Article

Leaf essential oil profiles of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume

Abstract

Essential oils hydro-distilled from leaves of various sizes and different leaf portions were analyzed GCand GC-MS. Medium (leaf area 26.8 cm2) and big (leaf area 30.9 cm2) sized leaves contained more essential oil (6.2% and 5.7%, respectively on dry wight basis ) than small (leaf area 21 .7 cm2) and large (leaf area 42.6 cm2) sized leaves. Leaf top (5.1%) portion possessed greater oil content in comparison to middle (4 .6%) and basal (4.4%) portions. Left half of the leaf (3.6%) had more oil than the right half of the leaf (2.8%). Medium-sized leaf oil was richer in benzyl benzoate (6.8%), big-sized leaf oilwas richer in alpha-pinene (1.1%). beta-myrcene (1.1%). Iinalool ( 1.3%),and large-sized leaf oil was richer in cinnamaldehyde (1.4%), eugenol (88.7%) and eugenyl acetate (2.9%). The top, middle and basal portions of the leaves produced essential oils of identical composition except that the basal portion oil was marginally richer in eugenyl acetate (3.1%). Essential oil isolated from the left half of the leaf was richer in eugenol (89.3%), while the right half oil was richer in eugenyl acetate (8.0%).
Leaf essential oil profiles of cinnarnornurn zeylanicum Blume
B.R. Ba.ieswara Rao*, D.K RajPut, KP. Sastry, S.K Kothari and A'IC Bhattacharya
ABSTRACT
Essential oils hydrodistilled from leaves of various sizes ard different leaf portions were andrs;{ b1 G-c^and GC-MS'
N;;; i1};JtZ-s .*) ""a big (leaf area 30.9 cm') sized leaves contained more essentia] oil (6.20/o a.'d 5.7o/o,
."".".ti,etw on d rv weiphr basis ) chan lmall (leaf area 21 .7 cm') and large ( leaf a rea 42.6 cm') sized leaves. Leaf rop (5 1 %)
;:iil;fr,fr;;;;:;;il;;,;;; il;p'arison to middle (4 .6vi-;dbasil(4.4vo) portions. Lefthalf oftheleaf (3.60lo)
["a -.r'..1i.ir" ir,. righr h"lfof,h. l""i fiia;;). M"ai"r"-rir.d leioil was richer in benf benzoate (6.80lo), big+ized leaf
oil *r, ,1.h", in o-pineie 6 .1olo). p-myrcene ( 1, I o/o). Iinalool ( L3%),and larye-sized learoilw,' richer,in cinnamaldehyde
( l-4olo). eueenol (88.7o20) and eugenyl 'ac.,r,. i j.nq"l. fl" -p. middle and b-asat portions ofrhe leaves produced essenrial
:i[#iilffi::;*.i|.. "-.."* Ji"r,t'.iJpo*ion oil ilas marginally richer in eugenvl acerare (J. 1 o/o ) Essenrial oil
;J;jf."*;" #ia].i,i"iri** 'i.r,er iri eug.nol (89.3%),;hile rhe right half oil was richer in eugenvl acetate
(8.0%).
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INTRODUCTION
Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume syn
Cinnamomum uetumBerch. & Presl., Family: Lauraceae) is
a versatile spice-cum-aromatic medium-sized tree native to
Sri Lanka and tropical Asia. The tree is cultivated for
essentialoils extracted from leaves and barkrhat are used in
perfumery flavouring and pharmaceuticd industries The
i.av", "rtd the bark are used as spice and condiments'
Cinnamon yields oils ofdiffering composition depending
on the plant part extracted. The leaf oil is rich in eugenol
(Mallaiarapu et al,l995;Ka.Jll et a\,1996, 1998), the bark
oil is. rich in cinnamaldehyde, the root bark oil is rich in
camphor ('\flijeseke ra et al, 1974), the pedicels, buds,
flowers and fruit oils are rich in (E)- cinnamyl acetate (Kaul
et al,2oo3). Chemotypes of leaf and bark oils which are
rich in benzyl benzoate have also been reponed (Nath aaL
1996). In this sudy, we have analysed the essential oil
compositions of leaves ofvarious sizet and their different
po.riorr, ,o examine the variations among these essential
oils.
