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Foa yamba , a new species of cardinalfish (Percomorpha: Apogonidae: Apogonichthyini) from the tidal region of the Clarence River, Australia and redescriptions of the West Pacific Foa longimana and Foa hyalina

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Foa yamba, a new species is described from an eastern Australian tidal estuary. This species differs from other West Pacific Foa by having many small spots on the body. Foa longimana, known only from the holotype, is presently an unidentifiable larval stage from Indonesia and is redescribed, but not allocated to a different genus. Foa hyalina, a West Pacific species is reviewed and its known distribution expanded. It is distinguished by five reddish or brownish-red bars on the body from nape to the level of middle portion of the second dorsal fin and lacks markings on caudal fin.
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Accepted by J. Sparks: 22 Sept. 2014; published: 23 Oct. 2014
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3878.2.3
http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A051F6E0-5ECF-4594-895C-8D6503052E74
Foa yamba, a new species of cardinalfish (Percomorpha: Apogonidae:
Apogonichthyini) from the tidal region of the Clarence River, Australia
and redescriptions of the West Pacific Foa longimana and Foa hyalina
THOMAS H. FRASER
Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 32611‒7800 USA, and Mote Marine Laboratory,
1600 Ken Thompson Parkway, Sarasota, FL 34236‒1096 USA. E-mail: cardinalfish@comcast.net
Abstract
Foa yamba, a new species is described from an eastern Australian tidal estuary. This species differs from other West Pa-
cific Foa by having many small spots on the body. Foa longimana, known only from the holotype, is presently an uniden-
tifiable larval stage from Indonesia and is redescribed, but not allocated to a different genus. Foa hyalina, a West Pacific
species is reviewed and its known distribution expanded. It is distinguished by five reddish or brownish-red bars on the
body from nape to the level of middle portion of the second dorsal fin and lacks markings on caudal fin.
Key words: Apogonichthys, Fowleria, Neamia, Ozichthys, morphology
Introduction
Fraser & Randall (2011) redescribed Foa fo Jordan & Seale 1905 as a widespread Indo-Pacific species, Foa
brachygramma (Jenkins 1903) from the Hawaiian Islands and described Foa leisi as a new Pacific Plate species.
Other species were excluded by these authors including taxa misidentified as Foa fo or F. brachygramma, the latter
formerly believed to be widespread in the Indo-Pacific. Mark McGrouther brought to my attention a new
Australian species of Foa Jordan & Evermann in Jordan & Seale 1905 while visiting the Australian Museum. The
new species led to the examination of additional Foa from the West Pacific. Foa hyalina (Smith & Radcliffe in
Radcliffe 1912) is a very distinctive species in body shape and color pattern (Allen & Erdmann 2012). This rarely
collected species has never been confused with other species of Foa. Fowler & Bean (1930) reported on the types
and one other Albatross specimen from the Philippines. New material, a redescription of the type and some internal
characters of Foa hyalina are discussed. Foa longimana is known only from a single larval specimen since its
description by Max Weber in 1909. The specimen is re-described and its uncertain generic status discussed.
Methods
Methods for meristic data and measurements are given in Fraser (2005). Meristic data and proportions for the new
species (>28 mm SL) are given for the holotype followed by the ranges of paratypes in parentheses for the new
species. Proportions are given as a percent of the standard length (SL). Acronyms used to designate institutions and
collections cited follow Fricke and Eschmeyer (2014). Internal characteristics are taken from cleared and stained
specimens and radiographs. All figures have been processed through Photoshop CS6 Extended ver. 13.06x64.
Film-based radiographs were scanned on Epson Perfection V700 Photo to convert to digital format. All
radiographs, initially negatives, were converted to positives in Photoshop and modified for clarity. Partial head
pore pattern and free neuromast patterns were based on single or combinations of specimens using camera lucida
attached to Wild M5D or Leica MZ95 stereo microscopes. Initial drawings were scanned and finalized in
Photoshop. Species are treated in alphabetical order.
