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The paper deals about three picked swimming-pool halls and the energy consumption from the view of the energy loading. This one has important rate in the energetics management.
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10.2478/v10160-011-0022-y
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Transactions of the VŠB – Technical University of Ostrava
No. 2, 2011, Vol. XI, Civil Engineering Series
paper #22
Zdeněk GALDA1
THERMAL LOADING OF THE SWIMMING-POOL HALLS AND ITS EFFECT
ON THE ENERGETICS MANAGEMENT
TEPELNÁ ZÁTĚŽ BAZÉNOVÝCH HAL A JEJÍ VLIV NA PROVOZ
Z HLEDISKA ENERGETIKY
Abstract
The paper deals about three picked swimming-pool halls and the energy consumption from the
view of the energy loading. This one has important rate in the energetics management.
Keywords
Energy savings, swimming-pool hall, ventilation.
Abstrakt
Článek zkoumá tři vybrané bazénové haly a jejich energetickou náročnost z hlediska tepelné
zátěže, která má významný podíl na hospodaření s energiemi.
Klíčová slova
Energetické úspory, bazénová hala, větrání.
1 INTRODUCTION
In swimming pool halls, similarly to other buildings, a particular attention is paid to energy
performance and economy which are closely connected with each other. At the same time, it is
required to maintain or improve comfort for users and operators of the buildings. Many buildings
which were built in past decades are facing now energy-related problems being typical not only for
our region. The existing thermal load and impacts of the thermal load on the energy performance will
be studied for three indoor swimming pools, this means for three swimming pool halls. Another issue
which such buildings have to face is stability of indoor microclimate. The indoor swimming pools are
located in the Ostrava and Karviná regions. Following criteria were taken into account during the
selection of the buildings: the year of construction, the free space of water surface (all swimming
pools have got the same length: 25 m), the method used with respect of the water surface, the
building condition of the constructions and the method of supplying the thermal energy to the
buildings).
2 SWIMMING POOL HALLS
2.1 The Ostrava-Vítek Indoor Swimming Pool
This indoor swimming pool was built in 1969 as a skeleton-type construction with reinforced
concrete columns placed in a 6 m span. The external walls as well as the inside partition walls consist
1 Ing. Zdeněk Galda, Ph.D., Department of Indoor Environmental Engineering and Building Services,
Faculty of Civil Engineering, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Ludvíka Podéště 1875/17, 708 33 Ostrava
- Poruba, phone: (+420) 597 321 907, http://www.fast.vsb.cz/229/cs/, e-mail: zdenek.galda@vsb.cz.
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of (pursuant to the original project documentation) of reinforced concrete panels (CP1 300 mm). The
wall thickness towards the dressing rooms and showers is made from 100 mm reinforced concrete.
The wall towards the gym is made from CP1 300 mm. In the underground floor, there are facilities
for swimming pool machines and equipment, a sauna, dressing rooms and an after-cooling swimming
pool. The windows on the western wall are made from double-glass panes in a steel frame which
starts disintegrating (there is a risk of the glass falling out). Glass blocks are used along other walls
of the indoor swimming pools. The roof construction consists of lattice beams with a skylight
window which is covered now. The roofing is made from reinforced concrete perforated panels and
foam glass. Later on, a false ceiling was installed there (at the level of lighting) – it is, however, just
a visual ceiling only. The building has not been reconstructed.
There is a floor heating with the heat gradient of 45/35 °C. The heat gradient of the heating
register is 90/70 °C. Temperature control valves are not used there. Hot air heating is combined with
the method mentioned above. The temperature of the incoming hot air is ~35 °C. HVAC heaters are
pulse controlled once the temperature in the indoor swimming door reaches (drops down to) the set
limit. Heat performance of this building is rather high.
