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The Impact of Mothers' Parenting, Involvement by Nonresidential Fathers, and Parental Conflict on the Adjustment of Adolescent Children

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The Impact of Mothers' Parenting, Involvement by Nonresidential Fathers, and Parental Conflict on the Adjustment of Adolescent Children

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Abstract

The present study used panel data on 207 divorced women and their children to examine the influence of mothers' parenting practices, involvement of nonresidential fathers, and parental conflict on the adjustment of adolescents living in mother-headed households. In addition, the study investigated the possibility that child adjustment problems may be a cause, as well as a consequence, of parental behavior. Quality of parenting by nonresidential fathers was related to externalizing problems for boys and girls, although the results differed somewhat depending on the source of data used to assess father's parenting. Quality of mother's parenting showed an association with externalizing problems of boys and girls, and was also related to internalizing problems for boys. Parental conflict was associated with internalizing problems for boys but not girls. Finally, adolescent externalizing problems appeared to reduce the quality of mother's parenting for both boys and girls, and to diminish father involvement in parenting in the case of boys.

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... Satisfaction with one's parenting skills is one domain of the parental role identity [3], which is associated with more parenting involvement [26]. Higher parenting skills satisfaction is linked to more parenting involvement and better father-child relationship [3,4,6,11], which have significant influence on the development and well-being of children [4,18,27,28] and fathers [29,30]. Studies have found that nonresident fathers' involvement was associated with less externalizing behaviors [4,18,27,28] as well as better academic performance [27] among children. ...
... Higher parenting skills satisfaction is linked to more parenting involvement and better father-child relationship [3,4,6,11], which have significant influence on the development and well-being of children [4,18,27,28] and fathers [29,30]. Studies have found that nonresident fathers' involvement was associated with less externalizing behaviors [4,18,27,28] as well as better academic performance [27] among children. Moreover, our previous study found that higher parenting skills satisfaction and better father-son relationship were positively associated with lower depressive symptoms among nonresident African American fathers [30]. ...
... It is critical to encourage nonresident African American fathers to be involved in parenting [31]. Good father-son relationships benefit both nonresident fathers and their sons [4,18,[27][28][29][30][31]. We suggest that future intervention programs for nonresident African American fathers could include more group-specific interventions and resources to increase their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy to increase father involvement. ...
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Nonresident African American (AA) fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers' residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers' pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son's mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention's effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.
... In two-parent families, there is typically a correlation of .50 and .60 between parenting by mothers and fathers , so that teasing out the relative impact of each is methodologically challenging . However, following divorce the association between quality of parenting by mothers and fathers is small (e.g., Pearson r between mother and father parenting was .28 and .08 in studies by Sandler, Miles, Cookston, andBraver, 2008, andSimons, Whitbeck, Beaman, andConger, 1994, respectively. Thus, accounting for the common variance in the relations of parenting by mothers and fathers to child wellbeing is a less salient issue for divorced, as compared with two parent families. ...
... In two-parent families, there is typically a correlation of .50 and .60 between parenting by mothers and fathers , so that teasing out the relative impact of each is methodologically challenging . However, following divorce the association between quality of parenting by mothers and fathers is small (e.g., Pearson r between mother and father parenting was .28 and .08 in studies by Sandler, Miles, Cookston, andBraver, 2008, andSimons, Whitbeck, Beaman, andConger, 1994, respectively. Thus, accounting for the common variance in the relations of parenting by mothers and fathers to child wellbeing is a less salient issue for divorced, as compared with two parent families. ...
... Under these conditions, positive parenting provided by each parent adds to the impact of parenting provided by the other parent. Consistent with this perspective, several studies have found that the quality of parenting by mothers and fathers had an independent, additive relation to child well-being even after accounting for the effect of the quality of parenting by the other parent (e.g., Menning, 2006;Simons et al., 1994). Conversely, Sobolewski and Amato (2007) proposed that when there is high conflict between parents, a child being close to both parents creates an "emotional cost which may outweigh the benefits of having two close parent-child relationships" (p. ...
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The current study examined the associations between child mental health problems and the quality of maternal and paternal parenting, and how these associations were moderated by three contextual factors: quality of parenting by the other parent, interparental conflict, and the number of overnights parents had with the child. Data for the current study came from a sample of divorcing families who are in high legal conflict over developing or maintaining a parenting plan following divorce. Analyses revealed that the associations between child mental health problems and positive maternal and paternal parenting were moderated by the quality of parenting provided by the other parent and by the number of overnights children spent with parents, but not by the level of interparental conflict. When parenting by the other parent and number of overnights were considered together in the same model, only number of overnights moderated the relations between parenting and child-behavior problems. The results support the proposition that the well-being of children in high-conflict divorcing families is better when they spend adequate time with at least one parent who provides high-quality parenting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
... Para que se adapten bien es necesario que ambos progenitores se impliquen activamente en la crianza en un clima de colaboración (Simons et al., 1994). Si no ocurre así y el padre sin la custodia no se involucra (no actúa como guía de los hijos, no mantiene relaciones afectuosas con ellos, no comparte actividades, no habla sobre el futuro, no establece unas relaciones de intimidad y de confianza), los adolescentes presentan más problemas, especialmente los varones (Thomas, Farrell y Barnes, 1996). ...
... Cuando tiene hijos adolescentes y habla con ellos, les proporciona apoyo emocional, se interesa por su opinión, argumenta sus decisiones, les explica las normas, usa el razonamiento inductivo y el refuerzo de conductas positivas, los adolescentes presentan menos problemas conductuales y personales (Simons et al., 1994). Si mantiene unas relaciones afectuosas con ellos y ejerce un elevado nivel de control presentan un mejor rendimiento académico, sobre todo las hijas, y menos conductas escolares problemáticas (Coley, 1998). ...
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Resumen Los hijos de padres separados o divorciados, como grupo, presentan más problemas de conducta y personales que los que viven en hogares intactos. Sin embargo, las estadísticas ocultan el hecho de que existe una gran variabilidad en la forma en que los niños y los adolescentes responden a la ruptura matrimonial de sus progenitores. La investigación actual ha abandonado el modelo patogénico para adoptar unos modelos basados en factores de riesgo y de resistencia que pretenden identificar las variables del niño, de los procesos familiares y del contexto ecológico que permitan explicar la relación entre separación /divorcio y problemas de adaptación de los hijos. En este trabajo presentamos una revisión de los estudios que han investigado los principales factores de riesgo y de resistencia relacionados con los problemas de adaptación en los hogares monoparentales. PALABRAS CLAVE: Niños, adolescentes, divorcio, problemas de adaptación, procesos familiares Abstract As a group, children of divorced parents present more personal and behaviour problems than those who live in intact family environments. However, statistics mask the fact that children and adolescents respond in many different ways to the break-up of their parents' marriage. In examining relation between divorce and children's adjustment problems, current research has given up the pathogenic model in favour of models based on risk and resistance factors in an attempt to identify child variables and those of family processes and of the ecological context. This study presents a review of the research of the main risk and resistance factors related to child and adolescent adjustment problems in single-parent homes.
... According to the attachment theory's principle regarding psychopathological development, lack of maternal emotional availability jeopardizes both the interaction between parent-child and also the healthy emotional and behavioral organization of the child (Cicchetti 1993;Cicchetti and Toth 2009). Thus, studies concerning the emotional availability of parents or parental characteristics and behaviors related to the emotional availability reveal that these characteristics are associated with the externalized (e.g., delinquent behaviors, aggression, poor impulse control) and internalized (withdrawal, anxiety, psychosomatic symptoms) behavioral problems (Bosco et al. 2003), depressive symptoms and interpersonal difficulties (Gomez and McLaren 2006;Simons et al. 1994;Steinberg and Davila 2008), and perceived social support from others (e.g., Scherer et al. 1996). This literature indicates the influence of parental emotional availability on various aspects of child's affective and behavioral domains. ...
