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In The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

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... As a general concept, a paradigm could be defined as a theoretical framework within which a set of theories are formulated to explain how a certain problem or topic is understood at a particular time. The definition of paradigm that best relates to the so-called sports sciences or exercise sciences is perhaps the one proposed by Kuhn [1] in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. According to this author, the paradigm constitutes the practices and knowledge that define a scientific discipline during a specific period, providing models of problems and solutions to the scientific community. ...
... In this context, a paradigm shift involves a major change in the way of understanding and addressing the problems of a discipline that leads to overcoming and ultimately replacing the models and framework prevailing until that time. Thus, a new paradigm arises from detecting an "anomaly" or something that "does not work" or something that does not explain reality or does not explain it sufficiently [1]. Specifically, in the case of resistance training (RT), the "anomaly" or the starting point for adopting a new paradigm lies fundamentally in the necessity to ascertain the degree or level of effort programmed and performed by the athlete or practitioner in each training session. ...
... In equation [1], the mass (m) (either that corresponding to a given absolute load, body weight or any sporting implement), and the distance over which the force is applied are stable. Therefore, to increase velocity, it will be necessary to increase the numerator of this equation (F·t). ...
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For more than a century, many concepts and several theories and principles pertaining to the goals, organization, methodology and evaluation of the effects of resistance training (RT) have been developed and discussed between coaches and scientists. This cumulative body of knowledge and practices has contributed substantially to the evolution of RT methodology. However, a detailed and rigorous examination of the existing literature reveals many inconsistencies that, unless resolved, could seriously hinder further progress in our field. The purpose of this review is to constructively expose, analyze and discuss a set of anomalies present in the current RT methodology, including: (a) the often inappropriate and misleading terminology used, (b) the need to clarify the aims of RT, (c) the very concept of maximal strength, (d) the control and monitoring of the resistance exercise dose, (e) the existing programming models and (f) the evaluation of training effects. A thorough and unbiased examination of these deficiencies could well lead to the adoption of a revised paradigm for RT. This new paradigm must guarantee a precise knowledge of the loads being applied, the effort they involve and their effects. To the best of our knowledge, currently this can only be achieved by monitoring repetition velocity during training. The main contribution of a velocity-based RT approach is that it provides the necessary information to know the actual training loads that induce a specific effect in each athlete. The correct adoption of this revised paradigm will provide coaches and strength and conditioning professionals with accurate and objective information concerning the applied load (relative load, level of effort and training effect). This knowledge is essential to make rational and informed decisions and to improve the training methodology itself.
... Indeed, the theoretical foundation of a systemic approach to CRM has its roots at the beginning of the last century, when science evolved through paradigm shifts that enabled a different way of seeing the world and thus of interpreting reality [42]. The failure of Hilbertian formalism resulted in the transformation of logic from linear to non-linear [43]. ...
... The WHO and the OECD have shown that to implement a safety of care and a quality of health care, it is essential to consider the relationships between health and seemingly unrelated elements such as socio-economic, political, and cultural factors [42,43]. ...
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The development and administration of vaccines against COVID-19 was a key element in the fight against the pandemic, as it protected health systems and helped restore global economies. National implementation plans and vaccination strategies for COVID-19 vaccines ensured the immunization of large segments of the population in the shortest time. However, even before the start of the vaccination campaign, it was clear to decision-makers that the usual methods of vaccination were not suitable. The aim of this report is to share the experience of an Italian teaching hospital in the organisation of spaces and activities of healthcare workers to realise a safe vaccination campaign. An in-depth analysis of how the vaccination campaign was organised could be useful to understand strengths and weaknesses learnt from this experience and plan an effective, efficient, and resilient response to future pandemics right away. The adoption of a systemic clinical risk management (SCRM) could guarantee healthcare organizations a more adequate and resilient response in an ethics of a job well done perspective, allowing them to maintain high patient safety standards regardless of the contingent situation for which safety first should be the motto of a disaster response plan.
... Los "epistemes" o "climas de opinión" predominantes son otras circunstancias que hay que tomar en cuenta, en esta otra acepción de análisis crítico. Estos y otros aspectos han sido escudriñados desde enfoques de sociología de la ciencia o del conocimiento (Manheim, 1936;Merton, 1979;Therborn, 1980); o desde aproximaciones historicistas a la filosofía de la ciencia (Kuhn, 1970;Lakatos, 1980;Laudan, 1977), que algunos estudiosos han denominado "pospositivistas" (Velasco Gómez, 2000). Se trataría de precisar desde ideologías de clase, o "comunidades ideológicas" (Therborn, 1980), hasta comunidades paradigmáticas y tradiciones de investigación (Kuhn, 1970;Laudan, 1977). ...
... Estos y otros aspectos han sido escudriñados desde enfoques de sociología de la ciencia o del conocimiento (Manheim, 1936;Merton, 1979;Therborn, 1980); o desde aproximaciones historicistas a la filosofía de la ciencia (Kuhn, 1970;Lakatos, 1980;Laudan, 1977), que algunos estudiosos han denominado "pospositivistas" (Velasco Gómez, 2000). Se trataría de precisar desde ideologías de clase, o "comunidades ideológicas" (Therborn, 1980), hasta comunidades paradigmáticas y tradiciones de investigación (Kuhn, 1970;Laudan, 1977). ...
... For example, we notice that one key assumption made by the authors is that science essentially represents cumulative knowledge building, a view of science that misses important aspects of scientific progress. As Kuhn (1970) pointed out, science proceeds in multiple phases. One of these phases is dominated by a common understanding or consensus (i.e., a paradigm), whereas another phase results in a shift of paradigm. ...
... One of these phases is dominated by a common understanding or consensus (i.e., a paradigm), whereas another phase results in a shift of paradigm. According to Kuhn's (1970) view, scientific progress is not solely cumulative. Leising et al. (2022) seem to have referred mainly to the paradigmatic phase in which researchers are involved in addressing open Running head: SOME MORE REFLECTIONS 5 questions posed by the predominant paradigm (see Hogan et al., 2022, for a similar argument). ...
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Leising et al. (2022) proposed ten ways how personality science can be improved. In this article, we point out potential drawbacks of some of the proposed steps and the resulting formal system for rewarding good research. We argue that it is ill-advised to use only one measure for a concept. Specifically, we raise awareness of the importance of methodological pluralism in science by arguing that without such a pluralism, science will not flourish and thus not proceed. Also, we argue that researchers should not generally refrain from conducting a study when constraints exist that seemingly preclude a high level of statistical power. We show that an initial power analysis can underestimate the actual power of a study (e.g., when a Bayesian estimator is used to analyze the data), and we argue that even truly underpowered studies may be worth conducting as they could still serve as valuable input for meta-analyses.
... (p. 24) Les principales limites de la psychologie laïque moderne sont détaillées au Tableau 1.1 La psychologie prétend être une science ; selon Kuhn (1962) une science émerge et se développe en quatre étapes distinctes : pré-paradigme, science normale/paradigme, crise et révolution. ...
... Puisque la psychologie est dans l'étape initiale pré paradigmatique, elle se retrouve fragmentée et caractérisée par l'éclectisme (Kuhn, 1962;Sankey, 2002). C'est-à-dire le cadre et les approches théorique et conceptuels, les méthodologies et les techniques sont éclectiques et viennent d'un large éventail de sources. ...
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Ce qu'il faut retenir 1-Définir la psychologie selon la perspective laïque. 2-Connaitre l'apport de l'islamisation des connaissances au développement de la psychologie islamique. 3-Identifier les problèmes et les difficultés liés à la laïcisation de la psychologie. 4-Explorer la relation entre le Coran et la psychologie. 5-Discuter les concepts de la psychologie islamique. 6-Formuler une définition de la psychologie islamique. 7-Analyser les différentes approches à la psychologie islamique.
