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Biological Activities and Medicinal Uses of the Essential Oil of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. citratus, C. pendulus, C. species).

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Biological Activities and Medicinal Uses of the Essential Oil of Lemongrass (Cymbopogon flexuosus, C. citratus, C. pendulus, C. species).

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Cymbopogon Sprengel (Poaceae) species C. flexuosus (Nees ex Steudel) Watson (East Indian/Cochin/ Malabar), C. citratus (D.C.) Stapf (West Indian/fever grass), C. pendulus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats. (North Indian) and C. khasianus (Munro ex Hackel) Stapf ex Bor × C. pendulus (hybrid) are known as lemongrass, drought-tolerant, multi-harvest, perennial, aromatic-cum-medicinal-cum-ornamental plants cultivated in several countries for their lemon-scented essential oils rich in citral (stereo isomers neral + geranial: 60.0–85.0%). Lemongrass is widely used in herbal tea, soups, for flavoring oriental and western cuisine. The oil is employed in flavoring, fragrances, cosmetics and aromatherapy. Lemongrass oil contains myrcene, neral, geranial and other (>200) compounds. Akpha-Bisabolol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, methyl isoeugenol, neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, geranial and elemicin rich chemotypes have been identified. Triterpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, saponins and phenolic compounds have been isolated. Lemongrass is traditionally used for treating fever, stomach/headaches, diabetes, rheumatism, hypertension, wounds, bone fractures etc. Extracts, phytochemicals, essential oil and its constituents possess pharmacological, antimicrobial, antioxidant and pesticidal properties.
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... The essential oil is widely employed in fragrance, flavor, aromatherapy, pharmaceutical and other industries. Citral isolated from the essential oil finds use in cosmetics, for synthesizing ionones that are used in the perfumery industry (17). Condensate wastewater of lemongrass was collected from the field distillation unit after distilling lemongrass biomass and utilized for the present investigation. ...
... Cauvery, a popular commercial lemongrass variety was cultivated in the Research Farm of CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research Centre, Hyderabad, India with recommended agricultural practices (17). Hyderabad (17'25 o N latitude, 78'33 o E longitude, 542 m altitude, 764 mm annual precipitation, maximum temperature range 14-39°C) experiences semi-arid tropical climate. ...
... These three recovered aromatic oils can be used in cosmetics (for masking undesirable odors of cosmetic products; in detergents, soaps, hand washes, toilet/floor cleaners etc. for imparting citrus-like fragrance), botanical pesticides, aromatherapy and for isolation of citral. The re-distilled essential oil recorded the highest content of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one reported so far in lemongrass essential oil (17) or in other aromatic plants' essential oils. This essential oil is a potential new source for isolation of natural 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (C 8 H 14 O, molecular weight 126.2, clear mobile colorless to pale-yellow colored liquid with intense, green herbal, fresh odor; density 0.846-0.856 ...
Article
During steam/hydro-distillation of aromatic crops, a small hydrophilic essential oil fraction escapes into the condensate wastewater. Lemongrass [Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Wats.] condensate waste water obtained after distilling the biomass and collecting the essential oil was subjected to re-distillation and liquid-liquid extraction with n-hexane and ethyl acetate to isolate the dissolved aromatic oil. GC-FID, GC-MS analyses of these oils led to the identification of thirty-seven constituents comprising mostly oxygenated monoterpenes (78.3–90.7%). Neral (35.1%) and geranial (44.3%) predominated in the lemongrass biomass essential oil. 6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-one (7.3–32.9%), neral (26.7–32.9%) and geranial (24.9–33.9%) are the major constituents of the recovered aromatic oils which can be used for isolating citral (51.6–66.8%), for application in cosmetics, botanical pesticides and aromatherapy. The essential oil isolated by re-distillation can serve as a new source for isolation of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one (32.9%). Solvent-extracted aromatic oils contained higher amounts of citral (neral + geranial) (62.9–66.8%) relative to re-distilled essential oil (51.6%).
... Stapf (Syn. Andropogon citratus DC.) popularly known as West Indian lemongrass belonging to the family Poaceae is a native of South West Asia and is grown in several countries particularly West Indies, China, Indonesia, Brazil, Congo, Republic of Malagasy, Sri Lanka, Zambia and other countries 1,2 . The other two types of lemongrass viz. ...
... khasianus and C. pendulus) are commercially cultivated in India for the production of lemongrass oil. C. flexuosus oil and the oils of the improved varieties Pragathi, Praman, Cauveri, Krishna derived from C. flexuosus and the oil of CKP-25 are considered superior in quality because of their solubility in 70 % alcohol and high content of citral (neral + geranial) 2 . West Indian lemongrass oil is considered inferior because the oil has low solubility in 70 % alcohol and also due to low citral content. ...