... The starting point for this research was to explore the relationship between parental emotional availability and psychological health. When related literature is examined, it can be seen that there are research findings demonstrating that parental emotional availability and support are related to depression, social anxiety level, and behavioral problems (e.g., Bosco et al. 2003;Lum and Phares 2005;Simons et al. 1994;Steinberg and Davila 2008;Umberson 1992). All these findings, in their entirety, could be explained with the view that parent-child interactions with lower levels of emotional availability may cause a risk factor related to maladaptive functionality in the child and negative and inadequate interactions in which the emotional and developmental needs of the child are not met may lead to psychopathology (Lee and Gotlib 1991). ...
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The relationship and interaction between a parent and child is of an ever-changing nature. In the first years of the child, parents are more supportive of the child’s development and guide the changes that take place. When adolescence ends and child becomes an adult, parent–child relationship takes on a different pattern in which the relation is more egalitarian. Despite this changing nature, research findings demonstrate that children who continue to receive emotional support from their parents, feel attached to them and care about their contributions and support. Thus, it becomes important to evaluate how certain parental properties affect psychological health within this changing relationship structure. From this point of view, this study examines the mediator role of emotion regulation skills, interpersonal relationship styles, and perceived social support on the relationship between parental emotional availability and general psychological health of individuals aged 16–25 who still live with their parents. It has been found that difficulty in emotion regulation, interpersonal relationship style, and social support has complete mediation effect on the relationship between both maternal and paternal emotional availability and psychological health.
... For example, in their meta-analysis, Amato and Gilbreth (1999) found that children's well-being was significantly enhanced when their relationships with nonresident fathers were positive, and when the nonresident fathers engaged in "active parenting." A number of studies have found that nonresident fathers' active involvement in routine everyday activities benefited their children (Clarke- Stewart & Hayward, 1996;Dunn, Cheng, O'Connor, & Bridges, 2004;Hetherington, Bridges, & Insabella, 1998;Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger (1994). Nord, Brimhall, and West (1997) found that these included academic benefits such as better grades, fewer suspensions, and lower dropout rates. ...
... Consistent with the mediational role of interactions, studies Clarke-Stewart & HaywardSTET;Kurdek & Berg, 1983) have found that quantity of interaction predicted children's adjustment better than did parenting time. Simons, et al. (1994) and Amato (1994) were the first to find beneficial effects of close relationships with nonresidential fathers on children's well-being independent of closeness to mothers. Recently, White and Gilbreth (2001) and Manning and Lamb (2003) also controlled for closeness to mothers and found that adolescents' closeness to nonresident fathers was associated with fewer behavior problems and higher academic success. ...
... Beyond these notable studies, it is important to recognize that drug use continuity research does expand across disciplinary boundaries, and there is a rich literature that has identified risk factors for substance use that informs our analysis. For example, research has revealed that individuals from intact homes (Amey & Albrecht, 1998;Hoffman & Johnson, 1998: Thomas, Farrell, & Barnes, 1996, the quantity and quality of parental contact and support (Amato, 1993;Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger, 1994), closeness to father (White & Gilbreth, 2001), parental alcoholism (Holden, Brown, & Mott, 1988), and school-based socialization (Oetting & Donnermeyer, 1998) all have apparent and significant effects on drug use, cessation, and continuity. Furthermore, other research has identified risk factors such as parent's education and family income as being relevant when evaluating drug use (Aquilino & Supple, 2001;Jessor, Donovan, & Costa, 1991). ...
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While there is much research on the continuity of drug use over the life course, these studies tend not to consider the intersections of drug use continuity with offending in general and violence in particular. The current study uses data from 411 South London males who were participants in the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development to investigate these associations from adolescence to age 50. Results suggest that the prevalence of drug use continuity (e.g., drug use in adolescence and adulthood) is rather high (45.4%) and that variability in drug use is differentially related to nonviolent offending and involvement in violence specifically. In this vein, the most pronounced relationship surrounding differential involvement in drug use is the association between drug use continuity and nonviolent offending and violence. Individual and environmental risk factors are also relevant predictors of nonviolent offending and violence. Study limitations and directions for future research are also discussed.
... Frequent contact between parents and children, however, does not automatically connote high-quality parenting (Ihinger-Tallman, Pasley, & Buehler, 1993). Relevant literature leaves little doubt that it is the quality of the interaction, rather than the quantity of contact, that underlies positive outcomes for children (Healy, Malley, & Stewart, 1990;Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman & Conger, 1994;Simons, Lin, Gordan, Conger, & Lorenz, 1999; White & Gilbreth, 2001). ...
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Research is limited regarding closeness in parent-adolescent relationships (PAR), particularly in marginalised communities. The research objective was to explore closeness in PAR in one semi-rural, low-income Coloured community in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This study was exploratory in nature, making use of a cross-sectional survey research design and semi-structured interviews. Fifty families (67 parents and 50 adolescents) were eligible and willing to participate in the quantitative part of this study, while 12 families (19 parents and 12 adolescents) took part in the qualitative part of the study. For the empirical investigation into close PAR, the following questionnaires were administered to parents: Mother and Father Versions of the Inventory of Parent Attachment (IPA), Revised Inventory of Parent Attachment (RIPA), and the Relationship Closeness Inventory (RCI). The questionnaires are currently not standardized for South African populations, therefore they were adapted to suit the specific context and translated into Afrikaans. For statistical analysis of the surveys, summary statistics was performed using measures like means, standard deviations, frequency tables, and histograms. Reliability analysis was conducted using Cronbach’s alpha. For comparison of the different instruments, correlations were calculated. Comparisons between different groupings were done using two-way ANOVA. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the qualitative data and to explore the participants’ constructions of close PAR. General findings were that most female participants reported close mother-daughter relationships while most male participants reported relatively close father-son relationships. Overall, mothers generally spent more time with their adolescent children. Fathers and daughters generally reported less close relationships with one another. Although fathers were relatively more involved in their children’s lives compared to fathers in prior research studies, mothers and adolescents reported to have a closer bond.
... In the affective dimension (warmth, 7 items), youths reported the frequency with which their mothers expressed warmth, support, and positive affections toward them during the past 12 months. These scales have been used in Western adolescents and demonstrated good psychometric properties (Kim et al., 2003;Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger, 1994). The Chinese version of two subscales developed through translation and back-translation process was used in the present study. ...
... Research with Caucasian populations has consistently demonstrated that authoritative parenting is associated with positive developmental outcomes, including better academic performance (Dornbusch et al., 1987;Reitman, Rhode, Hupp, & Altobello, 2002;Steinberg et al., 1991), social maturity and responsibility (Baumrind, 1996, Steinberg, Elmen, & Mounts, 1989, and various measures of competence, self-esteem and mental health (Buri, 1989;Maccoby & Martin, 1983;DeHart et al., 2006). In contrast, harsh and controlling parenting, including the use of physical discipline (such as spanking or hitting) is associated with negative child outcomes (Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman & Conger, 1994;Weiss, Dodge, Bates & Pettit, 1992) in Caucasian samples. ...