Fig. 1: The interior of the Ostrava-Vítek
Indoor Swimming Pool [9]
Fig. 2: The heat exchanger [9]
2.2 The Indoor Swimming Pool in Havířov
The load-carrying structures are the reinforced concrete columns with a 6 m span. The
external wall is made from transparent glass with steel profiles. There are steel carrying columns cast
in concrete. There is the original double glass and the steel frame is rather corroded (there is a risk
of tables falling out). The inside partition wall towards the gym is a double wall made from
CP1 200 mm (from the both sides). The air gap which is a part of the expansion joint is slightly open
(efforts were made to seal it). The wall towards the facilities is made from CD 32, (thickness:
140 mm). In the second floor (over the lifeguard station), the wall is made from gas silicate blocks
(thickness: 300 mm). The roof construction consists of steel beams. At the lower face, there is
a wooden lining (for noise protection and as a visual improvement). On the false ceiling, there is the
original heat insulation. Probably, it does not serve its purpose anymore. The lighting is a part of the
false ceiling. The roofing is made from reinforced concrete slabs with polystyrene overcladding
(thickness: 65 mm). The building has not been reconstructed.
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Fig. 3: The interior of the swimming pool in
Havířov [9]
Fig. 4: The facade of the indoor swimming
pool in Havířov [9]
There is a floor heating with the heat gradient of 50/40 °C. In 1993, the floor heating was
reconstructed. There are the original heating registers and Kalor heaters with the heat gradient
of 90/70 °C. Heat control valves are not used there. The hot air heating supplies the air with the
temperature of ~40 °C). The heating is on until the temperature reaches θi = 28 °C. HVAC equipment
is Janka Radotín there – it is fitted with air circulation and air recovery. The hot air for the indoor
swimming pool is heated in a pair of finned heaters. The control valve in the heating water supply
line is pulse controlled by the temperature in the swimming pool hall. There are two hot water heating
circuits in the hall: for the gym and for the swimming pool. The heat performance of the building is
rather high, the reason being, particularly, the glazed external wall.
2.3 The Indoor Swimming Pool in Orlová
The carrying structure of the building is again the reinforced concrete columns with the 6 m
span and standardised pre-fabricated skeleton units. The external walls are made from slag pumic
concrete panels (thickness: 300 mm) with the contact overcladding system (Baumit) where the
thickness of the Baumit Open Polystyrene is 200 mm. The windows in the swimming hall pool were
replaced and have got now the half of the original size. The heat transfer coefficient of the windows
is now U = 1.2 W/m2·K. The remaining parts of the external wall consist of the Porotherm 30P
blocks (thickness: 300 mm). The roof construction consists of the reinforced concrete panels
(thickness: 120 mm) and extruded polystyrene (thickness: 280 mm). Air above the false ceiling in the
swimming hall pool is permanently withdrawn. In case of higher moisture, air ventilation
automatically increases. The building was fully reconstructed in 2007.
The exchanging state processes the secondary heating water to reach the heat gradient
of 92/67 °C and 70/40 °C in the winter and summer, respectively. The heating water system is
designed for the heat gradient of 70/50 °C. The floor heating is designed at 50/40 °C. The both
heating systems use equithermal control. There are radiator bodies (with the heating circuit out of the
hall) – this is an additional system which should provide heat energy if the floor heating system and
HVAC do not cover the heat demand. The HVAC circuit is a separate circuit; Two Menegra units
(37.19.01 & 55.19.01) are used for air ventilation and hot air heating. The systems include air
recirculation and air recovery functions (cca 70 %). The supply air temperature is optimised
at cca 30 °C. There is also an additional cogeneration unit - Tedom Premi F25 AP which is used
primarily for generation of electricity. This is an additional 20 – 40 kW source which supplies
electricity for central heating hot water systems, hot water heating, water heating for the swimming
pool and HVAC.
