusses its fate and safety in vivo. The routine emulsification of GML in foods is beyond the scope of this review. Key findings and conclusions GML is synthesized through direct esterification, methyl laurate glycerolysis or laurate glycerolysis. Although the in vivo fate of GML is assumed to be similar to that of glyceryl trilaurate, there is no direct experimental evidence for this inference. Previous studies proved that GML functions beyond an emulsifier. In food quality, GML inhibits the growth of harmful microorganisms and extends shelf life. It also improves the nutritional value and sensory properties of animal-derived food by regulating amino acid and fatty acid metabolism. In health efficacies, GML reduces lipid accumulation, rebuilds the intestinal barrier, modulates immune activity, and may have positive effects on the nervous system. These are associated with the direct intervention of GML on gut microbiota, immune cell activity and energy metabolism. However, developing more efficient GML synthesis schemes, enhancing the application of GML on food quality, and exploring the in vivo fate, health efficacy mechanism or safety of GML in different experimental models remain interesting topics in the future.
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Oleogels are becoming an attractive research field, since they have recently been shown to be feasible for the food and pharmaceutical sectors and provided some insights into the biomedical area. In this work, edible oleogels were tailored through the combination of ethylcellulose (EC), a gelling agent, with virgin coconut oil (VCO), vegetable oil derived from coconut. The influence of the different EC and VCO ratios on the structural, physical, and thermal properties of the oleogels was studied. All EC/VCO-based oleogels presented a stable network with a viscoelastic nature, adequate structural stability, modulable stiffness, high oil-binding capability, antioxidant activity, and good thermal stability, evidencing the EC and VCO’s good compatibility.
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This study aimed to synthesize α-Glycerol Monolaurate from protected glycerol (glycerol 1,2-acetonide) using Lipozym TL IM as a catalyst. In the first step, transesterification of methyl laurate and glycerol 1,2-acetonide with Lipozyme TL IM produced 1,2-acetonide-3-lauryl glycerol. In the second step, deprotection of 1,2-acetonide-3-lauryl glycerol with Amberlyst-15 produced α-Glycerol Monolaurate. Furthermore, the optimum yield (82.1%) of 1,2-acetonide-3-lauryl glycerol (light yellow liquid, purity of 92%) was achieved at a reactant mole ratio of 1, n-hexane (4 mL) with a reaction time of 12 hours, and total Lipozyme TL IM of 5% (w/w of the total weight of reactants) at a temperature of 35°C. Deprotection of 1,2-acetonide-3-lauryl glycerol with Amberlyst-15 was conducted at room temperature for 24 hours. At a melting point of 62.8°C, and purity of 100% α-Glycerol Monolaurate in the form of a white solid was obtained with a yield of 74.6% after the recrystallization of the crude product. This α-glycerol monolaurate synthesis reaction pathway can be referred to as a green α-monoacylglyceride synthesis method.
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The aim of this study was to compare under the same conditions in vitro the inhibitory effects of seven 1-monoglycerides (MAG) containing fatty acids with a medium chain on ten strains of food-bome pathogens or spoilage gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter fieundii, Escherichia coli. Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enterica ser. Enteritidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and on their growth indicatos. The inhibitory effect of MAGs (monocaprylin, monocaprin, monolaurin, monomyristin, monopalmitin, MAG of undecanoic and 10-undecenoic acids) at a concentration of 25 - 1500 mg.l(-1) was observed. Growth of bacteria in the presence of MAG was studied by means of optical density of bacteria for 24 h. The data were modelled through a Gompertz equation and the lag-time, the maximum specific growth rate and the maximal value reached were calculated. MAGs inhibited mainly the growth of gram-positive bacteria, which was shown by the extended lag-time, decrease in specific growth rate and decrease in cell density. Inhibitory effects of tested MAGs could be ranked from point of view of the minimum inhibitory concentration: MAO-C12:0 > MAO-C 11:0 > MAO-C I 0:0 > MAO-C14:0 > MAO-C11:1 > MAG-C8:0 > MAO-C16:0. In vitro, no significant inhibitory effects of 1-monoglycerides, with the exception of the highest concentrations applied, on the growth of gram-negative bacteria were detected. The main contribution of this study is to compare the effects of several MAG containing fatty acids with a medium chain under the same conditions on the growth indicators of bacteria.
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Fatty acids classified as chemical penetration enhancers (CPEs) might cause the fluidization and perturbation of stratum corneum (SC) lipid matrix. The penetration of oleic, linoleic, lauric and capric acids into human skin was studied by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) imaging and related to fatty acids enhancing effect on lipophilic model drug tolnaftate penetration into human epidermis and dermis ex vivo. Fatty acid enhancing effect on tolnaftate penetration into human skin was evaluated using Bronaugh-type flow-through diffusion cells. After in vitro penetration studies visualization and spatial localization of fatty acid molecules in human skin were performed using TOF-SIMS. Penetration of oleic, linoleic, lauric and capric acids into human skin was compared to the control skin sections by ion images and intensity profiles. Only oleic acid significantly (P<0.05) enhanced tolnaftate penetration into epidermis (enhancing ratio equal to 1.867). CPE might have no effect on model drug penetration enhancement, but might penetrate itself into the skin.
