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This study tests the drinking water supply of a marginalized village community of Khap Tola in the state of Bihar, a state in Northern India. Based on hand pump drinking water sample testing and analysis, we found that there was high levels of arsenic (maximum value being 397 ppb), in excess of the WHO limits of 10ppb. Analysis showed 57% of the samples from private hand-pumps in the shallow aquifer zone of 15–35 m have arsenic greater than 200 ppb. Using GIS overlay analysis technique it was calculated that 25% of the residential area in the village is under high risk of arsenic contamination. Further using USEPA guidelines, it was calculated that children age group 5–10 years are under high risk of getting cancer. The Hazard Quotient calculated for 21 children taken for study, indicated that children may have adverse non-carcinogenic health impacts, in the future, with continued exposure. Since the area adds a new arsenic contaminated place in India, further geochemical analysis and health assessment needs to be done in this district of West Champaran in, Bihar.
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ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE
published: 20 November 2014
doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2014.00049
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENC
E
High arsenic contamination in drinking water hand-pumps
in Khap Tola, West Champaran, Bihar, India
Siddharth Bhatia1*, Guru Balamurugan2and Annu Baranwal3
1Disaster Management, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India
2Jamsetji Tata Centre for Disaster Management, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India
3Environmental Health Resource Hub, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai, India
Edited by:
Khwaja M. Sultanul Aziz,
Bangladesh Academy of Sciences,
Bangladesh
Reviewed by:
Roshanak Rezaei Kalantary, Iran
University of Medical Sciences, Iran
Munawar Sultana, University of
Dhaka, Bangladesh
*Correspondence:
Siddharth Bhatia, Jamsetji Tata
Centre for Disaster Management,
Tata Institute of Social Sciences,
Malti and Jal A. D. Naoroji Campus
(Annex), PO Box No. 8313, Deonar,
Mumbai 400 088, India
e-mail: bhatiasidd@gmail.com
This study tests the drinking water supply of a marginalized village community of Khap
Tola in the state of Bihar, a state in Northern India. Based on hand pump drinking water
sample testing and analysis, we found that there was high levels of arsenic (maximum
value being 397 ppb), in excess of the WHO limits of 10ppb. Analysis showed 57% of the
samples from private hand-pumps in the shallow aquifer zone of 15–35 m have arsenic
greater than 200 ppb. Using GIS overlay analysis technique it was calculated that 25%
of the residential area in the village is under high risk of arsenic contamination. Further
using USEPA guidelines, it was calculated that children age group 5–10 years are under
high risk of getting cancer. The Hazard Quotient calculated for 21 children taken for study,
indicated that children may have adverse non-carcinogenic health impacts, in the future,
with continued exposure. Since the area adds a new arsenic contaminated place in India,
further geochemical analysis and health assessment needs to be done in this district of
West Champaran in, Bihar.
Keywords: arsenic contamination, hand-pumps, West Champaran, groundwater, GIS overlay analysis, hazard
quotient
INTRODUCTION
Water hand-pumps were installed in the alluvium plains of
Ganges and Brahmaputra of Northern India (Chen and Ahsan,
2004), as a public health measure to combat diarrheal and water
borne diseases associated with drinking water from open wells
and streams. Water from Open wells and streams were more
prone to contamination with faecal micro-organisms. This prob-
lem was overcome by the introduction of the sealed hand pumps.
The last 20–30 years, there has seen an increase use of groundwa-
ter for drinking purposes in rural areas (Jakariya et al., 2003). As
the government hand-pumps became popular, due to their low-
cost and easy accessibility and use; a number of private providers
began to install hand-pumps to provide households with drinking
water (Smith et al., 2003).
The private hand-pumps were not as deep as the government
installed hand pumps. These hand-pumps brought with them
the risk of arsenic contamination, which has been declared as
one of the key environmental health problem of the 21st cen-
tury (Christen, 2001). The first case of arsenic poisoning was
detected in 1983 in Calcutta, West Bengal, India (Mazumdar,
2008). Since then a number of areas have been identified in dif-
ferent districts of West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, and Uttar Pradesh,
which are states in north and eastern India (Kumar et al.,
2009).
While arsenic, has been naturally present in groundwater for
thousands of years; the kinetics of release from sediments and the
residence time plays an important role increasing the arsenic con-
centrations in certain aquifers, especially in the younger alluvium
flood plains of the Ganges (Stute et al., 2007).