Article
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The current study examined the parenting beliefs and practices of Taiwanese, Chinese immigrant (all first-generation immigrants in the UK) and English mothers, and the compliance of their young children (aged 5–7), in order to elucidate the effects of child temperament, culture and acculturation strategies on reported parenting beliefs and practices, observed parental behaviour, child behaviour, mother–child interaction dynamics and children’s compliance. The data were collected from a total of 90 families with 5- to 7-year-old children in Taiwan and the UK. Child temperament, parenting beliefs and practices and acculturation were assessed using questionnaires, and parental behaviour, child behaviour, dyadic interaction dynamics and child compliance were assessed using observation in two tasks (Etch-A-Sketch and clean-up). Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the Chinese immigrant parents to gather more information regarding their acculturation and parenting. Cultural differences were found between groups in reported as well as observed parenting and children’s compliance. The Taiwanese mothers reported greater use of Chinese-specific parenting and physical coercion and were observed to use more (gentle and assertive) physical intervention than both the Chinese immigrant and English mothers. The Chinese immigrant mothers reported a higher degree of child autonomy than the Taiwanese and English mothers, and also reported cultivation of their children’s independence. The stronger the Chinese immigrant mothers' affiliation with Chinese culture, the more they reported adopting the Chinese-specific parenting style; the longer they had been in the UK, the less they reported authoritarian parenting. The English mothers were rated as more responsive and less negatively controlling than the Chinese immigrant mothers; they also showed more positive affect than both the Chinese immigrant and Taiwanese mothers. There were few cultural differences between groups in the children’s behaviour, although Taiwanese children showed more situational compliance than Chinese immigrant children. Further regression analyses showed that child characteristics, such as child age and temperament, affected the parents’ and children’s behaviour as well as dyadic interactional dynamics. Committed compliance, situational compliance and opposition were associated with different predictors, suggesting that they are qualitatively different and are associated with different developmental processes. Committed compliance may develop as children grow older, mediated by surgency; situational compliance, on the other hand, was associated with authoritarian parenting and mothers’ use of negative control, which varied by culture. Child opposition was predicted by neither child characteristics nor parenting. These findings provide valuable insights into parenting and children’s compliance in different cultural contexts. The results underscore the importance of looking at human development from a holistic perspective. The active role that children play in shaping their developmental process, their parents’ parenting and the culture they live in should all be taken into account when attempting to understand their development.
... In wave 1, adolescents rated their maternal parenting behavior during the past 12 months on a 5-point scale ranging from 1 (never) to 5 (always) that assessed two dimensions of negative parenting, harshness (e.g., hit you, 3 items) and hostility (e.g., swear at you, 6 items), and two dimensions of positive parenting, inductive reasoning (e.g., ask you what you think before making a decision about you, 5 items) and warmth (e.g., act loving and affectionate toward you, 8 items) (51)(52)(53). Items of maternal negative parenting and positive parenting were summed separately, so that higher scores on the negative parenting subscale indicated more negative and/or stressful environmental exposure, while higher scores on the positive parenting subscale indicate more positive environmental exposure. Our previous study proved that these scales have good psychometric properties when used in Chinese adolescent samples (49). ...
Article
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Background The synergic interaction of risk genes and environmental factors has been thought to play a critical role in emotion-related brain circuitry function and dysfunction in depression and anxiety disorders. Little, however, is known regarding neurodevelopmental bases underlying how maternal negative parenting affects emotion-related brain circuitry linking to adolescent internalizing symptoms, and whether this neurobehavioral association is heritable during adolescence. Methods The effects of maternal parenting on amygdala-based emotional circuitry and internalizing symptoms were examined by using longitudinal fMRI among 100 monozygotic twins and 78 dizygotic twins from early (13-year-old) to mid-adolescence (16-year-old). The mediation effects among variables of interest and their heritability were assessed by structural equation modeling and quantitative genetic analysis respectively. Results Exposure to maternal negative parenting was positively predictive of stronger functional connectivity of the amygdala with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. This neural pathway mediated the association between negative parenting and adolescent depressive symptoms, and exhibited moderate heritability (21%). Conclusions These findings highlight that maternal negative parenting in early adolescence associates with the development of atypical amygdala-prefrontal connectivity in relation to internalizing depressive symptoms in mid-adolescence. Such abnormality of emotion-related brain circuitry is heritable to a moderate degree.
... Beyond these notable studies, it is important to recognize that drug use continuity research does expand across disciplinary boundaries, and there is a rich literature that has identified risk factors for substance use that informs our analysis. For example, research has revealed that individuals from intact homes (Amey & Albrecht, 1998;Hoffman & Johnson, 1998: Thomas, Farrell, & Barnes, 1996, the quantity and quality of parental contact and support (Amato, 1993;Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger, 1994), closeness to father (White & Gilbreth, 2001), parental alcoholism (Holden, Brown, & Mott, 1988), and school-based socialization (Oetting & Donnermeyer, 1998) all have apparent and significant effects on drug use, cessation, and continuity. Furthermore, other research has identified risk factors such as parent's education and family income as being relevant when evaluating drug use (Aquilino & Supple, 2001;Jessor, Donovan, & Costa, 1991). ...
... These families were headed by a mother who had experienced divorce within 2 years prior to the study. The participants were Caucasian and lived in the same geographic area as the IYFP families (Simons et al., 1995). ISSP families participated in three waves of data collection, 1991, 1992, and 1993. ...
... One of the most salient features of the same-gender argument is that boys in single-mother homes showed more negative consequences such as increased alcohol/ substance abuse, sexual activity, vandalism, and delinquency when compared to girls as a result of an absence of a father role model (Camara and Resnick 1989;Demuth and Brown 2004;Morrison and Cherlin 1995;Seltzer 1994;Wallerstein 1987). Conversely, Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, and Conger (1994) found, after controlling for pre-existing internalising problems, that mother's parenting has a greater impact on their sons' than their daughters' well-being, indicating that an opposite-gender parent positively influences the opposite-gender child more as a result of the balancing effect. Also, more recent studies employing nationally representative samples and multiple indicators of children's outcomes find less consistent evidence of gender differences in single-parent households (Downey, Ainsworth-Darnell, and Dufur 1998;Downey and Powell 1993;Powell and Downey 1997). ...
Article
Using national survey data, the present study investigated whether adolescents living with parents of their same gender fare better on academic achievement than their peers living with opposite-gender parents. Multiple analyses of covariance (MANCOVA) procedures were employed to examine the effects of the children's gender in single-father and single-mother families on students' academic achievement, as measured by four dependent variables (reading test score, mathematics test score, English teachers' evaluation, and mathematics teachers' evaluation) while controlling the covariate, socioeconomic status. The results indicated that there were no benefits in same-gender single-parent households. Furthermore, daughters in single-father homes performed better than other parent and child combinations on academic achievement. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... and hostility (e.g., yell you, insult you, be angry to you; 6 items, alpha = .84). These scales, when used in Western adolescent samples, have good psychometric properties (Ge et al. 1996;Kim et al. 2013;Simons et al. 1994). A Chinese version of these measures was generated through a translation and back translation process. ...
Article
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Although depressive symptoms are common during adolescence, little research has examined gene-environment interaction on youth depression. This study chose the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene, tested the interaction between a functional polymorphism resulting amino acid substitution of valine (Val) to methionine (Met) in the proBDNF protein at codon 66 (Val66Met), and maternal parenting on youth depressive symptoms in a sample of 780 community adolescents of Chinese Han ethnicity (aged 11-17, M = 13.6, 51.3 % females). Participants reported their depressive symptoms and perceived maternal parenting. Results indicated the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism significantly moderated the influence of maternal warmth-reasoning, but not harshness-hostility, on youth depressive symptoms. Confirmatory model evaluation indicated that the interaction effect involving warmth-reasoning conformed to the differential-susceptibility rather than diathesis-stress model of person-X-environment interaction. Thus, Val carriers experienced less depressive symptoms than Met homozygotes when mothering was more positive but more symptoms when mothering was less positive. The findings provided evidence in support of the differential susceptibility hypothesis of youth depressive symptoms and shed light on the importance of examining the gene-environment interaction from a developmental perspective.
... In a meta-analysis of 63 published studies, Amato & Gilbreth (1999) found consistent positive effect sizes on children's well-being for fathers' authoritative parenting practices, such as limit setting, instrumental assistance, and talking about problems, and for fathers' emotional closeness to their children. For example, Simons, Whitbeck & Beaman (1994) found that fathers who praised children's accomplishments and disciplined them for misbehavior had adolescents who were better adjusted. Similarly, Buchanan, Maccoby, and Dornbusch (1996) found that adolescents who had strong emotional ties with their nonresident fathers were better adjusted. ...
