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An Illustrated Handbook of Vernacular Architecture

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... Sometimes it is also called as traditional architecture, although some references distinguish these two terms. According to Brunskill (2000), although there are links between them, traditional architecture would not be included as part of vernacular architecture. ...
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The use of bamboo as building material has been ascending recently due to the rise in public environmental awareness. Bamboo is one of the most sustainable building materials. It is a renewable resource that grows quickly. As a low-energy building material in its natural form, bamboo is traditionally associated with the cultures of Asia and South America. Its strength, enormous availability, and easy workability have made it a dominant building material throughout much of the world, where it has grown natively for centuries. Its use in modern, mainstream construction, however, is rare. A few pioneering architects and engineers in South America and South East Asia have demonstrated bamboo’s potential for high-end buildings, but they remain the exceptions. Despite this progress, using bamboo as a structural material remains difficult, especially as a tension element. Although bamboo has extremely high tensile strength, the lack of a joining system to accommodate its strength makes the application uneasy. The characteristics of the bamboo itself generate the difficulties in bamboo joinery. The round shape and cavities inside the bamboo are two of those characteristics. Therefore, it is a special task to develop tension loadable joints to expand the range of structural applications of anisotropic bamboo pole. The main objective of this phenomenological and experimental research was to propose new tension loadable bamboo joints. The secondary objective was to classify bamboo constructions and bamboo joints to put the proposed bamboo joints in a context. The development of new bamboo joints classification was based on the classification by Janssen (2000). Three types of tensile loadable bamboo joints were proposed: utilizing the hollowness of bamboo; using the outer part of bamboo by enlacing a steel wire; and employing the shear and the bearing strength of bamboo by attaching perpendicular elements. After a comparison study, the chosen lashing-based bamboo joints were developed in an experimental research. A loop of steel wire using a kind of lasso knot was twined around the bamboo in such way that it will tighten by pulling the wire. Tension force induced in the steel wire by an element inserted inside the cavity of the bamboo was converted to radial compression perpendicular to the fibers to the center of the pole causing a circumferential stress in bamboo. Preliminary tests were conducted to determine the radial compression strength of the bamboo. There were two types of winding: one and three hemispherical-windings. The result of these tests was used to calculate the load capacity of the joint under radial compression. After calculating the strength of the joint in each component against its corresponding load, three samples of lashing joints with eye-bolts were tested. Two types of failures happened: the wire sliced the bamboo after the rings slipped into the holes; and the wire broke off. The average strength of the joints of 34.09 kN almost passed the ultimate strength of the used steel wire. Based on the results above, the joint was improved by replacing the eye-bolt with a rod and some cross-dowels in such a way that similar lashing technique can be multiplied in every joint. As a result, it spread the force over a wider surface area of bamboo, and it was called bamboo joint with multi knots. The tension tests on the bamboo joints with multi knots showed an expected result, as the failures of three samples happened in the rods when they broke off. The average tensile strength was 77.91 kN, beyond the ultimate strength of the used M16 rod. This type of failure is very important, because the user can predict the strength of this joint more precisely. After using a bamboo with approximately similar diameter and wall thickness, the strength of bamboo joint with multi knots can be customized. After the rod with certain tensile strength is chosen, the number of knots in accordance with the strength of each wire can be determined. Developed from traditional lashing techniques, this bamboo joint with multi knots provides a relatively cheap and easy joint, which can be made even by an unskilled worker. Therefore, this joint can bolster the utilization of bamboo pole as a tension element in vernacular bamboo construction. Furthermore, the capability to transfer both tensile and compression force without eccentricity makes this joint also suitable for space structures.
... Vernacular architecture from Maramures (Romania) is a well-defined concept, comprising the traditional way of building in wood developed by local masters upon traditional knowledge (Dancus, 2010). This is a subsidiary of the basic definition employed by Brunskill (2000), as the usual way of building in a place, based on climatic constraints and cultural norms. Climatic limitations refer to conditions such as natural setting, type of wood, land use, as well as harvesting season. ...
... Vernacular architecture is defined differently by different scholars (see Brunskill, 2000;Oliver, 1997). This study though conceptualizes vernacular architecture in line with Oliver (1997: xxxiii) as 'all dwellings and all other buildings' constructed in relation to 'their environmental contexts and available resources' and are 'customarily owner-or community-built, utilizing traditional technologies'. ...
Article
The influence of imported material, technology and methods has put pressure on most traditional architectural systems to modernize. This influence to modernize is transmitted through various mechanisms. This paper argues that there are a number of aspects to vernacular architecture which would be lost through this conversion process to modern materials, technology and methods. Through the examination of vernacular architecture among the Lamba people of Senior Chief Mushili’s chiefdom, the study found that there are cultural, environmental and aesthetical aspects in vernacular architecture which are poorly understood in the process of modernization. Data for this research were collected through an ethnographical approach with occasional in-depth interviews with senior members of the Royal establishment and the community. Thus, the data were mainly qualitative.