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Fig. 5: The interior of the swimming pool in
Orlová [9]
Fig. 6: The cogeneration unit [9]
3 HEAT LOAD AND TOTAL HEAT BALANCE OF THE BUILDINGS
The heat power needed to heat up a building is calculated using methods set forth
in ČSN EN 12831. The heat power/loss is affected not only by the heat passing through the
construction and ventilation, but also by heat gains which contribute considerably to the overall heat
performance of the swimming pools. In order to take reasonable measures which could decrease the
energy performance of the swimming pools, it is necessary to determine the heat gain (the heat loss)
from internal sources of energy and to make evaluation within the heat balance of the building.
3.1 Evaluation of the heat gain
The heat gain / heat loss were evaluated for all swimming hall buildings for both the existing
and proposed conditions in line with requirements which are now in force with respect to the
overcladding structures set forth in [2]. The evaluation was performed for the summer because solar
radiation affects considerably the total heat load. On the other hand, the solar load is neglected
in winter because the sunshine is rather low. The newly designed construction influences
considerably stability of the inside climate. According to calculations, the heat load dropped by cca.
15 - 120 % for some swimming pool halls. See Fig. 7.
The inside environment is more stable now and it is easier to regulate ventilation/cooling
there. This reduces the needed amount of the ventilation/cooling air which saves energy used to drive
fans (or reduces the needed cooling power).
The calculation was carried out using QPRO – Tepelné zisky which is in line with [3].
Following components were included into the calculation as permanent heat gains:
the bound heat from resistance of the swimming pool water,
the air needed for ventilation of the swimming hall air (the minimum quantity is: 2 -/hour
pursuant to [8]).
As mentioned above, the new heat transfer coefficients according to ČSN 73 0540-2 were
used when calculating the new situation. The original windows in Ostrava-Vítek and Havířov were
replaced with new ones (U = 1.1 W/m2·K). In Orlová, the original windows were kept
U = 1.2 W/m2·K. The Ostrava-Vítek and Havířov swimming pools do not use any sun protection
now. In Orlová, there is the glass with a slightly reflective surface (s = 0.6 pursuant to [3]). New
windows were supplied with following sun protection:
the sun protection foil with the sun protection coefficient s = 0.49 (LLumar Silver 50);
the fixed outdoor shades (the sun protection coefficient is 0.13 pursuant to Table 8 [3])
which protect better against direct solar radiation
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Primary factors which affect the heat gain or total heat load inside the hall include:
the position of the building towards the cardinal points,
the position of windows towards the cardinal points,
the size of the glasses,
absence of outdoor sun protection,
intensity of ventilation of the inside air by means of fresh air supply (without cooling).
Secondary factors which affect the total heat load inside the hall include:
the specific thermal capacity of the overcladding structures,
the internal heat gains.
Movements of the heat load peak between the months is caused by the total sum of the heat
gains which are changing as a result of the construction measures taken on the site.
In Ostrava-Vítek and Havířov the heat load copies the outdoor environment, incl. immediate
responses to the direct solar load. This means, it is more difficult to regulate. In case of the final
designed situation, the development of the heat load is almost identical and copies mainly the
temperature of the outdoor supply air which replaces, in summer months, the air conditioning that
consumes quite a lot of energy.
Tepelnátěž řených banových hal
-50000
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9101112131415161718192021222324
Čas [h]
Tepelná zátěž [W]
Ost rava-Ví tek - původní stav
Ost rava-Ví tek - navrž ený stav
Havířov - původní stav
Havířov - navržený st av
Orlová - původní stav
Orlová - navržený stav
Fig. 7: Heat loads in the swimming hall pools (Ostrava-Vítek, Hařov and Orlová), Remark: původní
stav – original condition, navržený stav – proposed condition
3.2 Total heat balance for the summer and winter
The total heat balance of the building is the sum of individual components of the heat gains
and heat losses:
QQQQQQQ lhlLUUORC (1)
Where:
QOR - is the heat solar gain from solar radiation [W],
QU - is the thermal transfer of heat through building constructions [W],
QL - is the heat gain from people [W],
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Qhl - is the heat transfer between the water surface and surrounding air [W],
Ql - is the profile bound by heat resulting from free surface evaporation [W].