... We also note that other contextual variables and aspects of socialization beyond the scope of the present study contribute to parenting skill and child adjustment following divorce and further transitions. For example, Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, and Conger (1994) showed that maternal and adolescent ratings of nonresidential fathers' competent parental involvement were significantly negatively related to adolescent conduct problems even after controlling for quality of mothers' parenting, parental conflict, and family income in a sample of 207 female-headed families. In that study, the effect was particularly strong for boys. ...
Article
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This study examined links between family structure transitions and children's academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes in a sample of 238 divorcing mothers and their sons in Grades 1-3. Multiple methods and agents were used in assessing family process variables and child outcomes. Findings suggest that greater accumulations of family transitions were associated with poorer academic functioning, greater acting-out behavior, and worse emotional adjustment for boys. However, in all three cases, these relationships were mediated by parenting practices: Parental academic skill encouragement mediated the relationship between transitions and academic functioning, and a factor of more general effective parenting practices mediated the relationships between transitions and acting out and emotional adjustment.
... Nonresident father-child activity, supportive behaviors (Bronstein, Stoll, Clauson, Abrams, & Briones, 1994), and affective relationships with a nonresident father (White & Gilbreth, 2001) also have been found to be related to child well-being. Although not explicitly labeling it authoritative parenting, Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, and Conger (1994) used a measure of fathers' parenting that included behavior consistent with authoritative parenting. They found that this measure of fathers' parenting was longitudinally related to fewer externalizing behaviors. ...
Article
This study investigates the relation between nonresident fathers’ parenting style, mothers’ parenting style and behaviors, and depression and antisocial behavior in a sample of late-adolescent boys (n = 177). Hierarchical regression analyses were performed. Maternal psychological well-being was associated with fewer adolescent depression symptoms. When mothers had low or average amounts of aggravation in parenting, fathers’ more authoritative parenting was related to fewer depression symptoms in their adolescents. Maternal aggravation in parenting was associated with adolescent antisocial behavior. When mothers had low or average levels of authoritative parenting, fathers’ more authoritative parenting was related to less antisocial behavior in their adolescents.
... Fewer studies have explored the mediating role of the quality of parenting on the relationship between parental divorce and psychological well-being (Bastaits & Mortelmans, 2016). Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, and Conger (1994) showed that res.ccsenet.org Vol. 10, No. 2;2018 among children from divorced families, the quality of the mother"s parenting is associated with externalizing problems of boys and girls, and is also related to internalizing problems for boys. ...
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Although there is consistent evidence of the negative effects of parental divorce on children’s educational level, the mechanisms and the protective factors that explain the consequences of divorce on children have not been clearly determined. This information is required in order to create effective policies and programs to help children through the divorce process. This study uses the longitudinal data from the British Birth Cohort Study 1970 and structural equation models to test whether family income, maternal supervision, and children’s psychological problems mediate the effect of parental divorce on children’s educational level and to what extent these variables are important protective factors for children through the divorce process. The main aim of this study, however, is to test the importance of children’s psychological well-being on the relationship between parental divorce and children’s educational level. Only two studies noted the importance of children’s psychological well-being theoretically, but were unable to measure it. This study demonstrates empirically that children’s psychological well-being is not a negligible mechanism and that this variable represents a very important protective factor for children of divorce, since the effect of psychological problems on educational level is significantly greater for children from divorced families than for those from intact ones. Although most family policies aimed at divorced families are targeted to improving family income, these findings reveal the need for governments to ensure that all children of divorce have access to programs and interventions designed to improve their psychological well-being.
... There is strong evidence that single mothers are more inconsistent, make fewer demands on their children, and use less effective discipline practices than married parents (Astone & McLanahan, 1991;Hetherington, Cox, & Cox, 1982). Lower levels of parental control, in turn, have been found to account for most of the externalizing behavior associated with children from single-mother families (Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger, 1994). There is further evidence that, in intact families, mothers' control is a better predictor of children's behavior than fathers' control (Ollendick, 1979). ...
Article
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The authors used ecological theory to disentangle the effects of gender, family structure, and role responsibilities on parenting and children's behavior in single-parent and intact families. Data were gathered from parents and a focal child in 30 single-mother, 30 single-father, and 30 intact families. The Parent Perception Inventory (PPI) and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) were used to evaluate how positive and negative behaviors of parents and internalizing and externalizing behaviors of the children differed across the three family structures. Significant differences were found between single-parent and intact families for both parenting and children's behavior. The researchers determined that role responsibilities and family structure are more important than gender in explaining parenting and child behavior following divorce.
... The SIL model is relevant for divorced fathers because it has shown that father-child interactions have developmental effects on child adjustment (DeGarmo, 2010), and both resident and nonresident father relationships have effects on child development independent of mothers' influence (Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger, 1994). Moreover, standard BPT using Triple P (Frank, Keown, & Sanders, 2015) and PMTO (DeGarmo & Forgatch, 2007) have shown that interventioninduced changes in father behaviors predict changes in child behaviors independent of intervention-induced changes in mother behaviors. ...
Article
Dishion and Patterson's work on the unique role of fathers in the coercive family process showed that fathers' coercion explained twice the variance of mothers' in predicting children's antisocial behavior and how treatment and prevention of coercion and promotion of prosocial parenting can mitigate children's problem behaviors. Using these ideas, we employed a sample of 426 divorced or separated fathers randomly assigned to Fathering Through Change (FTC), an interactive online behavioral parent training program or to a waitlist control. Participating fathers had been separated or divorced within the past 24 months with children ages 4 to 12 years. We tested an intent to treat (ITT) mediation hypothesis positing that intervention-induced changes in child problem behaviors would be mediated by changes in fathers' coercive parenting. We also tested complier average causal effects (CACE) models to estimate intervention effects, accounting for compliers and noncompliers in the treatment group and would-be compliers in the controls. Mediation was supported. ITT analyses showed the FTC obtained a small direct effect on father-reported pre–post changes in child adjustment problems ( d = .20), a medium effect on pre–post changes in fathers' coercive parenting ( d = .61), and a moderate indirect effect to changes in child adjustment ( d = .30). Larger effects were observed in CACE analyses.
... Parental harshness is also important to the father-child relationship and consists of behaviors that reflect a critical or unaccepting environment (e.g., a parent makes fun of or criticizes his child, the child feels belittled). Parental harshness is linked to negative outcomes, such as higher aggression, substance abuse, depression, and anxiety in children (Conger, Reuter, & Conger, 1994;Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger, 1994). There is some support for using harshness as an element of father involvement ; however, the role of parental harshness in the father-child relationship needs further exploration. ...
Article
In this study I explored the effects of the quality of the father-daughter relationship on the sexual activity of adolescent females. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, a representative sample of adolescents, I assessed the odds of a daughter’s engaging in sexual intercourse and early vs. delayed onset of sexual activity as predicted by her perceptions of the levels of support and harshness received from her father. I used binary logistic regression and found partial support for the hypotheses. Specifically, increases in the level of perceived paternal harshness were related to increases in the likelihood that daughters engaged in sexual activity before the age of 15 (early onset). Perceived paternal support was not significantly associated with adolescent daughter sexual activity. Study limitations and strengths, implications for clinical intervention (especially for marriage and family therapy), and future research directions are also discussed.
... Finally, in mother-only homes, the presence of a mother figure who provides high quality parenting has been shown to be associated with lower levels of psychological problems in adolescents (Simons et al. 1994;Zhou et al. 2008). Much less is known, however, about the contribution of nonresidential fathers to adolescents' functioning in homes in which mothers do not exhibit such positive characteristics, such as has been found with depressed mothers (e.g., Foster et al. 2008). ...
