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Analyzing Gaps and Options for Enhancing Argali Conservation in Central Asia within the Context of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals. - Report prepared for The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), Bonn, Germany and the GIZ Regional Program on Sustainable Use of Natural Resources in Central Asia.

Authors:
  • IUCN Cat Specialist Group
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... As a result, hunting pre requisits like management plans and wildlife surveys, are rarely enforced. Wildlife surveys are carried out by project teams alone and lack reliability ( Rosen and Stefan, 2012 ) . The State Forest Agency has the mandate to allocate hunting areas, but the district administration also assigns hunting grounds without documentation and communication with the competent authority ( Michel and Rosen, 2016 ). ...
... In Tajikistan, trophy hunting activities in private and commercial concessions have already proved their marketability ( Michel and Rosen, 2016 ;Rosen and Stefan, 2012 ). Although distribution of trophy hunting fees between government and local communities varies from place to place, but on average, government receives a bigger share (60%) as compared to what local communities receive (40%) out of total revenue earned from hunting in community conservation areas. ...
... programs. In 2010-11, the government received some 770,000 USD for 51 Argali hunting permits ( Rosen and Stefan, 2012 ), 60% of which was supposed to be invested in community development and nature conservation programs in the conservation area ( Rosen and Stefan, 2012 ). Like Pakistan, trophy hunting fees vary from time to time and place to place. ...
Article
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The benefits for biodiversity and human wellbeing are debated for many countries. Some communities in rural mountain areas of the world consider trophy hunting as an integrated conservation and development strategy to protect biodiversity and sustain livelihood. This review will provide the evidence that has been gathered to discuss the benefits of CHTP in the HKPL landscape focusing on Pakistan and Tajikistan”. Trophy hunting, which is intensely debated these days, is perhaps confused with the underlying philosophy of community-based trophy hunting programs. This paper seeks to inform these discussions with a fresh perspective on CTHP based on first-hand experience and learning from the high mountain landscapes and communities of Asia - Pakistan and Tajikistan. The article essentially reviews the effectiveness of CTHP model for conserving rare and threatened wildlife populations, protected and conserved areas, and community welfare and economic uplift. Results reveal that CTHP has been instrumental in halting illegal hunting and poaching wildlife and eventually increasing their populations in many important yet isolated habitats while improving community livelihood and local economy. The CTHP forms a vital part of the rural socio-ecological resilience for remote and isolated mountain communities. It has offered economic incentives for an integrated conservation and development paradigm to combat wildlife poaching and illegal trade and diversify livelihoods harness vital biodiversity conservation values. The paper also elaborates on the societal impact of financial flows and their use for improved lives and enterprises. There are however, some significant problems related to trophy hunting programmes, including the lack of accurate information to understand the effect of trophy hunting on herd structure and size, weak policy implementation, lack of transparency and corruption. Regular monitoring of wildlife, understanding population dynamics, appropriate allocation of hunting quotas, hunting revenue, proper evaluation, and careful documentation of CTHP processes and their impacts are urgently required to make CTHP more effective and sustainable.
... In China and Afghanistan, Marco Polo argali populations have been greatly reduced because of degraded range conditions and illegal hunting. There are an estimated 2500 individuals in China and < 1000 remain in Afghanistan, with seasonally varying numbers (Harris et al. 2010, Rosen 2012. Marco Polo argalis in Pakistan do not exceed 150 individuals, and most are present only in the winter when they cross into Pakistan from China (Schaller andKang 2008, Harris et al. 2010). ...
... Because some segment of the population may be moving through the study area in fall and winter, and surveys are not conducted during the same dates every year, differences in abundance among years may be obtained. Genetic evidence and direct observations indicate connectivity between the Marco Polo sheep populations of Afghanistan and Tajikistan (Luikart et al. 2011, Rosen 2012. Large numbers of wild sheep are known to occur adjacent to our study area in Tajikistan. ...
Article
Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii), listed as Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List, were surveyed using vehicles during three summers and three consecutive winters to determine the status and population structure of the subspecies in a hunted population in southeastern Pamirs, Tajikistan. A total of 8649, 8392, and 7663 sheep were observed in each winter survey with densities of 5.42, 4.91, and 4.49 argalis/km 2 , respectively. The differences in numbers observed in different years were probably due principally to differing dates of surveys among years. The high ratios of lamb for every 100 ewe (53, 38, and 49 during the winter surveys, and 60, 45, and 58 during the summer surveys) and high percentages (45%–50%) of mature females during winter indicate that offspring recruitment is sufficient to maintain a stable population. The significant increase in the abundance of Marco Polo sheep in the Tajikistan Pamirs compared with that of previous population surveys may probably be attributed to low numbers of domestic livestock during the winter, low human population density, unfenced and widespread wild sheep habitats , and rigorous patrolling to limit poaching. The small number (45) of hunting permits has a minimal impact on the male sheep sector. Tajikistan now supports more argali than any other country.
... In China and Afghanistan, Marco Polo argali populations have been greatly reduced because of degraded range conditions and illegal hunting. There are an estimated 2500 individuals in China and < 1000 remain in Afghanistan, with seasonally varying numbers (Harris et al. 2010, Rosen 2012. Marco Polo argalis in Pakistan do not exceed 150 individuals, and most are present only in the winter when they cross into Pakistan from China (Schaller andKang 2008, Harris et al. 2010). ...