... In the United Kingdom, several authors referred to a "quick process" by opposition to a "slow process" [14,22,117,276]. The "slow process" is the technique described above, i.e. stacking of clods of earth in a lift, left to dry for several days or weeks before another lift could be implemented on it. ...
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The use of local, natural and unprocessed materials offers promising low impact building solutions. The wide spatial variability of these materials is, however, an obstacle to a large-scale use. The construction strategies developed by past builders were dictated by the local climate and the quality and the amount of locally available construction materials. These construction strategies can be regarded as an optimized management of local, natural and variable resources and are a source of inspiration for modern sustainable building. Unfortunately, this knowledge was lost in Western countries during the 20th century. Vernacular earth construction know-how rediscovering requires the development of rational built heritage investigation means. Another issue regarding the use of natural and variable building material is their compliance with modern building regulation. The development of performance based testing procedures is proposed as a solution to facilitate the use of earth as a building material. A multidisciplinary approach is proposed, combining micromorphology, pedology, geotechnics and heritage disciplines to study vernacular earth heritage. It provides complementary tools to assess pedological sources of construction material and geotechnical characteristics of earth employed in vernacular earth heritage. It also provides a detailed description of the construction process of vernacular earth heritage. Using these results, it was possible to draw resource maps and provide a scale of magnitude of resource availability at regional scale. Two performance based testing procedures were proposed in order to take into account the natural variability of earth in a modern building context. Earth construction will play an important role in the modern sustainable building of the 21st century if the actors of the sector adopt earth construction processes able to meet social demand, with low environmental impact and at an affordable cost. The study of earth heritage demonstrated the ability of historical earth builders to innovate in order to comply with social demand variations and technical developments. Earth construction benefits of an old and rich past and it would be a non-sense to leave this past behind. The analysis of earth heritage and the rediscovering of vernacular construction techniques is a valuable source of inspiration for modern earth construction. The valorisation of vernacular knowledge will save time, energy and avoid repeating past mistakes. The future of earth construction should be a continuation of past vernacular earth construction.
... He believed that these villages were built by untrained amateurs, following local customs. Most of the materials selected came from local and only a few used foreign materials e material of the building and the function of the building has a crucial influence on the shape, and the aesthetics is often only ranked second [2]. ese concepts embody the common denominator of communities around the world that have much less in common than the differences between them in terms of construction methods and construction ideas, and the current state of conservation is precarious and will continue. ...
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With the globalization of the world economy and the integration and heterogeneity of cultures, the collision between traditional settlements and local traditional culture, traditional culture and modern culture is gradually reduced. Traditional cultures, traditional settlements, and traditional architectural forms have gradually declined. Therefore, in the context of globalization, people are more concerned about how to recognize, understand, and inherit these traditions and traditional ways of life in the context of today’s society and how to combine with the needs of contemporary communities to create an outdoor space suitable for human survival. However, due to the lack of research on traditional wind-heat conditions, there is no feasible evaluation method. Taking a typical village in Lianjiang County, Fuzhou as an example, various factors affecting wind-heat conditions in traditional villages are discussed in this paper. The CFD simulation technology is used to simulate and compare various types of settlements, and the wind and thermal environment around are compared and evaluated in detail and carried out in-depth research on it. By summarizing the general rules of natural ventilation of traditional residential buildings in Beigan Township, Lianjiang County, and Fuzhou, it is expected to be helpful to today’s ecological construction. In order to construct a new type of energy-saving and land-saving community, some feasible methods and ideas are put forward to make it more realistic.
... Pengumpulan data dimulai dari kajian studi terdahulu, dikomparasikan dengan survey awal, kemudian divalidasi dengan data sekunder dari BPS Kabupaten Sumenep (BPS-Sumenep, 2016). Strategi pengumpulan data berupa pendokumentasian arsitektur vernakuler (Burnskill, 1998), yaitu: ...
... Noble discourages use of the term primitive architecture as having a negative connotation (Noble, 2007). Brunskill (2000) has defined the ultimate in vernacular architecture as ...a building designed by an amateur without any training in design; the individual will have been guided by a series of conventions built up in his locality, paying little attention to what may be fashionable. The function of the building would be the dominant factor, aesthetic considerations, though present to some small degree, being quite minimal. ...
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From the observation of the urban settlements in Egypt from the past to the present, within research, it was monitored the closed vernacular communities developing in Egypt. Therefore, the core of the research was directing towards comparing between the two vernacular settlements; one from the past, the establishing of Cairo city, the other from the present, Al-Rehab City. Architectural principals are the main features of the comparison, then the followed by urban components that include; residential buildings, public buildings, and urban fabric as well. Consequently, the paper covered the social and culture factors that encouraged people to residence within the past and the present in the two eras, which will reflect positively upon solving people urban problems and avoid creating slum areas. This paper includes two stages to compare between the two vernacular settlements in the different era; a theoretical background in the literature provides architectural and urban features and social criteria for establishing of Cairo city, in 640 AD. Then, it comes to the analysis of the collected data in the current era for Al-Rehab City. The paper incorporates two methods of data collection. First, a field surveys among Al-Rehab City and obtained maps to determine the principal architectural and urban components. Second, a questionnaire survey of the residences was done to explain the factors that encouraged them to live in this closed vernacular settlement in the current era. Consequently, the paper compares between the two settlements to guide the planners to develop interactive vernacular settlements in Egypt.