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Objective The purpose of this study was to examine if the longitudinal associations between father–adolescent conflict and both externalizing and internalizing symptoms in youth were moderated by fathers’ residential status (i.e., whether or not he lived in the home) and type of residential father (i.e., biological or step). Methods Adolescents (N = 146) completed a measure about conflict with their father or stepfather in 8th and 9th grade. At the same time points, mothers completed measures about the youths’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms. Results The association between 8th grade conflict and 9th grade externalizing symptoms was moderated by fathers’ residential status. Conflict with fathers in 8th grade was positively associated with 9th grade externalizing symptoms when youths resided with their father (biological and stepfathers were included); in contrast, higher levels of father–adolescent conflict were associated with lower levels of subsequent externalizing symptoms when fathers did not live with the youth. Externalizing symptoms in 8th grade did not significantly predict father–adolescent conflict in grade 9. Regarding internalizing symptoms, the association between father–adolescent conflict in 8th grade and internalizing symptoms in 9th grade was moderated by father’s residential status; conflict predicted higher levels of internalizing symptoms when the biological father lived elsewhere. Higher levels of 8th grade internalizing symptoms also significantly predicted greater conflict between adolescents and their fathers in 9th grade for residential fathers only. Conclusions The associations among adolescent emotional and behavioral outcomes and paternal-child relationship qualities vary with symptom type and family structures and, thus, warrant further comprehensive study.
... It is well established that quality father involvement matters in the lives of children before and after divorce and matters for both resident and nonresident father-child relationships (Coley and Medeiros, 2007;King and Sobolewski, 2006;Leidy, Schofield and Parke, 2013). Quality post-divorce involvement is associated with lower rates of children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviour (Amato and Gilbreth, 1999;Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman and Conger, 1994) and lower rates of noncompliance (DeGarmo, 2010b). The quality of the father-child relationship is also directly associated with children's physical health independent of inter-parental conflict (Fabricius and Braver, 2006;Fabricius and Luecken, 2007). ...
Article
A Marte Meo strengths‐based video feedback programme for improving divorced fathers' self‐conceptions and parenting was tested. By identifying and reinforcing fathers' skills in child communication, we hypothesized that fathers would exhibit pre‐post improvements in fathering self‐evaluations and behaviours. Therapists treated eleven divorced fathers with three to five home‐visit, video feedback sessions over twelve months. Data showed reductions in harsh discipline and inept parenting, and some evidence of improvements in efficacy and father involvement. Changes in fathering identity were significantly associated with changes in parental efficacy (r = .47), harsh parenting (r = −.64), and inept parenting (r = −.42). Programme acceptability was rated high on positive experiences and low on negative experiences. The data suggest promise for promoting fathers' effective parenting, quality involvement and self‐conceptions through video feedback. Practitioner points • Single fathers are relatively under‐represented in clinical treatment and evidence‐based science relative to practice with mothers and couples • This article shows evidence of promise for Marte Meo, a strengths‐based video feedback treatment, to improve parenting skills of at‐risk fathers • Reinforcing and building upon existing skills can be a complementary treatment component and/or an alternative to deficit‐based practice
... For instance, research on Euro-American families has consistently demonstrated that authoritative parenting style is associated with positive developmental outcomes (e.g., DeHart, Pelham, & Tennen, 2006;Reitman, Rhode, Hupp, & Altobello, 2002), whereas harsh parenting and the authoritarian parenting style, including the use of physical discipline, are associated with negative child outcomes (e.g., Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger, 1994;Weiss, Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1992). In contrast, the strict or authoritarian parenting style is considered part of proper training in Chinese and Chinese American (CA) families and has been associated with positive child outcomes (Chao, 1994;X. ...
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The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD = .805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported authoritarian parenting style. Significant associations also emerged between mothers’ reports of their children’s EC and some parenting dimensions, although there were no cultural group differences in perceived child EC. Different patterns of associations between perceived child EC and parenting styles in these three groups also demonstrated heterogeneity within the Chinese population, and highlighted the need to consider differences between original and receiving societies when seeking to understand parenting and child development in different immigrant groups.
... For instance, research on Euro-American families has consistently demonstrated that authoritative parenting style is associated with positive developmental outcomes (e.g., DeHart, Pelham, & Tennen, 2006;Reitman, Rhode, Hupp, & Altobello, 2002), whereas harsh parenting and the authoritarian parenting style, including the use of physical discipline, are associated with negative child outcomes (e.g., Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger, 1994;Weiss, Dodge, Bates, & Pettit, 1992). In contrast, the strict or authoritarian parenting style is considered part of proper training in Chinese and Chinese American (CA) families and has been associated with positive child outcomes (Chao, 1994;X. ...
Article
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The current study examined the associations between parentally perceived child effortful control (EC) and the parenting styles of 122 Chinese mothers (36 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United Kingdom, 40 first-generation Chinese immigrants in the United States, and 46 Taiwanese mothers) of 5- to 7-year-old (M age = 5.82 years, SD =.805; 68 boys and 54 girls) children. The findings showed significant cultural group differences in mothers’ reported authoritarian parenting style. Significant associations also emerged between mothers’ reports of their children’s EC and some parenting dimensions, although there were no cultural group differences in perceived child EC. Different patterns of associations between perceived child EC and parenting styles in these three groups also demonstrated heterogeneity within the Chinese population, and highlighted the need to consider differences between original and receiving societies when seeking to understand parenting and child development in different immigrant groups.
... However, the association between PPC and externalizing problems is less clear. Whereas some studies have failed to find a significant correlation, others studies showed a significant increased vulnerability to risky behaviors when children reported pressuring and intrusive parenting (Hoeve et al., 2009;Simons, Whitbeck, Beaman, & Conger, 1994;Stone et al., 2012). The authors argued that it was not the insidious and manipulative tactics per se, but the lack of parental support and involvement that elicited child opposition behaviors. ...
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The present study aimed to investigate the relations among perceived parental psychological control (PPC), autonomy and relatedness, and negative outcomes during emerging adulthood in two cultural contexts: Italy and the USA. More specifically, we explored the mechanisms through which dependency-oriented PPC (DPPC) and achievement-oriented PPC (APPC) are associated with both internalizing and externalizing difficulties, focusing on the mediating role of autonomy and relatedness. Participants were 418 European-American and 359 Italian college students. Results indicated that the expressions of PPC with regard to dependency and achievement were related to emerging adults' negative outcomes through different pathways, and these effects were moderated by the cultural group. The implications of the findings for future related empirical investigations and clinical interventions were discussed. Free e-prints available at http://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/BCPuTW6sUJnf6Fb4D7J7/full
... It was observed that the results were same for both groups. It is also suggested that parental behavior and children's characteristics are mutually influential, as observed by Simons et al. (1994), based on their study of 207 divorced women and their children. While single mothers can impact externalizing of boys and girls, and internalizing of boys, non-residential fathers can influence externalizing of both genders. ...
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The purpose of this study is to examine the negative affects of aggressive parenting on the social, emotional, and cognitive development of children across cultures and socioeconomic status. Multiple relevant and current disciplinary journals will be reviewed for the purpose of this study. Studies have shown that the effects of harsh and aggressive parenting can cause problematic behavioral issues in children. In this literature review, the focus will be directed toward the specific developmental factors being affected by aggressive parenting styles. The increase in aggressive behavior of children and of the parents will also be considered. The effects of stress, socioeconomic status, and cultural background on parenting styles will be examined for causation of aggressive parenting which leads to antisocial behavior in children. Finally, the view of long-term effects and psychopathology in adults who were raised in an environment where parenting was harsh and aggressive will be discussed. Studies have shown that harsh parenting can lead to difficulties in school, work, and self-reliant success. Self-efficacy and motivation can be stifled by a non-nurturing parenting style, which leads to
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This article reviews issues and methods in the evaluation and assessment of families. Methods of categorizing and organizing family assessment information are presented. Methodological issues in the assessment of family relationships are discussed with special attention to unit of analysis and evaluation problems. Important family constructs for family assessment that have been identified through research are reviewed. Various methods, self-reports, observations, and clinician ratings for conducting family assessments are evaluated. Applications for clinical practice are discussed.
