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Abstract

Trust is critical for organizations, effective management, and efficient negotiations, yet trust violations are common. Prior work has often assumed trust to be fragile-easily broken and difficult to repair. We investigate this proposition in a laboratory study and find that trust harmed by untrustworthy behavior can be effectively restored when individuals observe a consistent series of trustworthy actions. Trust harmed by the same untrustworthy actions and deception, however, never fully recovers-even when deceived participants receive a promise, an apology, and observe a consistent series of trustworthy actions. We also find that a promise to change behavior can significantly speed the trust recovery process, but prior deception harms the effectiveness of a promise in accelerating trust recovery. (c) 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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... We focus on self-interested deception in the context of negotiations. In addition to being pervasive in negotiations, deception can profoundly influence negotiaton decisions and outcomes (O'Connor and Carnevale 1997;Olekalns and Smith 2007;Olekalns et al. 2014a, b;Olekalns et al. 2014a, b;Tenbrunsel 1998;Schweitzer et al. 2006). ...
... In addition to exploring antecedents of deception, a substantial literature has explored the consequences of detected deception. This research has found that detected deception harms interpersonal trust (Boles et al. 2000;Schweitzer et al. 2006) and increases retaliation and retribution (Boles et al. 2000) (for a recent discussion, see Lewicki and Hanke 2012). This research has also found that emotions are particularly important in these decisions. ...
... In empirical studies, Boles et al. (2000) and Rogers et al. (2017) found that self-interested informational deception diminishes trust, and Côté et al. (2013) and Campagna et al. (2016) found that self-interested emotional misrepresentation diminishes trust (for a recent review on negotiation, see Lewicki and Hanke 2012). Schweitzer et al. (2006) also found that trust that is harmed by detected self-interested deception is never fully restored-even if the target of deception receives an apology, a promise to change, and observes a series of trustworthy actions. ...
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Deception is pervasive in negotiations and organizations, and emotions are critical to using, detecting, and responding to deception. In this article, we introduce a theoretical model to explore the interplay between emotional intelligence (the ability to perceive and express, understand, regulate, and use emotions) and deception in negotiations. In our model, we propose that emotional intelligence influences the decision to use deception, the effectiveness of deception, the ability to detect deception, and the consequences of deception (specifically, trust repair and retaliation). We consider the emotional intelligence of both deceivers and targets, and we consider characteristics of negotiators, their interaction, and the negotiation context that moderate these relationships. Our model offers a theoretical foundation for research on emotions, emotional intelligence, and deception and identifies a potential disadvantage of negotiating with an emotionally intelligent counterpart. Though prior work has focused on the advantages of being and interacting with people high in emotional intelligence, we assert that those most likely to deceive us may also be those highest in emotional intelligence.
... 3) Specific preventive and repair actions focusing on increasing the quality of social exchanges could offer a remedy for trust violations (Holten et al., 2016). 4) Promises to change behaviour can significantly speed the trust recovery process (Schweitzer et al., 2006). 5) Moderators such as communications skills and the response type (financial/nonfinancial responses) affect trust repairing (Goodstein et al., 2015). ...
... 5) Moderators such as communications skills and the response type (financial/nonfinancial responses) affect trust repairing (Goodstein et al., 2015). Schweitzer et al. (2006) noted that prior deception hinders the effectiveness of a promise in accelerating trust recovery. They also argued that trust never fully recovers, even when deceived participants receive a promise or an apology, if promises made by a violator are not kept and trust harmed again with the same untrustworthy actions and deception as before. ...
... Dirks et al. (2011) proposed that future research could consider whether and how penance and regulation change when stronger emotion between parties is involved. Also Schweitzer et al., (2006) and Dunn and Schweitzer (2005) have emphasized the scarce research on the relationship between emotions and trust in trust recovery. Similarly, Monzani et al. (2015) found that in terms of trust formation, a leader's ability to understand and manage others' emotions elicits positive affective states in followers, which is essential for the formation of trust in followers. ...
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Employee trust, and increasingly its absence, is a critical topic for researchers and practitioners interested in social relations in the context of work and organizing. Employee trust repair is particularly important in the current disrupted work environment, due to unpredictable changes such as the Covid-19 pandemic and the uncertainty those bring to our lives. It is not surprising that employee trust is attracting increasing interest among researchers and practitioners alike. In this article, we systematically review and take stock of the research on trust repair conducted in the past two decades to provide comprehensive insights and future research directions for researchers and managers. In our review, we propose that early use of trust repair strategies in response to small violations, prevents these violations escalating into larger violations, and hence, enhances the efficiency and effectiveness of trust repair with employees. We conclude by describing future directions.
... However, it should be noted that the AT provided an apology or denial without any subsequent change in performance. It is possible that the participants did not value apologies and denials because it was not supported by behavioral change, an effect found in interpersonal trust literature (Schweitzer et al., 2006) and in the human-robot literature (Luo et al., 2021). Other trust repair strategies that could be more effective with machine advice include an expression of regret that accompanies the apology (Kox et al., 2021), delaying the repair strategy until the next trust opportunity (Nayyar & Wagner, 2018;Robinette et al., 2015), providing promises or explanations that reduce cognitive dissonance between initial attitudes and experiences (Esterwood & Robert, 2022), or adding human-like qualities to expression of the trust repair strategy Kim & Song, 2021). ...
... For instance, one possible future research direction is to explore how emphasizing the learning element in AI teammate's apology (i.e., they recognized their mistake and learned from it) may improve trust. This should be explored in human-human (Schweitzer et al., 2006) as well as human-machine (Luo et al., 2021) trust. Some other questions which need to be addressed in future research include: should an AT's ethical framework be dynamic and flexible based on contextual information? ...
Article
Advancements and implementations of autonomous systems coincide with an increased concern for the ethical implications resulting from their use. This is increasingly relevant as autonomy fulfills teammate roles in contexts that demand ethical considerations. As AI teammates (ATs) enter these roles, research is needed to explore how an AT’s ethics influences human trust. This current research presents two studies which explore how an AT’s ethical or unethical behavior impacts trust in that teammate. In Study 1, participants responded to scenarios of an AT recommending actions which violated or abided by a set of ethical principles. The results suggest that ethicality perceptions and trust are influenced by ethical violations, but only ethicality depends on the type of ethical violation. Participants in Study 2 completed a focus group interview after performing a team task with a simulated AT that committed ethical violations and attempted to repair trust (apology or denial). The focus group responses suggest that ethical violations worsened perceptions of the AT and decreased trust, but it could still be trusted to perform tasks. The AT’s apologies and denials did not repair damaged trust. The studies’ findings suggest a nuanced relationship between trust and ethics and a need for further investigation into trust repair strategies following ethical violations.
... In this paper, we build on the organizational fairness (e.g., [4,5] and trust repair literature (e.g., [36,62]) to explore the success of various social accounts as a mechanism to overcome the stress reactions associated with PCB. For example, trust recovery efforts are more efficient when organizations offer monetary compensation and sincere apologies [17,59]. Employees who perceive that their organization engages in recovery efforts are more confident regarding the resolution process and will tend to view their organization as trustworthy [59]. ...
... For example, trust recovery efforts are more efficient when organizations offer monetary compensation and sincere apologies [17,59]. Employees who perceive that their organization engages in recovery efforts are more confident regarding the resolution process and will tend to view their organization as trustworthy [59]. The primary purpose of the current investigation is to gain a better understanding of how unfolding stress reactions following PCB can be influenced by organizational interventions. ...
Article
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Background Workplace stress carries considerable costs for the employees’ wellbeing and for the organization’s performance. Recent studies demonstrate that perceptions of psychological contract breach are a source of stress for employees. That is, when employees notice that their employer does not fulfil certain obligations, they will perceive that certain resources are threatened or lost, which in turn translates into increased stress. In this study, we zoom in on how stress unfolds in the aftermath of breach, dependent on the organization’s reaction to the breach. More specifically, we examined the influence of different types of social accounts (i.e., denial, apology, blaming and exonerating justification) on individuals’ stress resolution process using physiological (i.e., heart rate) and psychological (self-report) data. Method We used an experimental design in which we manipulated psychological contract breach and social account type. To test our hypotheses, we performed two sets of functional Principal Component Analyses: first to examine the effects of breach and second to examine the effects of social accounts. Results Our results indicate that breach elicits a physiological stress reaction, reflected in a short-lived increase in heart rate. However, no increase in the self-reported stress measure was found. Further, we did not find a significant effect of social accounts on the psychological and physiological recovery process. Conclusions The current research allows us to demonstrate that psychological contract breach will trigger a short-lived increase in heart rate. Further research is needed to better understand unfolding trajectories of physiological reactions to contract breach and the effect of social accounts as organizational recovery efforts.
