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Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience

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... The level of trust in the shared content might enhance or inhibit their fake-news-sharing behavior on social media. The current study aims to fill that gap by proposing flow theory [32,33] from positive psychology to be used as a theoretical framework to explain users' behavior of sharing fake news about environmentally friendly brands on social media. Therefore, the aim of this paper is investigating why social media users share fake news online about environmentally friendly brands. ...
... In positive psychology, flow is not only a theory of intrinsic motivation [32], but also a theory of creativity [33,41,42], of holistic personal development [43], an important factor in the evolution of bio-culture and selection [44], and a theory for psychological rehabilitation practice [45,46]. In marketing communication studies, flow theory is considered a motivational paradigm [10]. ...
... Flow can be experienced while engaging in a multitude of offline activities such as performing music or sports, reading a book, and shopping, or while engaging in online activities such as gaming, chatting with friends, browsing social networks sites, or purchasing. The most comprehensive description of the flow construct that distinguished it from the rest of everyday life activities is based on the following major characteristics [32,33]: distinct and clear goals, temporary loss of self-awareness, distorted sense of time, actions that merge with awareness and immediate feedback, intense concentration on the task at hand, a high level of control, a balance between the person's available skills and the task challenges, and autotelic experiences. ...
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Social media has triggered an increase in fake news spread about different aspects of modern lives, society, politics, societal changes, etc., and has also affected companies' reputation and brands' trust. Therefore, this paper is aimed at investigating why social media users share fake news about environmentally friendly brands. To examine social media users' behavior towards environmentally friendly brands, a theoretical research model proposed and analyzed using structural equations modeling in SmartPLS on a convenience sample consisting of 922 questionnaires. Data was collected by means of a quantitative-based approach via a survey conducted among social media users from an emerging market. The results show that social media flow has a mediated impact on sharing fake news about environmentally friendly brands on social media. Considering the critical consequences of fake news, the paper argues that understanding the dissemination process of this type of bogus content on social media platforms has important theoretical and managerial implications. Understanding the psychological mechanisms that influence people's behavior in sharing fake news about environmentally friendly brands on social networking sites (SNS) could help in better understanding the factors and the effects of this phenomenon. The originality of this research consists of proposing flow theory from positive psychology to be used as a theoretical framework to explain users' behavior of sharing fake news about environmentally friendly brands on social media.
... There are moments in life in which the individuals feel totally engaged in the task that they are working on while maintaining a balance between their skills and the challenges stemming from the activity (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). These moments are examples of optimal experience, which is also called flow. ...
... These moments are examples of optimal experience, which is also called flow. The concept of flow, which was first proposed by Csikszentmihalyi (1990), is defined as a state during when the person feels the merging of action and awareness while having a complete concentration on the task and an increased sense of control. The flow state is accompanied by distortion of time, loss of self-awareness, and autotelic experience (i.e., the experience is its own reward and does not have an outside purpose) (Csikszentmihalyi, 1997;Tse et al., 2021). ...
... Individuals can experience flow even in ordinary daily tasks. However, certain activities such as sports, games, or playing an instrument are more conducive to flow since they provide a clear set of rules and more salient goal and feedback structures, encouraging involvement and learning new skills (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;. Dancing is one of these activities since it creates a challenging and goal-directed setting for individuals. ...
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Flow refers to a state during when the person feels the merging of action and awareness while having a complete concentration on the task and an increased sense of control. Previous studies indicated flow to be associated with both trait-based factors and task characteristics. Contributing to the previous research on the association between perfectionism and flow, we examine the interactive effects of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns on dispositional flow in dance, which is an activity conducive to flow. In an online survey study, we collected data from 161 individuals (113 female), aged between 18 and 56 (M = 29.52, SD = 8.41), who actively engage in dance for professional or recreational purposes. Our results show that there is a significant interactive effect of perfectionistic strivings and perfectionistic concerns on dispositional flow, such that perfectionistic concerns is associated with lower levels of dispositional flow when perfectionistic strivings is low but not when it is high. These findings imply that in the absence of perfectionistic standards, experiencing significant concerns about how one is doing seems to be associated with a significant difficulty in experiencing flow while dancing. Importantly, the results highlight the specific role of setting goals for the self as a characteristic that has significant associations with the optimal experience in dance setting.
... Pappas (2018) proposes developing the emotion-centric theory to explain consumer behavior better. Studies related to self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2011), hedonic consumption (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982), and flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) are receiving the attention of many researchers. In particular, customer-related mental benefits (non-functional benefits) are explored in the context of online commerce (Sheth, 1981). ...
... First, this research finds that in the Vietnam e-commerce context, the mental benefit structure is regarded as four dimensions as perceived enjoyment, social interaction, discreet shopping, and perceived control. This finding is suitable with the psychological theories as hedonic consumption (Hirschman & Holbrook, 1982), flow theory (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Hoffman & Novak, 1996), and self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985;Sheth, 1981). Second, there are positive impacts of the perceived mental benefits and online trust on personal information disclosure, and the perceived mental benefits have a positive effect on online trust. ...