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This article reviews the research literature on links between parental divorce and children's short-term and long-term adjustment. First, I consider evidence regarding how divorce relates to children's externalizing behaviors, internalizing problems, academic achievement, and social relationships. Second, I examine timing of the divorce, demographic characteristics, children's adjustment prior to the divorce, and stigmatization as moderators of the links between divorce and children's adjustment. Third, I examine income, interparental conflict, parenting, and parents well-being as mediators of relations between divorce and children's adjustment. Fourth, I note the caveats and limitations of the research literature. Finally, I consider notable policies related to grounds for divorce, child support, and child custody in light of how they might affect children s adjustment to their parents divorce. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.
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The purposes of this study were to find the general trends and differences factors influencing single mothers' psychological well-being, and, analyze the effects of family, and social variables on their psychological well-being. The subjects were the 284 single mothers living in Kwangju and Chonnam. The data were analyzed with frequency, t, F, and Pearson's r test, and by multiple regression using SPSS. The major findings were as follows: 1. Single mothers' family variables were lower than the median, but instrumental support was higher than emotional support. Single mothers' psychological well-being was found to be around that of the median value. 2. Single mothers' psychological well-being was significantly different from family stress, family resources, mother-child conflicts, income, emotional support, participation of education program, and institutional support. 3. Life satisfaction of single mothers was influenced by institutional support, family stress, family resources, and emotional support. Depression among single mothers was influenced by family stress, family resources, mother-child conflicts, and institutional and emotional support.
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The purpose of this study was to find factors affecting the psychological well-being of married working women in Seoul. For this purpose, survey data form 332 employed married women residing in Seoul are used to evaluate the relative effects of Psychological well-being of married working women. Survey questions included demographic information, housework and child-rearing related variables, work related variables, variables related with social support systems, items on child care services for the preschoolers, and psychological well-being of married working women. The major findings were as follows: 1) The psychological well-being of married working women score is 36.14(mean score is 32). The difference between the psychological well-being of married working women varied this according to socio-demographic variables: educational level, income level, spouse's support, occupation, and job satisfaction. 2) The factors that affected psychological well-bing were amount of household labor by husband, job satisfaction, socio-support systems, and educare service satisfaction. 3) The factor that had the most significant impact on the psychological well-being of married working women is job satisfaction. It is suggested to utilize the Employment Assistant Program to establish friendly working environment for married women.
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A model integrating prevailing perspectives on children's functioning following divorce was used to predict children's behavior problems. The data were collected from 30 custodial mothers, 30 custodial fathers, and 30 married parents with children 6 to 10 years of age, using face-to-face interviews and standardized questionnaires. Results using path analysis indicated that marital status and parental control had significant direct effects on children's behavior problems. Sex of parent, economic strain, co-parental conflict, coping with roles, and parenting indirectly influenced children's behavior through parental control. The findings suggest that the pressures inherent in raising a child alone, combined with too few resources for coping with role demands, are disruptive to both parenting and parental control, and that children in single-parent families appear to respond to these deficits with disruptive behaviors. Implications for family practice and policy are discussed.
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We employed meta-analytic methods to pool information from 63 studies dealing with nonresident fathers and children's well-being. Fathers' payment of child support was positively associated with measures of children's well-being. The frequency of contact with nonresident fathers was not related to child outcomes in general. Two additional dimensions of the father-child relationship—feelings of closeness and authoritative parenting—were positively associated with children's academic success and negatively associated with children's externalizing and internalizing problems.
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Children of separated parents are consistently shown to have greater likelihood of poor mental health than children of intact families. Explanations to date have focused on the impacts of parental conflict, and the role of resident mothers, neglecting the potential importance of non-resident fathers. Using recent data from the longitudinal study of Australian children, this study: (1) compares the mental health of children from intact families with resident fathers to those from separated families with non-resident fathers; and (2) explores predictors of poor mental health among children from separated families. Children from separated families had poorer mental health than those from intact families, but this difference was explained fully by exposure to parental conflict, socioeconomic status and parent mental health, and to a lesser extent by parenting practices. Among children from separated families, the strongest predictor of child mental health was maternal parenting consistency. Policy implications are discussed.
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This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to examine the question: Are children better off when they remain in two-parent families characterized by marital conflict, or are they better off when their parents dissolve their marital relationship? I find that both parental marital conflict and marital disruption increase the later anxiety and depression/withdrawal of children aged 6-14 (n = 1,640). I also find significant interactions: Children remaining in high conflict environments generally exhibit lower levels of well-being than children who have experienced high levels of parental conflict but whose parents divorce or separate. These results support the possibility that marital disruption, following high conflict, may actually improve the emotional well-being of children relative to a high conflict family status.
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Although intensive mothering ideology underscores the irreplaceable nature of mothers' time for children's optimal development, empirical testing of this assumption is scant. Using time diary and survey data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Child Development Supplement, the authors examined how the amount of time mothers spent with children ages 3–11 (N = 1,605) and adolescents 12–18 (N = 778) related to offspring behavioral, emotional, and academic outcomes and adolescent risky behavior. Both time mothers spent engaged with and accessible to offspring were assessed. In childhood and adolescence, the amount of maternal time did not matter for offspring behaviors, emotions, or academics, whereas social status factors were important. For adolescents, more engaged maternal time was related to fewer delinquent behaviors, and engaged time with parents together was related to better outcomes. Overall, the amount of mothers' time mattered in nuanced ways, and, unexpectedly, only in adolescence.
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Research on relational maintenance shows that mundane day-to-day talk is important in sustaining relationships. This study explores how absence associated with the visitation process shapes nonresidential parents’ communication with their children. Participants’ open-ended responses indicate that several factors facilitate and constrain interaction with their children during absence including their philosophy about communication boundaries, technology, and their relationship with the other parent. Participants who have limited interactions struggle to “know” their children, while those with frequent interaction with their children have access to the mundane stories of their children’s lives, which helps to maintain the relationships. This research suggests that the process of updating about what occurs during absence may be central to maintaining relationships.
Chapter
This chapter provides a summary of empirical evidence linking childhood maltreatment and trait impulsivity. While biological contributors to impulsivity may be substantial, this review speculates that childhood and adolescent contributors may potentially alter the developmental trajectory of this personality trait in important ways. An analysis of original data (N = 401) regarding child maltreatment associations (childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, sibling abuse, peer bullying, corporal punishment, and exposure to domestic violence) with trait impulsivity as measured by the Personality Inventory for the DSM-5 was also conducted. Adult respondents were assigned to extreme child abuse categories based on their retrospective self-reports. Co-occurrence rates for the various forms of maltreatment were modest (around 10%). While childhood sexual abuse was more closely associated with adult impulsivity among the men than the women, gender differences in these maltreatment relationships were otherwise minimal. Extreme childhood sexual abuse was a significant predictor of trait impulsivity and all other facets of the PID-5 Disinhibition domain (ds ranging from .52 to .80). Adult impulsivity was predicted by both childhood physical abuse (ds ranging from .23 to .28) and exposure to domestic violence during childhood (ds ranging from .21 to .32). The relative risk of adult respondents showing an elevation (> 1.5 SDs) in trait Impulsivity was raised substantially by childhood histories of extreme sexual abuse (RR = 8.68), physical abuse (RR = 3.31), or exposure to parental domestic violence (RR = 4.08). Higher order interactions between these various forms of childhood maltreatment and Impulsivity were not found. The developmental psychopathology implications of these findings are discussed along with suggested directions for future research.