... These findings may be related to lying being generally judged as immoral and the negative attitudes that people hold toward others who lie (Curtis & Hart, 2015). Another possibility of holding more negative attitudes toward others who lie could be due to the costs of telling lies or that lies tend to affect trust within a relationship (DePaulo et al, 2003;Möllering, 2009;Schweitzer et al., 2006). The consequences of being the target of deception can be perceived more negatively than rationalizing one's own use of deception. ...
... The seriousness of a lie revealed the same findings, in that others were rated more as "liars" specifically when the lie was serious. Others may be judged as "liars" more so when telling serious lies because of the consequences that serious lies tend to have on relationships, as they are often told in close relationships, less forgivable, and damage trust (DePaulo et al., 2004;Möllering, 2009;Schweitzer et al., 2006). ...
Article
Language is vastly important in shaping cognitions. The word “liar” is used in a variety of social contexts and deception literature, eliciting numerous images, and is rarely the object of research. Two studies explored how people think of the social cognitive label of “liar.” In Study 1, the actor-observer difference in the liar attribution was examined, in how people view their own lying compared to others’ lies. Additionally, attitudes and acceptability of self and others’ lies were investigated. In Study 2, the liar attribution was examined across various types of lies. Results indicated that people judge others to be more deserving of the liar label than one’s self and others lie based on their disposition. Additionally, people held more negative attitudes toward others who lie but were more accepting of others who lie.
... 1) The perceived risk of COVID-19, which includes the respondent's self-assessed probability of getting infected with COVID-19, his/her susceptibility to COVID-19 and the likely severity of illness if infected with COVID-19 [9]; 2) Well-being, which is computed based on the WHO 5-item well-being scale (WHO-5) [10]; 3) Negative affective states, which includes the respondent's feelings of stress, helplessness, fear and depression [11]; 4) Trust in sources of information, which includes trust in the Ministry of Health, trust in the Institute of Public Health and trust in health workers [12,13]. ...
Article
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Objectives: To investigate country-specific drivers and barriers of positive COVID-19 vaccine intentions in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH), one of the two entities comprising Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used, using an online behavioural insights survey tool adapted to the context of FBiH. Three survey waves, each including approximately 1,000 adults, were conducted in July, September and December 2020. Fixed-effects regression analysis was used to explore the drivers, barriers and attitudes towards accepting a future COVID-19 vaccine. Results: COVID-19 risk perception, trust in health institutions and negative affect were positive predictors of positive COVID-19 vaccine intentions, as were living in urban areas and having a college education (versus having primary or secondary education). Conversely, being female, feeling that the pandemic was overhyped by the media and the country of vaccine production were negative predictors. Conclusion: This study provided snapshots on the state of attitudes regarding a future COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and hesitancy in 2020. These findings provided useful insights into the efforts to introduce and roll out the COVID-19 vaccines in FBiH. Further efforts should focus on better understanding the demographic, cultural and behavioural contexts of COVID-related vaccination perceptions in FBiH.
... The consensus within the behavioral ethics literature is that unethical behavior is generally perceived negatively, leading observers to punish, shun, or avoid the person who violated the ethical standards (Haidt, 2007;Kurzban & Leary, 2001;Quade et al., 2017). Unsurprisingly, unethicality and deception are also highly damaging to interpersonal relationships (Boles et al., 2000;Croson et al., 2003;Schweitzer et al., 2006), as they impugn the person's integritythe belief they adhere to acceptable moral and ethical guidelines (Mayer et al., 1995). Accordingly, through the lens of behavioral ethics, an employee would likely see a coworker's PCUB as a negative signal about the potential for a high-quality relationship. ...
Article
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There is substantial evidence that employees build relationships with coworkers who provide them with assistance and distance themselves from coworkers who behave unethically. We consider how employees respond when coworkers provide them with benefits that violate ethical standards—a phenomenon we refer to as pro-coworker unethical behavior (PCUB). Building on social exchange theory, we explore how recipients of PCUB may simultaneously experience both a sense of increased indebtedness toward their coworker, given the beneficial nature of PCUB, and reduced perceptions of their coworker's integrity, given the unethical nature of PCUB. We theorize that these diverging reactions will have countervailing indirect effects on the social exchange relationship between the recipient and PCUB provider. In turn, these effects on the social exchange relationship will influence whether the recipient responds favorably toward the provider, in the form of interpersonal citizenship. Our theoretical model incorporates the PCUB provider's prosocial versus self-interested motives as a critical contingency that shapes recipients’ perceptions of indebtedness and integrity. The results of a multi-wave field study of employee–coworker dyads and an experimental study provide converging support for our hypothesized model. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... A further methodological challenge that has yet to be fully grappled with is that trust, as well as its related concepts, evolves recursively during the period of collaboration and therefore will vary over time. A number of existing studies have treated trust as a static concept, likely missing the dynamics of how trust evolves among actors, as it is lost and regained, nurtured, or eroded based on current and past experiences [50][51][52][53]. Some researchers have explicitly examined how trust changes over time, such as PytlikZillig's article examining the stages of institutional trust as knowledge about an institution Land 2021, 10, 1303 9 of 13 changes and affects one's attitudes towards it [26]. ...
Article
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Trust has been identified as a central characteristic of successful natural resource management (NRM), particularly in the context of implementing participatory approaches to stakeholder engagement. Trust is, however, a multi-dimensional and multi-level concept that is known to evolve recursively through time, challenging efforts to empirically measure its impact on collaboration in different NRM settings. In this communication we identify some of the challenges associated with conceptualizing and operationalizing trust in NRM field research, and pay particular attention to the inter-relationships between the concepts of trust, perceived risk and control due to their multi-dimensional and interacting roles in inter-organizational collaboration. The challenge of studying trust begins with its conceptualization, which impacts the terminology being used, thereby affecting the subsequent operationalization of trust in survey and interview measures, and the interpretation of these measures by engaged stakeholders. Building from this understanding, we highlight some of the key methodological considerations, including how trust is being conceptualized and how the associated measures are being developed, deployed, and validated in order to facilitate cross-context and cross-level comparisons. Until these key methodological issues are overcome, the nuanced roles of trust in NRM will remain unclear.
... Direct victims of deception suffer substantial psychological distress besides financial distress [18] and would allocate less money to deceivers in a dictator game [19]. The experience of being deceived impairs individuals' likeability toward liars [20], harms trust that cannot be fully recovered even after receiving apologies and observing trustworthy actions [21], and elicits higher activity in the anterior insula [17] that is associated with social emotions [22], disgust, aversion, negative arousal, and processing negative experiences [23][24][25][26]. ...
Article
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Charity organizations positively impact our societies but charity misconduct impairs people’s willingness to contribute to charity and functional health systems on public health issues. This study investigates the impact of charity misconduct on people’s willingness to offer help on public health issues and possible ways of reducing the negative impact brought by charity misconduct news through four studies (Ntotal = 1269). Results showed that charity misconduct on public health issues significantly reduced individuals’ willingness to offer help via both the charity involved with the misconduct and any charity they prefer (Study 1 and 2). Furthermore, news on charity misconduct reduced people’s general willingness to help in contexts that did not involve charity (Study 3). Finally, presenting charity nonmisconduct news after charity misconduct news increases individuals’ willingness to offer help via the nonmisconduct charity (Study 4), suggesting a potential way to nudge people to provide help in the fight against the negative impact brought by charity misconduct news. The findings show the backfire of reporting charity misconduct news and have important implications for potential ways to facilitate people to offer help.
... An increasing number of studies have focused on trust relationship repair, including brand trust repair from the perspective of individuals [4] and organisations [4][5][6]. Scholars have also explored ways to repair trust relationships, including apologies [7], donations [8,9], denial [10], commitments [11], and excuses [12]. In addition, some scholars have investigated green brand trust restoration from the perspective of response time [13,14]. ...