The total heat balance of the building is the sum of the sensible heat and bound heat. The heat
components in the total heat balance have got different (positive or negative) signs. The table below
shows the total heat balance for the summer and winter for both the existing and new situations.
4 PROPOSED VENTILATION
The proposed ventilation (for the summer) should be based on the total heat balance set forth
for the specific period. The proposal is based on a directional scale which results from the following
formula:
M
Q
w
c
(2)
Where:
Qc - the total heat balance of the building [W],
Mw - the quantity of evaporated water [g/s].
The directional scale shows the direction of changes of the air condition and is related
to a reference point in the h-x (Mollier) diagram.
Table 1: Total heat balance
Heat condition
Ostrava-Vítek
Indoor Swimming
Pool
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Havířov
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Orlová
Heat gain from people [W] 4,800 4,800 5,400
Heat transfer between the water
surface and surrounding air [W] 3,000 3,125 2,985
Heat gain from lighting [W] 11,950 10,160 9,139
Heat gain from solar radiation –
summer (the original situation) [W] 70,441 156,858 10,521
Heat gain from solar radiation –
summer (after proposed
improvements) [W]
16,005 38,305 1,416
Heat gain from bound heat [W] 64,818 67,518 64,493
Thermal transfer of heat through
building constructions – winter (the
original situation) [W]
190,597 154,677 107,169
Thermal transfer of heat through
building constructions – winter (after
proposed improvements) [W]
77,937 93,512 84,315
Note: According to the Decree No. 135/2004 Coll. the heat load from lighting is that from the
lighting with the intensity of 250 lux at minimum in the swimming pool. The source of light is
discharge tubes (15 W/m2).
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Total heat balance – summer (the
original situation) [W] 132,259 221,251 72,029
Total heat balance – summer (after
proposed improvements) [W] 77,823 102,698 62,924
Total heat balance – winter (the
original situation) [W] -116,829 -80,124 -36,522
Total heat balance – winter (after
proposed improvements) [W] -4,169 -18,959 -13,668
4.1 Summer
The proposal is based on the assumption that the maximum permitted moisture should not
exceed φi = 65 % pursuant to [7], [8]. The limit was set at φi = 60 %. It is also necessary to exchange
the air with the minimum intensity (the maximum being 9 - 12 times per hour). If the intensity were
higher, there is a risk of draught. In summer, it is planned to supply 100 % air from the outside. The
maximum proposed inside temperature is θi = 31 ± 1 °C. In case of the calculated interior parameters,
the intensity of ventilation for the original condition of the swimming pool hall before improvements
is as follows:
Ostrava-Vítek: 14.2 -/hour, Havířov: 29.7 -/hour, Orlová: 2.9 -/hour.
This means that the ventilation intensity in Ostrava-Vítek is at the required limit. This might
be permitted if the air supply inlets are properly made and if even ventilation of the air is possible
there.
In Havířov, the heat performance is too high (the glass in the external walls makes up about
50 %) and this situation cannot be managed (cooled down) by supplying the fresh air from the outside
only. For that purpose, active cooling of the inside swimming pool should be considered. The
boundary conditions are identical. Even with the maximum ventilation intensity at the limit
of acceptability I = 12 per hour, the temperature of the supplied air is tich = 18.97 °C which is not
a good solution in terms of both comfort and energy demand (it is needed 460.7 kW for the cooling).
The temperature of the air supplied into a room which should be cooled down should be below
7 K pursuant to [1]. This means, none of the alternatives is a good solution. In those cases, it seems
to be advisable to improve heat parameters of the constructions or to pay a particular attention to sun
protection and/or to use natural aeration in the building. The ventilation intensity for the proposed
situation aimed at improvements of the heat parameters is as follows:
Ostrava-Vítek: 2.9 /hour, Hařov: 7.4 /hour, Orlová: 2.6 /hour.
In case of the indoor swimming pool in Orlová, it is necessary to be careful not to exceed the
limit of φi = 60 %. The parameters are fully compliant and sufficient to reach the required
environment inside the building.