WHO has classified arsenic as one of 10 chemicals of pub-
lic health concern (WHO, 2010). A number of health effects,
like skin lesions, peripheral neuropathy, gastrointestinal symp-
toms, diabetes, renal system effects, cardiovascular disease, and
cancer have been linked to arsenic contamination. However, the
signs and symptoms can take years to develop depending on the
level of exposure (Hindmarsh et al., 2002; WHO, 2010). The
vulnerable groups are pregnant women and infants, who are
at higher risk of arsenic exposure, as arsenic is known to pass
through the placenta (U.S. EPA, 2007). Children are at higher
risk of arsenic poisoning, as the symptoms are usually unde-
tectable in the early stages (Singh and Ghosh, 2012). The early
symptoms go unnoticed or are ignored, due to lack of educa-
tion and awareness in the context of low socio-economic status
and poor medical facilities, in these areas (Safiuddin and Karim,
2001). Further, the high prevalence of malnutrition and pro-
tein deficiency among children makes them more vulnerable to
arsenic poisoning (WHO, 2010). The International Agency for
Research and Cancer (IARC) first evaluated the health effects
of arsenic in 1973 and concluded that it causes cancer through
drinking water (IARC, 1973).Thesameconclusionsweredrawn
in the second evaluation performed in 1980 by IARC. In the
more recent studies conducted by IARC, inorganic arsenic was
classified as Group A human carcinogen which can cause can-
cer of the urinary bladder, lung, skin and possibly also kidney
and liver (IARC, 2004). The earliest signs of toxicity from chronic
exposure to arsenic in drinking water in humans are pigmen-
tation changes, which are known as arsenicosis (IARC, 2004).
The latency period is usually 5–10 years of consumption of
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Bhatia et al. Arsenic contamination in Khap Tola, Bihar
arsenic-contaminated water greater than the unsafe levels (NRC,
2001).
Based on this evidence and the widespread arsenic cases
around the world, WHO revised the drinking water guidelines in
1993, with safe limits for arsenic in drinking water was reduced
from 50 to 10 ppb, making more stringent acceptable limits in the
drinking water standards. However, in India the old acceptable
limits of 50ppb are being followed by Bureau of Indian Standards
(BIS) (Smedley and Kinniburgh, 2002).
The Gangetic belt in Bihar has been researched for arsenic con-
tamination, both in terms of its release mechanism in ground
water and public health concerns. However, there are remote
villages, like the study area (Khap Tola) which exclusively use
hand-pumps as their only source of drinking water. The aim of
this study was to quantify arsenic contamination of the drinking
water of Khap Tola residents, and used GIS overlay techniques to
map the population at risk, by identifying the hand-pumps, which
were the only source of drinking water.
METHODS
STUDY AREA
West Champaran district lies between 2616Nand27
31N;
8350and 8518E in the north-western part of Bihar shar-
ing its border with hilly region of Nepal on the north and the
Padrauna and Deoria district of Uttar Pradesh on the west. The
study area of Khap Tola was chosen for sample testing, as it
had been identified as a high-risk area in previous studies done
by Megh Pyne Abhiyan (MPA), a NGO working in the flood
affected districts of North Bihar. Total population of the Khap
Tola was 916 with 138 households spread across the village. There
are a total of 85 hand-pumps in the village with 20 govern-
ments installed and 65 private. The wells in the village were not
used anymore as hand-pumps were nearer and more convenient
to use. A cluster of the marginalized and caste-discriminated
residents was chosen for drinking water sampling. In this clus-
ter, there are a total of 20 hand-pumps with 6 government and
14 installed privately. The location of Khap Tola is shown in
Figure 1.
SAMPLE COLLECTION AND TESTING
Water samples from all 20 hand-pumps in this cluster were
tested for the presence of arsenic in drinking water. Standard
water testing methodology was followed and the samples were
acidified with two drops of HCL to maintain a pH <2. The sam-
ples were tested in the Department of Environment and Water
Management, A.N. College, Patna using Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer (AAS) in the laboratory.
GIS OVERLAY ANALYSIS
To study the distribution of arsenic in the village, a Land
Use /Land Cover (LU/LC) Map using National Remote Sensing
Agency (NRSA) classification was prepared in Arc GIS software
for the village to get idea of land use and settlements. Contour
map for arsenic distribution was prepared using the Surfer soft-
ware from the values of arsenic of 20 samples tested. The values
were categorized into five categories based on the BIS limits.