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The e-commerce market in Vietnam has shifted in a positive direction in recent years, typically due to the continuous increase in buyers, sellers, and online transactions. This study aims to understand the moderating effect of anxiety on the relationship between perceived mental benefits, online trust, and personal information disclosure when dealing with e-commerce sites. The phenomenological research with eight e-commerce experts and a survey of 917 respondents were made to achieve research objectives. The result showed a positive relationship between perceived mental benefits, online trust, and personal information disclosure. Moreover, there were differences between the study's components under anxiety level (low, medium, high). Some implications are also proposed based on research results.
... This study aimed to assess how each player type is impacted by the experience by analyzing their levels of engagement using the Flow experience and Player type assessment as a metric. The flow experience helps to understand how engaged the participant was in the activity and whether it was enjoyable and memorable [4]. This paper is organized as follows: in Section 1, a background with the History of Capture the Flag and its definition. ...
... Flow state defines an optimal experience. These experiences represent the moment of the overcoming of a complex task [4]. During the flow, all the attention is directed to achieve the goal. ...
Chapter
A cybersecurity professional is expected to have a range of skills and abilities to have a good performance. Gamification has become a powerful ally to increase the engagement of professionals and students. In this study, we present StarsCTF, a Capture the Flag experiment designed to assess player types and their levels of engagement. In a paired experiment, the individual Jeopardy format (called Open World) was used, and a new game mode was developed, including new game elements (called DMC). Our results show that the Achievement and Immersion profiles were the most positively impacted due to the presence of game elements that favored these profiles. Open World mode performed better than DMC, possibly the freedom to solve challenges in a random order is an important factor in the progression of the competition.
... De toutes ces approches numériques pour le traitement de la douleur, la réalité virtuelle (RV) fait l'objet depuis plusieurs années d'études et de tests sur différents types de douleurs (cancers, brûlures, osseuses), dont les résultats semblent prometteurs à la fois chez l'adulte et l'enfant [5][6][7]. ...
... Les travaux de Csikszentmihalyi se sont appuyés sur ce sentiment d'immersion nommé flow, lorsque le patient s'engage dans cette expérience agréable. Dans les années 1990, ils ont identifié neuf éléments du flow qu'ils ont ainsi réparti en trois catégories ou stades : l'équilibre entre les compétences et les défis, l'attention focalisée pour une contrôlabilité optimale et, enfin, la perte de conscience de soi avec une même distorsion du temps [7]. La RV et le flow permettent au patient de se fixer des tâches et des défis qui ne sont ni trop difficiles ni trop simples par rapport à leurs capacités. ...
Article
Chaque année, la douleur touche de plus en plus de patients les marquant ainsi dans leur vie personnelle, mais également professionnelle. Le traitement de la douleur demeure complexe, l’utilisation de la pharmacologie traditionnelle n’est pas sans risque de surdosage et d’accoutumance. Depuis plus de 20 ans, les acteurs de la santé et l’Union européenne collaborent afin de développer ce que l’on nomme aujourd’hui les thérapies numériques ( digital therapeutics — DTx). Véritable enjeu pour notre système de santé actuel, ces thérapies innovantes peuvent être utilisées seules ou combinées à un médicament, un dispositif médical ou une thérapie, afin de maximiser les effets du traitement. Cet article propose une revue non exhaustive de l’utilisation de la réalité virtuelle, son origine et son fonctionnement. Des résultats significatifs ont été obtenus sur son action analgésique et de distraction à court terme, sur divers événements physiologiques comme les brûlures, la chirurgie cardiaque, le stress, les douleurs musculosquelettiques et neuropathiques. Toutefois, ce champ d’études reste vaste et nécessite des explorations (études) complémentaires sur les douleurs chroniques et aiguës, et l’interaction personne–machine.
... The positive effects produced in the use of the gamification element are based on the anecdotal concept that application of the game is largely 'fun' and intrinsic motivation [26]. The main factor that drives behavior change is individual motivation [27].The use of gamification is able to positively influence human behavior in motivating work [28], increase employee engagement and motivation [29][5] [25], encourage behavior that results in internal achievements or perceptions, such as enjoyment [30] [31], and business improvement, perseverance and performance improvement [32]. Empirically several previous studies, most of which produced a positive effect on the use of the gamification element. ...
... The gamification element is designed to use a cooperative objective structure that has been defined as the main antecedent [58]. The use of the gamification element also provides feedback that is considered an important antecedent for engagement [31] [63]. One of the main antecedents for adopting a gamification system is user enjoyment [64]; engagement behavior to continue using the application [65]. ...
Article
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In recent decades, the field of human computer interaction has become a popular trending topic in gamification studies. The latest trend in the application of gamification in the world of work, aims to improve the incorporation of game design elements into the workplace, to increase motivation. This study found that the elements used in gamification in the world of work are still very limited, and there are no suitable criteria for use in gamification based on game elements in the world of work by examining and evaluating workers as a team in a contextual context. game environment that replicates real aspects and work environment. This study will comprehensively review related to gamification by analyzing the models and concepts of gamification in empirical research. As well as reviewing previous research and showing the gaps that occur in the literature both theoretically and empirically. This review shows an understanding of the interactions between components in the application of elements present in gamification related to work. The findings in this study will be able to provide insight in the development of further studies to make uniform use of game design in increasing motivation
... But the existence of very creative people does not prevent each of us from becoming more creative by practising whichever aspects of the concept we wish to improve; every individual is creative to some degree (Csikszentmihalyi, 1996). This extreme form of creativity, as we saw earlier, is often referred to as 'big c' creativity (Craft, 2001;Kaufman and Beghetto, 2009). ...