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Foa hyalina (Smith & Radcliffe in Radcliffe, 1912)
Figures 1 & 2
Type material: Holotype Amia hyalina USNM 70245, 36.7 mm SL, Indonesia, Talisse Island, north of Sulawesi,
Albatross Philippine Expedition, Dynamite, 9 Nov 1909, 3–5m, digital x-ray from film. Paratypes USNM 171126,
(10, 27–33), same data as holotype, two damaged, digital x-ray from film. Other material: AMS I.21316–061, (2,
24–24), Indian Ocean: Scott Reef: South Reef Lagoon, 14°10'S 121°55'E, Scott RF3 FHT, 20 Sep 1979; 7–10 m.
CAS 127423 (SU 27423); (11, 28–42); Philippines, Negros Oriental, Dumaguete; Jun 1931; A.W. Herre. CAS
139976 (SU 39976); (3, 18–22); Philippines, Sulu Province, Bungau; 17 Sep 1940; A.W. Herre. USNM 171127
1(38.1), Philippines, South Mindanao, Illana Bay, Parang, Albatross Philippine Expedition, 23 May 1908, digital x-
ray. USNM 345019; (1, 26.1); Philippines, Oriental Negros, Just off Bonbonon Point at southern tip of island; 13
May 1978; SP 78–11; 0–12 m. WAM 31215–001, (12, 18–33), Papua New Guinea, Tab (Pig) Island, Madang
Lagoon, 13 Oct 1996.
Diagnosis. A species of Foa with a narrow reddish or brownish-red cheek mark and vertical bars on body from
nape and below first dorsal fin, not past line from mid-second dorsal fin to anal fin; body otherwise semi-
transparent; caudal fin without markings; lower jaw without alternating color pattern.
Description. For general body shape see Figs. 1 & 2, holotype first, other material in parentheses. Range of
proportions (as percentages of standard lengths): greatest body depth 45.2(42.7–44.2); head length
39.5(41.6–41.9); eye diameter 10.3(12.7–13.3); snout length 9.5(8.5–9.0); bony interorbital width 8.4(8.0–8.3);
upper-jaw length 21.2(21.1–21.7); caudal-peduncle depth 16.3(17.6–17.8); caudal-peduncle length 20.4(20.2–20.4);
first dorsal-fin spine length 3.3(4.5–5.0); second dorsal-fin spine length 8.7(12.8–13.8); third dorsal-fin spine
length 19.6(19.2–20.7); fourth dorsal-fin spine length 17.4(17.3–19.0); spine in second dorsal fin 10.6(10.2–11.7);
first anal-fin spine length 3.8(3.1–4.7); second anal-fin spine length 13.3(11.6–12.4); pectoral-fin length
24.5(21.4–22.0); pelvic-fin length 21.8(24.2).
FIGURE 1. Holotype of Amia hyalina, USNM 70245, 36.7 mm SL. A. Preserved in 70% ethanol. B. Figure from the
Smithsonian’s original illustration by V. Dandridge for Plate 36, figure 3 from Smith & Radcliffe in Radcliffe (1912).
Dorsal fin VII–I,9; anal fin II,8; pectoral fins 12; pelvic fins I,5; principal caudal rays 9+8, upper and lower
unbranched; pored lateral-line scales 8(7–10), pits 14(12–15); transverse scale rows above lateral line 1; transverse
scale rows below lateral line 5; median predorsal scales 4; circumpeduncular scale rows 12 (5 +2+5).
Band of villiform teeth on premaxilla; band of villiform teeth on dentary; 3 rows on the palatine and vomer;
none on ectopterygoid, endopteygoid or basihyal.
Vertebrae 10+14; five free hypurals, one pair of slender uroneurals, three epurals, a free parhypural; 3
supraneurals; 2 supernumerary spine on first dorsal pterygiophore; posttemporal smooth on posterior margin;
preopercle ridge smooth, edges smooth on posterior vertical and ventral horizontal margins; infraorbital edges
smooth.
Scales on head, breast, nape and body ctenoid, pore on lateral line scale simple above with one opening, simple
below with one opening; last row of scales on base of caudal fin cycloid.
Caudal fin truncate or slightly rounded; second dorsal and anal fins rounded.