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Researchers have long studied parenting practices, and have recently paid increasing attention to cross-cultural differences. As the largest ethnic and national group in the world, Chinese practices have begun to attract an increasing amount of attention within the last two decades, with considerable focus on the efforts made by expatriates to maintain their heritage culture while adjusting to host cultures. Unfortunately, most researches have only examined self-report data: Studies including both self-report and observational data are still very rare. The goal of this study was to further our understanding of Chinese parenting by observing and interviewing Chinese mothers in Taiwan, Chinese immigrant mothers in the UK, and non-immigrant white English mothers. The participants included 89 mothers (30 Taiwanese, 30 immigrant Chinese in the UK, and 29 English) of 5- to 7-year-old children. Mothers in these three groups were matched with respect to the age and gender of their children, family SES (based on parental occupation and parents’ level of education) and children’s birth order. Participants completed parenting questionnaires (Wu et al., 2002) and provided additional information about the family backgrounds. The mother and child dyads were also observed at home in a 10-minute long toys clean-up task. The mother-child interaction was video-recorded and then analysed by trained researchers. Cultural differences were found between groups in reported as well as observed parenting. The Taiwanese mothers reported greater use of Chinese-specific parenting and physical coercion and were observed to use more (gentle and assertive) physical intervention than both the Chinese immigrant and English mothers. The Chinese immigrant mothers reported a higher degree of child autonomy than the Taiwanese and English mothers, and also reported cultivation of their children’s independence. These findings provided valuable insights into parenting in different cultural contexts. The results underscored the importance of examining both reported and observed behavior, highlighting the need to look at human development from a holistic perspective.
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The study investigates caregiver influence on children's playing of violent videogames. Based on theory, the investigation develops and tests a model that links parental socialization tendencies to children's violent videogame play. Results from a national sample of 237 caregiver–child dyads suggest that while the primary caregivers' tendencies toward warmth and restrictiveness likely lessen children's play levels of violent videogames, their predispositions toward anxious emotional involvement tend to increase play. Moreover, results suggest that these relationships are mediated by caregiver mediation of videogames.
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This paper explores the association between pregnancy intention and father involvement in Guatemala. Father involvement is measured by whether the child lives with his/her father, whether a non-residential father provides financial support, and whether the child is registered with the non-residential father's last name. Data are from separate surveys of women and men. Overall, a greater percentage of men reported that they live with their children and that their children were intended than the percentage of women who reported residential fathers and intended pregnancies. Multivariate logistic regression analyses, controlling for other variables, find that pregnancy intention is associated with father involvement. Both men and women reported that their child was more likely to be registered with the father's name if that child was intended. Men also reported that they were significantly more likely to be involved in their children's lives financially if those non-residential children were intended. Programs and policies that try to prevent unintended pregnancies or that try to involve the father in the pregnancy before the birth may result in an increase in father involvement and thus may have a significant impact on child well-being in Guatemala.
Chapter
Divorce has become a common experience for children in the United States, where one out of every two is likely to undergo a parental divorce before the age of 18 (see Emery, 1988; Furstenberg, 1990). The high divorce rate has been viewed with alarm by many because there long has been a perception that “broken” homes adversely affect children’s adjustment. Early investigations of the effects of divorce on children appeared to support the idea that children from divorced homes were more poorly adjusted than those from intact families, but more recent investigations have gone beyond this simple comparison to investigate processes that lead to better or worse outcomes. In this chapter we examine research on children’s adaptation to divorce. To provide a context for our analysis, we begin by summarizing the epidemiology of divorce in the United States and research on the effects of divorce on children. The bulk of the chapter then examines children’s adaptation to divorce in relation to four important questions: What increases the stressfulness of divorce for children? What helps children cope more effectively? What interventions exist to facilitate children’s adjustment after divorce? What do we still need to learn about children’s adaptation after divorce? 1960s and 1970s (Cherlin, 1981). Some demographers report that the rate leveled off in the 1980s, but others argue that it has continued to rise (see Castro Martin & Bumpass, 1989).
Stepfamilies are complex family systems that warrant a specific model to guide therapy practice. Once a stepfamily has formed it's easy to overlook the lack of an attachment history that is commonly embedded in a biologically connected nuclear family. This can result in stepparents picking up parental responsibility for their stepchildren, which often may not go well. This paper highlights the need for clarity concerning the different levels of connection within a stepfamily, and the importance of avoiding ‘nuclear family-style’ solutions and assumed attachments. This is especially important in the early stages of the relationship when everyone is adjusting to changing circumstances, which is often a time when issues of loyalty and betrayal fuel many of the actions taken. A range of family therapy techniques can be helpfully adapted to working with stepfamilies, especially as relationships with children often bring them to therapy. In particular, therapists can utilise ideas from structural family therapy to help guide the stepfamily to navigate the complexities of everyday life.
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Although citing violence as a factor in divorce, most researchers do not analyze woman abuse in the postdivorce context. In particular, little research exists on how separation assault influences postdivorce parenting. The purpose of this article is to discuss separation assault in the context of postdivorce parenting. First, the literature on separation assault in general and then on separation assault in the context of postdivorce parenting is reviewed. Second, the theoretical explanations for separation assault in general and in the con text of postdivorce parenting is reviewed. Finally, the theoretical explanations and literature are critiqued and research and practice implications are discussed.
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Every year, parental divorce becomes the reality of many families. The aim of this meta-analysis was to identify post-divorce family processes to explain child functioning. Both direct and indirect associations between interparental conflict, parenting, and child adjustment were examined. After a systematic search for articles published before October 2019, we coded 2257 correlations in 115 samples of N = 24,854 divorced families. Analyses consisted of: (1) Performing multiple three-level meta-analyses to calculate the overall correlations between interparental conflict, parenting (i.e., support, hostility, structuring, intrusiveness, parent-child relationship quality, parent-child conflict, and role diffusion) and child psychosocial adjustment. (2) Testing four meta-analytic structural equation models in which parenting dimensions were examined as potential mediators. First, results showed that correlations between interparental conflict, parenting, and child adjustment were mostly significant, in the expected direction, and of small effect size. Second, parental support, hostility, structuring, intrusiveness, and role diffusion indeed served as mediating mechanisms underlying the persistent link between interparental conflict and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. This was not true for dyadic parent-child processes. Third, our findings hinted towards a stronger impact of negative versus positive parenting behaviors, and parental role diffusion was considered a particular risk in the context of post-divorce interparental conflict.
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z: Babanın çocuk bakımına katılımının ve çocuğun gelişimine etkilerinin gözden geçirildiği bu çalışmada, babalık rolündeki değişim, baba katılımının belirleyicileri, anne ve baba katılımı arasındaki farklar, baba katılımı ve aileye etkileri tartışılmıştır. Kadının çalışma yaşamına daha fazla girmesi ve ekonomik güç elde etmesi, babanın evin geçimini sağladığı, annenin ise ev işleri ve çocuk bakımıyla ilgilendiği geleneksel rolleri değiştirmiştir. Değişen rolleriyle babalar, geçmişe oranla çocuklarıyla daha fazla zaman harcamaya ve çocuk bakımıyla ilgili daha fazla sorumluluk almaya başlamıştır. Baba katılımının artmasından sonra çocuğun bakımı, eğitimi ve çocukla bire bir etkileşimden oluşan babalık rolü ve çocuk gelişimindeki etkileri daha anlaşılmıştır. Nitekim çocuk bakımına baba katılımının yararı çok sayıda araştırmada ortaya konulmuştur. Araştırma sonuçlarına dayanılarak geleneksel ve geleneksel olmayan babalık rolü ve belirleyicileri tartışılmıştır. Anahtar Sözcükler: değişen babalık rolü, baba katılımı, çocuk gelişimi. Abstract: In reviewing the research about fathers' involvement in child care and its effects on child development, this paper discusses the changing role of fathers, determinants of father involvement, differences between father and mother involvement, father involvement and family outcomes. After women's increased involvement in the workforce and consequent gains in economic power, important changes in traditional parental roles occurred. The father was no longer the sole economic provider or the mother the sole child care provider. With their changing roles, fathers spend more time with their children and take more responsibility for child care than they did in the past. With this change, paternal influences on the child's development, derived from caretaking, teaching, and one on one interaction with the child, are understood much better than in the past. The benefit from this increased father involvement in child care has been shown in many studies. In the context of these findings, traditional and nontraditional father roles and determinants of father involvement are discussed.
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Using a nationally representative sample of children aged 11-16 who had experienced their parents' marital dissolution, we examine the influence of paternal involvement on the child's well-being. For measures of academic difficulty, problem behavior, and psychological distress, there is little evidence that paternal involvement had either harmful or beneficial effects. Paternal economic support reduced somewhat the likelihood of problem behavior. Frequency of visitation and closeness of relationship to father showed no consistent influence on the available measures of child well-being.