... But to be really fulfilled they need to realise their true potential, their full creative selves. Csikszentmihalyi (1996) coined the term 'flow' to describe a state of total absorption in an engaging task. He found flow to be an ingredient of many creative activities and went on to show that flow is highly correlated with subjective well-being or happiness. ...
Technical Report
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This review forms the initial foundation for a piece of work commissioned by the Mercers’ Company designed to help school leaders in secondary schools in England make creativity central to their students’ lives. Across the world the importance of creativity is increasingly acknowledged in education systems. But though leadership in schools is well-researched in general terms, leadership for creativity is not. In this review, we chart the establishment of a robust definition of creative leadership in schools, summarise the case for its importance today, and illustrate what it looks like in secondary schools. The review builds on the first report of the Durham Commission on Creativity and Education in 2019 and research by the OECD published in the same year by analysing the opportunities and challenges that secondary school leaders face if they truly wish to focus on developing the creativity of their students. From our reading of the literature, both scholarly and ‘grey’ sources, ‘creative leadership’ is the term we believe best encapsulates a kind of school leadership that explicitly develops the creativity of all of its members, staff and students alike. The concept of creative leadership and research relating to it is underdeveloped in education, while in other fields there is more consensus. Our understanding of ‘creative leadership’ in its broadest sense suggests that it is a helpful way of capturing the essence of school leaders’ role, and a starting point for considering how the sorts of challenges identified by the Durham Commission might best be met. Our review of the literature suggests that we need to reimagine the kind of leadership that will develop creative students (and creative staff) at a theoretical level, as well as clarifying the practical implications for leaders’ practices. Creative leadership will explicitly seek to cultivate creative habits in teaching staff who can, in turn, model these with their students. Creative leaders ensure that there are multiple opportunities for developing the creativity of all young people while at the same time recognising that for a school truly to be a creative organisation then developing the creativity of its leaders and staff is important both as a means to an end and as an end in itself. Leading for creativity is likely to mean setting an agenda for change that involves prioritising practices that develop creative leaders through collaboration within and across professional communities, that promote the development of creative cultures and structures and that utilise creative pedagogies. Creative leadership is a concept whose successful application in schools could benefit from the development of a range of professional learning resources for senior leaders in schools. This review aims to provide a basis for the development of a leadership toolkit that can be trialled for further development with leaders in English secondary schools, used to support a new professional learning community and, potentially, adapted for school leaders across the world.
... Creating a seductive invitation to play is just as, or maybe even more, important than what happens after. Because, no matter how impressive the experience is that you're trying to lead people into, without a powerful invitation to play, they'll never reach that experience (Csikszentmihaly, 1990;Polaine, 2010) To be better able to achieve and demonstrate the aforementioned positive effects of APS, it is important to gain more insight in how to motivate people to engage with APS. ...
... Additionally, there is related work that provides background into phenomena that can influence behavior in these contexts: the 'honeypot effect' (Wouters et al., 2016); the 'peak-end rule' (Fredrickson, 2000;Kahneman, 2011;Mast et al., 2020); 'flow' (Csikszentmihaly, 1990); 'proxemics' (Marquardt, 2013;McArthur, 2016); and 'interaction blindness' . ...
Book
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In this book, we compare and contrast the various forms of play that occur in urban environments or are dedicated to their design and planning, with the notion of the playable city. In a playable city, the sensors, actuators, and digital communication networks that form the backbone of smart city infrastructure are used to create novel interfaces and interventions intended to inject fun and playfulness into the urban environment, both as a simple source of pleasure and as a means of facilitating and fostering urban and social interactions.
... When a game is perceived as fun and challenging, it can generate a state of flow in the players. Flow is a state of total immersion and fusion of action and consciousness (Csikszentmihalyi, 2008) associated with positive emotional, motivational, and cognitive experiences. In the quarantine situation, the flow achieved through family activities can be important to improve psychological well-being. ...
... In turn, family cohesion is a protective factor against depressive symptoms due to the pandemic (Li et al., 2021). This disconnection from reality can be understood as flow (40.6%), a state in which people experience deep enjoyment, creativity, and a feeling of total participation (Csikszentmihalyi, 2008). During the programme, the family members have had fun and enjoyed the game; therefore, it has been a stimulating activity where there is no space to address past or future problems or any other temporarily irrelevant stimulus, current problems due to the pandemic and confinement are relegated until the game is over. ...
Article
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This study presents a quasi-experimental longitudinal mixed-methods research about the participation in leisure activities, physical activity, and games, as part of the family leisure programme ("Lunae Magic School") for Spanish families with children under 12 years old during COVID-19 lockdown. The impact on parents and their perception of the psychological well-being of their children is evaluated. The results show that leisure activities reduce the parent's anxiety levels measured with STAI scale (p = .0001) and their perception of the physical and emotional discomfort of their children , measured with PSC scale (p < .0001). It is qualitatively argued that despite the confinement situation, the gamification, the variety of activities and the fact of being able to enjoy quality time with the family have allowed the creation of spaces of fun and flow. Therefore, although the findings on the importance of family leisure were encouraging, more research is needed on the implementation of similar programmes.
