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Zero-Size Body Physique and Fashion Models’ Health

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Abstract

The purpose of this research is to study the effect of zero size body type structure on model’s health. It is an emerging concept of modeling with zero size body type on ramp in fashion industry of Pakistan. General public specifically females who likes the fashion become the part of this research. Restricted non probability sampling technique was used. After applying statistical test based on sig value, the coefficient indicates, only a positive relationship between designers prefers zero size for their collection and zero-size model looks good on ramp, designers prefer zero size for their collection shows a negative relationship. Table 3 clearly shows that these independent variables (zero size is harmful to health, zero size model looks good on ramp, designers prefer zero size for their collection) have higher significance because their sig values are less than 5%.
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484 (Online)
Vol.4, No.27, 2014
149
Zero-Size Body Physique and Fashion Models’ Health
Atif Salman
PhD scholar at SZABIST, Karachi, Pakistan
salmanatif@hotmail.com
Nawaz Ahmad
*
Assistant Professor at Indus University, Karachi, Pakistan.
nawazahmad_pk@hotmail.com
Rabeea Hasan
Asian Institute of Fashion Design – Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan
Abstract
The purpose of this research is to study the effect of zero size body type structure on model’s health. It is an
emerging concept of modeling with zero size body type on ramp in fashion industry of Pakistan. General public
specifically females who likes the fashion become the part of this research. Restricted non probability sampling
technique was used. After applying statistical test based on sig value, the coefficient indicates, only a positive
relationship between designers prefers zero size for their collection and zero-size model looks good on ramp,
designers prefer zero size for their collection shows a negative relationship. Table 3 clearly shows that these
independent variables (zero size is harmful to health, zero size model looks good on ramp, designers prefer zero
size for their collection) have higher significance because their sig values are less than 5%.
Keywords: Zero Body Size, Fashion, Models’ Health.
1. Introduction
1.1 Background
Fashion industry is an emerging and growing sector that supports and promotes the textile industry of Pakistan.
It is clearly observed that people from all social classes are tending towards to adopt new trends of fashion and
life style. Similarly, designers are also focusing on creativity and developing new trends in fashion industry.
Fashion industry is one of the key elements in economic sector. Due to huge volume size and
competition designers are now become more proactive and applying new marketing techniques to ensure their
presence in long run in the fashion market. The key focus of marketers and designers is the demographic profile
because it depends upon the individual characteristics of consumers. Mostly the young age girls and women are
more eager to adopt new fashion at the earlier stage. Marketers and designers are always tried to attract the target
group through ramp and catwalks in order to reinforce the audience to look like a model on ramp.
The concept of zero size models is a new terminology used in the fashion industry and models are now
adopting zero-size figure to portray her self more attracting and dashing. It is exposed that due to maintain zero-
size figure by female models may effect medically harmful for the human body.
1.2 Objective
The purpose of this research is to study the effect of zero-size body type structure on model’s health. It is an
emerging concept of modeling with zero-size body type on ramp in fashion industry of Pakistan. Zero-size 1)
harmful effects of zero-size, 2) good looking zero-size physique, and 3) designers’ zero-size preference are the
independent variables which considered as important and vital variables for this research. A questionnaire
developed to conduct the survey. Questions were designed according to these three independent variables related
to modeling with zero-size body type structure and its effect on the health of fashion model that either it is
harmful or not. In this study respondents were young age fashion lover females. Instrument consisted of various
questions that are in supporting of above three variables.
1.3 Problem statement
To study the effect of zero-size modeling on the health of fashion model.
1.4 Hypotheses
H
1
: There is no harmful effect of zero-size on the health of fashion model.
H
2
: There is no effect of good looking zero-size physique on the health of fashion model.
H
3
: There is no effect of designer’s zero-size preference on the health of fashion model.
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484 (Online)
Vol.4, No.27, 2014
150
2. Literature Review
In every era of life designed clothing was the sign of social status (Simmel, 1904). Clothing relates to look
different and covering of the body. It expresses the way of life that rotates around the behavior. Age, social class
and gender are the cultural values that express the self expression (Kaiser1985, Davis 1992). Everyone has
different body structure so that the purpose of clothing is to transforming the outlook and shape of the body
according to the latest trend and fashion (Rouse, 1989).
According to Mintel (2006), celebrity’s enforcement in fashion industry is the factor that motivates
women to get more awareness regarding fashion trends and life style. The bombardment of fashion magazines
and media programs is the way to collect the new fashion trends. Some cultures like Western encourages, skinny
body structure especially younger females, which then serve to figure out the individual’s attitude to ideal body
size Slade (1994).
Grogan (1999) observed that admiration of skinniness body type structure rely on cultural aspect.