Theseare“Safe(<50ppb),” “High (50–100 ppb),” “Very High
(100–150 ppb),” “Severely High (150–200 ppb)” and “Extremely
High (>200ppb).” The overlay of the two maps was done to
get the vulnerability of the population drinking water from the
hand-pumps in Khap Tola.
ARSENIC EXPOSURE AND TOTAL DOSE INTAKE CALCULATIONS
United States Environmental Protection Agency has classified
inorganic arsenic (As) as Group A human carcinogen (U.S. EPA,
2007). The USEPA guidelines were used to estimate arsenic
intake among children of age group 5–10 years. Average Total
Dose (ATD), Chronic Daily Intake (CDI), Cancer Risk (CR)
and Hazard Quotient (HQ) were calculated (Liu et al., 2009;
Muhammad et al., 2010; Singh and Ghosh, 2012).
An open- and closed-ended questionnaire was asked to the
mothers of these children. The questionnaire included questions
like: (A) How much water do the children drink per day? (B) What
is the volume of vessel they use for drinking water? (C) What is the
number of times they drink water every day? Village people usu-
ally use a glass or a big jar (lota) to drink water. The volume of the
glass or jar varies between 500 and 1500 mL. The objective was to
know the approximate average per capita consumption of water
amongchildrenagegroup510years.
Convenient sampling was done from the cluster and 21 chil-
dren (10% of the total population of Khap Tola) between the age
group 5–10 years were taken for study.
RESULTS
ARSENIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER OF KHAP TOLA
All the 20 samples taken from hand-pumps tested positive for the
presence of arsenic with 100% (N=20) samples having aresnic>
10 ppb limit of WHO and 80% (N=20) of the samples having
arsenic>50 ppb limit of the BIS. The maximum value noted was
397 ppb, indicating high presence of arsenic in drinking water
hand-pumps in Khap Tola.
There was found a correlation between the arsenic values and
the depth of the hand-pump as shown in Figure 2. High values of
arsenic are usually found in the 15–35 m zone and thereafter the
values from deeper points are less.
Most of the hand-pumps in the study area are located in the
shallow aquifer zone of 15–35 m with the average depth of the
hand-pump being 22 m, thus tapping the groundwater stored
between the pore spaces of the silt and sand. Clay acts as a rel-
atively impermeable layer with low hydraulic conductivity, thus
trapping the water and forming the aquifer zones (Mukherjee
et al., 2012). Since water in the area is easily available at an aver-
age depth of 3.4 m, it is easier to dig in hand-pumps in the shallow
depths of the aquifer. In the 15–35m zone, 57% (N=14) of the
samples from the private hand-pumps have arsenic >200 ppb.
Out of the 6 samples taken from government installed commu-
nity hand-pumps, 50% had arsenic <50 ppb. The average depth
of these samples was 50 m.
This confirms the presence of high levels of arsenic in the shal-
low aquifers of this cluster. The relatively easy access to the shallow
aquifers as compared to the deeper ones through private hand-
pumps makes the population more prone to consume arsenic
contaminated water, with no alternate sources of drinking water,
as the community wells are not being used anymore.
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Bhatia et al. Arsenic contamination in Khap Tola, Bihar
FIGURE 1 | Map of study area showing the location of Khap Tola with drinking water sample locations. Khap Tola lies in Nautan block in West
Champaran district, which is shown in the map. P and G denote Private and Government hand-pumps respectively.
VULNERABILITY OF POPULATION IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS DRINKING
ARSENIC CONTAMINATED WATER
The GIS overlay analysis of the two maps of land use and arsenic
values is shown in Figure 3. Total area of the village is around 14
Ha and the total area affected by arsenic contamination comes out
to be around 3.5 Ha in the residential area. Thus, 25% of the area
in the village is under high risk of arsenic contamination which is
the residential area and thus people drinking groundwater from
these areas are highly vulnerable to the direct ingestion of arsenic
through drinking water. Tab le 1 gives the arsenic contamination
in the settlement of Khap Tola.
It is clear from Figure 3 that almost 50% of the samples lie in
the severely high (150–200 ppm) and extremely high (>200 ppm)
category. All these samples are private hand-pumps as indicated
by notation “P” in the figure.