... However, our data in the context of remote gamified co-design show that the challenges were negatively commented as compelling, non-related, difficult, and repetitive. These comments resonate with the flow theory applied by many game studies [98,99], which suggests that players feel frustrated if the challenges are too hard. However, players become bored if their competence increases while the hardness of the challenges is static and repetitive. ...
... However, we find that the participants are sensitive to repetitive tasks and become bored instantly. This confirms the studies in flow theory that suggest that the challenges in games should be dynamically increasing according to players' current levels of skill [98,99]. ...
Article
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Co-design approach is increasingly popular in many organizations that address global change and social sustainability challenges, thanks to its unique and diverse methods of engaging relevant people in design processes and decision-making. However, the social distancing led by the COVID-19 pandemic seriously problematized the traditional in-person co-design activities. A sustainable online transition is unprecedentedly pressing. By acknowledging the limitations of online co-design, i.e., lack of means for participant engagement, we argue that gamification holds great promise for online co-design. This paper presents an empirical study to investigate this potential qualitatively. Based on the data collected from three gamified online co-design implementations, we examine the benefits of gamification and how future activities should be designed and implemented from the participants’ perspectives. Based on the participants’ perceptions, we propose several recommendations for designing impactful gamification. The finding suggests that gamification can facilitate online co-design activities in an enjoyable, relaxing, structuring, and creative manner, since they are perceived and recognized by the participants. Moreover, the successful implementation of online co-design implies that great sustainability benefits can be achieved through online transition, i.e., reducing paper consumption and time spent on meetings and unproductive discussions, supporting extensive diversity and density in representation. Online can enable this by overcoming not only the geographic and time limitations but also relevant social issues.
... This modeling is based on flow theory to determine the extent to which individuals are fully involved in the application to produce psychological ownership of a brand and to determine the relationship between affective and cognitive involvement, psychological ownership, consumer-brand identification, and continuance intention to use the application. Flow theory emphasizes the importance of being fully focused and having a sense of enjoyment in the process that is taking place (Csikszentmihaly, 1990). Flow theory is described as satisfying psychological needs through a process of acceptance. ...
... To understand this process, this study uses the aforementioned flow theory (Csikszentmihaly, 1990). According to flow theory, the flow state occurs when a person has full involvement in every activity meaning that they have intrinsic motivation and create pleasure when carrying out activities. ...
Article
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Introduction/Main Objectives: This study investigates affective and cognitive involvement that reflects psychological ownership and consumer-brand identification in the use of zoom application. Background Problems: The Zoom application was proposed because of its increasing popularity amid the Covid-19 pandemic. The selection of the zoom meeting application is the right way to find out how much the users want to continue this application both for themselves and to promote it to others by word of mouth (WOM). Novelty: This study examines the effect of cognitive and affective involvement on continuance intention to use and WOM by examining the mediating role of consumers’ psychological ownership and consumer-brand identification. Research Methods: 200 responses were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) to test this study’s hypotheses. Finding/Results: The findings support the mediating role of the extent of consumer’s psychological ownership in describing the effect of affective involvement and continuance intention to use of a brand. In addition, the results support the mediating role of the extent of consumer-brand identification in describing the relationship between affective involve­ment and continuance intention to use a brand and engage in WOM promotion. Conclusion: These findings expand and unite existing theory on involvement and a continuing intention to use and engage in WOM.
... The individual is solely engaged in the activity at hand, also described as front-of-the-mind attention. In a state of cognitive absorption, the individual is said to experience flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1988(Csikszentmihalyi, , 1990. A persistent effort to understand information that arises from various kinds of awareness (e.g. from the location, others and from the task) can cause a person to become deeply involved and lose track of time, which can be attributed to cognitive absorption (Agarwal and Karahanna, 2000;Dietrich, 2004). ...
Article
Purpose Training is one of the key dimensions of internal marketing. Virtual reality (VR), a computer technology that replicates an environment (real or imagined) and simulates a user’s physical presence in that environment to allow for user interaction, offers unique opportunities from a training perspective, such as allowing users to improve their skills without the consequence of failing real customers or the need to be in the real environment physically. This study aims to focus on comparing the effectiveness of VR hospitality training with that of real-world hospitality training. Design/methodology/approach This study adopts situated cognition theory to empirically test the effect of the awareness of contextual variables (social interaction, location and task) on learning and compare learning outcomes between tourism training in VR and real-world experimental settings. Findings Results indicate that location and task awareness enhance cognitive absorption, but social awareness does not influence cognitive absorption. There is no significant difference between training in real-world and VR environments. Finally, cognitive absorption has a positive effect on mental model change (the learning outcome). Originality/value This result advances the theoretical understanding on the significance of learning context by applying situated cognition theory in hospitality training and has significant implications for training that aims for rigor and efficiency within cost, location and time constraints.
... Students strive to increase mastery of course content with the ultimate goal of maintaining the flow of satisfaction. Flow occurs when students are engaged in an activity (physical, mental, or both) in such a way that they lose track of time and the outside world [96]. After initial excitement at earning badges, students can be less motivating than the leaderboard [50] when they lost interest over time. ...