MAIERIALS AND METHODS
The experiments were carried out usingwell-grown-trees of
"in.r"rrron planred in 1984 in the experimental farm of
CIMAP Resource Centre, Hyderabad. From these plants'
leaves wete collected in the month of September Three
studies were conducted with these leaves ln the first
exoeriment, Ieaves were sorted on rhe basis of rheir sizes
inio 4 caresories such ar small. medium big and large The
leaf lengrhlleaf*idr h and leafareas ofr hese caregories are
Author for correspondence: Central Institute of Medicinal
and Aromatic Piants Resource Centre Boduppal, Uppal
(PO). Hyderabad-5000J9
E-mai[:cimaphyd@red jffmail.comi
brrrao I @rediffmail. com
oresenred in Table I . ln the second experiment. large-sized
i.ru", *.r" selected and rhe teaves were cut horizontally
into J oorrions ruch as rop, middle and basal The average
Iengrhi oI chese porr ions are shown in Table 1. ln r he rhird
.*piri-enr, lr.ge-tired leaves were cur longicudinally into
Z halr.., rhe left hrlf and r he righr half. Triplic:re samples
t!00 e) ofeach caregory were hydrodisrilled in Clevenger
,pparirr. tClerengir. 1928) for o h for isolarion of
eisential oils. The issential oil samples were dried over
anhydrous sodium sulphare, rveighed and expressed as
percentage on weighr by weighc basis.
bC anali.ls of essenrial oil sampler *ere performed on
Varian Siar 3400 CX gas chromatograph equipped with a
flame ionization detector, IC(- P1 150 Panasonic printer
and an electronic integrator using Supelcowax 10 (30 m X
0.25 mm X 0.25 pm film thickness) polar capillary
column. Hydrogen at a flow rate of 1 ml/ min and 10 psi
inler p.es"ur. -as employed as rhe carrier gas The
a.-p..r,ur. progrr-ming was: 80'C (2 min) @ 5'C/ min
ro tlooc @ 7'Cl min ro 220'C (5 min). The injecror ard
the detector were maintained at 200" and 240"C,
respectively. The samples (0.1 pl) were injected neat with 1r
50 splitratio.
GC-MS analysis ofthe oil samples were carried out using
Hewlett-Packard 5850 gas chromatograph coupled to HP
5850 mass-selective detector (MSD) system. Helium was
employed a. the carrier gas at I ml/ min flo* rare The
,..p.r"tuie Programme was the same as in GC analytis'
Mass spectra were recorded orer 40 400 amu mnge al one-
span per second -ith 70 eV ionization energy, EI mode of
ionization and 2500C ion source temperature,
Essential oil constituents were identified by comparing
retention times of the GC peaks with those of reference
comoound" run under idenrical condit ions' comparison of
retention indices with tirerar ure data (Davies. 1990)' Peak
enrichment on co-injection of authentic samples and
comparing mass sPectra of the peaks with published
literature lAdams, i995). P"rk "."", and retention times
were measured by the electronic integrator' The relative
amounts of individual constituen$ were computed from
peak areas without FTD response lactor correction'
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Differences in morphological parameters among leaves of
varying sizes are shown in Table l. The essential oil content
',ras high". in medium and big-sized leaves compared to
small -and large-sized leaves. lwenty-four compounds
accounrins loi 93,9- 98.5o/o of the essential oils were
identified"and are lisred in Table 2 along wi*r grouped
essential oil comPonents. Eugenol was the major
component of all the oils and varied ftom79.0- 91.1o/o.
The oil from medium-sized leaves was richer in aromatic
esters and benzyl benzoate; that ofbig leaves was richer in
monotelpene hydrocarbons, c[- Pinene, p-myrcene and
linalool. The oil from large leaves was richer in phenols,
phenolic ethers, cinnamJdehyde, eugenol ard eugenyl
acetate. Similar resuhs were reported in rose-scented
eeranium (Pelargonilrz species) (Rrieswara Rao et al'
i993) *h.r. leaves of varying sizes produced oils o[
differing composition.
The top portion of the Ieaves yielded more oil than the
mlddle and basal portions (Table 1). Since the oil is stored
in oil slands, rhe Jensiry ofoil gla-nds was probably higher
in rhe"rop porrion of rhe leat'es. This aspecr needs filrrher
u"rifi""tiot . Eugenol was the main constiruent ofthe oils
and ransed ftom -9 0 - 91 0% (Table 2). The grouped
.ompor"nd. "nd .h.mical profiles ofthe oils isolated from
diffeient portions ofleaves did not vary except for eugcnyl
acetate co^ntent, which was higher in the oil isolated from
the basal ponion of the leaves.