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This meta-analysis involved 92 studies that compared children living in divorced single-parent families with children living in continuously intact families on measures of well-being. Children of divorce scored lower than children in intact families across a variety of outcomes, with the median effect size being .14 of a standard deviation. For some outcomes, methodologically sophisticated studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did other studies. In addition, for some outcomes, more recent studies yielded weaker effect sizes than did studies carried out during earlier decades. Some support was found for theoretical perspectives emphasizing parental absence and economic disadvantage, but the most consistent support was found for a family conflict perspective.
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This essay examines three aspects of mother-only families: their economic and social well-being, their consequences for children, and their role in the politics of gender, race, and social class. We conclude that economic insecurity is high in mother-only families because of the low earning capacity of single mothers, the lack of child support from nonresidential parents, and meager public benefits. We also find evidence of negative intergenerational consequences. Children in mother-only families are more likely to be poor in adulthood than children who live with both parents. They are also more likely to become single parents themselves. Economic deprivation, parental practices, and neighborhood conditions all contribute to lower socioeconomic mobility. Finally, we argue that the mother-only family has become a touchstone for a much broader set of struggles around changes in women's roles, the relationship between the state and the family, and class and racial inequality.
Article
In this paper the results of a longitudinal study of the two years following divorce are presented. Forty-eight divorced parents and their preschool child and a matched group of 48 intact families were studied through observational, interview, self report, rating scales, and standardized test measures at two months, one year and two years following divorce. The process of disruption, coping and adjustment by fathers to the crisis of divorce is examined.
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Integrating ideas from child development with sociological models of educational attainment, we examine the relationship between family structure--whether both parents are present in the household--and children's achievement in high school. Using data from the High School and Beyond study, sophomore cohort, 1986, we ask whether differences in achievement are accounted for by differences in parents' educational aspirations and parenting styles. Children who live with single parents or stepparents during adolescence receive less encouragement and less help with school work than children who live with both natural parents, and parental involvement has positive effects on children's school achievement. Differences in parental behavior, however, account for little of the difference in educational attainment between children from intact and nonintact families.
Article
I compare five perspectives that account for children's adjustment to divorce. These perspectives refer to the absence of the noncustodial parent, the adjustment of the custodial parent, interparental conflict, economic hardship, and stressful life changes. I derive hypotheses from each perspective and examine available studies to determine the degree of support for each hypothesis. This procedure allows for an overall assessment of how well predictions derived from each position fit with the empirical base. Existing research provides the most consistent and convincing support for the interparental conflict perspective. However, a model combining insights from all five perspectives is necessary to account fully for current research findings.
Article
The study of criminality will benefit from a developmental perspective that employs analyses of within-subject changes. A review of the evidence shows continuity in offending between adolescence and adulthood and continuity between prepubertal conduct problems and later offending. Three developmental processes of offending include activation, aggravation, and desistance. A variety of documentation indicates that developmental sequences can be identified for conduct problems, substance use, and delinquency. Quantitative and qualitative changes occur in the course of offending. Understanding developmental processes provides valuable insights into formulating strategies for longitudinal studies that can help to discriminate better between correlates and causes of crime. Examining developmental processes as youngsters grow older, such as increases in physical strength and motor skills, the emergence of personality traits, sexual maturation, and greater opportunities for crime commission, provides important co...
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Tested a model of the causes of variations in functioning between single parents. The authors point to strong evidence in the literature that single mothers are at greater risk for psychological problems and ineffectual parenting than those who are married. The study reports on a sample of 207 recently divorced women who are parents of 8th and 9th graders. Overall, the findings suggest that there are 2 routes to poor adjustment among single parents. One consists of the ramifications of inadequate resources, whereas the other involves the consequences of an antisocial orientation. Single mothers with little education have low access to social network support, and those who are under severe economic pressure report both high exposure to negative events and low social support. Negative life events and inadequate social support, in turn, are associated with psychological distress and the use of ineffectual parenting practices. Antisocial behavior trait is adversely related to quality of parenting, and indirectly influence level of psychological distress through its positive relationship with economic strain and negative events. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A model is presented regarding associations between economic strain, support from spouse, and quality of parenting. The model was tested using a sample of 451 2-parent families, each of which included a seventh grader (age 12-13). Parent and adolescent reports, as well as observational ratings, were used as indicators of constructs. Analysis using structural equation modeling procedures indicated that level of spouse support was positively related to supportive parenting, whereas economic strain operated to undermine parental involvement. As posited, economic strain produced its effect through a direct relation with parenting and indirectly through its association with spouse support. These findings held for mothers and fathers, regardless of the gender of the child. Spouse support moderated the impact of economic strain on supportive parenting for mothers but not fathers. Possible explanations for this gender difference are presented.
Article
Data from the National Survey of Families and Households indicate that 10 percent of children born between 1960 and 1968 were born outside of marriage and that before age 16, another 19 percent experienced the dissolution of their parents' marriage. When parental death and other causes of family disruption are also considered, 36 percent of the children in that age cohort had been separated from at least one parent before they reached age 16, compared with 22 percent of children born two decades earlier. In all, 27 percent of nonmarital births between 1970 and 1984 were to cohabiting couples; the proportion was 40 percent for Mexican Americans, 29 percent for non-Hispanic whites and 18 percent for blacks. About two-thirds of cohabiting couples who had children during the 1970s eventually married; however, before these children reach age 16, 56 percent of them are likely to experience the disruption of their parents' marriage, in comparison with 31 percent of children born to married parents. Overall, about half of all children born between 1970 and 1984 are likely to spend some time in a mother-only family, and more than half of these children reach age 16 without having had a stepfather.
Article
The impact of drastic income loss on children is mediated by a number of family adaptations, including the shift toward more labor-intensive households and altered relationships. Using newly developed codes on parenting behavior during the Great Depression, this study investigates the role of parental behavior (rejecting, nonsupportive) in linking economic hardship to children's lives in the Oakland Growth Study. The results extend beyond those reported in Children of the Great Depression by showing that economic hardship adversely influenced the psychosocial well-being of girls, but not boys, by increasing the rejecting behavior of fathers. The parenting behavior of mothers did not vary significantly by income loss. In addition, the rejecting influence of hard-pressed fathers was more pronounced in relation to less attractive daughters, as judged by physical features. Attractive daughters were not likely to be maltreated by their fathers, no matter how severe the economic pressure. These outcomes on family mediation and conditional effects underscore the importance of viewing economic decline in relation to both the child's characteristics and parenting behavior. An understanding of the effects of economic decline in children's lives requires knowledge of parent and child behavior within the family and life course.
Article
In a longitudinal study, infants 6-18 months of age were observed in their homes playing with their mothers and with peers. Of primary concern was how they coordinated their attention to people and objects. Observations were coded using a state-based scheme that included a state of coordinated joint engagement as well as states of person engagement, object engagement, onlooking, and passive joint engagement. All developmental trends observed were similar regardless of partner: person engagement declined with age, while coordinated joint engagement increased. Passive joint engagement, object engagement, and onlooking did not change with age. However, the absolute amount of some engagement states was affected by partner: both passive and coordinated joint engagement were much more likely when infants played with mothers. We conclude that mothers may indeed support or "scaffold" their infants' early attempts to embed objects in social interaction, but that as attentional capabilities develop even quite unskilled peers may be appropriate partners for the exercise of these capacities.
Article
Two types of interobserver reliability values may be needed in treatment studies in which observers constitute the primary data-acquisition system: trial reliability and the reliability of the composite unit or score which is subsequently analyzed, e.g., daily or weekly session totals. Two approaches to determining interobserver reliability are described: percentage agreement and "correlational" measures of reliability. The interpretation of these estimates, factors affecting their magnitude, and the advantages and limitations of each approach are presented.