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FOA YAMBA, A NEW SPECIES OF CARDINALFISH
FIGURE 2. Foa hyalina. A. Live, Madang, Papua New Guinea, by G.R. Allen. B. Positive radiograph of paratype of Apogon
hyalina, USNM 171126, 33.7 mm SL, by S. Raredon. C. Enlarged section of the caudal skeleton showing five hypurals.
Live color pattern. Figure 1 and also see photographs by Kuiter & Kozawa (2001; 92) and Allen & Erdmann
(2012; 379). Head and body a semi-translucent brownish-red or reddish to pale; head with narrow brownish-red
band from eye to posterior angle of dentary, cheek mark with two rows of small darker spots; lower jaw edge
outlined in brownish-red without alternating light and dark marks; snout with wide band from upper edge of jaw to
eye; a supraorbital band from midway between eyes onto nape; post-orbit bands, one to posttemporal, the other
onto opercle; iris uniform light yellowish-brown; five vertical bars on body beginning near or above lateral-line
scales anterior of the origin of line from within second dorsal fin to anal fin; breast and abdomen grading to
whitish; pelvic fins with broad brownish-red mid mark, edged with white on both sides, pelvic spine with
alternating darker and paler marks; first dorsal fin with white tips on first two spines, alternating narrow white
bands with slightly broader brownish-red bands ending on sixth or seventh spines; second dorsal fin membrane
between the spine and first soft ray with similar markings as in first dorsal fin, the remainder of membranes
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translucent; second anal-fin spine anal fin and membrane similar to second dorsal membrane, remainder of
membranes translucent; caudal-fin rays and membranes translucent.
Post mortem color pattern. Smith and Radcliffe in Radcliffe (1912) described a specimen as: “Color in life of
a cotype 4 cm. long: Ground color hyalin pearl; a brownish-red stripe from snout to eye, another from eye to throat,
another across nape and three downward from base of spinous dorsal, these latter more or less olivaceous; spinous
dorsal mottled finely with brownish; ventrals similarly mottled but darker; other fins immaculate; abdominal
regions and lower side of head with more or less silver; iris very pale pink.”
Preserved color pattern. Various melanophore clusters on body, mostly below lateral line, extending onto
caudal peduncle; melanophores on cheek with pale area extending down from mid eye to preopercle ridge,
outlining dark area behind end of maxilla; scattered melanophores on head; base of pectoral fin with melanophores;
1st dorsal dusky, 2nd dorsal, anal and caudal fin spotted, pelvic fin dark from 2nd ray-5th ray, not reaching base; or
lacking color patterns on head, body or fins. Smith and Radcliffe in Radcliffe (1912) described the holotype as:
“Ground color buff; a dusky brown stripe from snout to eye, another from eye to throat, a third from upper third of
eye across opercles to lateral line, a fourth across nape; traces of three stripes on sides, first from in front of dorsal
downward toward angle of preopercle, second from under origin of dorsal to behind pectoral base, the third under
middle of spinous dorsal; slight traces of mottlings on first dorsal; ventrals mottled with grayish white; other fins
hyalin.”
Distribution. This species is found in the West Pacific (Indonesia, Philippines, north coast of Papua New
Guinea and Palau) and western Timor Sea (Scott’s Reef) based on collected specimens and underwater
photographs. Foa hyalina is associated with soft corals of the genus Sinularia (Kuiter and Kozawa 2001). Depths
of collections range from near the surface to 12 meters.
Remarks. Figures and brief descriptions of this species are in Kuiter & Kozawa (2001; 92) as an
Apogonichthys and Allen & Erdmann (2012; 379). Eggs were present in the mouths of two specimens in CAS
127423 formerly SU 27423 indicative of oral brooding. The holotype retains some of the color pattern, mostly in
the form of small melanophores. Violet Dandridge’s illustration of the holotype in Radcliffe (1912; Plate 36, fig. 3;
here as Fig. 1B) has a rounded caudal fin with longer middle rays than published photographs.
Foa longimana Weber, 1909
Figure 3.
Type material. Holotype ZMA 112.203, 14.2 mm SL, 19 mm TL, Indonesia, Nusa Laut Is., Nahalia Bay, Siboga
Sta. 238, pelagic.