... saturation evangelism where the gospel is presented to people through modern technological and commercial means rather than through individuals). As our experience with the innovation grows, it may create a radically different way of viewing the phenomenon (a paradigm shift; Kuhn, 1962), or more likely, will eventually be incorporated into our existing theories (e.g., saturation evangelism is one way to present the gospel among others and sometimes opens doors for a personal presentation of the gospel). ...
... An operationalization is valid to the degree that we measure the true value of whatever we have defined. Note that most scientists who hold to the belief that we can measure real phenomena more or less accurately are working from a postpositivist perspective (Kuhn, 1962;Popper, 1959). This is the idea that objective reality exists, but because of human biases, imperfections, and other limitations, we may not be able to measure it accurately. ...
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Church-based research requires working with abstract concepts ranging from sin to sanctification. Theories, concepts, and operationalizations allow us to work with these abstractions. Theories are sets of statements describing how specific concepts relate to each other. Concepts are broad ideas that exist in our thinking that can be used to describe phenomena, both within and exterior to the church. If we measure the concepts in our theories among multiple people, we can determine to what degree the relationships in our theories are true or discover under what conditions they are true. Sometimes concepts can be measured directly; other times they must be measured indirectly. Operationalizations are the specific processes used for measuring each of the concepts. As we test and refine our theories, we can more effectively accomplish the ministries to which we are called.-Jesus was born, lived, died, and rose again. The foundation of the gospel lies in observable, concrete phenomena. But many very abstract concepts and phenomena are associated with what he did: faith, repentance, the
... Bu bakımdan kuram seçimi konusunda delillere dayalı yapılan bir belirleme bilim insanlarının doğru tercihte bulunmalarına yol açmayacak ya da en azından eğer mümkünse genel bir kuram seçimi ölçütü belirlemede arzu edilen sonuca bilim insanlarını götürmeyecektir. Kuhn (1962), Viyana Çevresi ekolü ve Popper'ın ileri sürdüğü kural koyucu metodolojiyi takip etmeyerek bilim tarihine yönelik yapmış olduğu okumalardan hareketle bunun yerine bilimi fiilen uygulandığı şekliyle yansıtan bir çerçeve inşa etmiştir. Aynı zamanda Kuhn (1992) bilimsel bilginin elde edilmesinde ya da ileri sürülmesinde bilimsel topluluğun rolünü vurgulayarak bilimin sosyal ve toplumsal yönüne dikkat çekmektedir. ...
... Aynı zamanda Kuhn (1992) bilimsel bilginin elde edilmesinde ya da ileri sürülmesinde bilimsel topluluğun rolünü vurgulayarak bilimin sosyal ve toplumsal yönüne dikkat çekmektedir. Bununla birlikte, Kuhn (1962) farklı dil ve farklı değerlendirme standartları kullanmaları nedeniyle farklı paradigmaların aralarında ortak bir ölçümün olamayacağını diğer bir deyişle paradigmaların eşölçülemez olduklarını belirtmektedir. Kuhn'un Bilimsel Devrimlerin Yapısı'nda gündeme getirdiği eşölçülemezlik tezi bilim camiasının neye göre bir paradigmayı diğerine tercih edeceği sorusunu da gündeme getirmektedir. ...
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The importance of green innovations and their contribution to the business organizations is quite effective in the allocation of limited resources in business environment. In general, the green business strategic implementations focus on finding solutions to environmental problems. This study argues that developing innovation and gaining an innovative perspective are indispensable for the success of green management. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of green innovations that are directly related to the environmental factors on firm performance. The study has concluded that innovations are in demand in the green product and green service market. Green innovations increase efficiency in green management processes and positively affect company performance. Suppliers are the external factors of businesses that have the most impact on new innovations in green management. In other words, suppliers have an important role in developing green innovation in green management. The other important environmental factor affecting green management innovation is financial factor. When the financial constraints of the green enterprises are eliminated, their financial resources are increased and the green management innovations of these enterprises also increase. On the other hand, when the financial performance of the green enterprises increases and the productivity rates within these green organizations are also positively affected. In summary, developing an innovative perspective in the green management process have positive influences on business performance. By determining the effective environmental factors that having positive impact on green management innovations; businesses could achieve a sustainable growth and their contribution to the environment could be more sustainable
... Lakatos (1970) and Laudan (1978) both describe a different hypothetical method by which a field can progress and accept new theories without the total rejection of previous concepts or models. Instead, scientists working within a field may have access to numerous competing theories, a situation that was specifically excluded by Kuhn (1970). ...
... However, it is important to recognise the anomalies in Dr Root's STJN theory, as the acceptance of the fiction as fact results in practitioner resistance to change and an inability to look outside of established theory. Kuhn (1970), Lakatos (1970) and Laudan (1978) supply a range of philosophical processes within science by which a field can progress, but none recommend ignoring the results of scientific Although the experience of the thesis author alone may not be a fair representation of the global use of RTCGA, it does concur with the frequent recommended use of RTCGA in the literature. RTCGA has been cited to be one of the most widely-used clinical assessments available to podiatrists (Payne and Bird, 2012) and should be a fundamental skill for podiatrists (Southerland, 1996), as well as being the most versatile method of assessing gait (Levine, Richards and Whittle, 2012b). ...
Thesis
The purpose of real time clinical gait analysis (RTCGA) is to aid in diagnosis of musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions, determine treatment goals and evaluate treatment outcomes. Clinicians are recommended to conduct RTCGA as part of a lower limb MSK non-neurological adult patient assessment. The timely and accurate use of such a diagnostic method, with the smallest possibility of a missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis, is crucial in the treatment of any disease or disorder. Despite this, there remains little MSK RTCGA evidence to support the methods by which to do so. This PhD reflects a programme of work which was undertaken to develop a best practice RTCGA approach for adult non-neurological lower limb MSK injury. The research aim was to establish a best practice approach for RTCGA to be used as part of a clinical MSK assessment in the treatment of non-neurological lower limb symptoms in adults. This doctoral thesis programme of work employed a mixed methods approach, involving a series of deductive quantitative investigations followed by inductive qualitative investigation. Deductive quantitative investigation involved scoping of the RTCGA best practice approach via narrative literature review, a patient and public involvement and engagement (PPIE) exercise and preclinical testing. A systematic review was conducted to robustly establish available MSK RTCGA literature. Inductive, qualitative investigation involved exploration of MSK podiatrists’ views and experiences of RTCGA for an exemplar condition, posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD), using thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews. Findings supplied the foundation by which preliminary clinical recommendations for a MSK RTCGA best practice approach were created. A preliminary objective RTCGA instrument was created. Scenario testing for face validity demonstrated this preliminary RTCGA instrument would not detect kinematic changes following intervention, and an additional immediate intervention RTCGA instrument was developed. The resultant preliminary RTCGA instrument, which was then subject to preclinical testing, consisted of 2 sections, the RTCGA instrument score and the RTCGA immediate intervention score. Preclinical investigations demonstrated difficulties in the ability to test the preliminary RTCGA instrument for both reliability and validity. Literature review and searches from narrative, systematic and PPIE investigations found a lack of high-level evidence and guidance for the use of RTCGA and the development of RTCGA best practice approaches. In total, 6 substantial problems were encountered associated with the creation of an objective quantifiable instrument as a RTCGA best practice approach. These were a lack of existing RTCGA knowledge; developer bias; the necessity to include shod gait assessment; a lack of normative kinematic data; the length and complexity of the preliminary RTCGA instrument and an inability to transiently alter kinematics and obtain valid data for testing. These issues deemed the continued development of an objective quantifiable RTCGA instrument to be counterproductive. To understand the conundrum that an objective quantifiable RTCGA was not feasible yet is an approach suggested for use by clinicians (notably podiatrists) as an embedded component of their practice, the exploration of MSK clinician views and experiences of RTCGA was sought prior to attempting any further development. The resultant exploratory qualitative investigation confirmed that use of RTCGA was valued by MSK podiatrists, but that no consistent systematic approach for RTCGA was available. Based upon these findings, a set of 4 core recommendations are proposed as a preliminary best practice RTCGA approach when assessing and treating adult PTTD (the GAIT assessment). These are: Get a diagnosis (recommendation 1). RTCGA should be conducted after a provisional clinical PTTD diagnosis has been proposed. Assess walking (recommendation 2). RTCGA should be used to aid in clinical diagnosis of adult patients with PTTD. Assessment should include a) essential kinematic observations, and b) dynamic presentation of pain. Intervene and assess (recommendation 3). RTCGA should be performed after a clinical intervention, such as the fitting of foot orthoses or footwear, to observe any kinematic changes. If fitting foot orthoses, it should also be used to assess for patient perceived comfort. Teach using clinical experience (recommendation 4). RTCGA education should be addressed through an experiential approach, such as small group practical teaching and clinical mentoring. The research undertaken in this doctoral thesis programme of work is the first to apply development frameworks and methods in the attempt to establish a mechanism to record gait and gait changes within a MSK clinical setting, without the aid of computerised or video recording technology. A preliminary RTCGA best practice approach has been produced that supplies guidance for MSK podiatrists, in the form of the GAIT assessment, to aid in the clinical treatment and assessment of PTTD. However, the pathway to achieving a robust clinical practice guideline requires more work. The lack of objective kinematic data for this field was a significant barrier to investigating and improving reliability and validity of RTCGA observations. RTCGA, as an aid in the diagnosis and treatment of MSK injury, is arguably a high-level skill associated with professional specialisation. It follows, therefore, that such a skill would be supported by objectivity and standardisation of practice, yet the lack of normative data for RTCGA continues to act as a barrier to this. A new approach in which RTCGA is focussed on the patient symptoms and evidence based observation is proposed.