Article
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This paper presents three experiments to assess the impact of gamifying an audience response system on the perceptions and educational performance of students. An audience response system called SIDRA (Immediate Audience Response System in Spanish) and two audience response systems with gamification features, R-G-SIDRA (gamified SIDRA with ranking) and RB-G-SIDRA (gamified SIDRA with ranking and badges), were used in a General and Descriptive Human Anatomy course. Students participated in an empirical study. In the academic year 2019–2020, a total of 90 students used RB-G-SIDRA, 90 students employed R-G-SIDRA in the academic year 2018–2019, and 92 students used SIDRA in the academic year 2017–2018. Statistically significant differences were found between final exam grades obtained by using RB-G-SIDRA and SIDRA, U = 39.211 adjusted p = 0.001 and RB-G-SIDRA and R-G-SIDRA U = 31.157 adjusted p = 0.015, thus finding strong evidence with respect to the benefit of the badges used in RB-G-SIDRA. Moreover, in the students’ SIDRA systems scores, statistically significant differences were found between RB-G-SIDRA and SIDRA, U = −90.521 adjusted p < 0.001, and between R-G-SIDRA and SIDRA, U = −87.998 adjusted p < 0.001. Significant correlations between individual and team scores were also found in all of the tests in RB-G-SIDRA and G-SIDRA. The students expressed satisfaction, engagement, and motivation with SIDRA, R-G-SIDRA, and RB-G-SIDRA, thus obtaining a final average assessment of 4.28, 4.61, and 4.47 out of 5, respectively. Students perform better academically with gamified versus non-gamified audience response systems. Findings can be used to build a gamified adaptive learning system.
... Psychological Flow scale. Psychological Flow scale was developed for the purpose of this study according to previous studies [11,21,23]. The scale consisted of 27 items distributed on nine dimensions, three items for each dimension as follows: Challenge-Skill balance, Action-Awareness Merging, Clear Goals, clear Feedback, Concentration, and Sense of control, loss of self-consciousness, Time transformation, and Autotelic experiences. ...
... Motivation is closely linked to a person's goals [9] as they determine the direction of a person's actions, dedication and perseverance [10] and individual interest [11]. Chikszentmihalyi (1990) refers to situations in which people are deeply interested or the "flow moments" [12]. ...
Chapter
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Nowadays, in the most cases, the lack of motivation is associated with a necessity to promote intrinsic motivation. It must be admitted that teachers` motivation has a significant influence on students` motivation. Teachers` motivation has an impact on positive attitude towards their professional work, creating initiatives and willingness to promote positive change in students` learning. The publication emphasizes the factors influencing teachers` motivation, e.g., the effectiveness and quality of cooperation and the environmental context, as well as three basic psychological needs: the need for autonomy, competence and cooperation (including communication and diverse interaction), according to Deci and Ryan, 2000 self-determination theory. The article also focuses on values as motivational basis, highlighting that such values as self-initiative, innovation, cooperation is important for teachers` motivation and professional competence. The aim of the article is to discover teachers` motivation to teach, using theoretical methods: concepts of motivation formation and conceptual framework of teachers` competence and empirical methods: a survey of teachers about their experience, motivation, values and competence. The authors explore existing links between values, competences and teachers` motivation to teach our future generation.
... Immersion comprises relating engagement in the user experience, taking into account the environment in which it is inserted. Immersion can be a complex concept, with multiple definitions, encompassing notions of usability (Baek et al., 2019), emotional response (Manetta and Blade, 1995), quality of experience (QoE) (Choy et al., 2021), fun in games (Jennett et al., 2008), flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991), among others. These last authors, Jennett et al. (2008), indicate that immersion should contain the following characteristics: lack of awareness of time, loss of awareness of the real world, involvement and sense of being in the task environment. ...
Article
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The competitive demand for attention is present in our daily lives, and the identification of neural processes in the EEG signals associated with the demand for specific attention can be useful to the individual’s interactions in virtual environments. Since EEG-based devices can be portable, non-invasive, and present high temporal resolution technology for recording neural signal, the interpretations of virtual systems user’s attention, fatigue and cognitive load based on parameters extracted from the EEG signal are relevant for several purposes, such as games, rehabilitation, and therapies. However, despite the large amount of studies on this subject, different methodological forms are highlighted and suggested in this work, relating virtual environments, demand of attention, workload and fatigue applications. In our summarization, we discuss controversies, current research gaps and future directions together with the background and final sections.
... 61). À cela s'ajoute la nécessité d'un engagement personnel et actif(Tardif, 1997, p. 14) pouvant aller jusqu'à un état d'engagement absolu, l'expérience optimale ou le flow(Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). 15 Ce développement sur les stratégies cognitives montre qu'il est difficile d'inférer l'apprentissage. ...
Article
This exploratory research questions a serious escape game as a device of mediation of knowledge. With the serious escape game, we are facing with a game based on temporal, cognitive and spatial constraints that can really question its compatibility with the construction of knowledge. Our analysis is based on the study of a serious digital escape game on the notion of information submitted to students in High Level Agricultural Technician (Brevet de Technicien Supérieur Agricole). The results show that the serious escape game is a relatively complex device in which the very act of rewriting knowledge is essential. The game also leads to strategies that are not always linked to the manipulation of this knowledge. The results eventually reveal the relevance of proposing an analytical framework specific to information and communication sciences for the analysis of serious games in general and of serious escape games in particular based on a close articulation between the concepts of mediation and device.
... Flow theory advocates that flow experience is an experience in which the individual is fully engaged in something, and is immersed in the psychological state of enjoyment [2]. Following this logic, in such a state, people will not have negative emotions, such as worry, anxiety or boredom, and will instead experience an obvious sense of enjoyment and temporal distortion [24]. A flow experience emphasizes high concentration and the balance between skills and challenges. ...