Description. For general body shape see Fig. 2. Proportions as a percent of standard length: body depth 33.1;
head length 38.7; eye diameter 10.6; snout length 6.3; bony interorbital width 7.0; upper jaw length 19.0; dorsal-fin
spines broken; anal fin spines broken; caudal peduncle depth 18.3; caudal peduncle length 17.6; pectoral-fin rays
broken; pelvic-fin rays broken.
Dorsal fins VII‒I,9; anal fin II,8; pectoral-fin rays 14.
Pored lateral line scales 9; transverse scale rows above lateral line 2; transverse scale rows below lateral line
~6; median predorsal scales 4; circumpeduncular scale rows 12 as 5+2+5. Scales on body ctenoid; scales on cheek
and opercle cycloid.
Upper arch with 2 rudiments and 1 raker, lower arch with 6 rakers and 3 rudiments as 2+1‒6+3, 7 rakers, 11
total.
Villiform band of teeth on premaxilla and dentary; 1 row of fine teeth on vomer; 3‒4 fine teeth on palatine;
none on other bones.
Preserved color pattern. In 70% ethanol, no color patterns remain on head, body or fins. Scattered
melanophores are present on the head and body of the holotype (Fig. 2A). In German from Weber (1909): “Die
Farbe des Alcohol-Exempares is gelblich, überall mit feinen braunen Tüpfeln un Spritzchen. Earte Dorsal,
Pektorale und grösster Teil der Ventrale dunkelbraun; die Basis, namentlich nach hinten zu, der 2. Dorsale und der
Anale. Caudale hyalin.” Weber & de Beaufort (1929) translation of the original German description: “Colour of
alcohol specimen yellowish, mottled all over with fine brown spots. First dorsal, hindermost part of second dorsal
and anal, pectorals and greater part of ventral fins dark brown. Caudal hyaline.”
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FOA YAMBA, A NEW SPECIES OF CARDINALFISH
FIGURE 3. The holotype of Foa longimana, 14.2 mm SL, 19 mm TL, ZMA 112.203. A. Holotype, preserved in ethanol,
photograph by Z. Randall. B. Figure scanned from Weber’s Die Fische der Siboga-expedition (1913:258, Figure 58, by M.
Weber). The same figure is on p.354, figure 83 of Weber & de Beaufort (1929).
Status of Foa longimana Weber, 1909. There are only three literature records of Foa longimana: Weber in
1909, Weber in 1913 and lastly Weber & de Beaufort 1929, where the original German description was translated
into English. Eschmeyer (2014) has no new entries under Foa longimana or under any other cardinalfish genus.
There are no listings in the available online collections. What could be the reasons for the lack of material?
Weber (1909) described Foa longimana from one specimen, 14.2 mm SL (19 mm TL) taken in the water
column (pelagic sample), (station 234 in the Siboga text, 238 in the table, p.621) at Nalahia, Nusa Laut, Indonesia.
He figured this specimen (here as Fig. 2B) in the results of the Siboga Expedition (1913, figure 58; also in Weber &
de Beaufort). This is a young specimen, perhaps about to settle out of the plankton. Both Foa and Fowleria Jordan
& Evermann 1903 have larva with long pectoral fins and the fish flap like butterflies in the water column according
to J. Leis (personal communication). The type has a slender body depth at 33% of standard length taken from the
specimen by me in 1972. Most species of Foa have body depths of 37% or greater in standard length (Fraser &
Randall, 2011; this paper) The pectoral fins are damaged but figure 58 suggests the length is about 30% of standard
length where as the head length is 38.7% of standard length. Weber described the pectoral fin as “Pektorale fast so
lang wie die Körperhöher.” “...almost as long as the head”. Most species of Foa have pectoral fin lengths of
21–26% of standard length (Fraser & Randall, 2011; this paper). Only the number of pored lateral line scales at 11
reported by Weber (my count was nine) and the presence of palatine teeth (3‒4 teeth) are in favor of Foa. There is
known variation in the number of pored lateral line scales with size for Foa (Fraser & Randall, 2011). This
holotype cannot be certainly identified.