... "That is what fundamental novelties of fact and theory do. Produced inadvertently by a game played under one set of rules, their assimilation requires the elaboration of another set", as Thomas S. Kuhn stated in his classic work The Structure of Scientific Revolutions [23]. ...
Preprint
According to known laws of physics, chronic positive mass balance is the actual etiology of obesity, not positive energy balance. The relevant physical law in terms of body mass regulation is the Law of Conservation of Mass, not the Law of Conservation of Energy. A recently proposed mass balance model (MBM) describes the temporal evolution of body weight and body composition under a wide variety of feeding experiments, and it seems to provide a highly accurate description of the very best experimental human feeding data. By shifting to a mass balance paradigm of obesity, a deeper understanding of this disease may follow in the near future. The purpose of this living review is to present the core issues of the upcoming paradigm shift as well as some practical applications related to the topic.
... India, China, and Africa are playing more and more important roles in the global arena. From the perspective of Thomas Kuhn (1922Kuhn ( -1996 and his book on Structure of Scientific Revolutions, the global techno-scientific civilisation is the new paradigm shift (Kuhn 1970). In terms of the amelioration of the human condition, it does not offer more certainty for a better life at large than the previous, local, civilisations. ...
... Na introdução à nova tradução brasileira 7 e nas notas que acrescentou à tradução, Marcos Bagno demonstra que o Curso reflete tendências que já estavam presentes na Europa em meados do século XIX, o que contradiria "a enaltecida originalidade, o alegado ineditismo das ideias contidas no Curso" 8 . Não obstante Saussure não se constituir num "herói solitário", cabe aqui a observação de Konrad Koerner 9 de que o Curso seria classificável como uma revolução científica nos termos de Thomas Kuhn (1962Kuhn ( , 1970, porque atendia aos dois critérios para um paradigma científico kuhniano: "suficientemente sem precedentes para atrair um grupo duradouro de adeptos das visões concorrentes [....] suficientemente aberto para deixar todos os tipos de problemas para os novos praticantes resolverem" 10 . ...
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This book is primarily aimed at a student in their first contact with linguistics. This first contact occurs, in general, in Brazil, in higher education for those who sought the Letters course or, more recently, the Speech-Language Pathology or Linguistics courses. This material aims to be within reach, therefore, of a student just out of high school. As its main reader is the first-year student, who takes courses without prerequisites, this text does not require prior knowledge of linguistics and, for this reason, is also available to a wider audience.
... So, when new facts or observations cannot be explained by the existing theories, scientists formulate new theories that can replace old theories. Kuhn (1996) views that during the normal science development, scientific theories are used to routinely solve puzzles, but when some puzzles cannot be solved by existing theories, a scientific revolution may happen. The Huygens' wave theory of light was not valid to explain photoelectric effect and Compton effect. ...
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The paper aims to provide a review of literature that emphasizes students’ and teachers’ views on the nature of science (NOS) and associated instructional approaches to develop adequate understanding of the NOS that have been employed in different contexts. One hundred and seventy-two (172) studies were selected from ResearchGate, Academia, Google Scholar, and ERIC database from the year 2000 to 2022 and few important documents published before 2000. The paper presents an exploration of NOS aspects and identifies the gaps in the previous researches. The reviewed studies inform us that students have strong misconceptions on some NOS aspects such as relationship between theories and laws, observations, and scientific method, while teachers have strong misconception on relationship between theories and laws. The NOS instructional approaches discussed in reviewed papers have a positive effect in improving the NOS understanding. Reviewed literature suggests that some instructional approaches have positive effect to teach most of targeted NOS aspects such as explicit and reflective approach. In addition, the findings indicate that explicit and reflective instruction has been more documented and tried out into different contexts in which a considerable effect on students’ views on NOS was noted. Despite all efforts put in place, there is still a need for a lot to be done on active instructional approaches and interventions in this regard, particularly in developing countries with emphasis to the Sub-Saharan Africa education context.
... It is tough to identify or evaluate changes in proficient spheres if there is no relative basis or grounds upon which those evaluations can be made (Polsby, 1984). In as much as this paper seeks to be informed by the planning discipline development, it draws upon Thomas Kuhn's (1962) work for constructing a logical framework. In the construction of scientific revolts, Kuhn utilizes a paradigmatic style for illuminating the improvement of scientific disciplines. ...
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By this time, there has been a trend in the direction of devolvement in governance and planning. This trend presents a role for inhabitants, a considerable lot of whom have found an opportunity to express their interests for self-assurance; struggling that current governance structures do not satisfactorily outfit their needs and interests. As planning is inseparably connected to power, this feature definitely helps encouraging or limiting the advancement of which governance shapes. In this manner, the heading of planning practice warrants genuine thought about power, policy and people. This paper disposes the historical positions of planning, in perspective of deciding how the discipline develops and influences by rationalities. The investigation follows the paradigmatic advancement of the discipline to review the regular planning speculations. Eminent perspectives are then investigated and lined up beside transformative planning theories with focus on social approach development. Finally, the study of transitions in both areas of paradigm and rationality, indicates that viewpoints are changing fast from rationalism toward value based humane normative approaches, quantity to quality, and determinism to intuition.
... A partir de este comienzo, durante el siglo XX, hubo una la sucesión de paradigmas (Kuhn, 1970) que dieron como resultado la multiplicidad de perspectivas para los estudios geográficos pudiéndose definir un claro camino basado en la cuantificación que lleva hasta las actuales tecnologías digitales con sus posibilidades metodológicas (Buzai, 2015). ...
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Posición 7, pp. 1-14. La Geografía se origina como ciencia cuantitativa y actualmente la cuantificación la lleva a su máximo desarrollo disciplinar y reconocimiento mundial. Considerando esta línea conceptual el presente artículo resalta cuatro hitos centrales en los que la cuantificación apoyó esta sostenida evolución: la inicial representación geométrica, el pensamiento sistémico global, el positivismo en el nacimiento de la Geografía Humana y la actual orientación hacia el ciberespacio.