TOTAL ARSENIC INTAKE IN CHILDREN OF AGE GROUP 5–10 YEARS
The inorganic arsenic soluble in groundwater is highly toxic and
ingestion of toxic doses leads to chronic poisoning symptoms,
disturbances of cardiovascular and nervous system functions.
Long-term exposure due to drinking of Arsenic contaminated
water is related to increased risks of cancer. Children are at higher
risk of arsenic contamination.
Average total dose (ATD)
It is the product of contaminant concentration in mg/L and intake
rate of water in L:
ATD (mg)=Asw ×IR
where; Asw =Arsenic contamination of water (mg/L); IR =
Water Ingestion rate (L/day).
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Bhatia et al. Arsenic contamination in Khap Tola, Bihar
FIGURE 2 | Relation between arsenic values (ppb) and depth of
hand-pumps (m) for drinking water sample testing and analysis. 57% of
the private hand-pumps in the 15–35m zone have arsenic greater than 200
ppb. The two peaks in depth curve are from government hand-pumps
(sample number 6 and 12) having arsenic less than 50 ppb. This clearly
indicates high arsenic contamination in the shallow aquifer zone of 15–35m.
Chronic daily intake (CDI)
It is derived by dividing total dose by body weight of person by
using the formula:
CDI (mg/Kg day)=To t a l Dos e (mg)/Bodyweight (Kg)
Cancer risk (CR)
Lifetime cancer risk assessment through oral ingestion of arsenic
was estimated by the following equation:
Cancer Risk =CDI ×Potency Factor (PF)
where; PF (oral route) for arsenic is 1.5 (mg/Kg/day)1
(Established by USEPA’s Integrated Risk Information System-
IRIS)IfthevalueofCancerRisk(CR)isbetween10
4and 106,
it is believed that the cancer risk is acceptable.
The Values of ATD, CDI, CR, and HQ calculated for 21
children is shown in Tab l e 2 .
The results of CDI and CR calculated using above formulas
are shown in Figure 4, plotted with each child between 5 and 10
years taken for sample study. CDI is the chronic intake of arsenic
through drinking water among children of age group 5–10 years.
The minimum value observed for CR is 0.0043 which is much
higher than 104indicating that the CR is not acceptable. It rep-
resents high risk to children as is shown in the Cancer Risk (CR)
values indicating higher the concentration of arsenic ingested
through drinking water, higher the chances of getting cancer over
the years.
Hazard quotient (HQ or HI)
Hazard quotient or hazard index is the index of non-carcinogenic
toxicity of a substance, in this case arsenic in drinking water (unit
less). It can be calculated by the following formula:
HQ or HI =CDI/RfD
where; RfD is the reference dose for As (mg/Kg d), i.e., 3 ×104.
A Hazard Quotient (HQ) less than 1 is considered to infer no
significance risk of non-carcinogenic effects.
The results of the hazard quotient among children age group
taken for study are shown in Figure 5. Results show that because
of the consumption of arsenic-contaminated drinking water, the
area had HQs ranging from 9 to 235 for the 21 children in the
age group 5–10 years. The lower and the upper end of the range
both are greater than 1, indicating that the children are at future
risk of cancer, and are more likely to have significant adverse
non-carcinogenic health impacts.
DISCUSSIONS
Arsenic contamination has been a matter of serious concern in
the last three decades. Since the first reported case of arsenic
in India in 1983 in West Bengal, there has been a lot of
research carried out in India and Bangladesh by different scien-
tists and national/international agencies. In Bihar, the first case
was reported in 2002 in Semria Ojha Patti village in Bhojpur
district (Mukherjee et al., 2006). The Ganga belt corridor has
been a focus area of the state government and Public Health and
Engineering Department (PHED) for various mitigation mea-
sures. As part of studying the arsenic contamination, one of the
blocks, named Nautan was selected. After initial sampling from
6 panchayats and analysis at department of Earth Sciences, IIT
Mumbai, suggested that one of the villages Khap Tola had a
high arsenic contamination with 3 samples having arsenic greater
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Bhatia et al. Arsenic contamination in Khap Tola, Bihar
FIGURE 3 | GIS Overlay analysis of arsenic distribution in Khap Tola. The results show that maximum area of settlements 1.6 Hectares lies in the
Extremely High (>200 ppb) zone indicating high arsenic toxicity in hand-pumps used for drinking water.