... s made clear by its inclusion on the Council's Heritage at Risk Register, the Thompson report, and the subsequent Weald and Downland Museum/South Downs National Park restoration. This report, it is hoped, will add to the corpus of knowledge on this cart shed, in particular, and, more generally, the study of vernacular agricultural buildings. R. W. Brunskill's. (1987) Illustrated Handbook of Vernacular Architecture is an important inspiration for this project, as is the ongoing work of local and national vernacular studies groups. ...
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A survey of a vernacular agricultural shed, circa 1800. The structure features the late use of medieval framing techniques and re-used frame components of unknown date. Up Marden West Sussex. The report is for inclusion on the Chichester District HER
... Malay architecture that relied on oral tradition showed the existence of vernacular architecture criteria when the building was built without certain systems, involving the construction plan, the architect of the special and specific knowledge regarding architecture and design. This is in line with Brunskill (2000) view of vernacular architecture, a building designed by amateurs without any training or knowledge in architecture. ...
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Vernacular is said to be derived from the Latin term vernaculus which means domestic or local which means 'place'. However, in this context, the vernacular traditions clearly emphasize the conditions, local materials, environment and behavior as well as local customs that focus on traditional Malay society. This is reflected in the architecture that can be studied with the senses dependent on the thoughts and views of the community. Among them is the architecture of old Malay building. Research vernacular aspect of old Malay architecture displays a close link exists or affinity with nature and the community trust, which is the main source of living of the people. In fact, the nature and confidence in ensuring the community's ability to meet the objectives of old Malay income, as a protective domain, not only of the current situation, even include descriptions of culture. In this case, the old Malay architecture have been identified in the text of the Malay historiography, historical documentation as the material of the Malays. Hence, to highlight the description of the vernacular architecture of the old Malay, research will be conducted on the texts, intended to show the relationship of the Malay community with nature and belief, thus explaining its ability to meet the objectives of the production building old Malay, include their role as protectors of the current situation and highlights the value of Malay culture.
... Stone tiles were graded, with the biggest laid at the eaves with courses of diminishing size to the ridge. Stone tiles were laid at quite a steep pitch, 50 degrees or more, being pegged or nailed to laths that were attached to the rafters (Brunskill 1978). ...
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Kingswell Street and Woolmonger Street are integral to our understanding of the layout and development of the medieval town of Northampton. The site is close to the heart of early Northampton and excavation has revealed a sequence of development that relates to the broader pattern of town growth. In the mid-10th to early 11th centuries there was a large late Saxon cellared structure, similar to others found within the early town, although this area was marginal to the main focus of late Saxon occupation in Northampton. The cellar was succeeded by a Saxo-Norman timber building on the same alignment, although the larger part of the site was open ground, and the roads appear to have been less formally defined. Intensive occupation of the site did not occur until the 13th-14th centuries when property boundaries were defined by areas of quarrying. Four medieval buildings were constructed within these plots, including a malthouse and a bakehouse. The arrangement of the buildings emphasised the formalisation of both adjacent streets for the first time, although a continuous frontage was not in evidence. Pottery of the 15th century was sparse, seemingly due to documented civil improvements on Kingswell Street in 1641, but the frontage was developed during this century. Occupation of a medieval building on the Kingswell Street frontage continued in the 16th-17th centuries, with cess pits to the rear. There was no evidence for the Great Fire of Northampton in 1675. The 17th-18th-century frontage contained at least one surviving medieval building, but this was lost with the erection of new buildings in the 19th century. Clay tobacco-pipemaking debris helped to identify the tenement of Master tobacco-pipemaker, George Henshaw (1767- 1774) at 15 Kingswell Street. His tenure formed part of a substantial documented history of the site for the later post-medieval period.
... The studies of Amos Rapoport, Brunskill (1971) and Paul Oliver, and the book "Atlas of Vernacular Architecture of the World" by Velinga, Oliver, and Bridge (Velinga et al., 2008) are among the most important sources for research being conducted on vernacular architecture. Another influential study is "Vernacular Architecture in the Twenty-First Century: Theory, Education and Practice," which was prepared under the editorship of Lindsay Asquith and Marcel Vellinga (2006). ...
Article
This study focuses on the potential for effectively using knowledge about vernacular architecture in programs of architectural education and it proposes a course as a mean of doing so. The first section emphasizes the importance of vernacular architecture in education through an extensive literature review. In the second section, the details of a course developed by the researchers called Learning from Vernacular Architecture (LF-VA), which consists of the components 'learning,' 'internalization' and 'interpretation,' are examined along with the outcomes of a questionnaire-based survey that was administered to students who enrolled in the class. The primary aim of the questionnaire was to observe whether or to what extent the course and its methods attained their objectives. The questionnaire results demonstrated that LF-VA not only led to a significant increase in awareness among students about vernacular architecture but also showed that the course proved to be a useful and unique mean of transferring knowledge about how it can be applied.