... We suspect that scientists, who are humans first and foremost, will not readily resist a general sentiment in a community to which they belong. If one is accepts aspects of Thomas Kuhn's views, then it may even be scientific training reinforces this tendency [5]. ...
... Language is a symbol system and lack of it also affects expressions and feelings (Wittgenstein & Bloor 1983, Kuhn, 1970. This implies language is used to label reactions, expressions, actions, observations etc, social workers need to be aware of the language used by clients because languages is used to construct reality, meaning of self, and social problems. ...
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This study examines social constructionism theoretical perspectives and their application to social work practice. The article gives details about social constructionism as a theory, its proponents and its importance to how social workers approach clients presenting problems in practice. The application of social constructionism to social work helps practitioners to explore all the different definitions of clients' problems, language used by clients in the definitions of their problems. Social constructionists strengthen the construction of solutions, as the theory equally allows the client to participate in the evaluation of problems and in the development of interventions. This not only make clients feel valued and respected, but it also serves as empowerment for a future similar experiences.
... Language is a symbol system and lack of it also affects expressions and feelings (Wittgenstein & Bloor 1983, Kuhn, 1970. This implies language is used to label reactions, expressions, actions, observations etc, social workers need to be aware of the language used by clients because languages is used to construct reality, meaning of self, and social problems. ...
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This article aims to analyze leadership styles in a selected social agency. The study identifies leadership styles in welfare and social enterprise organizations in Latvia; it examines leadership problems and their effect on the welfare situation and development of the people as revealed by OECD reports, national reports and scholarly studies. The study shows that the authoritarian leadership style is commonly used in Latvia institutions, and the democratic leadership style can be said to be often used as autocratic. Though the people would like their leaders to be democratic in their approach, autocratic seems to be often used and the situational or mixed leadership style. The findings of the studies also revealed that the general population has a positive attitude toward democratic methods of governance and acknowledges their significance. However, it seems that current leaders are still inspired by the leadership styles of their predecessors, particularly the regimes of Russia and the Soviet Union. The present research recommends that leaders practice self-awareness and use both bottom-up and top-down approaches to leadership. Doing so will assist the leader in becoming more democratic.
... In other words, market leaders (think Kodak) will naturally resist disruptive innovations (digital photography, displayed rather than printed). This finding and the underlying reasons echo Kuhn: people trained within the prevalent paradigm will be largely unable and often not interested in exploring a radical diversion from the norm, let alone adopting it (Kuhn, 1962). ...
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The pervasiveness of digitalisation has made cybersecurity no longer only a matter of concern for computer scientists but a central factor in securitising our future digital society. To clarify how to better regulate the future, it is necessary to assess what policymakers can do to foster a constructive approach between the Member States so that they can keep up with the challenges of cyberspace. This study, edited by Professor Luigi Martino and Nada Gamal, approaches the topic from a multidisciplinary point of view, considering critical infrastructures, skills, strategic autonomy, artificial intelligence, cybercrime, privacy, and the use of space. Starting from an EU perspective, the authors examine the regulatory achievements in this field and consider best practice for the implementation of rules and standards. Based on a holistic approach, the explanations and policy recommendations in the various chapters aim to define the role of the European Union in this dynamic and constantly changing world of cyberspace.
... According to Kuhn (1962), the notion of paradigm implies a dominant approach to a domain of science. Thus, the term administrative paradigm indicates that a certain administrative idea or model has a rather pervasive impact for a longer period of time. ...
Chapter
Chapter on the development of administrative and public management typologies and models ion the book, edited by Kuno Schedler
... It has been indicated recently ) that the structure of scientific revolutions a la Thomas Kuhn (Kuhn 1970) under academic integrity can be in general represented in a loop of 6 components as indicated in Figure 1 below: Figure 1 above in general says that the Kuhn's revolution loop after the consensus CC to change paradigm to internalize the abnormality A is reached leads to paradigm shift PS due to academic integrity as represented by the blue arrow between academic consensus CC and paradigm shift PS, which stimulates the growth of knowledge through the closing of paradigm shift knowledge gaps as indicated by the green arrow from SQM to PS. The Kuhn's revolution loop in Figure 1 above works as follows: i) The status quo paradigm SQM produces abnormalities A as indicated by the arrow from SQM to A; ii) The accumulation of abnormalities A leads to a paradigm crisis PC as indicated by continuous black arrow from A to PC and this crisis PC brings academic discourse between the status quo ideas and the new ideas on how to correct the abnormalities affecting the status quo paradigm once and for all; iii) When the accumulation of abnormalities become extreme they become a real threat of paradigm death PD as indicated by the continuous black arrow from PC to PD, and if nothing is done to correct the abnormalities the paradigm will die; iv) To avoid paradigm death PD the paradigm crisis PC leads an academic consensus to change paradigm CC accepting formally that the status quo paradigm SQM is not working; and accepting formally too the new ideas supporting paradigm change, which is indicated by the continuous black arrow from PC to CC and by the broken black arrow from PD to CC; v) As the academic consensus for paradigm change CC now reached is supported by academic integrity as indicated by the blue arrow, then the paradigm shift PS actually takes place as indicated by blue arrow from CC to PS; and vi) The paradigm shift PS leads to the growth of scientific knowledge leaving the old knowledge base behind as indicated by the green arrow as resulting paradigm shift knowledge gaps needed to correct the abnormalities of the status quo paradigm are closed either through the new ideas or updated old ideas. ...
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Abstract Since 1776 when Adam Smith shared with us the perfect market theory it was presented as a golden paradigm, a model that does not produce social and environmental abnormalities no matter how much it grows. When social and environmental externalities accumulated to the point of producing extreme social and environmental crises which could no longer be ignored it was accepted that the traditional market model was a flawed model, a model that produces social and environmental abnormalities as it grows; and therefore, a model in need of abnormality corrections. As flawed models are the raw materials that feed the Thomas Kuhn’s revolution loop leading towards paradigm shift and the growth of knowledge when the abnormalities embedded in those models are corrected; and golden models are neutral material for the Kuhn’s revolution loop as they have no abnormalities to correct, then this situation raises important questions such as What is the structure of the general Thomas Kuhn’s paradigm evolution loop when the traditional market is a golden paradigm and when it is a flawed paradigm? What are the implications of this? Resúmen Desde 1776 cuando Adam Smith compartió con nosotros la teoría del mercado perfecto se presentó como un paradigma dorado, un modelo que no produce anormalidades sociales y ambientales por mucho que crezca. Cuando las externalidades sociales y ambientales se acumularon al punto de producir crisis sociales y ambientales extremas que ya no podían ser ignoradas, se aceptó que el modelo de mercado tradicional era un modelo defectuoso, un modelo que produce anormalidades sociales y ambientales a medida que crece; y por lo tanto, un modelo que necesita correcciones de anomalías. Los modelos defectuosos son la materia prima que alimenta el ciclo de la revolución de Thomas Kuhn que conduce al cambio de paradigma y al crecimiento del conocimiento cuando se corrigen las anomalías incrustadas en esos modelos; y los modelos dorados son material neutral para el ciclo de la revolución de Kuhn ya que no tienen anomalías que corregir, entonces esta situación plantea preguntas importantes como ¿Cuál es la estructura del ciclo de evolución del paradigma general de Thomas Kuhn cuando el mercado tradicional es un paradigma dorado y cuando es un paradigma defectuoso? ¿Cuáles son las implicaciones de esto?
... A research paradigm is defined as 'a collection of philosophical beliefs and agreements among scientists on how issues should be viewed and treated' [202]. The term originated from the Latin word paradigma, which was first used by Thomas Kuhn, an American philosopher who formulated the definition 'philosophical way of thinking' in 1962, in his book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions [203]. ...