Article
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In recent years, brand crises and greenwashing events have become common for Chinese consumers. However, compared to ordinary brands, it is more challenging for green brands to rebuild trust relationships with consumers after a green brand crisis due to their unique energy-saving and environmental protection attributes. The impact mechanism of green brand crises on consumer trust is complicated. To evaluate the different effects of different types of crises, this study used a sample of more than 1000 questionnaires to allow a regressive analysis, robustness test, endogenous test, mechanism test, and heterogeneity analysis. The study’s results show that product functional and value-related crises harm green brand trust, and both brand perceived value and perceived risk play an intermediary role in the mechanism. Brand familiarity plays an essential role in the relationship between the green brand crisis and green brand trust.
... Thus, one of the more accessible and less demanding ways of implementing trust repair in an AI agent would be using social responses to recover broken trust in human relationships. For instance, the agent might promise to change in the future (Schweitzer et al., 2006), take responsibility, or give excuses for the failure after the trust violation (Kim et al., 2004(Kim et al., , 2006. ...
Article
Trust is essential in individuals’ perception, behavior, and evaluation of intelligent agents. Because, it is the primary motive for people to accept new technology, it is crucial to repair trust when damaged. This study investigated how intelligent agents should apologize to recover trust and how the effectiveness of the apology is different when the agent is human-like compared to machine-like based on two seemingly competing frameworks of the Computers-Are-Social-Actors paradigm and automation bias. A 2 (agent: Human-like vs. Machine-like) X 2 (apology attribution: Internal vs. External) between-subject design experiment was conducted (N = 193) in the context of the stock market. Participants were presented with a scenario to make investment choices based on an artificial intelligence agent’s advice. To see the trajectory of the initial trust-building, trust violation, and trust repair process, we designed an investment game that consists of five rounds of eight investment choices (40 investment choices in total). The results show that trust was repaired more efficiently when a human-like agent apologizes with internal rather than external attribution. However, the opposite pattern was observed among participants who had machine-like agents; the external rather than internal attribution condition showed better trust repair. Both theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... At the beginning of each round, both the trustor and trustee were given 10 points. The participants (the trustors) are given two choices: one is to give all 10 points to the trustee, and the other is to keep all 10 points (Haselhuhn, Kennedy, Kray, Van Zant, & Schweitzer, 2015;Schweitzer, Hershey, & Bradlow, 2006;Wang et al., 2015;Wang, Zhang, Jing, Valadez, & Simons, 2016).If the participant chose to invest 10 points to the trustee, the amount would be tripled (30 points). The trustee would have 40 points in this round (30 points + 10 points of their own). ...
Article
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Trust violations harm individuals’ behaviors and emotions, while their impact on cognition remains unclear. We explored whether trust violations influence two cognitive processes: attentional bias and working memory updating. We used the trust game to manipulate the trust violation. Fifty-one female participants (17–24 years; M = 19.73 years) performed dot-probe task and n-back task. The dot-probe task was adopted to measure the time-course (cues presentation: 200 ms, 500 ms) of two attentional bias components: attention engagement and attention disengagement; the n-back task was used to measure working memory updating under four memory loads (0, 1, 2, 3). Results showed the violated group had significantly higher attention engagement scores and disengagement scores for angry faces than zero during the presentation of the 200 ms cue. The reaction time of the violated group is longer than that of the control group under the two and three memory load. These results indicate that the trust violation facilitates attention engagement towards negative stimuli and impairs attention disengagement from those stimuli. It also causes damage to the ability of working memory updating. The imbalance between impulsive and reflective system is the main consequence of trust violation.
... Insider and outsiders' evidence asymmetry inspires passivity with workers' sustainability supplies and discourages executive rent removal. Schweitzer et al. (2006) reported that the improved worker's involvement helps the SMEs implement a more long-term perception to short-term adaptable behavior. The higher the expectation, the higher is the motivation of the workers to invest in work commitment. ...
... The antecedents of trustworthiness are ability, benevolence and integrity (Holley et al., 2019). Trustworthy behaviour refers to the behaviour of individuals, such as keeping promises, commitment to obligations, performance and being reliable (Cairney & Wellstead, 2020;Schweitzer et al., 2006). Therefore, the concepts trustworthy, loyal, always on time, trust and reliability were included under the theme trustworthiness. ...
... As for energy obtaining and financing, maybe due to the high level of risk control of these stakeholders in monopolistic industries such as petroleum, electricity, and banks, a CSIR crisis can give them a lot of information about the company, so crisis management may not be effective. Research shows that broken trust can be repaired, with much depending on the violator's response [62]. In view of the prevalence of trust failure in organizations and the severity of its consequences, repairing the trust of various stakeholders has actually become a "key management ability" [63]. ...
Article
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Corporate social irresponsibility (CSIR) scandals are frequently reported in China and have a huge impact on the enterprise and society. Aiming to understand the underlying mechanisms between CSIR and enterprise outcomes, this study uses a sample of 2618 firms from the 2018 National Survey of Private Entrepreneurs Survey and examines the corporate social irresponsibility punishments from the perspective of stakeholders by introducing transaction costs. The results indicate that although the punishments for corporate irresponsible behaviors may not be strong enough to deter enterprises from irresponsibility in China, punishments from various stakeholders are increasing in terms of transaction costs. In addition, crisis management capacity may negatively moderate the relationship between CSIR and transaction costs, while regional economic development positively moderates it. This study adds to the extant research on CSIR consequences by combining stakeholders with transaction costs and provides new insights into transaction costs.
... How can trust be repaired and rebuilt after it has been broken? The researchers studied apology, denial, silence, explanation, commitment, justification, voluntary collateral, compensation, punishment, and other verbal responses repair strategies (Bottom et al., 2002;Nakayachi and Watabe, 2005;Schweitzer et al., 2006;Tomlinson and Mryer, 2009). Among these strategies, the research on apology mainly focused on the content and function of apology. ...
Article
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This study examined the effect of verbal and written apologies on trust repair based on competence and integrity after a trust violation. Through three experiments, the empirical results showed that the written apology was more effective than verbal ones a restoring trust for integrity-based trust violations. However, the verbal apology was more effective against competency-based trust violations than a written one. Moreover, the results also showed that perceived trustworthiness played a mediating role between trust violation and trust repair, while positive emotions played a moderating role. Finally, this study provided a general discussion, implications, and suggestions for future research.
... For HOs, trust is crucial, because it allows managers to lead and negotiate with various stakeholders more effectively and efficiently; however, trust is often violated in ways that Logistics 2022, 6, 31 6 of 18 range from misdeeds that establish fraud, or the incorporation of deception in negotiations [46]. De Fine Licht [47] highlighted how trust becomes further complicated in the case of many stakeholders if several parties engage in a control relationship; therefore, digitalization of the HL process is a way forward in terms of building trust in HOs. ...
Article
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Mismanagement in disaster relief operations (DROs) has created a requirement for fast, fair, and safe humanitarian logistics (HL). The deployment of digital solutions in DROs is supported by humanitarian organizations (HOs) as well as recent research; therefore, the key purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of digitalization for fast, fair, and safe HL in DROs. Methods: Primary empirical data were acquired from 449 disaster relief workers (DRWs) via questionnaires and by employing the snowball sampling methodology and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in SmartPLS 3. Results: The result of this study indicates that fast, fair, and safe HL is crucial because it can save people’s lives and reduce suffering, and it achieves long-term sustainable development. The findings of the study could be beneficial to all catastrophe risk-management stakeholders as they look for ways to help victims. In addition, the ultimate beneficiaries of digitalized and effective HL will be all of society, notably disaster victims. Conclusions: By implementing proper technologies in DROs, the afflicted may receive needed resources on time, which can save many lives. The utility of the proposed variables is promoting awareness about HL in a fast, fair, and safe manner, and we discuss implications, limitations, and future research. The research adds to the literature by presenting the first quantitative evidence assessing the independent role of digitalization in generating fast, fair, and safe HL from one of the world’s most disaster-prone countries.