... The following are some of those definitions with who defined and brief comments:  Vernacular architecture is defined as a building designed by an amateur without any training in design; the individual will have been guided by a series of conventions built up in his locality, paying little attention to what may be fashionable. The function of the building would be the dominant factor, aesthetic considerations, though present to some small degree, being quite minimal (Brunskill, 2000). Local materials would be used as a matter of course, other materials being chosen and imported quite exceptionally. ...
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The key purpose of this paper concerns the definition of vernacular architecture in third millennium; a topic which gives the impression of confusion from the beginning when it was a word in the book of Rudofsky. In redefining this term, supplementary conceptual issue will need to be focused briefly and the role of classification will need to be more generally because of an inextricably linked between these two matters. It may seem strange to raise such a basic question again about "What is vernacular architecture?"; because, up till now, it needs to be addressed. There has been a major revitalization of interest in vernacular architecture, indicated by an ever increasing number of conferences, meetings, exhibitions and publications dealing with this subject. So far, strangely, the nature of what is being deliberated has been taken as self-evident and not tackled. There has been no reconsideration of what vernacular is, no definition either of the domain broadly or the subject matter specifically. During the discussion, this paper includes some design approaches and processes to clarify the technique which can be used to achieve an architectural building design addressed by vernacularism.
... The first was a set of buildings classified, according to architectural historian Ronald Brunskill, as the "central-chimney family" of houses. 35 In England, these are found principally in low-lying East Anglia and Southeastern England. The second were houses belonging to the "two-unit" or "two-cell" famiy, and includes the "longhouse" form as a subset.36 ...
Article
From August 1607 to summer or fall 1608, the Popham Colony was established on what is now known as Hossketch Point, in Popham Beach, Maine. Rediscovered in 1994, the archaeological remains of the colony are providing insights into one of England's earliest colonial efforts in North America. Among the most exciting hds, are features relating to early seventeenth-century English building practices. Archaeologists have uncovered evidence of the colony's six meter wide by twenty meter long storehouse, the "Admiral's howse," one of two apparently connected buildings, the buttery general or the Corporal's house; and what has tentatively been identified as the "Vice Admiral's howse." The storehouse was timber framed and earthfast posts were employed as footings. The arrangement of postholes and postmolds indicate that in building it, carpenters first assembled its wall sections on the ground, then tilted those assemblies into place. This technique is known as "normal assembly." Further, the storehouse was built with interrupted sills and had wattle and daub walls. The storehouse was destroyed by fire, possibly as the fort was abandoned in 1608. The Admiral's house was considerably smaller than the storehouse, though its dimensions remain unknown. Like the storehouse, the Admiral's dwelling was timber framed, and its regularly arranged posts were set in holes in lieu of a foundation. Sometime during the settlement's short life, possibly during the winter, the structure burned. The colonists subsequently replaced the structure on nearly the same site. The Admiral's dwelling differed from the storehouse in having a semi-circular stone hearth and a wattle and daub chimney. The exact arrangement of this hearth and chimney with respect to its building remains unclear, as do most other details of the Admiral's house construction. Similarly, evidence fiom other structures within the fort remain incomplete, and from conclusions about their appearance and construction cannot yet be made.
... Mimari antropoloji, yalnızca mimari mekân ve insan davranışların antropolojik çözümlenmesi problemine odaklanmaz (Low 2017). Mimariyi oluşturan mekânın fiziksel özellikleri yanında, kültürel bağlam çerçevesinde yüklenmiş, anlamsal yönler ve döngüler üzerine de tartışmalar sunar (Brunskill 1971). ...
Article
As an interdisciplinary approach, architectural anthropology emerged after post-colonial studies to deal with the relationship of cultural forms with ethnicity. Anthropological approaches have been blended with architectural methods and perspectives, and the main discussion has been the impact of ethnic origin and culture on architectural formation. However, it is not clear where the boundaries of architectural anthropology begin or end. This study demonstrates that architectural anthropology organizes the field of knowledge by using the approaches and methods of anthropology and architecture together. The primary method of the paper is based on qualitative research and theoretical reading. The paper was written to fill the gap in literature, including 'architectural anthropology' centred theoretical approaches written in Turkish. Keywords: Architectural Space, Anthropology, Architectural Anthropology, Human, Space, Culture
... Burnskill (1988) suggests a classification system for vernacular structures based on their intended use. Domestic arrangements, such as private residences, rest houses, and leisure houses, are designed for living purposes (BRUNSKILL, 1988). Traditional design concepts focus on space's function, energy efficiency, human comfort, aesthetics, and economic feasibility, all while considering and adapting to the local environment and culture (FORUZANMEHR, 2008). ...