Article
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Chinese culture has been developed over five thousand years, and the ways in which to retain its sustainable development and maintain its rich spiritual treasures are critical issues. In order to address this critical issue, this study examines whether cultural intelligence can promote positive emotions and a flow experience. The results from 509 valid samples reveal that cultural intelligence contributes to a flow experience through a path of “perception–enjoyment–flow”. Cultural experience, perceived aesthetics, perceived authenticity and the awakening of enjoyment are effective conduction factors in the process. Furthermore, this study confirms that creative performance has a positive moderating effect on the relationship between cultural intelligence and cultural experience, perceived aesthetics, and perceived authenticity. The findings clarify the links of the influence of cultural intelligence on tourists’ flow experience, and expand the theoretical framework for research on flow experience and the scope of the application of flow theory.
... For this reason, the effects of both social dynamics and individual conditions or perceptions on free choice actuality should be momentously examined. Leisure perceived by the individual can form by arousing a sense of flow, with perfectly balancing skills and challenge while the individual is in perfect assimilation (Csikszentmihalyi 1991). However, Reichenberger (2018) argues, through the conditions of "free choice" and "freedom" that are traditionally used in the definition of leisure time, that the definition of perceived leisure has become blurred due to the changing work relations and forms of technology. ...
Chapter
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This chapter includes the critique of leisure and recreation experience through three main studies aimed at understanding today's and future living conditions.
... Maintaining a persistent sense of presence in VR may have similarities to the perennial notion of "flow" in games design (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Chen, 2007). Chen describes designing for "flow" as a way to "maintain and extend an interactive experience before it is interrupted." ...
Article
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There is a growing interest the use of virtual reality (VR) to simulate unsafe spaces, scenarios, and behaviours. Environments that might be difficult, costly, dangerous, or ethically contentious to achieve in real life can be created in virtual environments designed to give participants a convincing experience of “being there.” There is little consensus in the academic community about the impact of simulating risky content in virtual reality, and a scarcity of evidence to support the various hypotheses which range from VR being a safe place to rehearse challenging scenarios to calls for such content creation to be halted for fear of irreversible harm to users. Perspectives split along disciplinary lines, with competing ideas emerging from cultural studies and games studies, from psychology and neuroscience, and with industry reports championing the efficacy of these tools for information retention, time efficiency and cost, with little equivalence in information available regarding impact on the wellbeing of participants. In this study we use thematic analysis and close reading language analysis to investigate the way in which participants in a VR training scenario respond to, encode and relay their own experiences. We find that participants overall demonstrate high levels of “perceptual proximity” to the experience, recounting it as something that happened to them directly and personally. We discuss the impact of particular affordances of VR, as well as a participant’s prior experience on the impact of high-stress simulations. Finally, we consider the ethical mandate for training providers to mitigate the risk of traumatizing or re-traumatizing participants when creating high-risk virtual scenarios.
... In the educational context, during the learning process, flow occurs as a feeling of pleasure that translates into achieving realistic goals and overcoming prescribed challenges (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990). The literature points out that the flow state is particularly recurrent in the context of learning, and educational settings benefit from the state of flow (Cesari et al., 2021). ...
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The flow experience ( i.e. , challenge-skill balance, action-awareness merging, clear goals, unambiguous feedback, concentration, sense of control, loss of self-consciousness, transformation of time, and autotelic experience) is an experience highly related to the learning experience. One of the current challenges is to identify whether students are managing to achieve this experience in educational systems. The methods currently used to identify students’ flow experience are based on self-reports or equipment ( e.g. , eye trackers or electroencephalograms). The main problem with these methods is the high cost of the equipment and the impossibility of applying them massively. To address this challenge, we used behavior data logs produced by students during the use of a gamified educational system to predict the students’ flow experience. Through a data-driven study (N = 23) using structural equation modeling, we identified possibilities to predict the students’ flow experience through the speed of students’ actions. With this initial study, we advance the literature, especially contributing to the field of student experience analysis, by bringing insights showing how to step towards automatic students’ flow experience identification in gamified educational systems.
... Hedonic shopping value is subjective, emotional, and fun, where people who are doing shopping activities will experience a condition called "Flow Experience," which is the loss of time awareness because they are too focused on an activity [8]. Whereas Utilitarian shoppers have a strong desire to get more value than what they buy. ...
Article
Today more and more gamers purchase digital products on the online game. Therefore, the study was conducted to determine the factors that influence repurchase intention on digital online game items on the official website. Factors studied were system, service, and information quality on repurchase intention through utilitarian & hedonic shopping value and customer satisfaction. The data processed through validation, reliability and SEM analysis. From the results the most influence is information quality, where this affects hedonic & utilitarian shopping value, then leads to customer satisfaction and finally to repurchase intention. Based on the results the managerial implication is focused on increasing information with currency dimensions and system quality with accessibility dimensions to increase repurchase intention to purchase digital products.
... Motivation is closely linked to a person's goals [9] as they determine the direction of a person's actions, dedication and perseverance [10] and individual interest [11]. Chikszentmihalyi (1990) refers to situations in which people are deeply interested or the "flow moments" [12]. ...