... For HOs, trust is crucial, because it allows managers to lead and negotiate with various stakeholders more effectively and efficiently; however, trust is often violated in ways that Logistics 2022, 6, 31 6 of 18 range from misdeeds that establish fraud, or the incorporation of deception in negotiations [46]. De Fine Licht [47] highlighted how trust becomes further complicated in the case of many stakeholders if several parties engage in a control relationship; therefore, digitalization of the HL process is a way forward in terms of building trust in HOs. ...
Article
Background: Mismanagement in disaster relief operations (DROs) has created a requirement for fast, fair, and safe humanitarian logistics (HL). The deployment of digital solutions in DROs is supported by humanitarian organizations (HOs) as well as recent research; therefore, the key purpose of this article is to investigate the impact of digitalization for fast, fair, and safe HL in DROs. Methods: Primary empirical data were acquired from 449 disaster relief workers (DRWs) via questionnaires and by employing the snowball sampling methodology and partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) in SmartPLS 3. Results: The result of this study indicates that fast, fair, and safe HL is crucial because it can save people’s lives and reduce suffering, and it achieves long-term sustainable development. The findings of the study could be beneficial to all catastrophe risk-management stakeholders as they look for ways to help victims. In addition, the ultimate beneficiaries of digitalized and effective HL will be all of society, notably disaster victims. Conclusions: By implementing proper technologies in DROs, the afflicted may receive needed resources on time, which can save many lives. The utility of the proposed variables is promoting awareness about HL in a fast, fair, and safe manner, and we discuss implications, limitations, and future research. The research adds to the literature by presenting the first quantitative evidence assessing the independent role of digitalization in generating fast, fair, and safe HL from one of the world’s most disaster-prone countries.
... Doch auch innerhalb des Unternehmens sind die Schäden aufgrund von gebrochenem Vertrauen fundamental und langfristig (Bagdasarov et al., 2019, Robinson & Rousseau, 1994Guest & Conway, 2002;Schweitzer et al., 2006). Studien zeigen, dass aufgrund von organisationalen Regelüberschreitungen mehr als 50 Prozent der Angestellten bereits einen Vertrauensbruch in ihrem Unternehmen erlebt haben (Bagdasarov et al., 2019). ...
... Given that trust is fundamental to relationships (e.g., Kramer, 1999;Mayer et al., 1995) and mounting empirical evidence has shown that deception is consequential for trust (e.g., Bok, 1978;Boles et al., 2000;Carr, 1968;Croson et al., 2003;Haselhuhn et al., 2017;O'Connor and Carnevale, 1997;Schweitzer and Croson, 1999;Schweitzer et al., 2006), future research may opt to examine: (a) the specific behavioral repairs required of negotiators in order to rebuild trust and restore their reputations following detected deception, and (b) how long the repair trajectories last. We would expect that the types of repairs required and length of time for restoration of trust and reputation would be moderated by a variety of factors, including the gender of the deceptive actor. ...
Chapter
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While competitive situations such as negotiations are usually thought to involve some level of deception, the use of deception is inconsistent across negotiators. In this chapter, we examine the various paradigms, dependent variables, and situational moderators surrounding deception in negotiations – paying particular attention to the unique role of gender. We consider gender both as a predictor of whether a negotiator will deceive as well as a predictor of whether a negotiator will elicit deception from others. First, we begin this chapter by broadly reviewing the prior literature on deception in negotiations – discussing the various theories of deception, tactics, and consequences of deception. Next, we focus on the role of gender – considering the literature on the disparate ethical standards and use of deception between men and women negotiators. We then briefly consider the literature on individual and environmental factors that may assist in curtailing deception. Throughout we make recommendations for future research (both basic and applied) in the area of gender and deception in negotiations. We conclude the chapter by making practical recommendations for the classroom and for organizations to consider to curtail unethical behavior and deception in the workplace.
... For HOs, trust is crucial, because it allows managers to lead and negotiate with various stakeholders more effectively and efficiently; however, trust is often violated in ways that Logistics 2022, 6, 31 6 of 18 range from misdeeds that establish fraud, or the incorporation of deception in negotiations [46]. De Fine Licht [47] highlighted how trust becomes further complicated in the case of many stakeholders if several parties engage in a control relationship; therefore, digitalization of the HL process is a way forward in terms of building trust in HOs. ...
Article
Full-text available
... Insider and outsiders' evidence asymmetry inspires passivity with workers' sustainability supplies and discourages executive rent removal. Schweitzer et al. (2006) reported that the improved worker's involvement helps the SMEs implement a more long-term perception to short-term adaptable behavior. The higher the expectation, the higher is the motivation of the workers to invest in work commitment. ...
Article
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The study was conducted to ascertain the role of health and safety practices (HSPs) in improving the performance of the firm and safety performance. The study was conducted in Pakistan, a developing country from South Asia. This study collected data from various small and medium enterprises (SMEs) located in Karachi and Sindh, Pakistan. Data were analyzed through statistical packages for scientific solutions. The feasibility of survey data was primarily tested with the help of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, .80, which shows the construct items to have interitem consistency. Subsequently, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistic techniques (Pearson correlation coefficient of significant [two-tailed] and simple regression) were used. The study findings reveal that HSPs have a significant effect on the performance of SMEs and safety performance. Firms in developing countries need to pay more attention to HSPs so that the positive benefits of increased SME performance and safety performance can be attained. The implications are discussed in detail.
... Given the relational focus of guilt, one could conjecture that guilt would decrease lying because it may cause long-term relational damage. The detection that one has been lied to is linked to deleterious interpersonal outcomes such as decreased liking (Tyler, Feldman, & Reichert, 2006), trust (Schweitzer, Hershey, & Bradlow, 2006), and relational commitment (Cole, 2001). Lying detection is often more devastating in close relationships because of high expectations from each other in such relationships (Miller, Mongeau, & Sleight, 1986). ...
Article
Guilt has often been conceptualized as a moral emotion because it stimulates transgressors to restore a damaged relationship. However, not much has been investigated about when the guilt-induced relational-promoting goal conflicts with certain moral norms (for instance, honesty). In this paper, we demonstrate that guilt increases the transgressors' lying intentions in situations where honesty is anticipated to incur immediate relational harm with the victim and that this effect is driven by the transgressors' short-term relational focus. Across three experiments (two preregistered), we provide robust evidence for our prediction. Study 1 examined the effect of guilt on inflating the feedback to the victim, measured relational focus and the focus on the instrumental value of honesty (i.e., long-term benefits brought by honesty such as career growth) as simultaneous mechanisms, and contrasted the effect of guilt on the lying intention with that of shame. Study 2 better measured the short-termism in the relational focus and examined a situation wherein guilty participants could lie to a third party for the benefit of the victim. Study 3 provided additional support for our proposed mechanism by showing that deliberation on the consequences of not being honest (i.e., indirectly increasing participants' focus on the long-term instrumental value of honesty) decreases people's lying intentions. These results contribute to our understanding of the complex interpersonal nature of guilt and, specifically, its temporal focus.
... In the current study, the unethical AT continued exhibiting unethical actions after providing trust repair. Prior work has found that trust repair without subsequently improving behaviors is ineffective at repairing trust (Schweitzer et al., 2006). Therefore, combining trust repair with a change in ethical behavior may prove more effective at restoring trust and ethical perceptions. ...
Article
Objective Determining the efficacy of two trust repair strategies (apology and denial) for trust violations of an ethical nature by an autonomous teammate. Background While ethics in human-AI interaction is extensively studied, little research has investigated how decisions with ethical implications impact trust and performance within human-AI teams and their subsequent repair. Method Forty teams of two participants and one autonomous teammate completed three team missions within a synthetic task environment. The autonomous teammate made an ethical or unethical action during each mission, followed by an apology or denial. Measures of individual team trust, autonomous teammate trust, human teammate trust, perceived autonomous teammate ethicality, and team performance were taken. Results Teams with unethical autonomous teammates had significantly lower trust in the team and trust in the autonomous teammate. Unethical autonomous teammates were also perceived as substantially more unethical. Neither trust repair strategy effectively restored trust after an ethical violation, and autonomous teammate ethicality was not related to the team score, but unethical autonomous teammates did have shorter times. Conclusion Ethical violations significantly harm trust in the overall team and autonomous teammate but do not negatively impact team score. However, current trust repair strategies like apologies and denials appear ineffective in restoring trust after this type of violation. Application This research highlights the need to develop trust repair strategies specific to human-AI teams and trust violations of an ethical nature.