... (Noble, 2007) However, according to Ronald Bronsikil, vernacular architecture is formed by untrained amateurs whose source of guidance is conventions made in their locality. (Brunskill, 1978) In Rapaport's opinion, the term only refers to specific buildings in a particular geographical context in response to physical and cultural environments. It uses local techniques and local manufacturing processes and produces specific typological models. ...
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Vernacular architecture is highly compatible with local conditions and is often referred to as environmentally friendly and sustainable architecture. Today, due to issues that threaten the environment, re-paying attention to these compatibility methods and their application in contemporary architecture can be one of the priorities of architectural planning. This research seeks to answer the question of how vernacular architecture in mountainous regions is formed in order to adapt to local characteristics and particularly the role of semi-open spaces in this coordination. The article is a case study of the residential units in Kang village, Torqabeh city, Khorasan Razavi province, Iran. For this purpose, the physical variables of the village, including how the village texture and its thoroughfares were established and formed, mass and space structure, the configuration of residential units and the formation of closed, open, and semi-open spaces, material types, building techniques, and construction details, and issues related to the openings of residential units are studied in 35 house samples of the village. The result shows that the physical planning of the village, in accordance with the principles proposed in the Mahoney table for cold semi-arid climates, causes the most passive heating. Examination of the physical characteristics of the semi-open spaces in relation to the residential unit shows that these spaces play a major role in coordinating the building with the coldness of the region.
Article
Weathering of materials leads to degradation of the fabric of buildings which if left unchecked will lead to an increase in the rate, and possibly severity, of degradation. Adjustments to maintenance regimes could accommodate marginal changes to degradation rate. However, for significant increases in degradation rate, adaptations may be required. Globally, any new deterioration mechanisms are unlikely. However, in the future previously insignificant problems may start to become significant at a local level, for which there is a lack of local knowledge or experience. Adaptation in the context of existing buildings is a means to further protect the existing fabric, to consolidate performance and control the rate of deterioration. This adaptation goes beyond the scope of enhanced maintenance. For historic buildings, there will be tension between the need to conserve the building and simultaneously adapt in the face of increased climate change driven weathering. Impact studies are needed to identify priorities for adaptation by identifying the scale and impact of degradation-related defects for the future building stock. Such studies need to be integrated with authoritative information on projected future climate. Adaptation of building design is needed to ensure new buildings consider performance in both current and future climates. A whole-life approach to building design is needed. To achieve this building standards, building codes need to be developed which consider future climate design. Traditional vernacular styles may offer an opportunity for learning design lessons and adapting design practices that could help facilitate appropriate climate protection. WIREs Clim Change 2016, 7:590–599. doi: 10.1002/wcc.398. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.
Article
The will of reducing environmental and social impact of building industry has led to a renewed interest in earth construction. Most of earth construction literature dealt with rammed earth or adobe techniques, but very little with cob. Yet, cob participates in the diversity of vernacular earth construction processes that value local materials and is an alternative to rammed earth and adobe in specific geographical conditions. Conservation of cob heritage also requires a better knowledge of this vernacular construction process. This bibliographical analysis gathered extensive data on cob process and summarized the different cob process variations, attempting to take into account their diversity. This analysis allowed us to provide novel data on cob process, and more specifically, (1) a clear definition of cob with regard to other earth construction processes, (2) a first summarized description of cob process that clearly distinguished its variations, (3) a list of fibres traditionally employed, (4) values and, if possible, average and standard deviation for fibre length, fibre content, manufacture water content, drying times, lift heights and wall thicknesses, (5) a summary of the strategies to manage shrinkage cracks, (6) a criterion on the quality of implementation and/or earth for cob, based on slenderness ration of lifts and (7) a discussion on the evolution of cob process with regard to societal evolutions.