than 50 ppb, which was 40 times more than the WHO pre-
scribed limits of 10 ppb. Analysis of samples from drinking
water hand-pumps in the study area, revealed that more than
50% of the hand-pumps having arsenic greater than 200 ppb
were private owned and lying in the shallow aquifer zone of
15–35 m. This finding is similar to other studies in West Bengal
and Bangladesh (Smith et al., 2003; Ahmed et al., 2011). Though
the government installed hand-pumps for people to get clean
pathogen-free drinking water, it had a disadvantage of subjecting
the population to arsenic contaminated water. Further as the shal-
low hand-pumps were cheaper, many households installed these
hand-pumps in their homes. Since these hand-pumps are the
exclusive and only source of drinking water for the population,
the problem has been magnified. This has been reflected in pre-
vious studies in similar areas (Frisbie et al., 2002; Ahmed and
Halder, 2011).
The population in the village is under high risk which was
calculated using the GIS overlay technique. Spatial distribution
of arsenic is an important indicator for calculating the vulner-
ability of population exposed to arsenic in drinking water. GIS
studies have been used for mapping the arsenic contamination
in India and Bangladesh (Shams and Rahman, 2010; Buragohain
and Sarma, 2012). Also since children are the most vulnerable
group as has been shown by various studies (Smith et al., 2006;
Mazumder, 2007) and due to poor nutrition and socio-economic
conditions in the village, focus was on children age group 5–10
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Bhatia et al. Arsenic contamination in Khap Tola, Bihar
years in the study. Using USEPA guidelines, it was estimated that
children are under high risk of developing significant carcino-
genic and non-carcinogenic effects. They are under risk from
arsenic toxicity due to the higher arsenic consumption in children
on a body-weight basis as was seen in this study of 21 children
between 5 and 10 years with the average daily intake value of
0.03 mg/kg/day far greater than the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI)
of 0.001mg/kg/day given by the report on human-toxicological
maximum permissible risk levels (Baars et al., 2001). This has
been confirmed in a study where almost 90% of the children less
than 11 years, living in arsenic affected villages in West Bengal
have shown elevated levels of arsenic in hair and nails (Mukherjee
et al., 2006). There is no known treatment available for arsenic
related diseases (Smith et al., 2000; Jakariya et al., 2003)anddue
to lack of medical facilities and health experts in the village, the
only way to avoid arsenic exposure is by providing safe drinking
water. However, the first priority still remains in identifying the
contaminated water sources in rural villages, especially the remote
Table 1 | Area under arsenic contamination (in Hectares) in Khap Tola.
S. No. Category Area (Ha)
1 Arsenic below the BIS limit (<50 ppb) 0.03
2 High contamination of arsenic (50–100 ppb) in the
residential area
0.74
3 Very high contamination of arsenic (100–150 ppb)
in the residential area
0.62
4 Severely high contamination of arsenic (150–200
ppb) in the residential area
0.56
5 Extremely high contamination of arsenic (>200
ppb) in the residential area
1. 5 9
areas where people are forced to drink arsenic contaminated
water.
This study will be useful to initiate the process of further sci-
entific testing and analysis of drinking water samples in West
Champaran district thereby putting it in the arsenic affected
regions of Bihar which has not yet been done by the PHED, Bihar
as seen on their web portal of water quality (http://phed.bih.nic.
in/WaterQuality.htm).
Further geochemical analysis and health assessment is needed
in West Champaran area to study the arsenic release mech-
anism so that interventions to reduce contamination and
the public health effects of arsenic contamination in the
resource-limited and low socio-economic setting. Making peo-
ple aware of the carcinogenic effects of arsenic remains
the top priority in the villages; and there are organizations
like the Megh Pyne Abhyian (MPA), an NGO which raises
awareness about arsenic contamination among residents of
North Bihar.
This study attempts to highlight the attention of various
stakeholders and the government to the poor villages of West
Champaran district for providing safe drinking water to the res-
idents. Further research is needed in the vulnerable population
groups of children and pregnant mothers to determine the Public
Health effects of consuming arsenic contaminated water over the
years.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
First of all, we would like to thank Mr. Eklavya Prasad, man-
aging Trustee of Megh Pyne Abhiyan, Bihar, for giving his full
support and time to carry out this research. He has always
shown faith for pursuing this research. We would also like to
Table 2 | Values of ATD, CDI, CR and HQ calculated for 21 children between 5 and 10 years in Khap Tola.