Alternative I. It is a species of Foa. The reason for the differences in body depth is allometric growth after
settling out of the plankton. I have no data to accept or reject this growth assertion (a likely change) and likely no
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way to identify the adult form because of poor color pattern information. Pectoral fin-ray counts for species of Foa
are usually 12 not 14.
Alternative II. It is a species of Neamia Smith & Radcliffe in Radcliffe 1912. Adult Neamia have 22–24 pored
lateral line scales, where as small specimens 17–20 mm SL have been reported with pored lateral line scales of
11–12 (Fraser & Allen, 2006). Known characteristics fit with Neamia articycla except for the typical ocellus
present on the opercle of N. articycla Fraser & Allen 2006. Weber’s species agrees in the proportions for body
depth and pectoral-fin length, pectoral-fin ray count of 14 and cycloid scales on the cheek, VII first dorsal spines,
pored lateral line scales, palatine teeth and number of pectoral fin-rays.
Alternative III. It is a species of Apogonichthys Bleeker 1854. Palatine teeth are absent in species of this genus.
Assume that small Foa longimana lose these four teeth with age/size. If so, some known characteristics fit with
Apogonichthys perdix Bleeker 1854, A. landoni Herre 1934 or A. ocellatus (Weber 1913). The best fit as an
Apogonichthys is with A. perdix, because A. ocellatus has a high pectoral fin-ray count of 17–18 and an ocellus in
the first dorsal fin. Apogonichthys perdix has a deeper body depth so allometric growth would have to occur. Both
Apogonichtys perdix and A. landoni agree in the cycloid scales on the cheek, VII first dorsal spines, and number of
pectoral fin-rays.
Alternative IV. It is a species of Fowleria. Palatine teeth are absent in species of this genus. Assume that small
Foa longimana lose these teeth with age/size. The best fit with species of Fowleria is with F. vaiulae Jordan &
Seale 1906 because it lacks an ocellus on the opercle. Some allometric growth would have to occur. It agrees in
cycloid scales on the cheek and VII first dorsal spines.
Weber’s type specimen exists (ZMA112.203), and his description meets the requirements of the International
Code of Zoological Nomenclature to be a valid name. No additional specimens have been reported in the literature.
Its true identity is a mystery. At present, it cannot meet the Code’s date requirement under Article 23.9 relating to
the lack of use applied to an older name after 1899 as a nomen oblitum, that is, reversal of priority. A reasonable
junior synonym cannot be identified, although the genus Neamia has the best morphological fit. The name is
treated here as a nomen dubium in the Apogonichthyini Snodgrass & Heller 1905 in Mabuchi et al. 2014. Weber’s
name remains available should better information emerge, such as raising specimens among the four alternatives
from eggs or larvae that lead to a species identification.
Foa yamba new species
Figures 4–7
Type material: Holotype AMS I.41858–037 33.9 mm SL, Australia, New South Wales, Iluka Marina, along rock
shore, 29.41750°S 153.35550°E, 6 Dec. 2002, M. McGrouther, A. Gill & J. Pogonoski, 5.7 m. Paratypes: AMS
I.41287–063 (10, 12.7–45.1), Australia, New South Wales, Micalo I., Oyster Channel, S end of bridge, NE side,
29°25'49"S 15°318'34"E, 25 Mar 2002, M. McGrouther, A. Gill & K. Parkenson, 0.5 m. AMS I.41858–035 (4,
32.1–50.1), Australia, New South Wales, Clarence River, Iluka Marina, along rock shore, 29.41750°S
153.35550°E, 6 Dec. 2002, M. McGrouther, A. Gill & J. Pogonoski, 0–5.7 m. AMS I.41858–036 (1, 41.1)
Australia, New South Wales, Clarence River, Iluka Marina, along rock shore, 29.41750°S 153.35550°E, 6 Dec.
2002, M. McGrouther, A. Gill & J. Pogonoski, 0–5.7 m, tissue voucher specimen.
Diagnosis. A species of Foa with brownish-red irregular spots on body; usually 9 pored lateral-line scales;
alternating markings on second dorsal, anal and caudal fins; young and juveniles with three regular bars on body.