Article
Trust is a critical precondition underpinning successful knowledge exchange among environmental scientists and decision-makers, and thus, evidence-informed decision-making processes. While the importance of trust is well established, however, specific approaches to building, managing and maintaining trust at the interface of environmental science and policy are lacking. Here, we seek to address this gap empirically via in-depth qualitative analysis, using the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) as a case study. Specifically, through interviews with members of the ICES secretariat and scientific community, this study aims to (i) explore the importance of trust for organisations working at the interface of environmental science and policy, (ii) identify a range of strategies that are available for building trust at the interface of science and policy, and (iii) identify specific mechanisms for trust repair in situations where trust has been compromised. Our results show that trust is an essential component of a successful relationship between environmental science and policy, although highly dynamic and fragile. For example, while considerable time and effort is required to build trust, it can be lost in only a matter of days. Further, our results show that for successful knowledge exchange, and the attainment of research impact, trust is needed on three levels: (i) trust in individuals, (ii) trust in the organisation, and (iii) trust in the process by which knowledge is generated and exchanged. We identify 14 strategies to building trust, including the need for transparency, the importance of not advocating for a specific outcome, having a clear process for developing and providing knowledge/advice, having regular contact (preferably face to face) and being able to demonstrate independence. Finally, we identify five steps to repair trust: (i) Do not become defensive, be honest that a mistake has occurred, (ii) identify, and explain, why the mistake occurred, (iii) implement measures to ensure that the mistake does not happen again, (iv) correct the mistake (e.g. by providing updated knowledge/advice), and (v) give the trust re-building process time, and ensure ongoing face to face contact throughout that time. In presenting these insights from ICES, this study seeks to provide practical and implementable strategies that can be used by environmental scientists and/or research institutions to help them foster trust with decision-makers, enable improved knowledge exchange and build capacity for evidence-informed decision-making processes.
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This thesis seeks to improve the classification of laughter by uncovering its purpose in communication, identifiability, and acoustic features. Reviewing the existing literature, this paper identifies three main types of laughter: affiliative, de-escalative, and power. Consulting with research assistants, this paper then classifies 113 instances of laughter from 62 Congressional Committee meetings published on C-SPAN. The interrater classification agreement suggests individuals can identify and categorize the different types of laughter with context. Additionally, 14 participants were recruited to complete exercises designed to elicit archetypes of the three laughter categories. These study recordings, which included 124 laughter bouts, were analyzed for acoustic features (pitch (Hz), energy (dB), duration, and proportion of voiced laughter vs. silence). The audio analysis indicates acoustic features of laughter are not overall significantly different amongst the three categories and therefore suggests social context, including proximal language and visual cues, predominantly explains the identifiability of the laughter types.
Article
Purpose As an emerging technology, medical artificial intelligence (AI) plays an important role in the healthcare system. However, the service failure of medical AI causes severe violations to user trust. Different from other services that do not involve vital health, customers' trust toward the service of medical AI are difficult to repair after service failure. This study explores the links among different types of attributions (external and internal), service recovery strategies (firm, customer, and co-creation), and service recovery outcomes (trust). Design/methodology/approach Empirical analysis was carried out using data ( N = 338) collected from a 2 × 3 scenario-based experiment. The scenario-based experiment has three stages: service delivery, service failure, and service recovery. The attribution of service failure was divided into two parts (customer vs. firm), while the recovery of service failure was divided into three parts (customer vs. firm vs. co-creation), making the design full factorial. Findings The results show that (1) internal attribution of the service failure can easily repair both affective-based trust (AFTR) and cognitive-based trust (CGTR), (2) co-creation recovery has a greater positive effect on AFTR while firm recovery is more effective on cognitive-based trust, (3) a series of interesting conclusions are found in the interaction between customers' attribution and service recovery strategy. Originality/value The authors' findings are of great significance to the strategy of service recovery after service failure in the medical AI system. According to the attribution type of service failure, medical organizations can choose a strategy to more accurately improve service recovery effect.
Article
Purpose Building on prior trust repair research, this study aims to develop a more robust theoretical framework that describes trust repair strategies used by salespeople following a breach of trust. Design/methodology/approach To achieve the aim of this paper, individual depth interviews with 18 professional salespeople, 4 sales executives and 7 purchasing agents were undertaken. Findings This paper examines the value of using trust repair strategies (e.g. restoration, regulation and verbal repair strategies) both in isolation and in conjunction. The results suggest that individual trust repair strategies operate through impacting different dimensions of justice, as justice provides a reliable indicator as to whether the salesperson can be trusted in the future. This paper also finds that combining multiple trust repair strategies can have an additive effect on trust. Originality/value This paper uses thematic analysis to inductively identify the effective trust repair strategies that are used by salespeople in actual exchange relationships while integrating these insights with the existing theoretical frameworks in the literature. It contributes to theory through creating a conceptual model explaining the breach of trust and trust repair process, introducing justice as a direct mediating mechanism between trust repair strategies and increased trust. The research also develops a new perspective on combining salesperson words and actions to repair trust. It also provides a managerial contribution through introducing an optimized approach to trust repair in buyer-seller relationships.
Chapter
This chapter will serve as an overview of trust in the United States, with a particular consideration of how the social phenomenon can be understood within the nation’s cultural context. Broadly speaking, culture can informally be thought of as members’ agreement on “the way things are done” in their particular society. Such a common framework and understanding of culture are essential for members to effectively communicate and operate (Hofstede, Hofstede, & Minkov, 2010); without it, conflict, if not chaos, would result from misinterpretations and confusion as to what is acceptable or not. Likewise, trust is essential for people to function in a society. Without trust, people would be unwilling or unable to put their faith in others which would diminish not only the quality of relationships but also the productive benefits that only operating together can bring.
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Buyer-supplier relationships provide ample opportunities for trust violations to occur. Yet, the literature on the impact and outcomes of violations of trust in buyer-supplier relationships is underdeveloped. In this study, we report the results from three complementary scenario-based experiments that evaluate the impact of a supplier-induced violation on a buyer’s trust in that supplier. We establish a spillover effect of supplier integrity violations onto the buyer’s competence dimension of trust, and of supplier competence violations onto the buyer’s integrity dimension of trust. We also examine the role of inter-organizational governance, finding that contractual and relational governance are differentially effective at mitigating trust damages experienced by a buyer after a supplier violation. Specifically, we observe that relational governance helps mitigate damages to buyer’s trust following a supplier competence violation, whereas some evidence suggests that contractual governance serves to preserve buyer’s trust following a supplier integrity violation. These findings have important theoretical and managerial implications for the management of buyer-supplier relationships. We discuss why the governance structures adopted by firms involved in a buyer-supplier relationship have distinct impacts on trust assessments following a violation.
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The service industry has become increasingly competitive. One of the main drivers for increasing profits and market share is service quality. When consumers encounter a bad experience, or a frustration, they may be tempted to stop using the service. In collaboration with the ride-sharing platform Via, our goal is to understand the benefits of proactively compensating customers who have experienced a frustration. Motivated by historical data, we consider two types of frustrations: long waiting times and long travel times. We design and run three field experiments to investigate how different types of compensation affect the engagement of riders who experienced a frustration. We find that sending proactive compensation to frustrated riders (i) is profitable and boosts their engagement behavior, (ii) works well for long waiting times but not for long travel times, (iii) seems more effective than sending the same offer to nonfrustrated riders, and (iv) has an impact moderated by past usage frequency. We also observe that the best strategy is to send credit for future usage (as opposed to waiving the charge or sending an apologetic message). This paper was accepted by Vishal Gaur, operations management.
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This article extends understanding of trust repair by explaining in more detail the dynamics of trust at the network-level. Building on organizational-level trust repair research, the article explains how two periods of trust repair – catharsis and catalysis – contribute to trust repair of an interorganizational network. In addition, the article describes how changes to network-level trust in an interorganizational network changes the governance form of the network making the interorganizational network more durable and stable.