Under develop countries that face poor economical conditions, thinness may consider a depressing aspect such
as medically illness or poverty; similarly well off countries may relate skinniness to social attractiveness, status
symbol and style that’s why the slimness is more valuable characteristic than any other in front of youth. In
accordance with LaBat & DeLong, 1990, recent fashion atmosphere obtain and construe social messages of
which and what is measured or considered as the ideal and zero size body structure. Media is the sources who
sets the standards of beauty through promotion of modified fashionable women figures and also play its role
towards the negative body image (Tebbel, 2000).
Taylor & Cosenza (2002) observed and assumed that young adults are more worried about their
clothing decisions to make sure their social acceptance and association. It is propose that young adults spends
heavily on their out fit and in adopting new fashion and styles than any other age groups Koester & May (1985).
3. Methodology
3.1 Method of Data Collection
In this research major source of collecting data were primary and secondary. Both sources were used to gather
the data in order to evaluate the effect zero-size body type modeling concept on fashion model’s health.
Surveyed questionnaire was used to collect the data from the fashion lover young girls and secondary source was
the articles.
3.2 Sampling Technique
General public specifically females who like the fashion become the part of this research. Purposive, non
probability, sampling technique was used as a sampling technique.
3.3 Sampling size
In this research 150 respondents took part, which includes,
Females
Age group: young
Students
Fashion lovers
Karachi based
3.4 Instrument of Data Collection
Dichotomous type of questionnaire was the instrument to gather the data. Questionnaire consisted with 19
questions. A total no of 150 questionnaires were distributed among the fashion loving young girls of Karachi.
3.5 Statistical Technique
The instruments adapted for gathering data for this research consisted of questionnaire for surveys and SPSS as
an assessing tool. The Multiple Linear Regression was applied for data analysis because this research has one
dependent variable and three independent variables. Therefore, MLR model is the best model to assess this type
of data.
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484 (Online)
Vol.4, No.27, 2014
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4. Results & Discussion
4.1 Findings and Interpretations
Model Summary
Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std. Error of the Estimate
1 .556
a
.309 .289 .424
a. Predictors: (Constant), zerosizeisharmfultohealth, zerosizemodellooksgoodonramp,
designerspreferzerosizefortheircollection
Table 1 indicates that how much of the variance in the dependent variable is explained by the model (which
includes the variables of zero size is harmful to health, zero size model looks good on ramp, designers prefer
zero-size for their collection). The adjusted R square value is 0.289; it means that our model (which includes the
variables of zero-size is harmful to health, zero size model looks good on ramp, designers prefer zero size for
their collection) explains 28.9% of the variance in dependent variable.
Table 2: ANOVA
ANOVA
b
Model Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
1 Regression 8.110 3 2.703 15.070 .000
a
Residual 18.118 101 .179
Total 26.229 104
a. Predictors: (Constant), zerosizeisharmfultohealth, zerosizemodellooksgoodonramp,
designerspreferzerosizefortheircollection
b. Dependent Variable: zerosizewithoutharminghealth
Based on the statistical test the significant value 0.000 is less than 0.05, which indicates the significance
of test. It is clear that there is a significant effect of (which includes the variables of zero size is harmful to health,
zero size model looks good on ramp, designers prefer zero-size for their collection) on the health of fashion
models.
Table 3: Coefficients
After applying statistical test based on sig value, the B coefficient indicates, only a positive relationship between
designers prefers zero size for their collection and zero-size model looks good on ramp, designers prefer zero-
size for their collection shows a negative relationship. Table 3 clearly shows that these independent variables
(zero-size is harmful to health, zero-size model looks good on ramp, designers prefer zero-size for their
collection) have higher significance because their sig values are less than 0.05.
Coefficients
a
Model
Unstandardized
Coefficients
Standardized
Coefficients
t Sig.
Collinearity
Statistics
B Std. Error
Beta Tolerance
VIF
1 (Constant) .604 .129 4.688 .000
Zero size model looks
good on ramp
-.184 .090 -.175 -2.047 .043 .935 1.069
Designers prefer zero
size for their
collection
.394 .088 .394 4.480 .000 .885 1.129
Zero size is harmful
to health
-.288 .098 -.265 -2.950 .004 .847 1.181
a. Dependent Variable: zero size without harming health
Research on Humanities and Social Sciences www.iiste.org
ISSN (Paper)2224-5766 ISSN (Online)2225-0484 (Online)
Vol.4, No.27, 2014
152
4.2 Hypotheses assessment summary
No.
Hypotheses t-
value
Sig
value
Result
H
1
There is no harmful effect of zero-size on the health of fashion model. -2.95 .004 Reject
H
2
There is no effect of good looking zero-size physique on the health of
fashion model
-2.047
.043 Reject
H
3
There is no effect of designer’s zero-size preference on the health of
fashion model
4.48 .000 Reject
5. Conclusion
There is a harmful effect of zero-size on the health of fashion model. Fashion models use variety of methods to
lose weight and that harms their health. They achieve the desired figure but they lose their health. This is due to
pressure created by society and fashion designers, their required body measurements are becoming smaller by
the day and models have to come up with ways to maintain their figure accordingly.