Description. For general body shape see Fig. 4. Proportions for specimens larger than 28 mm SL: greatest
body depth 42.2(39.6–44.2); head length 46.0(40.0–46.4); eye diameter 12.4(10.4–13.1); snout length
9.7(8.1–9.7); bony interorbital width 7.4(7.0–9.8); upper-jaw length 24.5(19.5–22.4); caudal-peduncle depth
16.2(14.7–17.0); caudal-peduncle length 23.3(18.9–24.3); first dorsal-fin spine length 4.7(2.9–5.0); second dorsal-
fin spine length 12.4(8.8–14.1); third dorsal-fin spine length 19.2(17.1–22.0); fourth dorsal-fin spine length
17.4(14.6–19.6); spine in second dorsal fin 11.5(9.3–12.7); first anal-fin spine length 2.4(2.3–3.5); second anal-fin
spine length 12.4(10.6–12.7); pectoral-fin length 24.5(21.5–25.7); pelvic-fin length 23.3(20.4–25.1).
Dorsal fin VII–I,9; anal fin II,8; pectoral fin rays 12; pelvic fins I,5; principal caudal rays 9+8, upper and lower
unbranched; pored lateral-line scales 9(9 rarely10), pits 13(12–13); transverse scale rows above lateral line 1;
transverse scale rows below lateral line 6; median predorsal scales 4; circumpeduncular scale rows 12 (5 +2+5).
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FIGURE 4. Foa yamba, holotype AMS I.41858‒037, 33.9 mm SL. A. Post mortem photograph by Mark McGrouther. B.
Preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol by T. Fraser.
Holotype: upper arch with 2 rudiments and 2 rakers, lower arch with 6 rakers and 6 rudiments as 2+2–6+6, 8
rakers, 16 total; second arch, upper with 2 rudiments lower with 6 rudiments, one raker near angle; paratypes:
upper arch with 2 rudiments and 1 raker, lower arch with 6–7 rakers and 3–7 rudiments, 7–8 rakers, 13–16 total;
second arch, upper with 1–2 rudiments, lower with 7–8 rudiments, one raker near angle;.
Band of villiform teeth on premaxilla; band of villiform teeth on dentary; one (2–3 paratypes) long row on the
palatine and 1–2 (2–3 paratypes) rows on vomer; none on ectopterygoid, endopteygoid or basihyal.
Two supernumerary spines on first dorsal pterygiophore; posttemporal smooth on posterior margin; preopercle
ridge smooth, edges smooth on posterior vertical and ventral horizontal margins; infraorbital edges smooth.
Scales ctenoid on cheek, subopercle, opercle, predorsal, breast, abdomen, rest of body; two large pelvic scales,
ctenoid on first scale, cycloid on second scale (paratypes with variable second scale cycloid or ctenoid); last scales
on base of caudal fin cycloid; pored lateral-line scales with a single opening above and below mid-line of canal,
posterior lateral-line scales with pits (Fig. 6A & B).
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FIGURE 5. Foa yamba AMS I. 41287–063, 45.1 mm SL, paratype. A semi-diagrammatic presentation of cephalic canal pores
(spots) and free neuromasts (dots) with some pores and neuromasts obscured or missing. Scale = 1mm. A. Dorsal view. B.
Lateral view. C. Ventral view.
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Free neuromasts (combination of specimens): Five lines on upper side of lower branched caudal rays 3–7; six
lines on lower side of upper branched caudal rays 10–15; branched rays 8, 9 and unbranched rays 1 and 17 without
lines of free neuromasts. See Fig. 5 for cephalic pores and neuromasts. See Fig. 6C for anterior pore arrangement
relative to naris.
Live color pattern. Unknown.