... More generally, the role of subjective factors in perception, problem-solving, theory construction, and research design has been acknowledged and demonstrated in experimental psychology since the work of Wundt more than one hundred years ago and confirmed time and again in cognitive psychology, from the "new look" in perception of the 1940s and 1950s (e.g., Bruner & Goodman, 1947) to the schemaoriented work of today in cognitive science (e.g., Neisser, 1976). Moreover, in epistemological writings such as Kuhn (1962) as well as in some experimental studies (Davison, 1964), paradigms in science are explicitly compared to perceptual biases that affect profoundly the way data are collected and even defined. A generation of thoughtful scientists and philosophers has been sensitized to the nontrivial influences that our often unspoken assumptions have on our organization of the world. ...
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In this book a group of experts in the field explored how evidence based treatment guidelines might be developed and deployed to increase the impact of science on psychological practice.
... According to him the historical facts make us doubt the position common in early modernity that we can arrive at truth and knowledge by only focusing on observing the facts. For him contrary to Modernity's attempts to give us an individualistic epistemological understanding, actual knowledge acquisition is unavoidably social in nature, and the reliance on others can be shown to be rational and justified, even if a critical attitude remains necessary (Kuhn 1970). 9 Applying in law, this approach covers both empirical and critical concerns by defining the concern of "what the law is" in the heart of "judgment about its suitability or effectiveness". ...
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Abstract In reaction to the epistemological demands of international law, two general strategies have been adopted in its history: a priory prescriptive strategy and a posteriori descriptive one. Contrary to the former which is essentially focused on the logical necessary requirements of meaningfulness and operation of concepts in legal reasoning, the latter is trying to outline the ways these concepts have been used historically and contextually. In author’s belief the paradigmatic approach, provided to some marginal modifications upon the context it is going to apply, offers many potentials for understanding the nature of international legal reasoning. Furthermore, through reference to the scientific community’s consensus, it can open up new perspectives for reconciling some requirements of objectivism (which is necessary for law’s operation) with some level of subjectivism (which could not be set aside from a well-established theory of knowledge). If Kuhn’s theory can be plausibly applied to international law, then the main question is: “what would be its hermeneutical implications for revisiting international law?” Its most fundamental epistemic hypothesis could seemingly be summarized as follows: 1) The rejection of legal positivism as an adequate school of thought for understanding the state of international law; 2) The applicability of Kuhn’s theory to the epistemology of law; 3) The significance of pre-legal concepts in creating divers competing legal paradigms. Moreover, the most important claims related to the content seems to be: 1) The recognition of two Hobbesian and Kantian paradigms as major paradigms of international law; 2) The possibility of paradigm shift in international law; and 3) The interaction of every paradigm’s legal pathology as well as problem solving with its theoretical worldview. In other words, by linking legal arguments to the underlying paradigms of international law, I shall explain current disputes as simply consequences of a contingent way of thinking about international life and open up a possibility to develop alternative ways of arguing about international lawfulness. Interdisciplinary in Scope, the related research requires deliberation in pre-legal disciplines as diverse as epistemology, ethics, politics, and philosophy of law. Keywords Epistemology, Paradigm, Kant, Hobbes, Incommensurability, Crisis, Paradigm Shift.
... A partir de los estudios longitudinal y transversal descritos para los tres subgrupos de la muestra en el trienio 2017-2019, y de otras evidencias tomadas de la trayectoria posterior de las estudiantes, encontramos que las entidades teóricas y conceptos presentes en la estructura cognitiva relacionados con modelos de ciencia y metodología de la investigación científica; así como las representaciones mentales sobre el campo profesional -si bien aún a expensas de una mejora en algunos indicadores-, se mantienen relativamente constantes en aspectos fundamentales: en especial, a efectos de nuestros objetivos, la percepción de la metodología de investigación científica como un proceso lineal que parte no de un problema de una comunidad investigadora (Kuhn, 1962), sino de unas hipótesis refutables y de un tema u objeto de interés para el investigador (individual), que mediante un procedimiento sistemático supuestamente le permitiría obtener resultados de validez universal, asociados con el supuesto de verdad (científica), atribuido por la muestra a las teorías y enunciados científicos. ...
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El presente libro es el resultado de investigaciones en campo, llevadas a cabo durante el período 2017-2019, acerca de diversos aspectos de la enseñanza de la metodología de investigación en el área de las ciencias sociales y en forma específica, psicopedagógicas. El trabajo de campo se ha realizado desde la cátedra de Metodología I de la Investigación de la Carrera de Psicopedagogía (Universidad Nacional de San Martín, Escuela de Humanidades), a cargo del autor desde el año 2003. La recopilación de información de respuestas a los instrumentos pasados a la muestra, consistentes en evaluaciones diagnósticas centradas en indagar creencias sobre la ciencia y representaciones del campo profesional, pensadas sobre la referencia adaptada de los cuestionarios COCTS (Díaz et al., 2001), contó con la colaboración de la Lic. Adriana Tomic, desde 2005 auxiliar de cátedra. La idea de tomar como referencia y adaptar este tipo de encuestas originalmente elaboradas para evaluar creencias y representaciones sobre las ciencias experimentales se apoya en el hecho de que el trasfondo de preconcepciones y teorías implícitas sobre el objeto ciencia, para un repertorio de ciencia escolar empobrecido en el contexto local (Tiramonti, 2014) y desfasado de las actuales corrientes epistemológicas en la educación básica, es la base común sobre la cual construir conocimiento sobre la metodología de investigación en las ciencias sociales y en el campo específicamente psicopedagógico. Nuestras evaluaciones diagnósticas, por lo mismo, incorporan preguntas orientadas a relevar las representaciones de la muestra sobre el campo laboral e investigativo profesional.
... A shift away from the models of perfect markets to models of imperfect capital markets represents a paradigm shift that does not follow a smooth process but comes close to a revolution. In his major work "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions" (Kuhn 1970), Thomas Samuel Kuhn-one of the most important philosophers of science and historians of science of the 20th century-describes the development of science as a sequence of 1. ...
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In the capital market and financing theory, we are currently observing major upheavals. For decades, the neoclassical paradigm has dominated in science and practice. Triggered by economic and political crises, transformations, the COVID-19 pandemic, and political instabilities, a paradigm shift is currently occurring in finance. This paradigm shift leads to models and theories that can explain imperfections in capital markets and provide decision support for managers. The aim of this article is to analyse the paradigm shift and to demonstrate it using an example of business valuation theory. We draw on the insights of the philosopher Thomas Samuel Kuhn. He vividly explains the paradigm shift in science in his major work “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions”. A paradigm shift in science always encounters resistance. The reasons for this include the strong neoclassical school in finance and the dependence on research funds. Funders expect the use of established methods and the simplicity and dissemination of the models that have prevailed so far. On the other hand, the neoclassical models are unsuitable to explain the transformation processes on financial markets. This fact has been empirically proven. We show a variety of arguments that speak clearly about this paradigm shift. Their importance clearly outweighs the reasons to continue subscribing to the old paradigm. Accordingly, new theories and models have been developed to better explain the changes in the markets. With the simulation-based business valuation, an approach has been developed that considers different degrees of market imperfections. The simulation-based valuation can also depict the special case of the neoclassical paradigm, so that all market constellations can be covered.
... There are some typical roadblocks all graduate students undergo, regardless of the field, that makes the whole process challenging. Identifying an existing research gap is usually the first step towards a Ph.D.; this often takes significant time, investment, commitment and is iterative in nature (Luse et al., 2012;Kuhn, 1962). Once a potential research gap is identified, a detailed literature review is conducted (Bourgeois, 1979;Ellis & Levy, 2006) to formally postulate a research hypothesis, that can answer an unaddressed knowledge gap and therefore, qualify as novel, impactful progress (Davis, 1971) worthy of being awarded a doctorate. ...