The essential oil concentradon was greater in the left half
of the leaves (Thble 1). Midrib was included in the right
half of the leaves increasing the weight and probably
decreasing the densiry ofoil glands resulting in reduced oil
.o.rt.nt. Fh".rol. "rtd eugenol content were higher in the
left hatl while phenolic ethers and eugenyl acetate
concentradon were higher in the oil of right half of the
leaves.
This is the first report on the essential oil profile variations
in different portions ofcinnamon leaves.
CONCLUSION
Cinnamon leaves are uaded in two forms: dried leaves
stored for different periods are traded for culinary purpose
and the essendal oil isolated from the leaves is used by the
flavour industry This study reveals that eugenol, rich in
small and large sized leaves can be used for culinary
ourpose and herbal rea". while rhe essential oil rich
m"iiu- *d big sized leaves can be used for es'enrial oil
extfaction. A simple grading technique at farm level can
add value to th. ptoJ,r." and give more income to the
farmer and bemer produce to the industry'
ACKNO\TLEDGEMENTS
The authors are grateful to the Directol CIMAB Lucknow
for facilities "tJ M" A.A. Naqvi, CIMAI Lucknow for
analysis of oil samples.
REFERENCES
Mams, RP 1995. Identification of asntful oil componenx
b1 gas chromangraphy/ ml-ts specttoscop!. Nlured Pub. Co.,
Illinois, USA.
Clevenger, J.F. 1928. Apparatus for the determination of
volatilioil.
J. Amer. Pharm. ,*soc. 17 : 341-346.
Davies, N.\?l 1990. Gas chromatographic retention
indices of monoterPenes and sesquiterpenes on methyl
silicone and carbowax 20 M phases.l Chrzmatogt 503t l'
24.
Kaul, PN., Bhattacharya, A.K. and Rajeswara Rao, B'R'
1996. Seasonal variation in the composition ofessential oil
of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeyhnicurn Blume) leaves'
Indian Perfumer 40 36-38 .
Kaul, PN,, Bhattacharya, A.K. and R4eswara Rao, B'R'
1998. Chemical composition of the essential oil of
cinnamon (Cinnarnomum zelhnicam Blume) leaves
affected by leafspot disease. Indian Perfumer. 42:33-35 .
Kaul, PN., Bhattacharya, A.K., Raieswara Rao, B.R.,
Syamasunder. K.V and Ramesh, S. 200J. Volarile
consriruents ofe"sential oils isotated from different parts of
ci.rvrmot (Cinnamonum zqlanicum Bltme) . J. Sci. Food
Agric. 83: 53-55 .
Mallavarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Chandrasekhara, R S',
RaieswariRao, B.R, Kaul, PN. and Bhattacharya, A K
19b5, lnvestigarion ofrhe essentia.l oil of cinnamon leaf
grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad. Fhttout Fragr. J. l0:.
1\ct-)tr)
Nath, S.C., Pathak, M.G. and Baruah, A. 1996. Ber,zyl
benzoate, the major component ofthe leaf and stem bark
oirl of Cinndntomum zqlanicumBlume. J. Essent. Oil Res, 8:
327 -328.
Raieswara Rao, B.R,, Bhatracharya. A.K.. Kaul PN.
Chand, S. and Rame"h. S. 1993. Changes in profiles of
essential oils of rose-scented gerariw (Pehrgonium
species) during leafo mogeny. J. F'ssent. Oil Rel 5 t 301-304.