Post-mortem color pattern. See Figure 4A of holotype. Head and body with many small brownish-red
erythrophores; lower jaw with two lighter marks alternating three darker marks; upper jaw with faint alternating
marks on premaxilla but not on maxilla; base of tubular anterior naris reddish, distally brownish; cheek without a
distinct mark, inner iris orangish becoming a light pink, outer edge of iris with narrow light marks alternating with
broader brownish marks; snout to nape without stripes; preopercle, opercle and subopercle brownish-red without
any pattern, upper portion of preopercle and opercle with clumps of dark brown; body with dark brown irregular
spots in semi-vertical lines, first from pored lateral line to upper insertion of pectoral fin, then irregular spots in
variable vertical lines from just below pored lateral line passing behind pectoral fin onto upper abdomen, about
eight; a few irregular spots on anterior peduncle, much smaller posteriorly, three lighter blotches above and below
center line of peduncle, three light spots at base of caudal fin, mid-line, upper and lower; first dorsal fin brownish
to reddish, distally dark membranes between fourth and seventh spines; second dorsal-fin spine proximal
alternating light and reddish marks extending to second branched fin-ray, proximal reddish membrane base from
third to fifth-fin ray, proximal base of eighth and ninth-fin ray reddish, alternating pale and reddish branched fin-
rays from above the proximal membrane bases to tips of fins; pectoral fin-rays translucent reddish; anal spine with
alternating reddish and lighter marks, branched fin-rays dark brownish becoming reddish and distally pale; pelvic
fin spine with alternating lighter and reddish marks, fin-rays deep brownish-red proximally becoming lighter
distally to translucent; anal fin with proximal blotch on membrane including second and third fin-rays, a smaller
proximal mark at base of seventh and eighth fin-rays, all fin-rays with alternating reddish and translucent to tips of
fins; caudal fin-rays with alternating translucent and reddish markings from base to tip of fins including procurrent
rays.
Preserved color pattern. In 70% ethanol holotype with head and body tannish with brown erythrophores on
head and body; lower jaw with two lighter marks alternating three darker marks; upper jaw darkish anteriorly;
brownish anterior naris; cheek without a distinct mark; iris dark with a few light marks and brownish marks; snout
to nape without stripes; preopercle, opercle and subopercle brownish without any pattern; small brown blotch
upper posterior corner next to eye; upper portion of preopercle and opercle with clumps of dark brown; body with
dark brown irregular spots in vertical line, first from pored lateral line to upper insertion of pectoral fin, then
irregular spots in variable (about eight) vertical lines from just below pored lateral line passing behind pectoral fin
onto upper abdomen; a few irregular spots on anterior peduncle, much smaller posteriorly, two lighter blotches
above and three below center line of peduncle, three light spots at base of caudal fin, mid-line, upper and lower;
first dorsal fin blackish, with pale areas on membranes between fifth and sixth, sixth and seventh and seventh and
dorsum; pectoral fin-rays translucent; anal spine with irregular alternating darkish and lighter marks; pelvic fin
spine with alternating lighter and darkish marks, fin-rays blackish to near fin-ray tips; anal fin with proximal
darkish blotch on membrane including second and third fin-rays, a smaller proximal mark at base of seventh and
eighth fin-rays, all fin-rays with irregular alternating darkish and pale tips of fins; caudal fin-rays with alternating
translucent and reddish markings from base to tip of fins including procurrent rays. Caudal fin-rays with alternating
translucent and darkish markings from base to tip of fins including procurrent rays; stomach and intestine pale;
peritoneum pale with small scattered melanophores.
Three young to juveniles in AMS I.41287–063 (12.6, 20.6 & 20.8 mm SL) with three bars on body, first bar
from membranes of first dorsal fin to membranes of pelvic fin, second bar from under second dorsal fin to base of
anal fin, third bar on caudal peduncle much closer to ends second dorsal and anal fins; many scales sloughed from
bodies may just reveal an underlying pattern; post ocular marks, first onto nape, second to posttemporal, and third
as a bar to anterior edge of preopercle in four smallest; post ocular marks diffuse or absent in large specimens; 23
mm SL to 45 mm SL with no signs of the bars; body spots present on 28 mm SL specimen.
Etymology. yamba is an Australian aboriginal name of uncertain meanings, one of which refers to a kind of
oyster, the other to the headland near the river mouth and is the name of the city at the mouth of the Clarence River,
location of the type series, see Figure 6.