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Doctoral attrition (DA) is a phenomenon of graduate students choosing to discontinue graduate studies and is universally encountered across all academic disciplines. Key parameters, that are typically perceived as valuable by Ph.D. students, are identified from a systematic literature review; and the CG probabilistic equation is formulated to predict the likelihood of a successful Ph.D. experience, called the Doctoral Success Likelihood (DSL), thus minimizing; possibly eliminating DA. Our model provides prospective/novice graduates with a novel framework to self-assess and predict the success likelihood of their Ph.D. journey. Such a framework enables the graduate student to judiciously self-assess and make a rationally informed decision about their career, rather than taking a blind leap of faith. Our equation also accommodates force-majeure circumstances (such as a pandemic, the bereavement of a loved one, mental health issues, etc.), which may significantly impact the time taken to graduate (TTD); leading to a candidate choosing to drop out. Such circumstances typically derail/delay doctoral progress, and can push an initially feasible set of probabilities, into an undesired “infeasibility triangle”. Higher the net probability values obtained from our equation, stronger the likelihood of an enriching Ph.D. experience. When periodically tracked, our proposed equation can also help students identify and calibrate their own doctoral experience, while capturing tangible feedback and perspectives for both students, and supervisors. One author presents his own doctoral journey, applying the CG equation to evaluate DSL values for his Ph.D., over a three-year period.
... Ástøðiligi karmurin viðgerð sosial evni í einum potentiellum paradigmuskifti (Kuhn, 1962). Talgild sosialvísind verður í hesi ritgerð fatað sum ástøði, sum kannar valdsstrukturar og broyttu fortreytirnar í sambandinum millum borgarar, og støðugu menningini av alsamt fleiri talgildum skipanum. ...
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Digital privacy is perceived by scholars to be under continuous and constant pressure. The question of considering this theme for a social science study is found relevant, since Faroese society is highly digitalised as well as digitally transformed. The research objective of this master thesis is to examine how digital privacy of its citizens is perceived by Faroese parliamentarians, how they perceive threats, and their mandate as parliamentarians, in this regard. The research was carried out with qualitative semi-structured focused interviews with six members of the Faroese parliament followed by a narrative analysis. The findings indicate that the respondents may have internalised a global digital imperialistic logic in regard to the necessity of e-governance, rooted in a New Public Management narrative. The non-debate about digital transformation in the Faroese parliament "Føroya løgting" indicates that the respondents perceive digital transformation and the digital as an apolitical object, thus separating the politics of the digital transformation to the power of the market. The respondents narrated that the smartphone is a surveillance tool that unfortunately is being used as a login device to the gateway to the digital Faroe Islands, "Vangin". Since the Faroese language only uses the term digital and does not distinguish between digitalisation and digital transformation, it is likely that the construction of language has an impact on the invisibility of the perception of digital transformation. The findings also indicate that the respondents give the Tech Giants a Maussian gift when willingly accepting data-mining as the new normal. Keywords: Digital privacy, digital transformation, analogue perception of the digital, political narratives, the Faroe Islands
... Baumol was far from being a "normal scientist" in the sense of Kuhn (1962). He was a Renaissance man, perhaps even one of the last of his kind in the economics profession. ...
... The philosophy of science recognized long ago that political and moral values structure research agendas and knowledge production, as much in the medical field as elsewhere (Kuhn 1962). It is not surprising, therefore, that states may adopt radically different positions as to the interpretation of different scientific findings and the weight afforded to them and as to the legitimacy of practices based on them. ...
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In eleven countries, same-sex sexual intimacy is punishable by death. Applying a legal pluralistic framework, we argue that “state-enabled killing” of same-sex-attracted people occurs in at least twenty-three countries. State-enabled killings range from extrajudicial and quasi-judicial killings, where state actors carry out the killing, through instances where the state retrospectively authorizes, through bias or lawful excuses to homicide, the killing of same-sex-attracted people by private actors, to cases where the state permits or endorses forms of so-called “conversion therapy” that can lead to death. We contend that a narrow focus on the death penalty as the only genuine form of state-enabled killing of same-sex-attracted people is analytically unwarranted and strategically dubious in terms of law reform advocacy. Critical legal pluralism allows us to pursue the practical and normative implications of hypothesizing a functional equivalence between the death penalty and these other forms of state-enabled killing.
... This study showed that phenomena in health care are studied within different disciplines. As a result, the range of methods is huge and studies' validity could be criticized upon researcher's perspective (Kuhn 2012). Recognition of complexity and acceptance of diversity in the field of health care should be drivers for a broader view and strategy to overcome these problems. ...
Article
Public Reporting (PR) of quality data is a common instrument to support transparency, accountability, and quality improvement in modern health care systems. Although, programs exist for 30 years, signals for its efficacy are inconclusive and new measurement schemes enjoy great popularity. The aim of this study was a realist view of the current literature dealing with effects of PR and finding answers on the broad and often unquestioned use by health authorities. This review considered literature from relevant databases and included all type of studies. In a kind of map, authors organized the research based on different paradigms and theories. Results indicate, first, patients rarely use the reported data. Second, providers show limited usage as well, but it is the more promising way which could lead to quality improvement. This review suggests that PR is a popular topic in different academic fields and health care policy. Despite of its high use, PR often does not show its full potential. Pure rational approaches to describe the effect of PR fall short. Further research should strive to do better by paying more attention to the breadth, theories, and context of the field as well as collective solution-finding among academia, policy, and practice. Keywords: quality improvement, delivery of health care, health policy, information dissemination, quality indicators, health care
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Learners in the 21st century need technological support in the learning process because of the advancements made in technology for teaching and learning. A GeoGebra-oriented classroom uses one of these technologies that can be implemented in the classroom. The new developed cycle model implemented in the study and explored the effect of using GeoGebra mathematical software on students' perceptions to using GeoGebra software to learn calculus. A mixed research methodology was employed. In the quantitative part of the study, a closed-ended questionnaires were used by clustering into themes and interview for the qualitative part of the study. The study was conducted at a university in Ethiopia that lasts for four weeks, and the university was selected purposively. The quantitative data were analyzed using SPSS version 27 while the qualitative data were coded into themes and analyzed using computer software ATLAS.ti 9. Students expressed positive perceptions towards the use of GeoGebra for learning differential calculus and 74% of students were satisfied with the preferences of the GeoGebra lesson-oriented course offered in the study while 70% were also interested in scaffolding activities and activities included in the developed model during interventions.
Thesis
Certains systèmes issus de l'apprentissage machine, de par leurs données et les impensés qu'ils encapsulent, contribuent à reproduire des inégalités sociales, alimentant un discours sur les ``biais de l'intelligence artificielle''. Ce travail de thèse se propose de contribuer à la réflexion collective sur les biais des systèmes automatiques en questionnant l'existence de biais de genre dans les systèmes de reconnaissance automatique de la parole ou ASR (pour Automatic Speech Recognition).Penser l'impact des systèmes nécessite une articulation entre les notions de biais (ayant trait à la constitution du système et de ses données) et de discrimination, définie au niveau de la législation de chaque pays. On considère un système comme discriminatoire lorsqu'il effectue une différence de traitement sur la base de critères considérés comme brisant le contrat social. En France, le sexe et l'identité de genre font partie des 23 critères protégés par la législation.Après une réflexion théorique autour des notions de biais, et notamment sur le biais de prédictif (ou biais de performance) et le biais de sélection, nous proposons un ensemble d'expériences pour tenter de comprendre les liens entre biais de sélection dans les données d'apprentissage et biais prédictif du système. Nous nous basons sur l'étude d'un système HMM-DNN appris sur des corpus médiatiques francophones, et d'un système end-to-end appris sur des livres audio en anglais. Nous observons ainsi qu'un biais de sélection du genre important dans les données d'apprentissage contribue de façon assez partielle au biais prédictif du système d'ASR, mais que ce dernier émerge néanmoins lorsque les données de parole regroupent des situations d'énonciation et des rôles de locuteurs et locutrices différents. Ce travail nous a également conduite à questionner la représentation des femmes dans les données, et plus généralement à repenser les liens entre conception théorique du genre et systèmes d'ASR.