... Such moments-called variously mountaintop moments, peak experiences, or significant life experiences, among other related terms-may stand out immediately from the background of everyday life or may be marked in retrospect (Bergs et al. 2020;C'De Baca and Wilbourne 2004). They may emanate from the afterglow of a flow state (Csikszentmihalyi 1990) or unifying event (Ehlman, Ligon, and Moriello 2014;McCold 2008), or they may reflect the balance of complexity, tempo, and purpose that contribute to 'savoring' (Bryant and Veroff 2017). ...
Article
Environmental learning is a lifelong, lifewide, and life-deep endeavor, much of which occurs in the spaces in between those that are studied, remarked upon, and documented. Within this everyday-life context, we examine the concept of learningscapes—intersecting sociocultural, intellectual landscapes where people learn about and undertake practices related to the environment understood as a holistic concept. Considering the affordances and constraints of the environment situated within this everyday-life context, we examine theoretical underpinnings and implications of making daily-life learning visible, while avoiding a doom-and-gloom approach to environmental practices. We end by highlighting research and practice opportunities within environmental learning, overall.
... On this basis, the intervention is established through interaction between sessions consisting of presentation of knowledge and workshops allowing the participants to test and engage in different activities. Additionally, each individual session is informed by theory about the topic in question [19,26,34,35] and by knowledge from several of the previously mentioned studies that have combined/coordinated rehabilitation and palliative care [15,18]. See Table 2 for more detailed description of the intervention. ...
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Background People with advanced cancer need to balance their resources and energy in order to experience enjoyment and quality of life in the time they have left. A resource-oriented intervention is developed targeting these aspects. The present protocol presents a feasibility study of this resource-oriented intervention in people with advanced cancer. Methods A feasibility study with a repeated-measurement design without a control group will be conducted at the research clinic of REHPA, the Danish Knowledge Center for Rehabilitation and Palliative Care. Data will be gathered at baseline, during and after a 5-day residential stay, after 6 weeks, during a 2-day follow-up stay and after 12 weeks. In total, 20–25 home-living adults (≥ 18 years) with advanced cancer reporting needs in everyday life will be recruited. The intervention consists of workshops and engagement in physical and creative everyday activities provided by a multidisciplinary team. Outcome measures are quality of life, physical function and fatigue, which will be assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality-of-Life Questionnaire Core-30. Balance in everyday activities will be assessed using the Occupational Balance Questionnaire. Feasibility data will also be collected regarding (1) fidelity, (2) adherence, (3) dose and (4) reach and mechanisms of impact. For exploration of mechanism of impact, participant observations and focus group interviews will be used. Discussion This study presents a new approach in rehabilitation and palliative care aimed at supporting people with advanced cancer; instead of identification of problems, the present resource-oriented palliative rehabilitation intervention will target people’s resources, enhancing balance in everyday activities and underpinning enjoyment and quality of life. The results from the feasibility study can inform ways in which to support the everyday life of people with advanced cancer and thus have potential to improve their quality of life. The long-term perspectives are to evaluate the intervention in terms of effect, process and cost-effectiveness. This will provide evidence to adjust the content of rehabilitation and palliative care for this group of people. Trial registration NCT04772690 Name of the registry: Balance, Activity and Quality of Life (BAL) Date of registry: February 26, 2021
... Janson, Howard and Schoenberger-Orgad (2004) describe the research journey as having peak experiences and refer to the work of Csikszentmihalyi on peak dimension. Csikszentmihalyi (1990) describes 'flow' as a level of attention so intense that it equates to complete absorption in a task. The individual is so immersed in the action that their understanding of time is skewed. ...
Conference Paper
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Postgraduate research is considered a lonely endeavour with students frequently experiencing social and intellectual isolation. Research offices in many higher education institutions have developed programmes to support supervisors and students undertaking research studies and supervision. These programmes include instruction on research techniques and methodologies but are often lacking in community-based approaches such as creating support and peer groups where students can share information and ideas directly. This study explores the use of online communities of practice as a support tool for postgraduate researchers in a university in Ireland. The research questions seek to determine the antecedents for successful implementation, the dominant problems associated with using online communities, and the motivators for, and barriers to, participation in communities of practice in this context. The study facilitates student collaboration by implementing a community of practice on an enterprise social network (ESN) platform. These platforms are increasingly used in industry to facilitate online community groups that collaborate professionally and socially. Professionally, ESN can be used as a platform to host virtual communities of practice (vCoP), where members can engage in sharing knowledge of their practice domains and experiences. The promotion of ESN and vCoP for this study is a joint initiative of the Research Support Office, the Students' Union, and the Postgraduate Society, who advocate for a strong peer to peer support system for postgraduate students. The study adopts an Action Research design and a mixed-methods approach, and data collection includes system use metrics, surveys, focus groups and interviews. The practical objective of the project is to manage the implementation of the virtual community as a peer-to-peer support environment, and success is determined primarily from usage statistics. This may lead to developing a framework for implementation that is generalisable to other higher education institutions.
... It could refer to a set of situations in which the player's game result requires an effort to accomplish [44]. The set challenges could create "motivational tension" [49] and even lead to the state of flow [50]- [52] if they match the players' abilities and skills. Otherwise, it will lead to boredom or frustration. ...