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FIGURE 6. Foa yamba. A. AMS I.41287–063, 45.1 mm SL, paratype. Fourth pored ctenoid, lateral-line scale. B. Second
pitted, ctenoid lateral-line scale from last scale on caudal fin. Scale = 1mm. C. AMS I. 41858–037, 33.9 mm SL, holotype,
canted left view of snout area with relative positions of pores and nares. AN = anterior naris, PN = posterior naris, IO =
infraorbital pores on anterior portion of the lacrhymal, SO = anterior supraorbital pores. Scale = 1 mm.
FIGURE 7. Foa yamba, location of the type collections. A. Holotype and paratypes, Iluka Marina, Queen Street. B.
PARATYPES, near bridge, Yamba Road. Scale = 1368 m. Image © 2014 CNES / Astrium.
Habitat. At Iluka Marina between the Coast Guard base and harbor along a rocky wall with silt and mud from
field note NNSW 02–28. Two digital site photographs were taken (NNSWII02–28 Site Photos 1 & 2) and are at the
Australian Museum.
Distribution. Known only from the Clarence River, Yamba, New South Wales (Fig. 7). This species should be
found in other tidal estuaries in New South Wales and farther north in Queensland.
Remarks. Small discrete reddish spots on a brownish-red ground color over most of the body will identify this
species from all other Foa. The pits in lateral line scales following the last pored scale are hard to detect in some
paratypes. The general pattern is to have the first three pits in the same scale row as the last pored scale, then
change down one scale row or appear to skip one or two scale rows until the mid row of scales with pits. Two
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FOA YAMBA, A NEW SPECIES OF CARDINALFISH
specimens (34–37) exhibited expanded (buccal) mouths but eggs were not present. Ozichthys albimaculosus
(Kailola 1976), recently removed from Foa, has pale spot-like marks with outer, incomplete darkish edges on body,
all scales in lateral line with pores and fused hypurals 1+2, all characters different than all known species of Foa
(Fraser 2014).
Acknowledgments
Douglas Hoese, J. Leis, M. McGrouther, A. Hay, S. Reader and M. Yerman were helpful during my stay at the
Australian Museum. Mark McGrouther provided digital photographs and field notes for Foa yamba and loans of
material. Gerald Allen and Sue Morrison provided assistance during my stay at the Western Australian Museum.
David Smith, J. Williams, L. Palmer, D. Pitassy and S. Raredon all provided assistance during multiple visits the
National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C. Some radiographs were taken by S. Raredon. Lisa Palmer
provided access to use the high quality scan of Amia hyalina. Larry Page, R. Robins and R. Singer all provided
assistance during visits to the Florida Museum of Natural History, University of Florida. Zachary Randall and
Larry Page photographed the type of Foa longimana while visiting the Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden.
Gerald R. Allen, Western Australian Museum and David W. Greenfield, California Academy of Sciences, reviewed
the manuscript, providing useful comments. A research fellowship from the Australian Museum, Sydney, aided
research on apogonids through Mote Marine Laboratory.
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... The flower cardinalfish (Ostorhinchus fleurieu) distributes in the Visakhapatnam waters, Middle East coast of India (Randall and Hayashi 1990), and it is common in shallow coastal reefs with moderate currents, also in tidal channels of estuaries (Fraser 2014). The genus Ostorhinchus is composed of nearly 60 species, however, the genetic and molecular information of Ostorhinchus is limited, plus there are no any complete mitogenomes of Ostorhinchus have been determined (Fraser 2014), these factors jointly contributed to the motivation of sequencing this species. ...
... The flower cardinalfish (Ostorhinchus fleurieu) distributes in the Visakhapatnam waters, Middle East coast of India (Randall and Hayashi 1990), and it is common in shallow coastal reefs with moderate currents, also in tidal channels of estuaries (Fraser 2014). The genus Ostorhinchus is composed of nearly 60 species, however, the genetic and molecular information of Ostorhinchus is limited, plus there are no any complete mitogenomes of Ostorhinchus have been determined (Fraser 2014), these factors jointly contributed to the motivation of sequencing this species. To gain its molecular information, herein, we described the complete mitogenome of O. fleurieu and explored the phylogenetic relationship within Apogoninae, contributing to further phylogenetic studies on its related species. ...
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