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Wetlands have gained tremendous importance since the 1970s, both in scientific discussion and in government policy discourse. The Ramsar Convention provided some clarity in definitions of wetlands and their natural and social significance. However, the current scientific understanding of wetlands was constructed in the centers of knowledge production in the West. One of the consequences has been that local knowledge of wetlands has been obscured or ignored altogether. This research uses methods of historical archaeology, ethnography, and archival work to explore the Anlo's local knowledge of wetlands in Ghana. Anlo local knowledge includes unique forms of wetland ownership arrangements, appropriate management approaches, and so-called atsidza are used as epistemic tools. Bryan Norton's conceptual framework of adaptive management gives an important role to local experimentation and is therefore seen as a key tool for sustainable management. Adaptive management is understood as anlo-style consensus-building management to appropriately incorporate local knowledge and western science into wetland management. The concept of adaptive management is modified accordingly to integrate postcolonial studies of knowledge production and thus can also contribute to the critical analysis of the integration of local knowledge, which has tended to be underestimated or even ignored in postcolonial theories.
Article
Psychiatry has always been characterized by a range of different models of and approaches to mental disorder, which have sometimes brought progress in clinical practice, but have often also been accompanied by critique from within and without the field. Psychiatric nosology has been a particular focus of debate in recent decades; successive editions of the DSM and ICD have strongly influenced both psychiatric practice and research, but have also led to assertions that psychiatry is in crisis, and to advocacy for entirely new paradigms for diagnosis and assessment. When thinking about etiology, many researchers currently refer to a biopsychosocial model, but this approach has received significant critique, being considered by some observers overly eclectic and vague. Despite the development of a range of evidence‐based pharmacotherapies and psychotherapies, current evidence points to both a treatment gap and a research‐practice gap in mental health. In this paper, after considering current clinical practice, we discuss some proposed novel perspectives that have recently achieved particular prominence and may significantly impact psychiatric practice and research in the future: clinical neuroscience and personalized pharmacotherapy; novel statistical approaches to psychiatric nosology, assessment and research; deinstitutionalization and community mental health care; the scale‐up of evidence‐based psychotherapy; digital phenotyping and digital therapies; and global mental health and task‐sharing approaches. We consider the extent to which proposed transitions from current practices to novel approaches reflect hype or hope. Our review indicates that each of the novel perspectives contributes important insights that allow hope for the future, but also that each provides only a partial view, and that any promise of a paradigm shift for the field is not well grounded. We conclude that there have been crucial advances in psychiatric diagnosis and treatment in recent decades; that, despite this important progress, there is considerable need for further improvements in assessment and intervention; and that such improvements will likely not be achieved by any specific paradigm shifts in psychiatric practice and research, but rather by incremental progress and iterative integration.
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International headlines present the Shincheonji Church of Jesus the Temple of the Tabernacle of the Testimony on the one hand as a ‘dangerous sect’ or ‘cult’ and on the other hand as a marginalised Christian group in need of defence by human rights advocates fighting for religious freedom. Our contribution examines the Church’s internal text messages and recorded meetings of executives leaked to the press, court orders, arrest orders and charges against its founder Lee Man-hee, and Korean and Anglophone popular media coverage in order to provide a discourse analysis on the political nature of constructing Shincheonji as ‘bad’ or ‘good’ religion. We argue that understanding the contemporary situation requires a look at the political history of Protestant Christian – specifically American Protestant – influence on the secularism of South Korea. The state’s attempt to enforce public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic continues to clash with Shincheonji’s secret proselytisation process. Protestant influence on the South Korean state is also present in public health values, which are now presented as secular values but have roots in religious traditions. What is at stake here is how state power to immunise and quarantine rationalises and legitimates itself by claiming to protect the majority, at the expense of (religious) minorities.
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This thesis examines the arguments used by politicians and civil servants to justify the implementation of digitalisation processes to modernise and reform the Norwegian public sector. The research questions are “What arguments are used within the Norwegian public administration to justify the implementation of digitalisation processes?” and “How can these arguments be understood in relation to ideas about modernisation and ongoing reforms within the administration more generally?”. Three studies of digitalisation and reform processes within the Norwegian public administration have been carried out to answer the research questions. The first study is of the Minside public electronic communications service from its inception in 2004 until the service was discontinued in 2012. The second study is an analysis of governmental documents on the role and importance of digitalisation reforms in the Norwegian public sector from the mid-1980’s to today. The third outlines how digitalisation is related to a reform process within the public sector, widely referred to as New Public Management (NPM). The analysis shows that justifications for the implementation of Minside and for digitalisation in the Norwegian public administration are generally focused on the simplification, coordination and rationalisation of the public sector. These justifications are closely connected to key normative ideas of NPM on how and why modernisation and reform processes should be carried out within the public sector in general. Despite high expectations, many digitalisation and electronic service implementations aimed at the population do not achieve the effects expected. This does not, however, appear to have had any impact upon these seemingly deeply entrenched expectations. They continue to be as widely held and as high as they have always been, despite widespread evidence to the contrary. Hvordan begrunner aktører innenfor norsk offentlig forvaltning digitaliseringsprosesser? Hvordan kan disse begrunnelsene forstås i forhold til ideer om modernisering og pågående reformer innenfor forvaltningen mer generelt? For å svare på disse spørsmålene presenteres tre historier: Først studeres den offentlige digitale tjenesten Minside , deretter undersøkes offentlige dokumenter som omhandler digitaliseringsprosessers rolle og betydning for modernisering i forvaltningen fra 1987 opp til i dag. Til slutt analyseres ideene bak moderniseringen av offentlig sektor, New Public Management, som har hentet ideer og inspirasjon for hvordan offentlig sektor skal organiseres fra privat sektors markedstenkning. Funnene viser at begrunnelsene for digitalisering er å nå mål som forenkling, samordning og effektivisering. Disse målene står i et nært forhold til normative idealer innenfor New Public Management for hvordan reformer og modernisering begrunnes mer generelt. Avhandlingens viser også at forventningene til fordelene ved digitalisering synes å være robuste. Til tross for at en rekke digitaliseringsprosesser ikke har oppnådd de ønskede resultater, så synes ikke de omfattende og sterke forventningene til hva som kan oppnås gjennom digitalisering å avta.
Chapter
Dominant conceptualizations of urban and rural education settings position these as distinct, with each presenting contrasting opportunities and challenges in the work of teachers. Consequently, it is unsurprising that teacher education research, focused on one of these settings, by and large fails to consider the commonalities that both of these contexts may in fact possess. In this chapter, the authors (an urban teacher educator and a rural teacher educator) report on a collaborative self-study they conducted that was focused on their teacher education practices in their respective settings. The purpose was to identify how an inquiry that attends to the materiality of these diverse educative and professional contexts could inform the preparation of future teachers and contribute to emergent perspectives on urban and rural teacher education. The inquiry is conceptually grounded in new materialism. As such, the authors not only investigated their teaching practices, but also how materiality and affect functioned to shape engagement with students, the institutional setting, and each other. Findings suggest that urban and rural teacher education possess shared commonalities, that the material structures in each setting serve to shape beliefs about teaching and learning, and that affect functions as an agentic force in the enactment of pedagogical practices. The chapter provides implications for teacher education and future research.