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Biçim grameri, 1970'li yıllarda Stiny ve Gips tarafından tanıtılan, algoritmik yapıya sahip tasarım dillerini çözümlemeye ve aynı dilde yeni tasarımların üretilmesine olanak sağlayan bir yöntemdir. Bu bağlamda, 1996 yılında Prof. Dr. Gülen Çağdaş, Sedat Hakkı Eldem'in plan tipi sınıflandırmasını temel alarak, Geleneksel Türk Evleri'nin ana yaşam katlarının planlarını oluşturabilen iki boyutlu parametrik bir biçim grameri geliştirmiştir. Bu tez çalışmasında, Çağdaş tarafından Geleneksel Türk Evleri'nin biçim grameri üzerine yapılan çalışma temel alınarak, Geleneksel Türk Evleri'yle benzer özellik gösteren Amasya Yalıboyu Evleri'nin planları analiz edilmekte, bu analizler sonucunda evlerde görülen özel durumlar için yeni kural ve kural setleri ortaya konulmaktadır. 1. bölümde çalışmanın amaç, kapsam ve yöntemi açıklanmaktadır. 2. bölümde, yöresel mimari kavramı, yöresel yerleşmeler ve yöresel sivil mimariler başlıkları altında incelenmiştir. Yöresel sivil mimari örneği olan Türk Evleri'nin genel özellikleri anlatıldıktan sonra Türk Evleri'nde katlar, plan elemanları ve plan tipleriyle ilgili detaylı bilgi verilmektedir. 3. bölümde alan çalışmasının gerçekleştiği, Amasya kentinin genel ve mekansal analizi yapıldıktan sonra, kenti dokusunu oluşturan mimari bileşenlerden örnekler verilmektedir. Kent dokusunun önemli bir parçası olan yöresel sivil mimari örneklerinden olan ayrıca alan çalışmasının gerçekleştiği Amasya Yalıboyu Evleri detaylı biçimde anlatılmaktadır. Bir sonraki bölümde, mimari dil kavramı açıklandıktan sonra yöresel mimarinin sahip olduğu dil üzerinde durulmaktadır. Amasya Yalıboyu Evleri'nin mimari dilini analiz etmekte kullanılan ve çalışmanın yöntemini oluşturan biçim grameri kavramı tanımlandıktan sonra, standart ve parametrik biçim gramerleri anlatılmaktadır. Literatürde yer alan biçim grameri çalışmaları üç ana başlık altında toplanıp örneklendikten sonra konut mimarisi üzerine biçim grameri kapsamında yapılmış çalışmalara yer verilmektedir. 5.bölümde, Amasya Yalıboyu Evleri için geliştirilen biçim gramerinin strüktürü anlatılmakta, biçim gramerini oluşturan tüm kural ve kural setleri açıklanmaktadır. Bu bölümün sonunda, biçim grameri yöntemiyle evlerin planlarını oluşturan 11 aşamalı bir üretim süreci tanımlanmakta ve Amasya Yalıboyu Evleri'yle aynı mimari dile sahip yeni evler üretilmektedir. Son bölümde, çalışmanın genel değerlendirilmesi yapılıp, sonuçlar tartışılmakta ve çalışmanın ileriye yönelik nasıl geliştirileceğine yönelik fikirler sunulmaktadır.
Chapter
In 1656 Richard Whitmore signed an agreement with master-builder Valentine Strong to construct a manor house in the village of Lower Slaughter, unwittingly putting in motion an architectural and social process that would have far-reaching effects over the next century.1 The five-bay coursed-stone manor house stood on a raised basement, with quoins, a hipped roof, and three dormers, all surmounted by a turret or lantern (Figure 3.1). It displayed little ornamentation save for a broken pediment over a first floor centre door. Like so many similar small classical houses to come, the interior arrangement contained four rooms on the ground floor and bedchambers above, a straightforward double-pile plan. It is not clear who was responsible for the design; the contract records that the house was built in line with ‘one moddell or plattforme by him lately received from the said Mr. Whitmore’.2 More than likely, Whitmore and Strong collaborated on the design and construction. The resulting manor house was a statement of Whitmore’s status that exhibited all of the features that distinguished gentry houses from those of yeomen.3 Criteria like overall size, a double-pile floor plan, high ceiling heights, and ‘superior’ features like multiple parlours, some heated second floor chambers, moulded stone for mullioned windows, doorways and fireplaces, panelling, and grand staircases differentiated gentlemen’s houses in architectural terms from houses lower down the scale and placed them above the ‘polite threshold’.4
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Reed and grass are widely used in many traditional building cultures all over the world. They are easy availability and good material properties have made them a popular component in roof, wall and other constructional parts of houses. In some areas whole buildings are built out of reed, and in other areas again it is used in combination with a variety of other, mostly natural, building materials. After presenting different examples of the use of this special material from Oce-ania, Asia, Africa and America, we will focus on the harvest, processing and use of reed in the middle-European region. The use of reed in traditional architecture is mostly connected with the lowland regions of Europe, as in mountainous areas wood as construction material and especially wooden shingles as thatching were always given advantage over the slightly more ephemeral reed. Also the fact that in mountain areas less reed is available and in the lowlands wood is scarce led to the evolution of a very typical appearance of lowland villages with reed thatched houses. It is important to note, that according to availability of reed and peculiarities of agricultural production, in some areas rye straw could even be more important than reed. Usually in more hilly and mountainous areas rye straw was more easily available. However, with the introduction of mechanised harvest processing the resulting rye straw was not of good quality anymore, and therefore from the beginning of the 19 th century reed was the only organic thatch alternative. Especially in the Carpathian basin and around Lake Neusiedl the use of reed has a long tradition. This tradition continues until present day, albeit on smaller dimensions and somewhat transformed compared to the ” ethnographical ” past, when only natural materials were used in rural architecture. Today it is at least as expensive to cover a building with reed as with ceramic tiles. While of course ceramic is fireproof, there is a discussion going on concerning overall fire resistance qualities of reed thatch. However many people feel still attracted to the peculiar appearance of the more traditional material, and commission the use on newly built houses. In some special areas, which are under cultural heritage protection, only the use of this traditional material is allowed. Even so, the total number of buildings with reed roofs has decreased to a small amount, which means, that there are only a few craftsmen left, who are still adept in reed thatching techniques. One aim of our research was to get an insight into the working procedure of these craftsmen. Interestingly the modern building industry also uses a number of products manufactured out of reed – usually they are used as composites in combination with other building materials – reed mats as reinforcement under plaster layers or to enhance insulation properties. As Lake Neusiedl is not only a local, but also a major source of reed for the middle-European region (a substantial part of the harvest is exported to the Netherlands and Germany) the traditional and present use of reed as building material in its surrounding is worth to be studied more thoroughly. 83 In: Csaplovics, E., Schmidt, J. (eds.) (2011): International Symposium on advanced methods of monitoring reed habitats , Rhombos Verlag Berlin. pp. 83-108.