Child Age Sex Wt Kg WC L/day As ppb ATD mg/day CDI mg/kg-day Cancer Risk (CR) HQ
1 5 M 11 2 171 0.3420 0.031 0.047 104
2 6 M 12 2.5 171 0.4275 0.035 0.053 119
3 10 M 22 2.5 25 0.0625 0.002 0.004 9
4 6 M 16 2 257 0.5140 0.032 0.048 107
5 7 M 21 1.5 177 0.2655 0.012 0.019 42
6 5 F 10 2 257 0.5140 0.051 0.077 171
7 6 F 11 1 41 0.0410 0.003 0.006 12
8 5 F 10 1 56 0.0560 0.005 0.008 19
9 7 M 15 2 111 0.2220 0.014 0.022 49
10 10 M 25 3 154 0.4620 0.018 0.028 62
11 8 M 16 4 37 0.1480 0.009 0.014 31
12 9 M 23 3 221 0.6630 0.028 0.043 96
13 7 F 10 2.5 282 0.7050 0.070 0.106 235
14 6 M 8 2 282 0.5640 0.070 0.106 235
15 8 F 18 2 397 0.7940 0.044 0.066 147
16 5 F 10 2 257 0.5140 0.051 0.077 171
17 7 M 10 2 214 0.4280 0.042 0.064 143
18 9 M 12 2 214 0.4280 0.035 0.054 119
19 5 M 12 1 133 0.1330 0.011 0.017 37
20 6 M 16 2 344 0.6880 0.043 0.065 143
21 9 F 18 2 344 0.6880 0.038 0.057 127
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Bhatia et al. Arsenic contamination in Khap Tola, Bihar
FIGURE 4 | Chronic daily intake (mg/Kg-day) and cancer risk among children age group 5–10 years in Khap Tola. Higher the concentration of arsenic
ingested through drinking water, higher the chances of getting cancer over the years.
FIGURE 5 | Hazard Quotient (HQ) among children age group 5–10 years in Khap Tola. The HQ range of 9–235 is both greater than 1, indicating that
children might confront more significant adverse non-carcinogenic health impacts.
thank Dr. Nobhojit Roy, Environmental Health Resource Hub
(EHRH), TISS, Mumbai and Elizabeth Weber of EHRH project
for their support for writing down this paper and carrying on
this study. We would also like to thank Dr. D. Chandrasekharam,
Professor, Department of Earth Sciences, IIT, Mumbai, for giving
us the valuable opportunity to work with him for our analy-
sis at IIT. We would like to thank Dr. Ashok Ghosh, Professor
In-charge at Dept. of Environment and Water Management;
A.N. College, Patna for his belief in the research and thus
accepting our request for testing samples at laboratory of A.N.
College, Patna. His research work on arsenic and published
papers, were a great help in developing a scientific approach
toward the research. The research paper will remain incom-
plete without the mention of two very important persons Mr.
Vinay Kumar and Mr. Raj Kishore, Water Action NGO, West
Champaran, who have helped us during our field visits and
it is because of their enthusiasm and energy that the field
sampling and interaction with the community was done in a
smooth way. They have always been supportive arranging for
our stay, food, and transportation in one of the remotest areas
of Bihar. Their contribution is immense in bringing out this
research paper.
www.frontiersin.org November 2014 | Volume 2 | Article 49 |7
Bhatia et al. Arsenic contamination in Khap Tola, Bihar
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Conflict of Interest Statement: The authors declare that the research was con-
ducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be
construed as a potential conflict of interest.
Received: 09 July 2014; accepted: 03 November 2014; published online: 20 November
2014.
Citation: Bhatia S, Balamurugan G and Baranwal A (2014) High arsenic contami-
nation in drinking water hand-pumps in Khap Tola, West Champaran, Bihar, India.
Front. Environ. Sci. 2:49. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2014.00049
This article was submitted to Environmental Health, a section of the journal Frontiers
in Environmental Science.
Copyright © 2014 Bhatia, Balamurugan and Baranwal. This is an open-access
article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
(CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, pro-
vided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original pub-
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No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with
these terms.
Frontiers in Environmental Science | Environmental Health November 2014 | Volume 2 | Article 49 |8
... Water sample data of two other blocks, namely Taljhari and Pathna block have less arsenic concentration but tube wells of these places would require monitoring to prevent from arsenic contamination and its impact. Bhatia et al. (2014) carried out evaluation of drinking water in Khap Tola village of Bihar. The main aim was to examine hand pump drinking water and to collect data of arsenic contamination. ...
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