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We use a theory of apologies to design a nationwide field experiment involving 1.5 million Uber ridesharing consumers who experienced late rides. Several insights emerge: First, apologies are not a panacea – the efficacy of an apology and whether it may backfire depend on how the apology is made. Second, across treatments, money speaks louder than words – the best form of apology is to include a coupon for a future trip. Third, in some cases sending an apology is worse than sending nothing at all, particularly for repeated apologies and apologies that promise to do better. For firms, caveat venditor should be the rule when considering apologies.
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Prosocial lies – lies that are intended to benefit others – are ubiquitous. This article reviews recent research on the causes and consequences of prosocial lies. Prosocial lies are often motivated by the desire to spare others from emotional harm. Therefore, prosocial lies are frequently told in situations in which honesty would cause heightened emotional harm (e.g., when a target is fragile) and by people who are sensitive to others’ emotional suffering (e.g., those high in compassion). However, targets only react positively to prosocial lies when they prevent emotional harm and when honesty lacks instrumental value (i.e., when they prevent unnecessary harm). Outside of these situations, targets typically view prosocial lies as paternalistic and therefore penalize those who tell them.
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Intentional service failures (e.g., overbooking or overcharging) have received little scholarly attention, despite their regular occurrence and immense costs. Using a multi-method approach combining experimental and field data from online reviews, it was found that intentional (vs. unintentional) failures lead to greater negative word of mouth (nWOM) and patronage reduction. This research extends these findings by demonstrating that intentional failures are less harmful when the failure is reversible (vs. irreversible) and occurs at an employee (vs. firm) level. Further, while either psychological (e.g., apology) or monetary compensation is effective in mitigating the consequences of intentional failures at an employee level, a combined service recovery (psychological and monetary) is the best solution when the failure is at a firm level. Drawing on attribution theory, the paper unveils the key role of trust (as opposed to justice) as the mechanism to explain the effects of intentionality on customers’ nWOM and patronage reduction.
Article
Purpose This study aims to explore the combined strategies leading to successful repair of two types of trust in Chinese construction projects and provide an effective guidance and control trust repair in construction projects. During the research period, the author interviewed 150 managers from 50 Chinese construction projects and collected details of 125 violations. The research examines the effect of combined strategy of trust repair in Chinese management scenario. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a mixed, quantitative, qualitative and exploratory approach. The author first extracted six strategies, namely, apology, denial, penance, communication, promise and compensation, from the literature review and generalization. Then, the author conducted an interview with 150 managers from 50 China construction projects. And the author analyzed the data through qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). Findings When competence-based trust is broken, violators should adopt communication and promise, demonstrate their competence and qualification, and change the attributions of competence from the trustor. When integrity-based trust is broken, violators should apologize, actively admit the mistake, show a positive attitude and seek the forgiveness from the trustor. After reconstructing trustors' perceptions of competence or integrity, violators should also make a promise to trustors for the future. The result of this research not only illustrates the sufficiency and necessity of a single strategy for trust repair but also explores the combination of trust repair strategies that rebuild the trust. Research limitations/implications This study is limited to 50 construction projects in the Chinese construction context, so conclusions are limited in application. Data used in this research did not provide an in-depth analysis of trust repair failures. Thus, additional research is needed to explore why trust was not repaired. The study is also limited to examining the Chinese construction project organizations only, and future studies should incorporate organizations in other nations and regions. Practical implications Compared with using a single strategy, a combined strategy provides a contribution to the future practice of repair broken relationship between construction project organizations. This research helps to organize decisions and benefits managers, from Chinese owners and contractors, in choosing which of these strategies repair trust. The author also provides a specific combination of strategies to repair relationships for international companies that have conflicts with Chinese construction companies. Originality/value This research is among the early studies in China that preliminary examines the combined strategy of trust repair between Chinese owners and contractors by using causal attribution theory and QCA. This study makes a valuable contribution toward combined strategy in construction project and the knowledge system of trust repair. Future studies could build on the findings from the current study to develop a cross-cultural research on trust repair.
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I argue that lying in business negotiations is pro tanto wrong and no less wrong than lying in other contexts. First, I assert that lying in general is pro tanto wrong. Then, I examine and refute five arguments to the effect that lying in a business context is less wrong than lying in other contexts. The common thought behind these arguments—based on consent, self-defence, the “greater good,” fiduciary duty, and practicality—is that the particular circumstances which are characteristic of business negotiations are such that the wrongness of lying is either mitigated or eliminated completely. I argue that all these “special exemption” arguments fail. I conclude that, in the absence of a credible argument to the contrary, the same moral constraints must apply to lying in business negotiations as apply to lying in other contexts. Furthermore, I show that for the negotiator, there are real practical benefits from not lying.
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Crowdfunding provides a new platform to entrepreneurs and small businesses to not only raise external funding but also reach out to the market and receive feedback on product prototypes. Based on a trustworthiness perspective, this study proposes that webpage cues of competence trust and benevolence trust on crowdfunding webpages affect crowdfunding success in terms of the amount of funds raised, number of funders, and amount of feedback received. In addition, benevolence trust lessens the negative effect of discriminatory pricing on crowdfunding success. Our hypotheses are verified through 469 rewards-based crowdfunding projects hosted on a major crowdfunding platform in China. Results show that trustworthiness generally increases crowdfunding success and competence trust has a lower impact than benevolence trust on amount of feedback. Unexpectedly, benevolence trust accentuates, rather than mitigates, the negative effect of discriminatory pricing on crowdfunding success. This study contributes to research on crowdfunding success by widening its scope to include both financial and non-financial aspects, providing a parsimonious framework to theorize success factors, and setting a boundary for the effect of discriminatory pricing.
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Trust violations regularly occur under the form of distributive fairness violations. In response to such violations, the transgressor can signal his or her willingness to go the “extra mile” by compensating the victim beyond the inflicted damage, which is generally referred to as overcompensation. We conducted two behavioral studies (Studies 1 and 2) and one fMRI experiment (Study 3) to investigate the psychological processes and supporting neural systems that underlie the effectiveness of overcompensation as a strategy to enhance trust in interpersonal relationships. Towards this end, we investigated how people on the receiving end of the compensation experience being overcompensated. Our studies, first of all, revealed that after being overcompensated people did not report higher levels of trust in the transgressor than after being equally compensated, a finding that runs counter the “extra mile” logic. As expected, our behavioral findings additionally showed that, compared to equal compensation, overcompensation evoked more conflicting thoughts and more sense-making processes in the mind of the receiver. Converging evidence for these findings was provided by our neuroimaging results, which revealed higher activations in the conflict-monitoring and the mentalizing network of the brain after overcompensation compared to equal compensation. Finally, the results of our behavioral studies suggest that conflicting thoughts and sense-making serially mediate the effect that overcompensation has on trust perceptions. Together, these findings shed new light on why overcompensation can backfire and even lead to a further decline of trust. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and formulate suggestions for future research.
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Coordination is at the heart of effective teamwork and contributes to shared mental models and mutual trust of team members (Salas, Sims, & Burke, 2005). However, successful coordination does not always occur. This study examines the prerequisites for effective coordination and identifies the role of socially shared emotion regulation (SSER; Gross, 2015) in the management of challenges that hinder the development of coordination. We examined 48 international participants who interacted in 16 teams of two to five in a two-day competitive and time-sensitive hackathon. A qualitative approach was used to identify the types of SSER strategies teams applied to overcome challenges that surfaced during the socio-emotionally challenging context. Findings resulted in a process model of “team emotion regulation” that expands Gross's (1998) individual emotion regulation model. These findings have implications for enhancing performance in teams with coordination breakdowns by focusing on SSER strategies that can lead to the resolutions of challenges in complex collaborative settings.
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The rise in artificial intelligence capabilities in autonomy-enabled systems and robotics has pushed research to address the unique nature of human-autonomy team collaboration. The goal of these advanced technologies is to enable rapid decision making, enhance situation awareness, promote shared understanding, and improve team dynamics. Simultaneously, use of these technologies is expected to reduce risk to those who collaborate with these systems. Yet, for appropriate human- autonomy teaming to take place, especially as we move beyond dyadic partnerships, proper calibration of team trust is needed to effectively coordinate interactions during high-risk operations. But to meet this end, critical measures of team trust for this new dynamic of human-autonomy teams are needed. This paper seeks to expand on trust measurement principles and the foundation of human-autonomy teaming to propose a “toolkit” of novel methods that support the development, maintenance and calibration of trust in human-autonomy teams operating within uncertain, risky, and dynamic environments.