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It is a truism that change and the inevitability of change is one of the givens of human society, yet it remains one of the most difficult and most painful processes known to us. Whether it is brought about by the introduction of new ideas, new practices, or new technologies, the need to meet changing social or environmental conditions is constantly with us and, as the cliché suggests, is as inescapable as death and taxes.
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Thesis
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برز مفهوم عمارة الأرض ضمن الدراسات المعاصرة كتوجه يضم طرز متنوعة عبر المكان والزمان، وتعبيرها عن كل مبنى مشيد كلياً أو جزئياً بمواد خام مستمدة من الأرض كالطين والخشب والحجر وغيرها. من جهة أخرى أظهرت الدراسات تعالق المفهوم مع بعض توجهات العمارة من جوانب متعددة كتوجه العمارة العامية والعمارة المستدامة والعمارة التي تركز على الجوانب التقنية كمواد بناء وتقنيات تنفيذ، بنفس الوقت أظهرت تحولاً شكلياً يمكن أن يقترن تفسيره بنواح عدة، منها تفسير عمارة الأرض كنظام طبيعي مستدام، أو كنظام سياقي إما مرتبط بالسياق المكاني (الطبيعي والثقافي) أو بالسياق الزماني (روح العصر والأحداث الطارئة). تبين أن هذه التحولات الشكلية لنظم عمارة الأرض تسير بصيغتين أما تكون بطريقة ممنهجة أو غير ممنهجة ومؤثراً في تشكيل طرازها، فإستدعى ذلك الحاجة الى التركيز على هذا الجانب، وماهية المحفزات المؤثرة في حدوث التحولات الشكلية بين هذه الطرز ونظمها. من هنا تحددت مشكلة البحث في (الحاجة المعرفية لإستكشاف الأنظمة - الممنهجة وغير الممنهجة - المنضوية ضمن طرز عمارة الأرض وماهية المحفزات المؤثرة في التحول الشكلي بين هذه الأنظمة)، وتحددت أهدافه بـ(تحديد أنواع نظم طرز عمارة الأرض وخصائصها، تشخيص التحولات الشكلية التي طرأت على نظم طرز عمارة الأرض وماهية المحفزات المؤثرة في هذا التحول وطبيعة إرتباطها بنظم طرز عمارة الأرض). فرضية البحث الأساسية (يتحقق التحول الشكلي في نظم طرز عمارة الأرض بفعل محفزات التحول المكانية والزمانية مع بعضها). تم إعتماد المنهج الوصفي التحليلي لحل مشكلة البحث مؤلفاً من ثلاثة مراحل: تضمنت الأولى بناء إطار نظري حول تحديد النظم الممنهجة وغير الممنهجة لطرز عمارة الأرض من ناحية (جوانب المنهج التصميمي وطبيعة الخصائص المرتبطة بالجانبين الشكلي والنظام البنائي)، ومحفزات التحول الشكلي ومحركاتها المرتبطة بالسياق المكاني (سياق البيئة الطبيعية والثقافية) والسياق الزماني (روح العصر والأحداث الطارئة). أما الثانية، فقد تضمنت الإجراءات التطبيقية والقياس والعينات المنتخبة، إذ تم إنتخاب المسكن كنمط وظيفي أساسي ضمن مجموعة من العينات المحلية والعربية صنفت على أساس إنتمائيتها الزمنية الى مجموعتين، تمثلت الأولى بالعينات قبل القرن العشرين، والثانية بالعينات ضمن القرن العشرين. جاء إسلوب القياس بمرحلتين، الأولى إستخلاص النماذج التي إتسمت بخصائص النظم الممنهجة من التي إتسمت بخصائص النظم غير الممنهجة على مستوى (النظام البنائي، المنهج التصميمي، إنتظامية الفضاءات)، حيث إعتمد تطبيق الإسلوب الرياضي لتحديد طبيعة إنتظامية الفضاءات بين الفئات كجانب شكلي، والإسلوب الوصفي التحليلي لرصد خصوصية المنهج التصميمي والنظام البنائي. المرحلة الثانية تمثلت بتحديد محفزات التحول الشكلي بين النظامين ضمن تلك النماذج، المحفز المكاني (محركات مكانية طبيعية، محركات مكانية ثقافية كالعادات والأعراف والتقاليد ضمن السياق الثقافي للمجتمع)، والمحفز الزماني (المحرك التكنولوجي على مستوى مواد البناء والتقينات الإنشائية) بإعتماد أسلوب القياس المباشر. المرحلة الثالثة تحليل النتائج وتحديد الإستنتاجات، إذ توصل البحث الى تباين خصائص النظام الممنهج عن غير الممنهج، حيث يفتقد النظام غير الممنهج نسبياً للتخطيط المسبق، معتمداً على إسلوب التعلم بالتجربة والخطأ في إختيار مواد البناء والتصميم والتنفيذ والإستخدام، وبتنفيذ تعاوني من قبل المستخدم والحلقة الإجتماعية المحيطة به من الأقارب والجيران. بينما يمتاز النظام الممنهج بالتخطيط المسبق ضمن عملية التصميم والتنفيذ من قبل المهندس أو البناء الخبير، وبالإعتماد على العمالة وضمن خطوات أساسية وتفصيلية ذات تسلسل هرمي وفقاً لقواعد ومعايير محددة. ظهر أن المحفز الزماني ضمن محركه التكنولوجي هو الأكثر تأثيراً في التحول من النظام غير الممنهج الى النظام الممنهج على مستوى مواد البناء وزيادة الكفاءة الإنشائية والبيئية والكفاءة الإقتصادية، بينما ظهر تحقق الكفاءة الإقتصادية على مستوى إنخفاض كلف المواد والعمالة والآلات والنقل، والكفاءة الإجتماعية على مستوى تعزيز العلاقات الإجتماعية من خلال البناء التعاوني ضمن النظام غير الممنهج بصورة عفوية كنتيجة لإسلوب الحياة السائد الذي يتسم بالتنظيم الذاتي في العديد من الفعاليات الحياتية ومن ضمنها البناء. الكلمات المفتاحية: طرز عمارة الأرض ، النظام الممنهج ، النظام غير الممنهج ، محفزات التحول الشكلي ، محركات التحول المكانية والزمانية.