4.2 Winter
For an economic proposal of a hot air heating in winter, it is essential to save energy as much
as possible. It would be unacceptable in terms of energy consumption to supply 100% fresh air
because such air needs to be heated up and it would be necessary, for withdrawal of redundant
moisture from the building, to exchange the volume inside the building too many times. For that
reason, the proposed solution combines heat recovery and air circulation.
Boundary conditions were chosen pursuant to [8], this means θi = 28 °C, φi = 60 %. The
planned efficiency of the recovery system is 70 %. The fresh air/circulated air ratio was set pursuant
to [1]. The volume of the fresh air is 2,000 m3/h. The directional scale was chosen again.
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The difference in the supply air temperatures is calculated using the following formula:
Vc
Q
tc
p
(3)
Where:
c - is the specific thermal capacity of the air [J/kg·K],
V - is the volume flow rate of the supply air [m3/s],
ρ - is the air density [kg/m3].
For the original condition of each case, the air exchange was chosen to be 4 times per hour
because the supply air temperatures are:
Ostrava-Vítek: 40.7 °C, Havířov: 37.8 °C, Havířov: 33.3 °C.
It is not recommended to supply the air with the temperature above 40 °C because of the heat
comfort and energy performance. For that reason, quantitative regulation is used. For the proposed
alternative, the air exchange was chosen to be twice per hour (considering requirements in [8]. The
supply air temperature is:
Ostrava-Vítek: 29.1 °C, Havířov: 32.6 °C, Havířov: 31.9 °C.
It is clear from the results that the total thermal balance is close to zero after structural
improvement measures are taken. This means, the heat loss is compensated by total heat gains mainly
thanks to the bound heat from the water surface.
Finanční úspora objektů
140407
448503
1300
421222
274588
102698
0
50000
100000
150000
200000
250000
300000
350000
400000
450000
500000
Krytý bazén Ostrava -
Vítek
Kryt ý ba zén H avířov Krytý bazén Orlová
[Kč/rok]
Roční úspora
- letní období
[Kč]
Roční úspora
- zimní období
[Kč]
Roční úspora energií v průběhu letního a zimního období
38,10
63,15
0,93
74,13
63,92
54,86
0,00
10,00
20,00
30,00
40,00
50,00
60,00
70,00
80,00
Krytý bazén Ostrava
- Vítek
Krytý bazén Havířov Krytý bazén Orlová
[%]
Úsp or a
energie - letní
období [%]
Úsp or a
energie - zimn
í
období [%]
Fig. 8: Financial savings per year with respect
to ventilation (summer and winter 2010)
Fig. 9: Energy savings (in per cent) with
respect to ventilation (summer and
winter 2010)
Table 2: Energy performance and ventilation of the indoor swimming pools
Required power
Ostrava-Vítek
Indoor Swimming
Pool
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Havířov
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Orlová
Summer – the original condition [W] 123,100 258,900 75,200
Summer – after proposed
improvements [W] 76,200 95,400 74,500
Summer – the original condition
(cooling) [W] -460,790 -
Winter – the original condition [W] 189,800 156,600 100,800
Winter – after proposed improvements
[W] 49,100 56,500 45,500
Note: The planned operation time is cca 2,160 hours per year.