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Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the views of practicing negotiators on their experiences of deception and their strategies for detecting deceptive behavior. A thematic analysis of interview data complements the existing experimental literature on deception and negotiation. The authors compare the experiences of practicing negotiators with the results found in experimental studies and provide practical recommendations for negotiators and managers regarding the detection of deception. Design/methodology/approach Data was collected from 19 practicing commercial negotiators in France by way of semi-structured interviews. The transcribed data was analyzed by way of thematic analysis using the software NVivo 12. Experiences and behaviors identified in the negotiation literature as key factors for the detection of deception acted as a coding framework. Findings A thematic analysis of the data revealed four themes related to the experience of deception that negotiators perceived as particularly important: the frequency, form, interpretation and consequences of deception. Further, the analysis revealed four factors that negotiators believed influenced their ability to detect deceptive communication: physical cues, such as body language and micro-expressions, and verbal cues, including contradictions and inconsistencies, emotional cues and environmental cues. Finally, the strategies described by negotiators to detect deception could be classified according to six themes: careful listening, asking questions, emotional intelligence, intuition, checking consistency and requesting evidence. Research limitations/implications This study elicited the views of commercial negotiators without collecting information from their negotiation counterparts. Hence, it was not possible to verify whether the reported detection of deceptive communication was accurate. Because of optimism bias, the participants in the sample were likely to overrate their ability to detect deception. In part, this was helpful because the negotiators spoke freely about their strategies for dealing with deceptive counterparts allowing the identification of techniques to improve the efficacy of detecting deceptive communication. Practical implications Participants overwhelmingly expressed that there is a lack of training on deception in negotiation. It is suggested that the results of this study inform the development of training courses on the detection of deception. In particular, it is recommended that training courses should cover the following topics: how to anticipate and avoid deceptive behavior; how to effectively respond to deceptive behavior; the role of emotional intelligence in detecting deceptive behavior; careful listening and asking questions; and the role of intuition in detecting deception. Originality/value Prior empirical studies on the detection of deception have not specifically investigated the range of self-reported strategies used by practicing negotiators to detect deceptive communication. This study addresses this gap. This study complements existing experimental works by widening the spectrum of potential variables that play a role in the effective detection of deceptive communication.
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Sustaining collaboration among independent firms is a central problem in supply chain management. While contractual agreements are commonly used to achieve coordination, firms often rely on relational or trust-based approaches to achieve collaboration. This paper examines how suppliers of complementary products sustain cooperation via repeated interactions in a supply chain. This topic is relevant to digital supply chains as there has been a rapid growth of digital platforms where independent firms can share data or collaborate in other ways to achieve greater efficiency. We consider a specific setting to explore how firms can achieve collaboration without explicit contracts. In our model, suppliers sell complementary products to a downstream buyer (or assembler) who faces uncertain demand. We model three cases where suppliers have different levels of forgiveness towards deviations: the Nash reversion strategy (terminate the relationship forever), the finite-punishment-period strategy (pause the relationship for a finite time), the repentance strategy (continue the cooperation after making amends). When both suppliers value future business relationship (the future cash flow), then supplier cooperation will be an outcome of subgame-perfect equilibrium. In addition, suppliers with a moderate tolerance for deviation can reach a long-term cooperation by the repentance strategy, while the Nash reversion strategy and the finite-punishment-period strategy can help sustain the long-term cooperation between suppliers with a low tolerance. We show that the repentance strategy, rather than the other two strategies, is strongly renegotiation-proof. Our results show that long-lasting business relationships in a supply chain can be more easily sustained as an equilibrium when partners are willing to continue to work with others who may have deviated from their commitment, as long as the deviating partner accepts a punishment (through a temporary pause in the relationship) or the partner makes amends. Moreover, the repentance strategy can effectively reduce the negative effect of deviations on the supply chain.
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Deception pervades negotiations and shapes both the negotiation process and outcomes. In this article, we review recent scholarship investigating deception in negotiations. We offer an integrative review of recent theoretical and empirical research, and we argue that the dominant experimental paradigms that scholars have used to study deception have limited our understanding of deception in negotiation. We call for future work to develop new paradigms to investigate the role of relationships, reputations, emotions, and negotiation experience. We also call for future work to expand our understanding of practical prescriptions to curtail a negotiator’s risk of being deceived.
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Our paper examines how prior trust moderates consumer and firm responses to a firm's failures. We document that relatively high prior trust in a firm can help firms better recover from the negative effects of denying versus accepting failures, but that trust offers greater protection against competence as compared to ethical failures. We also consider the effects of two responses to ethical failures - external attribution and monetary compensation - and demonstrate that these responses may be viable alternatives that yield consumer perceptions that are as favorable as denying ethical failures. Finally, we show that reticence - neither confirming nor disconfirming a failure -elicits the least favorable post-recovery consumer responses. Our findings suggest that it may be possible for a firm to recover from an ethical failure even after accepting the failure, which is an important contribution since little prior research supports a successful recovery from ethical failures.
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Arguably, the most critical time frame for organizational participants to develop trust is at the beginning of their relationship. Using primarily a cognitive approach, we address factors and processes that enable two organizational parties to form relatively high trust initially. We propose a model of specific relationships among several trust-related constructs and two cognitive processes. The model helps explain the paradoxical finding of high initial trust levels in new organizational relationships.
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We propose a new theoretical framework for understanding simultaneous trust and distrust within relationships. grounded in assumptions of multidimensionality and the inherent tensions of relationships. and we separate this research from prior work grounded in assumptions of unidimensionality and balance. Drawing foundational support for this new framework from recent research on simultaneous positive and negative sentiments and ambivalence. we explore the theoretical and practical sig- nificance of the framework for future work on trust and distrust relationships within organizations.
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In 2 experiments, 221 kindergartners and 1st, 4th, and 7th graders judged actors who committed a transgression under conditions of low or high responsibility and low or high consequences. The actor's motives were good or bad and the act was intended or accidental. The actor then either did nothing or employed 1 of 3 increasingly elaborate apologies. As hypothesized, the actor's predicament was most severe, producing the harshest judgments when (a) the actor had high responsibility for committing an inadvertent act that produced high consequences, and (b) the act was the result of a bad rather than good motive or was intended rather than accidental. More elaborate apologies produced less blame and punishment and more forgiveness, liking, positive evaluations, and attributions of greater remorse. The judgments of the 7th graders were more affected by the actor's apology than those of the younger Ss. These age differences reflect the younger Ss' poorer ability to integrate social information and appreciate the implications of social conventions. However, the younger Ss' judgments were similar to those of older Ss. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This paper investigates the use of deception in two negotiation studies. Study 1 (N=80) demonstrates that direct questions and solidarity curtail deception. Study 2 (N=74 dyads) demonstrates that direct questions are particularly effective in curtailing lies of omission, but may actually increase the incidence of lies of commission. These findings highlight the importance of misrepresentation to the negotiation process and suggest approaches for contending with deception.
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This target article is concerned with the implications of the surprisingly different experimental practices in economics and in areas of psychology relevant to both economists and psychologists, such as behavioral decision making. We consider four features of experimentation in economics, namely, script enactment, repeated trials, performance-based monetary payments, and the proscription against deception, and compare them to experimental practices in psychology, primarily in the area of behavioral decision making. Whereas economists bring a precisely defined “script” to experiments for participants to enact, psychologists often do not provide such a script, leaving participants to infer what choices the situation affords. By often using repeated experimental trials, economists allow participants to learn about the task and the environment; psychologists typically do not. Economists generally pay participants on the basis of clearly defined performance criteria; psychologists usually pay a flat fee or grant a fixed amount of course credit. Economists virtually never deceive participants; psychologists, especially in some areas of inquiry, often do. We argue that experimental standards in economics are regulatory in that they allow for little variation between the experimental practices of individual researchers. The experimental standards in psychology, by contrast, are comparatively laissez-faire. We believe that the wider range of experimental practices in psychology reflects a lack of procedural regularity that may contribute to the variability of empirical findings in the research fields under consideration. We conclude with a call for more research on the consequences of methodological preferences, such as the use on monetary payments, and propose a “do-it-both-ways” rule regarding the enactment of scripts, repetition of trials, and performance-based monetary payments. We also argue, on pragmatic grounds, that the default practice should be not to deceive participants.