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Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf grown in three different locations in South India were analysed by GC and GC-MS. The main constituents of the oils from Bangalore and Puttur were identified as β-myrcene, neral, geranial and geraniol. The oil from Nadugani was found to contain the major constituents’ neral, geranial, geraniol and geranyl acetate. The present study revealed the presence of six oxygenated monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes which were hitherto not reported in the oil of C. citratus.
... The grass belongs to well-defined monophyletic tribe exhibiting greater morphological and adaptive variations due to hybridization, polyploidy etc. Wide scale GC screening has been carried out to study the active components present in the essential oil (Vinutha et al., 2013) [29] . According to the recent review, a total of 158 compounds have been identified in C. citratus oil by several workers (Rajeswara, 2013) [27] . The essential oil of C. citratus contains Citral, β-Myrcene (characteristic and active ingredient of lemongrass oil), Geraniol, Geranyl acetate, Piperitone, Limonene, Elemicin, Monoterpene and Sesquiterpenes alcohols as major constituents (Tajidin et al., 2012;Quintanilla et al., 2012 andVyshali et al., 2013) [31,26,30] . ...
Article
Cymbopogon citrates (DC.) Stapf is an important and oldest species of Cymbopogon grass belonging to the family of Poaceae and commonly called western Indian lemongrass or lemongrass. The quality of lemongrass oil is determined by the content of Citral, an isomer of geranial (40-62%) and neral aldehyde (25-38%) responsible for the lemon odor. Other major components include in the essential oil include β-myrcene and Geraniol. The oil of C. citratus is known to posess varied biological activities. During the present investigation, the essential oil of C. citratus oil were fractionated into terpene-less and terpene-containing parts and investigated for antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. The in vitro antioxidant and ROS radical scavenging activity of the essential oil were evaluated by DPPH assay. The antimicrobial property of the pathogenic strains like Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhii, Trichophyton rubrum and Cryptococcus neoformans were tested against the essential oil. The present investigation highlights the significance of C. citratus essential oil and their fractions as antimicrobial and antioxidant agent.
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Aromatic plants are processed by different distillation techniques to yield 5 distinct products: essential oil, hydrosol, distilled biomass, residual water and plant ash from the furnace. During distillation, a small fraction of polar, oxygenated, odor imparting, water-soluble oil constituents escape into the distillation/condensate water stream. The condensate water with dissolved oil components is known as hydrosol. Hydrosols are used in perfumery, cosmetics, food flavoring, aromatherapy and traditional therapies. Hydrosols possess biological activities and have potential as global economic products of commerce. In many essential oil producing and exporting countries, these hydrosols are discarded, therefore wasted. Producers need to be trained in collecting, processing, storing and marketing hydrosols. In addition to the currently traded hydrosols, many more can be produced from aromatic plants that are presently not utilized for essential oil extraction.
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As part of ongoing research on the chemical composition and the antimicrobial properties of Burkinabe plants essential oils alone and in combination, essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Cymbopogon giganteus from Burkina Faso were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Five constituents, which accounted for 96.3% of the oil, were identified in the EO of C. citratus. Geranial (48.1%), neral (34.6%) and myrcene (11.0%) were the major constituents. For C. giganteus a total of eight compounds were identified which represented 86.0% of the oils extracted. The dominant compounds were limonene (42%) and a set of monoterpene alcohols: trans-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (14.2%), cis-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-ol (12%), trans-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.6%) and cis-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-ol (5.2%). The EOs were tested against nine bacteria by using disc diffusion and microdilution methods. C. giganteus EO showed antimicrobial effects against all microorganisms tested whereas C. citratus EO failed to inhibit Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity of combinations of the two EOs was quantified by the checkerboard method. Combinations of the two EOs exerted synergistic, additive and indifferent antimicrobial effects. Results of the present investigation provide evidence that the combinations of plant EOs could be assessed for synergistic activity in order to reduce their minimum effective dose.
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The effects of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil (Lemongrass oil) and its main component, citral (84.30%), on antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant strains of Salmonella enteritidis and S. typhimurium were assessed. C. citratus oil and citral significantly inhibited all strains of the two Salmonella species examined, with minimum inhibiting concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.5 mg/ml to 8.0 mg/ml. The combined effects of C. citratus oil and citral (84.30%) were evaluated using a checkerboard microtiter assay. Essential oil fractions of C. citratus and citral exhibited strong synergistic or additive effects with streptomycin or kanamycin against S. typhimurium strains with fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices in the range of 0.28 to 1.00. In conclusion, a combination of streptomycin and lemongrass oil or its main component, citral, may be useful for reducing the minimum effective dose of antibiotic required for the treatment of resistant S. typhimurium infections.
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