Moreover, there is an increasing appeal of zero-size figure in youth these days. They idealize it because
they think it is good for health and no one should be fat. But they ignore the fact that zero-size destroys health.
References
Davis, F. (1992), Fashion, Culture, and Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
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Koester, A.W. & May, J.K., (1985) Profile of Adolescents’ Clothing Practices: Purchase, Daily Selection and
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Mintel Reports, (2006a) Women’s Wear Retailing – UK. Mintel International Group Ltd., July 2006.
Rouse, E., (1989), Understanding Fashion. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
Simmel, G, (1904), Fashion. International Quarterly, 10, 130–155.
Slade, P.D., (1994), What is Body Image? Behavior Research and Therapy, 32 (5): 497–502.
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Book
Sarah Grogan provides a comprehensive overview of the subject of body image, pulling together diverse research from the fields of psychology, sociology, media, and gender studies in men, women, and children. This second edition has been thoroughly revised and updated to reflect the significant increase in research on body image since the first edition was published, including new empirical data collected specifically for this text. In addition to examining evidence for sociocultural influences on body image, the book also reviews recent literature and includes new findings on body modification practices (cosmetic surgery, piercing, tattooing, and bodybuilding). It takes a critical look at interventions designed to promote positive body image and also attempts to link body image to physical health, looking in particular at motivations for potentially health-damaging practices such as anabolic steroid use and cosmetic surgery.
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Apparel as the product of standard sizing is reflected in female evaluation of self and body, i.e., body cathexis. This study focused upon body cathexis and the perceptions offit of clothing of 107 female consumers. Responses were measured on three scales: (1) satisfaction with fit of apparel at upper, lower, and total body; (2) satisfaction with fit at specific body sites; and (3) a body cathexis scale developed by Rosen and Ross. Analysis of data indicated satisfaction with overall fit at lower body was less satisfying than at upper body and total body. Satisfaction with fit at specific sites below the waist (hip and thigh) was also generally less satisfying than at sites above the waist (neck and arm). Fashion at the time, close fit at lower body, reflected in blue jeans and slim skirts, no doubt influenced more stringent evaluation of fit at lower body. The body cathexis scores were slightly lower for lower body and lower body sites. Correlation for lower body fit satisfaction and lower body cathexis was statistically significant, confirming a relationship between the respondents' satisfaction with fit and feelings towards personal body.
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Retailers agree that segmenting and developing an understanding of target segments are important inputs to differentiating products and enhancing shopping propensity. Most shopping behavior and choice profiling tends to generalize rather than develop useful segment information. Thus, most results are not useful for targeting and positioning. A survey was conducted to examine shopping choice behavior of a very important and economically viable segment of this teen market called the “later aged female teen”. It was found that a typical later aged female teen was born to shop. Making the right choice, especially for her clothing, is important both from a social affiliation and a social influence position. This group felt brand (fit, look, and style) to be the most important attribute to consider in apparel choice and later aged female teens wanted excitement in their shopping venue. Shopping was important and there were risks associated with an incorrect choice of their clothing. Finally, the desire to stay and shop at the local mall seemed to be a function of the mall composition and excitement.
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The purpose of this study was to examine the clothing practices in the daily selection, care, and purchase of clothing by adolescents in order to determine the extent these practices are performed independently or influenced by others, and to identify the factors involved in the activities. Clothing Practice Profiles were developed for both sexes in the three age groups corresponding to divisions in the Oregon 4-H program. The age group comparison revealed increasing frequency of independent activity in all three clothing practice areas (selection, care, and purchase) as age increased. Parental influence appeared to decrease with increasing age. Siblings' influence was minimal. Peer influence on selection and purchase practices increased. Media influence on daily clothing selection practices and clothing purchase practices in terms of wearing or buying identical or similar clothing was minimal. Media influence in advertisements increased with age, but purchases of advertised clothing items remained about the same. Age group comparisons were also made for selection factors and other care and purchase practices, including responsibilities for care of the member's and family's clothing, planning clothing purchases, sources of funds and methods of paying for clothing, use of clothing label information, and purchase factors.
Understanding Fashion
  • E Rouse
Rouse, E., (1989), Understanding Fashion. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
What is Body Image? Behavior Research and Therapy
  • P D Slade
Slade, P.D., (1994), What is Body Image? Behavior Research and Therapy, 32 (5): 497–502.
  • G Simmel
Simmel, G, (1904), Fashion. International Quarterly, 10, 130-155.
Women's Wear Retailing -UK. Mintel International Group Ltd
Mintel Reports, (2006a) Women's Wear Retailing -UK. Mintel International Group Ltd., July 2006. Rouse, E., (1989), Understanding Fashion. Oxford: Blackwell Science.
The Body Snatchers: How the Media Shapes Women
  • C Tebbel
Tebbel, C., (2000), The Body Snatchers: How the Media Shapes Women. Sydney: Finch Publishing.