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Required energy
Ostrava-Vítek
Indoor Swimming
Pool
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Havířov
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Orlová
Summer – the original condition [kWh] 265,896 559,224 162,432
Summer – after proposed
improvements [kWh] 164,592 206,064 160,920
Summer – the original condition
(cooling) [kWh] -995,306 -
Winter – the original condition [kWh] 409,968 338,256 217,728
Winter – after proposed improvements
[kWh] 106,056 122,040 98,280
Required energy
Ostrava-Vítek
Indoor Swimming
Pool
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Havířov
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Orlová
Summer – the original condition [GJ] 957 2013 585
Summer – after proposed
improvements [GJ] 593 742 579
Summer – the original condition
(cooling) [GJ] -3,583 -
Winter – the original condition [GJ] 1,476 1,218 784
Winter – after proposed improvements
[GJ] 382 439 354
CZK/GJ (in 2010) 385 352.77 238.82
Costs
Ostrava-Vítek
Indoor Swimming
Pool
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Havířov
Indoor
Swimming Pool
in Orlová
Summer – the original condition
[CZK] 368,532 710,199 139,651
Summer – after proposed
improvements [CZK] 228,125 261,696 138,351
Summer – the original condition
(cooling) [CZK] - 1,264,010 -
Winter – the original condition [CZK] 568,216 429,576 187,192
Winter – after proposed improvements
[CZK] 146,994 154,987 84,495
Savings per year – summer [CZK] 140,407 448,503 1,300
Savings per year – winter[CZK] 421,222 274,588 102,698
Energy savings– summer [%] 38.10 63.15 0.93
Energy savings– winter [%] 74.13 63.92 54.86
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It is clear from the calculation that improvements in Havířov would improve the situation
at most in terms of the energy. The rapid change would be the result of the changed heat parameters
of the external cladding (cca 50% of the external surface of the swimming pool halls) incl. sun
protection.
On the other hand, adaptation measures would not almost result in financial or energy savings
in Orlová. The situation is, however, different in winter months.
5 MODELLING THE MICROCLIMATE INSIDE THE BUILDING
It is possible to use a model simulation to forecast the behaviour of the indoor swimming pool
during the year. The simulation provides certain information about behaviour of the inside
microclimate in the summer. The data inform us about a possibility to adopt partial measures which
would reduce consumption of energy and make the inside environment more stable under acceptable
conditions. It was the indoor swimming pool in Havířov which was chosen for purposes
of simulation. The reasons for choosing this swimming pool are following:
much glass in the external cladding (50 % of the total area)
the worst stability of the inside environment, see Fig. 7.
The software used for the simulation is CASAnova 3.3 which is based originally on
EN 832/2000 Thermal performance of buildings which was later replaced with EN ISO 13790/2008
Energy performance of buildings [4], [5], [6]. A single-zone criterion was applied to the swimming
pool in Havířov. This criterion meets requirements of the calculation software and standards. The
inside microclimate was calculated using a single-zone dynamic heat model.
First, the original (the existing) condition of the building is evaluated and inside conditions,
heat load and heating energy sources are assessed. The other alternative includes structural
improvements pursuant to ČSN 73 0540-2. The model is designed for the hottest month of the year
(the top heat gains). It describes all heat and technical features of the indoor swimming pool incl. its
position among other buildings and orientation towards the cardinal points.
Fig. 10: Temperatures in the indoor
swimming pool in the summer (the original
conditions)
Fig. 11: Temperatures in the indoor
swimming pool in the summer (after proposed
improvements)
It follows from the figures that the inside temperature microclimate will be more stable
in the summer when the temperatures will not copy the outdoor air temperatures and will not reach
45 °C, see Fig. 8 (the red curve). The calculation parameters were proved by the facility operator as
well.
6 CONCLUSION
It follows from the paper that energy savings and, in turn, financial, savings, will be
considerable for the indoor swimming pools, see Table 2.
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Partial adaptations of the building cladding structures affects positively not only heat losses
in the indoor swimming pools, but also helps to eliminate considerable heat gains, typically those
from solar radiation.
This change is most visible for the Havířov and Ostrava-Vítek swimming pools where partial
measures would save 63.15 % energy in Havířov and 38.10 % in Ostrava-Vítek (during the summer
months). The situation is different in Orlová where the facility has been reconstructed – the savings
would be 0.93 % only. After measures are taken in line with ČSN 73 0540-2, the energy savings
would be 54.86 – 74.13 %. A positive change in the heat and technical parameters of the indoor
swimming pools reduces also the energy performance which affects ventilation and heating of the
halls.