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SUMMARY Chylomicrons were isolated from the thoracic duct chyle and from the blood serum of rats, and from the serum of human subjects following the ingestion of different natural oils. The fatty acid composition of the chylomicrons was compared with that of the dietary fat by gas chromatography and was found to be very similar. Dole et al. (1) have recently reported a remark- able constancy of fatty acid composition of chylomi- crons separated from human plasma during the period of absorption of fats differing greatly in fatty acid composition. They speculated as to possible mecha- nisms involved. Either the fatty acids were chemically altered during absorption through the intestinal wall or there was rapid recycling between chylomicron fatty acids and tissue fatty acids. The purposes of this paper are to report the analyses of chyle and serum chylomicrons following the feeding of different fats to rats, and to attempt to confirm Dole's findings in human blood chylomicrons. METHODS Polyethylene cannulae were inserted in the thoracic ducts of three rats. The following day the animals were fed 1 ml. of coconut oil, olive oil, and cod liver oil, respectively. The chyle was collected and the chylomicrons isolated and washed as previously de- scribed (2). In brief, the chyle was layered under 0.15 M NaCl and centrifuged at 100,000 X g for 30 minutes. The butterlike material at the top of the tube was re-emulsified in 0.15 M NaCl and recentrifuged. This process of washing was repeated. In order to get rat serum chylomicrons, groups of four fasting rats were fed each of the three oils. They were bled from the aorta 3 hours later; the blood from each group was pooled, and the serum was treated essentially as the chyle. Two young women, who had spent several months in the Clinical Center as volunteer controls and who had been on a mixed diet (limited to 35 g. of fat per
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The crude methanol extract of the dried aerial parts of Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Compositae) showed antibacterial activity against the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Bioactivity-guided separation led to the isolation of 3-(dodecanoyloxy)-2-(isobutyryloxy)-4-methylpentanoic acid from nature for the first time. The structure was determined by spectroscopic data analysis (UV, MS, and NMR). The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3-(dodecanoyloxy)-2-(isobutyryloxy)-4-methylpentanoic acid against S. aureus was found to be 3.12 μg/mL. In addition, in a further antimicrobial activity assay against Gram-positive (B. subtilis, E. faecalis, P. acnes, S. epidermidis, S. schleiferi subsp. coagulans, S. agalactiae and S. pyrogens), and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and P. aeruginosa), and yeast strains (C. alibicans and F. neoformans), the antimicrobial activity of the compound was found to be specific for Gram-positive bacteria. The MIC values of the compound for Gram-positive bacteria ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/mL. Furthermore, it was found that the 2-(isobutyryloxy)-4-methylpentanoic acid substituent may operate as a key factor in the antibacterial activity of the compound, together with the laurate group.
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Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.
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Glycerol monolaurate (GML), a 12 carbon fatty acid monoester, inhibits Staphylococcus aureus growth and exotoxin production, but is degraded by S. aureus lipase. Therefore, dodecylglycerol (DDG), a 12 carbon fatty acid monoether, was compared in vitro and in vivo to GML for its effects on S. aureus growth, exotoxin production, and stability. Antimicrobial effects of GML and DDG (0 to 500 microg/ml) on 54 clinical isolates of S. aureus, including pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) types USA200, USA300, and USA400, were determined in vitro. A rabbit Wiffle ball infection model assessed GML and DDG (1 mg/ml instilled into the Wiffle ball every other day) effects on S. aureus (MN8) growth (inoculum 3x10(8) CFU/ml), toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1) production, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations and mortality over 7 days. DDG (50 and 100 microg/ml) inhibited S. aureus growth in vitro more effectively than GML (p<0.01) and was stable to lipase degradation. Unlike GML, DDG inhibition of TSST-1 was dependent on S. aureus growth. GML-treated (4 of 5; 80%) and DDG-treated rabbits (2 of 5; 40%) survived after 7 days. Control rabbits (5 of 5; 100%) succumbed by day 4. GML suppressed TNF-alpha at the infection site on day 7; however, DDG did not (<10 ng/ml versus 80 ng/ml, respectively). These data suggest that DDG was stable to S. aureus lipase and inhibited S. aureus growth at lower concentrations than GML in vitro. However, in vivo GML was more effective than DDG by reducing mortality, and suppressing TNF-alpha, S. aureus growth and exotoxin production, which may reduce toxic shock syndrome. GML is proposed as a more effective anti-staphylococcal topical anti-infective candidate than DDG, despite its potential degradation by S. aureus lipase.