Viiesekera, R.O.B.. Jaya*ardene. A L. and Raiapake'
l--S. 1974, Volacile conrriruenrs ofleaf. stem and roor oils
of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeyhnicam)- J. Sci- Food
Agric.2\ 1211-122O-
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oc-Pinene 0.6 o.7 1.1 t0.2 0.6 0.5 o.4 0.3 A,L), c, d*
Camphene o.2 (\) 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0-1 0.1 A,L
l-Pinene 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.1 0t 0.1 0.1 a,b,c,d
Sabinene tttttttta,b,d
P-Myrcene o.7 o-6 l.l 0.6 0.5 o.6 o_6 o.4 0.3 a,b,c
c-Terpinene tttItt t t
Limonene 0.1 0.1 o.2 o-t 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 ,,d
1,8-Cineole 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 l,c,d
E-Ocimene Itrttttaa,t
p-Cymene 0.2 0.2 o.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 a,bl,c,d
Lina-loo1 0.9 1.2 1.3 0.9 0.3 0.2 o.4 o.2 0.2 c,d
"Carvoohvllene ttttta,t,,c,d
Linal 'l acetate 0.5 0.5 0.4 o.4 i7 0.6 0.8 o.7 0.6 A,L
Terpinene -4-ol to.2 Itt0.1 0.1 ta,L
Cx- lbrpineol 0.1 0.3 0.1 0-1 t0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 a, tr, c. d
Piperitone 0-i 0.3 0.1 t0.1 0.1 o.2 0.1 0.1 a,b a
Geraniol t0.2 0.i ftttta,blrc,d
Safrole t0.1 o.2 tto_1 0.1 0.i a,t,,d
-h-C in n amaldehydc 1-4 1.3 1.0 1.4 0.1 0.1 o.4 0_l 0.1 a,b,,c,d
Z-Cinnamyl acerate t0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 tIta,L
snol 87.0 79.o 61. /88.7 91.0 90.7 89.3 89.3 84.2 ),c,(
Eugenyl acetate 1.5 2_3 2.7 2. 2.6 3.1 6.5 8.0 ,,d
E-Cinnamyl alcohol 0.2 o.z 0.2 o-2 0.: 0.2 0.1 o.2 o.2 A, Il,d
Benzv benzoate 6.8 2.5 1,.2 r.5 1.6 1.6 0.2 0.5 a,b,c,d
Monoterpene
hydrocarbons J.-' 1.4 t.2 1.7 t.6 1.2 1.0
Oxidesl epoxides 0.1 o.2 0.1 0_1 0_i o.2 0.1 0.1
46.9 2.( 1.3 1..7 1.( o.2 0.5
MonoterDene esters 0.5 0.5 0.4 0., 0.7 0.6 0.8 o.7 0.6
o.5 0.1 0.1 to.2 o.2 0-l
o.2
0.1
Aliphatic alcohols 0.9 1_4 1.4 r.3 o.2 o.4 o.2
Aromatic alcohols 0.2 o.2 o.2 o.z o.1 o_2 n)
a7.o 79.0 81.7 8. 1.O 90.7 8 89.. a4.2
Phenol ethers 1.6 2.4 2.9 3.1 )3.2 .6 8.1
Table 2. Essential oil pro0les (Yo) ofleaves ofdifferent sizes and differenr porrions of Cinnamomum zellanicum Bl.,me
1=Small leaves; 2=Medium leaves; 3=Big leaves; 4=Large leaves; !=Top porrion of leaf; 6=Middle portion ofleal 7=Basa.l
portion ofleaf; 8=Left ha.lfofleaf; 9=Right halfofleaC
*a=Retention time; b=Retention index; c=Co-injection with aurhentic substance; d=Mass spectrum; t=Tiaces (< 0.1%)
... Eugenol (C10H12O2) is a widely known and volatile component in clove extracts, but it is also found in cinnamon, especially in the leaves. 16,17 The study conducted by Rao et al. compared the bioactive compounds in the essential oil of cinnamon leaves and reported that eugenol compounds were found mostly on the top and larger leaves. Apart from the leaves, eugenol is also found in the bark of cinnamon. ...
... Apart from the leaves, eugenol is also found in the bark of cinnamon. 17 Eugenol was also found in the essential oil of cinnamon bark between 4.6 % -7.45 %. 6,18 . The eugenol of essential oil of cinnamon leaves is as much as 58.10 %. 19 The methanolic extract of cinnamon bark contains as much as 10.97 % of eugenol. ...
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A B S T R A C TPlants are an important source of traditional medicines that can be used to improvehealth. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) has long been recognized to have manybenefits. Cinnamon was used traditionally as a remedy for arthritis, diarrhea, allergiesand ulcers. This literature review aimed to identify the bioactive compounds andbioactivity of cinnamon. Literature searches used PubMed and Google Scholar. A totalof 55 full text articles met the inclusion criteria of the review. The extract or essentialoil of cinnamon contains many bioactive compounds, such as eugenol, cinnamic acid,linalool, β-caryophyllene, coumarin, trans cinnamyl acetate, and 1.8 cineole. Thesecompounds have several bioactivities including anti-cancer, anti-arrhythmia, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-cholinesterase, and anti-lipidoxidation. Cinnamon extract has an excellent potential as an antioxidant andantidiabetic agent. Its potential and unique taste has contributed to its wide use inherbal remedies.
... Medium sized leaf oil was richer in benzyl benzoate (6.80/o), large sized leaf oil was richer in eugenol (88.7olo) and eugenyl acetate Q.go/o). Essential oil from left half of leaf had more eugenol (S9.37o) and right half oil was richer in eugenyl acetate (S.07") (Rao et al. 2006a). Normal plants gave 1.87o oil with 84.5o/o eugenol and0.2o/obenzyl ...
