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Biological Activities and Medicinal Uses of the Essential Oil of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. citratus, C. pendulus, C. species).
Abstract and Figures
Cymbopogon Sprengel (Poaceae) species C. flexuosus (Nees ex Steudel) Watson (East Indian/Cochin/ Malabar), C. citratus (D.C.) Stapf (West Indian/fever grass), C. pendulus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats. (North Indian) and C. khasianus (Munro ex Hackel) Stapf ex Bor × C. pendulus (hybrid) are known as lemongrass, drought-tolerant, multi-harvest, perennial, aromatic-cum-medicinal-cum-ornamental plants cultivated in several countries for their lemon-scented essential oils rich in citral (stereo isomers neral + geranial: 60.0–85.0%). Lemongrass is widely used in herbal tea, soups, for flavoring oriental and western cuisine. The oil is employed in flavoring, fragrances, cosmetics and aromatherapy. Lemongrass oil contains myrcene, neral, geranial and other (>200) compounds. Akpha-Bisabolol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, geranial and elemicin rich chemotypes have been identified. Triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins and phenolic compounds have been isolated. Lemongrass is traditionally used for treating fever, stomach/headaches, diabetes, rheumatism, hypertension, wounds, bone fractures etc. Extracts, phytochemicals, essential oil and its constituents possess pharmacological, antimicrobial, antioxidant and pesticidal properties.
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