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The antibacterial activity of the medium chain fatty acids and their 1-monoglycerides was evaluated towards several Gram-positive strains belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Bacillus, Listeria and Streptococcus. The 1-monoglycerides were more active than the fatty acids with monolaurin being the most active compound. Interesting effects were observed when the streptococcal strain Streptococcus pyogenes was used as a test microorganism. First, blocking of the hydroxyl groups of the glycerol moiety of monolaurin led to a compound with remarkable antibacterial activity (MIC, 3.9 microg/ml). Secondly, synergistic relationships were observed between monolaurin and monocaprin as well as between monolaurin and the poorly active lauric acid when their two component mixtures were examined. The mixtures in which one of the components was 2-fold more predominant than the other one were much more active than the pure components taken individually. Moreover, the presence of the components in ratio 1:1 was disadvantageous. Synergistic relationships were also found between monolaurin and monomyristin towards Staphylococcus aureus 209 when monomyristin was in the same quantity as monolaurin or in shortage.
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Triglycerides of coconut oil were fractionated by GLC into 13 groups based on their carbon numbers of 28 to 52. These groups represent 99.8% of the total glycerides of coconut oil. With the fatty acid composition of each group, it was possible to calculate the composition of 79 types of triglycerides. These types are defined by the nature of their constitutive fatty acids but the position of the acids on glycerol is unknown. Each group usually has only one major type of triglyceride. For example, group 36 has 52% of trilaurin. Also four types of triglycerides comprise 42.4% of the total glycerides and 24 types comprise 85%. The experimentally found distributions in each group are compared to the random distributions calculated from the fatty acid composition. For groups with carbon numbers 38 and 40, the experimental and random distributions were very similar but for most other groups, the distributions found were much different from the calculated random distributions.
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The growth-inhibitory effect of 23 carbohydrate monoesters synthesized by lipases and proteases were assayed to obtain antibacterial agents that suppress the cell growth of Streptococcus mutans. Among the carbohydrate esters synthesized, galactose and fructose laurates showed the highest growth-inhibitory effect, while the other analogs of hexose laurates showed no antibacterial activity, indicating that configuration of the hydroxyl group in carbohydrate moiety markedly affects the antibacterial activity. The cell growth of S. mutans was suppressed by fructose laurates even in the presence of sucrose. Thus, enzymatic synthesis of carbohydrate esters with different core structures has great potential for developing antibacterial agents applicable to food additives.
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Three Philippine seed oils, namely coconut (Cocos nucifera Linn.), pilinut (Canarium ovatum Engl.), and cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linn.), which were selected for their local abundance and availability, were examined for their triacylglycerol profiles and fatty acid compositions. Triacylglycerol molecular species in terms of carbon number and partition number were determined by gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, respectively. The distribution of fatty acids in the primary and secondary positions of the glycerol backbones for the three oils were examined by regiospecific analysis by using pancreatic lipase. Coconut oil had high concentrations of lauric and myristic acids, while the other two oils did not have such fatty acids. Lauric acid in coconut oil and linoleic acid in pilinut oil were distributed mainly in the primary positions (sn-1,3) of the glycerol backbone. Trilaurin and dioleylpalmitoylglycerol were the major triglycerides in coconut and pilinut oils, respectively.
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A study on the commercial virgin coconut oil (VCO) available in the Malaysian and Indonesian market was conducted. The paper reported the chemical characteristics and fatty acid composition of VCO. There was no significant difference in lauric acid content (46.64–48.03%) among VCO samples. The major triacylglycerols obtained for the oils were LaLaLa, LaLaM, CLaLa, LaMM and CCLa (La, lauric; C, capric; M, myristic). Iodine value ranged from 4.47 to 8.55, indicative of only few unsaturated bond presence. Saponification value ranged from 250.07 to 260.67mg KOH/g oil. The low peroxide value (0.21–0.57mequiv oxygen/kg) signified its high oxidative stability, while anisidine value ranged from 0.16 to 0.19. Free fatty acid content of 0.15–0.25 was fairly low, showing that VCO samples were of good quality. All chemical compositions were within the limit of Codex standard for edible coconut oil. Total phenolic contents of VCO samples (7.78–29.18mg GAE/100g oil) were significantly higher than refined, bleached and deodorized (RBD) coconut oil (6.14mg GAE/100g oil). These results suggest that VCO is as good as RBD coconut oil in chemical properties with the added benefit of being higher in phenolic content.
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Coconut oil has been one of the most widely used vegetable oils since the agricultural revolution. Only in recent years has there been controversy over the desirability of its uso. Controversy has usually stemmed from observed disturbances of calcium or cholesterol metabolism when hydrogenated coconut oil was fed, frequently with inadequate linoleate supplementation, to experimental animals. Furthermore, in many of the studies involving cholesterol, entirely unphysiological amounts of cholesterol have been included in the diet. It is contended here that the findings in such studies are the consequence of abnormal nutrition rather than inherent defects in coconut oil. Evidence from epidemiological studies of arteriosclerosis in populations consuming large amounts of coconut oil are cited to show that coconut oil in a natural diet is not disadvantageous and may even be of advantage. The high level of medium chain fatty acids in coconut oil is discussed from the point of view that they may contribute to beneficial effects on the part of coconut oil under some abnormal conditions.