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Chapter
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Vernacular is a product of a people native to a place. In architecture, the traditions and customs that produce them and the forms and meanings associated with them are intrinsic to the people. Vernacular buildings are located in place and give definition and meaning to place. They thrive in the contexts of isolation and self-containment nurturing the insiders as opposed to outsiders. This way, they inherit the characteristics that define both the people and place in the world. In Bahrain, fishing huts dotted the shore and they were a part of the vernacular. With globalization, its urban real estate had expanded exponentially extending the shore by land reclamation. Many fishing huts had been shifted, and sometimes simply abandoned. In 2009, they drew the attention of the State & others. Fascinated by the ‘vernacularity’ of the structures, fishing huts were reproduced at the Venice Biennale, representing Bahrain, winning the Golden Lion Award. Fishing huts gained stardom, and was awarded a place in the ‘grand tradition’ although it belonged to the little tradition. This paper traverses the process and examines the outcomes of the representation of the fishing huts at the Venice Biennale. It is aimed at gaining insights into the phenomena of vernacularity and its place in the contemporary world. The paper employs observations and examination of documentations to unravel the process. Although vernacularity is often attributed to those produced through customs and traditions with meanings of appropriation of space and place, the research shows that vernacularity could be an outcome also of a production that is driven by ad-hochism buttressed by unpretentious innocence.
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UnDoing Buildings: Adaptive Reuse and Cultural Memory discusses one of the greatest challenges for twenty-first century society: what is to be done with the huge stock of existing buildings that have outlived the function for which they were built. Their worth is well recognised and the importance of retaining them has been long debated, but if they are to be saved, what is to be done with these redundant buildings? This book argues that the remodelling of these is a healthy, and environmentally friendly approach. Issues of heritage, conservation, sustainability and smartness are at the forefront of many discussions about architecture today and adaptive reuse offers the opportunity to reinforce the particular character of an area using up-to-date digital and construction techniques for a contemporary population. Issues of collective memory and identity combined with ideas of tradition, history and culture mean that it is possible to retain a sense of continuity with the past as a way of creating the future. UnDoing Buildings: Adaptive Reuse and Cultural Memory has an international perspective and will be of interest to upper level students and professionals working on the fields of Interior Design, Interior Architecture, Architecture, Conservation, Urban Design, and Development.
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The three compartment rural house was introduced in Eastern Central Europe as early as the Later Middle Ages and it remained the most common type of traditional village house until the 20th century. Archaeological, ethnological, historical and linguistic research of this type of vernacular house has achieved extensive results over the last hundred years in terms of gaining detailed knowledge of regional variants, internal functional structure, and developmental transformations; nevertheless, the formation of the three compartment house remains unclear. This paper examines the earliest material evidence of this house type, compares its attributes, discusses the possibilities of its formation process, and seeks to assess its social and cultural significance within the frame of the long-term development of the rural built environment in Central Europe.
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