Partial measures improve the inside microclimate in the indoor swimming pool in Havířov and
make the inside temperature more stable - this means, the inside temperature does not copy the
outdoor temperature (the temperatures inside the swimming pool are not too low or too high). This
also reduces the required power of heating/ventilation units for the swimming pool halls/buildings
which, in turn, decreases the energy performance.
REFERENCES
[1] CHYSKÝ, J., HEMZAL, K. a kolektiv. Větrání a klimatizace Brno : Bolit, 1993. 490 s.
ISBN 80-901574-0-8.
[2] ČSN 73 0540-2 : 2007. Tepelná ochrana budov, Část 2 – Požadavky. Praha : Český
normalizační institut, 2004. 44 s.
[3] ČSN 73 0548 : 1985. Výpočet tepelné zátěže klimatizovaných prostorů. Praha : Český
normalizační institut, 1985. 32 s.
[4] ČSN EN ISO 13790 : 2009. Energetická náročnost budov – Výpočet spotřeby energie
na vytápění a chlazení. Praha : Český normalizační institut, 2009. 139 s.
[5] ČSN EN ISO 13789 : 2009. Tepelné chování budov – Měrné tepelné toky prostupem tepla
a větráním – Výpočtová metoda. Praha : Český normalizační institut, 2009. 19 s.
[6] ČSN EN 13465 : 2004. Větrání budov – Výpočtové metody pro stanovení průtoku vzduchu
v obydlích. Praha : Český normalizační institut, 2004. 36 s.
[7] ČSN EN 15239 : 2009. Větrání budov - Energetická náročnost budov - Směrnice pro kontrolu
větracích systémů. Praha : Český normalizační institut, 2009. 39 s.
[8] Vyhláška č. 135/2004 Sb., kterou se stanoví hygienické požadavky na koupaliště, sauny
a hygienické limity písku v pískovištích venkovních hracích ploch
[9] The autor’s archive
Reviewers:
Doc. Ing. Karel Papež, CSc., Department of Building Services, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech
Technical University in Prague.
Doc. Ing. Mojmír Vrtek, Ph.D., Department of Energy Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical
Engineering, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava.
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Větrání a klimatizace Brno : Bolit, 1993. 490 s
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CHYSKÝ, J., HEMZAL, K. a kolektiv. Větrání a klimatizace Brno : Bolit, 1993. 490 s. ISBN 80-901574-0-8.
Tepelná ochrana budov, Část 2 -Požadavky. Praha : Český normalizační institut
ČSN 73 0540-2 : 2007. Tepelná ochrana budov, Část 2 -Požadavky. Praha : Český normalizační institut, 2004. 44 s.
Energetická náročnost budov -Výpočet spotřeby energie na vytápění a chlazení. Praha : Český normalizační institut
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  • Iso
ČSN EN ISO 13790 : 2009. Energetická náročnost budov -Výpočet spotřeby energie na vytápění a chlazení. Praha : Český normalizační institut, 2009. 139 s.
Tepelné chování budov -Měrné tepelné toky prostupem tepla a větráním -Výpočtová metoda. Praha : Český normalizační institut
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ČSN EN ISO 13789 : 2009. Tepelné chování budov -Měrné tepelné toky prostupem tepla a větráním -Výpočtová metoda. Praha : Český normalizační institut, 2009. 19 s.
Větrání budov-Výpočtové metody pro stanovení průtoku vzduchu v obydlích. Praha : Český normalizační institut
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ČSN EN 13465 : 2004. Větrání budov-Výpočtové metody pro stanovení průtoku vzduchu v obydlích. Praha : Český normalizační institut, 2004. 36 s.
Větrání budov-Energetická náročnost budov-Směrnice pro kontrolu větracích systémů. Praha : Český normalizační institut
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ČSN EN 15239 : 2009. Větrání budov-Energetická náročnost budov-Směrnice pro kontrolu větracích systémů. Praha : Český normalizační institut, 2009. 39 s.