... Because some segment of the population may be moving through the study area in fall and winter, and surveys are not conducted during the same dates every year, differences in abundance among years may be obtained. Genetic evidence and direct observations indicate connectivity between the Marco Polo sheep populations of Afghanistan and Tajikistan (Luikart et al. 2011, Rosen 2012. Large numbers of wild sheep are known to occur adjacent to our study area in Tajikistan. ...
Article
Full-text available
Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii), listed as Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List, were surveyed using vehicles during three summers and three consecutive winters to determine the status and population structure of the subspecies in a hunted population in southeastern Pamirs, Tajikistan. A total of 8649, 8392, and 7663 sheep were observed in each winter survey with densities of 5.42, 4.91, and 4.49 argalis/km 2 , respectively. The differences in numbers observed in different years were probably due principally to differing dates of surveys among years. The high ratios of lamb for every 100 ewe (53, 38, and 49 during the winter surveys, and 60, 45, and 58 during the summer surveys) and high percentages (45%–50%) of mature females during winter indicate that offspring recruitment is sufficient to maintain a stable population. The significant increase in the abundance of Marco Polo sheep in the Tajikistan Pamirs compared with that of previous population surveys may probably be attributed to low numbers of domestic livestock during the winter, low human population density, unfenced and widespread wild sheep habitats , and rigorous patrolling to limit poaching. The small number (45) of hunting permits has a minimal impact on the male sheep sector. Tajikistan now supports more argali than any other country.
... In China and Afghanistan, Marco Polo argali populations have been greatly reduced because of degraded range conditions and illegal hunting. There are an estimated 2500 individuals in China and < 1000 remain in Afghanistan, with seasonally varying numbers ( Harris et al. 2010, Rosen 2012. Marco Polo argalis in Pakistan do not exceed 150 individuals, and most are present only in the winter when they cross into Pakistan from China ( Schaller andKang 2008 , Harris et al. 2010 ). ...
... Because some segment of the population may be moving through the study area in fall and winter, and surveys are not conducted during the same dates every year, differences in abundance among years may be obtained. Genetic evidence and direct observations indicate connectivity between the Marco Polo sheep populations of Afghanistan and Tajikistan ( Luikart et al. 2011, Rosen 2012. Large numbers of wild sheep are known to occur adjacent to our study area in Tajikistan. ...
Article
Full-text available
Marco Polo sheep (Ovis ammon polii), listed as Near Threatened in the IUCN Red List, were surveyed using vehicles during three summers and three consecutive winters to determine the status and population structure of the subspecies in a hunted population in southeastern Pamirs, Tajikistan. A total of 8649, 8392, and 7663 sheep were observed in each winter survey with densities of 5.42, 4.91, and 4.49 argalis/km2, respectively. The differences in numbers observed in different years were probably due principally to differing dates of surveys among years. The high ratios of lamb for every 100 ewe (53, 38, and 49 during the winter surveys, and 60, 45, and 58 during the summer surveys) and high percentages (45%-50%) of mature females during winter indicate that offspring recruitment is sufficient to maintain a stable population. The significant increase in the abundance of Marco Polo sheep in the Tajikistan Pamirs compared with that of previous population surveys may probably be attributed to low numbers of domestic livestock during the winter, low human population density, unfenced and widespread wild sheep habitats, and rigorous patrolling to limit poaching. The small number (45) of hunting permits has a minimal impact on the male sheep sector. Tajikistan now supports more argali than any other country.
... For example, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) migrate annually between the Serengeti National Park (Tanzania) and the Maasai Mara National Reserve (Kenya) (Dudley and Rao, 2008); the Pamir argali sheep (Ovis ammon polii) migrate between Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. The route that they pass through consists of protected areas, multiple resource areas and other areas with no active management (Rosen, 2012). ...
Book
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The Kailash Sacred Landscape (KSL), a transboundary conservation initiative facilitated by the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) in collaboration with national partners in China, India and Nepal, addresses the cultural and ecological significance of the region, focusing on the need for ecological integrity and resilience, notably including at a transboundary level, and taking into consideration the perceived challenges brought by various drivers of change such as increasing population, developmental pressure and climate change. The Kailash Sacred Landscape Conservation and Development (KSLCDI), initiative promotes an ‘ecosystem approach’ for biodiversity management and sustainable development, through integrated approaches developed within the context of addressing evolving threats. These integrated ecosystem management and community-based approaches, as described in designing according to project cycle of phased implementation of a long term strategy, based on participatory approaches and an improved regional knowledge base.
... For example, zebra (Equus quagga burchellii) and wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) migrate annually between the Serengeti National Park (Tanzania) and the Maasai Mara National Reserve (Kenya) (Dudley and Rao, 2008); the Pamir argali sheep (Ovis ammon polii) migrate between Afghanistan, China, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. The route that they pass through consists of protected areas, multiple resource areas and other areas with no active management (Rosen, 2012). ...
Book
Fill text available at: 10.2305/IUCN.CH.2015.PAG.23.en This volume was prepared by the Transboundary Conservation Specialist Group of IUCN’s World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) and published within WCPA's Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series. It is based on current knowledge and best practice drawn from global experience. The publication offers definition of transboundary conservation, a revised typology of Transboundary Conservation Areas with definitions, elaboration of transboundary conservation governance models, advice on the process for initiating transboundary conservation through establishing, managing and monitoring a Transboundary Conservation Area, a review of the implications of transboundary initiatives for cooperative management, and 33 best practice examples drawn from different geographical regions and ecosystems around the world, and involving different protected area management categories, models of cooperation and transboundary arrangements.
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