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Numerous researchers have proposed that trust is essential for understanding interpersonal and group behavior, managerial effectiveness, economic exchange and social or political stability, yet according to a majority of these scholars, this concept has never been precisely defined. This article reviews definitions from various approaches within organizational theory, examines the consistencies and differences, and proposes that trust is based upon an underlying assumption of an implicit moral duty. This moral duty—an anomaly in much of organizational theory—has made a precise definition problematic. Trust also is examined from philosophical ethics, and a synthesis of the organizational and philosophical definitions that emphasizes an explicit sense of moral duty and is based upon accepted ethical principles of analysis is proposed. This new definition has the potential to combine research from the two fields of study in important areas of inquiry.
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We demonstrate that incidental emotions (e.g. anger stemming from an argument with your spouse) influence trust in unrelated settings (e.g. the likelihood of trusting a co-worker). Incidental happiness and gratitude increase trust, and incidental anger decreases trust. Other-person control appraisals mediate this relationship, and trustee familiarity moderates this relationship.
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Swift trust and temporary groups January 1, 1991. The Grand Kempinski Hotel, Dallas, Texas. 9:00 a.m. “Crew Call.” About 35 people gather. Some are local. Some flew in overnight from here or there. Some drove in. The 35 encompass almost that many different technical disciplines. Many are meeting each other for the first time. Ten and one-half hours from now they will tape a two hour lecture (given by the author), which will become the centerpiece of an hour-long public television show. They'll tape it again the next day. Then they'll disperse, never again to work together in the same configuration. This is the “Dallas Organization.” As Peters and others have noted, temporary groups of this sort are becoming an increasingly common form of organization (Kanter, 1989; Peters, 1992). In many respects, such groups constitute an interesting organizational analog of a “one-night stand.” They have a finite life span, form ...
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Although impression management in the feedback-seeking process has emerged as an important research topic, existing research has failed to capture the range and complexity of impression management behaviors. This article provides a theoretical framework for existing and future research. It examines how impression management sometimes discourages and at other times encourages feedback inquiry, and it explains the impact that impression management has on when, from whom, and how individuals ask for feedback. Organizational implications of the impression management motive in feedback seeking are discussed.
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120 undergraduates were asked to imagine themselves as the central character in a scenario in which they inadvertently bumped into another person in a public place. The actor's responsibility for the incident and the amount of harm done to the "victim" were systematically manipulated. As hypothesized, apologies were used in a perfunctory manner (saying "Pardon me" and then going about one's business) when the consequences of the event were minor. As the consequences became more negative, Ss employed an increased number of apology components, such as saying they were sorry, expressing remorse, and offering to help the victim. When high responsibility and high consequences coexisted, Ss were most likely to employ self-castigation and explicitly request forgiveness. Results support the hypothesis that as the severity of a social predicament increases, so does both the use of nonperfunctory apologies and the number of components employed in apologies. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The present paper reviews the research literature on trust in bargaining and mediation. Several models of trust within the bargaining process are also described. It is concluded that trust means different things, depending upon the relationship under investigation. Trust among negotiators can refer to a personality trail (how trusting a negotiator is of others) or to a temporary state. Within the state perspective, trust often refers to one of three orientations: (1) cooperative motivational orientation (MO), (2) patterns of predictable behavior, (3) a problem-solving orientation. Trust between a negotiator and constituents usually refers to a cooperative MO (i.e., shared loyalty) between these two groups. The addition of a mediator can impact both the opposing negotiators' relationship and each negotiator-constituent relationship; the mediator also has direct and indirect relationships with the parties and their constituents. Future directions for research on trust are identified.
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Scholars in various disciplines have considered the causes, nature, and effects of trust. Prior approaches to studying trust are considered, including characteristics of the trustor, the trustee, and the role of risk. A definition of trust and a model of its antecedents and outcomes are presented, which integrate research from multiple disciplines and differentiate trust from similar constructs. Several research propositions based on the model are presented.
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Participants wrote accounts to victims of social predicaments. Results showed that autonomous perpetrators offered more mitigation, used more complexity in accounts, and used fewer lies, especially to acquaintances. High blame was associated with less mitigating and complex accounts and greater deception; this occurred despite perpetrators' understanding of probable relationship harm. Women were more concerned with repairing others' face damage, at least in part to preserve relationships; their self-esteem also was more harmed by lack of forgiveness, especially from friends. Perpetrators gave longer, more mitigating and complex accounts to friends and more mitigating accounts to high-status victims. Participants who used aggravating elements expected more positive relationships. Results are discussed in terms of competing demands for facework. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Comments on the article by A. Ortmann and R. Hertwig (see record 1997-04731-011) in which they vehemently argue against any deception of participants in psychological research. Their sophisticated arguments against deception in research are neither precise nor imperative, addressing only questionable negative long-term effects of deception in research. It is argued that (1) acceptability of an experimental treatment and acceptability of deception must be kept separate, (2) deception is necessary in research on certain topics, and (3) participants understand and even accept deception when they are carefully debriefed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In a social dilemma game, a period of discussion among subjects substantially increases the incidence of cooperative choices. We conducted two experiments in an effort to explain this effect. Experiment 1 tested and rejected the hypothesis that discussion of the dilemma problem promotes generalized norms in favor of cooperation. Content analysis of discussion sessions in Experiment 1 suggested that promises to cooperate are important in an explanation of discussion's effect. Experiment 2 showed that promises to cooperate substantially increased cooperation rates, but only when everyone in the discussing group promised. We discuss one model in which discussion promotes group identity (as indicated by consensual promising) and therefore cooperation, and another in which discussion provides an opportunity for promise making, which—at least when it is universal—explains discussion's effect without any involvement of group identity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes results of a program of research on interpersonal trust, defined as belief in social communications. Construction of a scale for measuring individual differences, construct validity studies, and investigations of antecedents of trust, correlates of trust, and changes of college student trust are included. The evidence supports the hypothesis of (a) stable individual differences in a generalized expectancy for interpersonal trust, and (b) the feasibility of studying such trust under a variety of conditions. (29 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A considerable amount of research has examined trust since our 1995 publication. We revisit some of the critical issues that we addressed and provide clarifications and extensions of the topics of levels of analysis, time, control systems, reciprocity, and measurement. We also recognize recent research in new areas of trust, such as affect, emotion, violation and repair, distrust, international and cross-cultural issues, and context-specific models, and we identify promising avenues for future research.
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Michael Porter argues that some nations manifest a competitive advantage deriving from key elements of their economic structure. Some nations are thus disposed by structure to possess what Porter calls a "competitive advantage of nations" (Porter, 1990). In this paper I examine the prospect of an ethical advantage of nations, and in particular, of a set of advantages that extend far beyond the simple dimension of trust so often discussed. I consider, further, how such a range of ethical features would be structured, and what the implications of those features would be. Three conclusions are reached: 1. Morality may create economic advantages for nations in ways that extend beyond the notion of an idealized market; 2. In order for ethics to drive economic advantage, ethical concepts must rise to the status of intrinsic value; and 3. If claims for national ethical success factors are true, then nations should attend to the issue of moral education.
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Risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Polarized views, controversy, and overt conflict have become pervasive. Risk-perception research has recently begun to provide a new perspective on this problem. Distrust in risk analysis and risk management plays a central role in this perspective. According to this view, the conflicts and controversies surrounding risk management are not due to public ignorance or irrationality but, instead, are seen as a side effect of our remarkable form of participatory democracy, amplified by powerful technological and social changes that systematically destroy trust. Recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the “dynamics of the system” that destroys trust has vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future.
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Decentralized groups such as close knit residential neighborhoods and ethnically linked businesses often achieve high levels of cooperation while engaging in exclusionary practices that we call parochialism. We investigate the contribution of within-group cultural affinity to the ability of parochial groups to cooperate in social dilemmas. We analyze parochial networks in which the losses incurred by not trading with outsiders are offset by an enhanced ability to enforce informal contracts by fostering trust among insiders. We show that there is a range of degrees of parochialism for which parochial networks can coexist with an anonymous market offering unrestricted trading opportunities.