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This chapter provides details about history of cinnamon, its taxonomy, production technology, phytochemistry, uses, biological activities, quality control and marketing and recent advances made in these fields with special refernce to Northeast India.
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IntroductionPlant MaterialChemistryExtractivesUsesAnalytical Method Identification NumbersReferences
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Cinnamon leaves harvested during summer (April) gave highest essential oil recovery (1.84% w/w FWB) and eugenol content (93.9%) in oil, while the rainy season (August) harvest recorded lowest oil content (0.80% w/w FWB) and eugenol concentration (83.0%) in its oil but highest levels of eugenyl acetate (10.0%) and benzyl benzoate (6.8%) in its oil. Other minor components of the oil were also affected by the seasonal variations.
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Changes in the essential oil profile of rose-scented geranium during development were determined gas chromatographically. It was found that the essential oil yield (1.56%) and geraniol content (34.6%) were highest in the first leaf, while in the twelfth leaf they were 0.05% and 13.9% respectively. Similarly essential oil gland density was found to be highest in the first leaf after which it decreased. The other major oil constituents such as isomenthone, citronellyl formate, geranyl formate and citronellol were not influenced by leaf age. Some changes occurred in the linalool content during leaf aging although no clear trend was evident.
Article
The essential oils obtained from leaves and stem bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume (Lauraceae) grown in Brahmaputra Valley of northeast India were investigated by GC and GC/MS. Seventeen components representing 97.02% and 98.94% of the total leaf and stem bark oils were identified respectively. Benzyl benzoate was the main component in both oils, however, it was higher in stem bark oil (84.69%) than in the leaf oil (65.42%).
Article
The essential oil of cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad has been analysed by capillary GC and GC-MS. Besides the main constituent, eugenol (81.4-84.5%), 47 other constituents, including those present in trace amounts, have been identified in the oil samples from the two locations. The two samples differed with respect to the relative amounts of linalol, (E)-cinnamaldehyde, (E)-cinnamyl acetate, β-caryophyllene and benzyl benzoate. Also the oil content of the Hyderabad material was found to be higher than that of the Bangalore material.
A K 19b5, lnvestigarion ofrhe essentia.l oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad Ber,zyl benzoate, the major component ofthe leaf and stem bark oirl of Cinndntomum zqlanicumBlume
  • G R Mallavarapu
  • S Ramesh
  • R S ' Chandrasekhara
  • B R Raieswarirao
  • Pn Kaul
  • Bhattacharya Nath
  • S C Pathak
  • M G Baruah
Mallavarapu, G.R., Ramesh, S., Chandrasekhara, R S', RaieswariRao, B.R, Kaul, PN. and Bhattacharya, A K 19b5, lnvestigarion ofrhe essentia.l oil of cinnamon leaf grown at Bangalore and Hyderabad. Fhttout Fragr. J. l0:. 1\ct-)tr) Nath, S.C., Pathak, M.G. and Baruah, A. 1996. Ber,zyl benzoate, the major component ofthe leaf and stem bark oirl of Cinndntomum zqlanicumBlume. J. Essent. Oil Res, 8: 327 -328.
Volacile conrriruenrs ofleaf. stem and roor oils of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeyhnicam
  • R O B Viiesekera
  • L Jaya
Viiesekera, R.O.B.. Jaya*ardene. A L. and Raiapake' l--S. 1974, Volacile conrriruenrs ofleaf. stem and roor oils of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeyhnicam)-J. Sci-Food Agric.2\
Identification of asntful oil componenx b1 gas chromangraphy/ ml-ts specttoscop!
  • R P Mams
Mams, RP 1995. Identification of asntful oil componenx b1 gas chromangraphy/ ml-ts specttoscop!. Nlured Pub. Co., Illinois, USA.
Volarile consriruents ofe"sential oils isotated from different parts of ci.rvrmot (Cinnamonum zqlanicum Bltme)
  • Pn Kaul
  • A K Bhattacharya
  • Raieswara Rao
  • B R K Syamasunder
Kaul, PN., Bhattacharya, A.K., Raieswara Rao, B.R., Syamasunder. K.V and Ramesh, S. 200J. Volarile consriruents ofe"sential oils isotated from different parts of ci.rvrmot (Cinnamonum zqlanicum Bltme). J. Sci. Food Agric. 83: 53-55.