Article
Alongside claims that ‘the methodological pluralism debate has been won’, worries grow just why the victory is not shared by the wider social sciences and applied disciplines. Remedies are sought but mainly tinkering on presentation tactics. Against this status quo, this article argues for a critical reflection on theoretic approaches to methodological pluralism. Seemingly convenient for legitimating diverse methodologies though, the Paradigm root metaphor has from the very beginning trapped methodological pluralism theorising in a no‐win battle. Drawing on Kuhn's later perspective of scientific change as ‘proliferation of specialties’, this article posits that the enhanced evolutionist metaphor fits better with methodological pluralism by depicting the increasing variety of methodologies as deepened division of labour and combined‐use of methodologies as enlarging human competence. In Kuhn's spirit, this article calls for a strongly pluralist, responsive approach, not so much in flexibly ‘managing paradigms’ or ‘living with incommensurability’ as in reflexively deliberating the comparative advantages of adopting different theoretic approaches in terms of efficacy in facilitating compelling theorising and sharing ideas with practitioners.
Article
How do new ideas emerge in academic contexts and what forces determine which ideas get selected and which are forgotten? We analyze all papers presented at the ANPEC Brazilian Economics National Meetings from 2013 to 2019 using topic modeling and Kullback-Leibler divergence to measure novelty and resonance. In contrast to simply counting citations or reference combinations, these methods explore the Shannon information in the actual texts to detect the rise of new patterns and whether these patterns persist once they have been established. We find that novelty is highly correlated with transience so that most new ideas are quickly forgotten. However, of the ideas that persist, those that are more novel have higher impact. We show that our text-based measure of impact is correlated with subsequent citations.
Article
Sulla nave che lo portava verso le Clark lectures negli Stati Uniti, Jung racconta a Freud un sogno, divenuto famoso, in cui una casa a quattro piani, o livelli, sembra rappresentare la struttura di una psiche fondata sull'inconscio archetipico. Nonostante l'idea di archetipo sia stata più volte oggetto di critiche, a partire dalla seconda metà del 1900 gli studi scientifici sull'organizzazione del cervello umano hanno confermato l'ipotesi di una stratificazione delle funzioni mentali e di una determinazione prevalentemente istintuale ed ereditaria del primo e più antico strato dell'evoluzione neuropsichica. Pertanto, riprendendo la struttura della casa sognata da Jung, in questo articolo proponiamo l'idea di una stratificazione psico-neuro-archeologica suddivisa in 3+1 strati sovrapposti che costituisce una elaborazione del modello neuro-archeologico ternario elaborato da Paul MacLean prima e da Jaak Panksepp poi, in cui l'affettività rappresenta il fattore organizzativo fondamentale del cervello-mente. Lo strato più evoluto, caratteristico della specie umana, è quello dell'auto-coscienza riflessiva. Subito sotto si trova il livello della coscienza intersoggettiva, caratteristico delle specie omeoterme (mammiferi ed uccelli) e legato all'evoluzione di un complesso di strutture corticali mediali chiamate Default-Mode-Network. Ancora sotto si trova lo strato della coscienza cognitivo-immaginativa, evolutasi nei vertebrati dotati di corteccia cerebrale. Infine, il primo e più antico strato, è quello della consapevolezza affettiva, legato al funzionamento delle strutture sottocorticali mediali (core-Self), dove risiedono i circuiti istintuali ed archetipici individuati negli studi neuro-etologici di Panksepp.
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In International Relations (IR) scholarship, the epistemic communities’ framework has gained relevance for explaining the roles of experts in the context of transnational global governance. However, IR scholars have criticized the framework for descriptive reasoning. This paper aims to strengthen its explanatory power by following rules of a systematic literature review and by using Desmond’s conception of professionalism to further develop Cross’s model of epistemic community. Desmond introduced his concept of professionalism as a response to bureaucratic and market trends in scientific research and Cross developed her concept of professionalism as a comprehensive reconceptualization of Haas’s original model of an epistemic community. The results confirm compatibility between the two concepts. Following the structure of Cross’s model of professionalism, individual autonomy operationalizes selection and training, collective autonomy covers the face-to-face meetings, and the service provision operationalizes the common culture.
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In the field of world urban transportation theory, gradual advancements have overshadowed breakthroughs for decades. However, in the field of China’s urban transportation, the specific progress has been dominated by technology application rather than the contribution of doctrine revolution over the years. For this reason, the concept of big data rapidly triggers upsurging research enthusiasm. Although China keeps abreast of big data research together with the rest of the world in the transportation sphere, China would still “fall behind at the starting line” in the race of technological innovation if no profound insights are gained into the budding doctrine revolution.
Article
Skole is veronderstel om veilige en geweldlose omgewings te wees. Die realiteit is egter dat skole – beide in Suid-Afrika en internasionaal – voortdurend deur skoolgeweld geteister word. Die talryke artikels wat hieroor gepubliseer is, dui egter daarop dat skoolgeweld ’n multidimensionele en ingewikkelde probleem is en dat die metodes wat tans gebruik word om skoolgeweld die hoof te bied, onsuksesvol is. Die doel van hierdie literatuurgebaseerde navorsing was om ’n alternatiewe benadering tot skoolgeweld en onderwys te ontwikkel deur die fokus weg van skoolgeweld te verskuif na ’n benadering van geïntegreerde helende (GHO) wat op agt waardegedrewe beginsels gevestig is. Om hierdie doel te bereik, fokus die analities-konseptuele navorsing wat op ’n transformatiewe paradigma gegrond is, op vier temas. In die eerste tema word die aard en inhoud van skoolgeweld, en die wisselwerking en onderskeid tussen skoolgeweld, mag en dissipline ondersoek. Ons gevolgtrekking is dat (skool)geweld slagoffers verontmenslik en verhinder om hulle potensiaal te bereik, terwyl mag die vermoë is om selfhandhawend op te tree en ander se optrede te beïnvloed. Dissipline is mag wat ekstern en intern (as selfdissipline) beheer. In die tweede tema val die soeklig op ’n aantal onderwysbenaderings wat die verandering in skoolkultuur kan ondersteun, soos herstellende onderwys. Hierdie benaderings kan almal tot ’n waardegedrewe skoolkultuur bydra, maar om die leemtes daarin te ondervang en die benaderings tot ’n eenheid te bind, het ons ons tot Freire se benadering tot onderwys gewend. Die bespreking fokus daarna op agt “onderwys is ...”-stellings wat GHO ten grondslag lê. Dit sluit in dat onderwys bemagtigend, humaniserend, op hoop en liefde gevestig, waardegedrewe en konteksgebonde, leerdergesentreerd, dialoogvoerend, probleemstellend en polities is. In die vierde tema word ’n raamwerk vir die praktiese implementering van GHO ondersoek. Die implementeringsraamwerk bestaan uit implementeringsterreine (die geleerde en geleefde leerplanne) en ’n implementeringsproses wat deur deelnemende aksienavorsing gerig word. Die moontlike knelpunte vir GHO, soos ’n fokus op geweld, koste, tyd, en onderwysers se sienings en houdings, word ook hanteer, maar ons gevolgtrekking is dat GHO wel die moontlikheid skep om ’n skoolgemeenskap tot stand te bring wat minder wreedaardig en onmenslik is. Die artikel sluit af met ’n aantal aanbevelings.
Article
The chapter begins by describing the content of the micro and meso levels that make up the ecosystem necessary to promote learning. In the past decades, knowledge generated on quality education has led to “discrete and disruptive” interventions with manageable and disaggregated components that fit into the worldview of the mostly distant donor (a “hawk’s eye” approach). An organically integrated approach is constructively worked out, which provides a framework for analyzing micro and meso levels (a “turtle’s feet” approach). The conceptual framework that structures this knowledge generation includes three areas that define micro and meso institutions: composite history, tangled milieus, and embedded mindsets. This research framework allows for the design and implementation of interventions that fit the ecosystem in a country that drives how things work on the ground. The chapter argues that such a shift in knowledge generation will help to design interventions that enable meso institutions to intervene for consistent and effective teaching and learning to take place in schools in developing countries.
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