... Der Grundgedanke der gewählten konzeptionellen Gestaltung des H5P Branching Szenarios ist es, durch die verwendeten Spiel-Elemente das Entstehen des Flow-Erlebens zu unterstützen, ein Verschmelzen von Selbst und Tätigkeit beim Erleben eines glatten Handlungsverlaufs, der autonom gestaltet werden kann und bei dem sich die Lernenden als kompetent erleben -also ein echtes Versinken in die Fallbeispiele verbunden mit dem Gefühl, deren Verlauf durch das eigene Vermögen und die eigenen Entscheidungen bestimmen zu können (Csikszentmihalyi 1990;Sailer 2016). ...
Chapter
Das Kapitel zeigt auf, dass die Entwicklung und der Einsatz von Serious Games einer gründlichen Analyse im Vorfeld, eines durchdachten didaktischen Fundaments und der Berücksichtigung lerntheoretischer, mediendidaktischer und medienpsychologischer Erkenntnisse bedarf. Die Autorin legt dar, dass der Erfolg des Lernens mit Serious Games an die individuelle und organisatorische Akzeptanz des Lernangebotes gebunden ist. Wichtig ist ihr, dass sowohl der tradierten Lehr-Lernweise wie auch der Nutzung medialer Angebote eine dem Lerngegenstand entsprechende Bedeutung beigemessen werden muss.
... In relation to good life, quality of life and related phenomena of happiness, well-being or satisfaction with life are concepts known to involve criteria for their enhancement. One of the first to be published on the subject in 1990 was Flow (Csikszentmihalyi, 2008); others are Psychological Wealth (Diener & Biswas-Diener, 2008), and Art-of-Living (Schmitz, 2016). Martin Seligman is the author of two books -Authentic Happiness (Seligman, 2002), later changed into Flourish (Seligman, 2013). ...
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Aim. The aim of the article is to look for an answer to the question of whether it is worthwhile to deal only with happiness and to leave the exploration of quality of life as something which is not viable, or if it makes sense to deal with both phenomena. If so, what is the relationship between them? At the same time, we ask ourselves whether happiness and quality of life are perceived equally by people and are therefore interchangeable. Results. The answer is also confirmed by measuring the number of published articles monitored in the Web of Science. The quantification of happiness and quality of life implies that their correlation is high but not so high that they can be identified as the same. At the same time, if happiness and quality of life are different phenomena, it makes sense to deal with both. Method. The research was conducted using the face-to-face interview method. Conclusion. Happiness and quality of life, in terms of attention given to them by researchers, are quite different. We think mistakenly that they are the same on account of the preponderance of impression given to happiness in public space.
... Specifically, active touch enables individuals to experience an object in a more enjoyable manner than they might when experiencing the same object via their other senses (Klatzky et al., 1987;Peck, 2010). When touching relevant materials during a creative task, individuals are more likely to feel a greater sense of agency, which leads them to perceive the experience as fun and enjoyable (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990;Lambert, 2008). Broadly speaking, physical activity directed toward tangible outcomes activates particular regions of the brain that improve mood; this effect has been shown across many contexts, including those involving creativity (e.g., knitting and woodworking) (Lambert, 2008). ...
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An increasing number of firms rely on consumers to develop new ideas for the marketplace. While many firms rely on online crowdsourcing communities, some have created facilities that encourage in-person ideation through which consumers can interact with product design materials. This research proposes that active touch engenders a positive effect on new product creativity and highlights the importance of touch during idea generation. We further suggest that interacting with an object via active touch increases positive mood, which enhances creative performance. Results from two studies provide support for these hypotheses. Study 1 demonstrates the positive effect of active touch on new product creativity. Study 2 replicates this effect in a different product development context and provides evidence that a positive mood mediates the active touch-creativity relationship. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11002-022-09628-5.
... Flow theory suggests that user enjoyment could be a determining factor in user satisfaction. Flow is defined (Csikszentmihalyi, 1990) as 'the state in which people are so intensely involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; the experience itself is so enjoyable that people will continue to do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it' (p. 4). ...
... Der Grundgedanke der gewählten konzeptionellen Gestaltung des H5P Branching Szenarios ist es, durch die verwendeten Spiel-Elemente das Entstehen des Flow-Erlebens zu unterstützen, ein Verschmelzen von Selbst und Tätigkeit beim Erleben eines glatten Handlungsverlaufs, der autonom gestaltet werden kann und bei dem sich die Lernenden als kompetent erleben -also ein echtes Versinken in die Fallbeispiele verbunden mit dem Gefühl, deren Verlauf durch das eigene Vermögen und die eigenen Entscheidungen bestimmen zu können (Csikszentmihalyi 1990;Sailer 2016). ...
... You think this color goes with this [other fabric]... you cut it, and put it together and go 'Oh, what was I thinking?"' Lucy's use of the word "playing" is particularly important since it emphasizes the fun and enjoyment that comes from the artistic process [17]. ...
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RESUMO Diante dos desafios educacionais contemporâneos, e a partir de análises desenvolvidas em uma pesquisa de pós-graduação stricto sensu em Educação, este trabalho visa refletir, de forma teórico-metodológica, como a alfabetização é configurada no século XXI. Para tal, utiliza-se a perspectiva histórico-estrutural dialética, com base na obra de Triviños (1987). A partir das correlações ciberculturais da atual conjuntura espaço-temporal, somadas às instabilidades educacionais decorrentes da pandemia global, o estudo discute como novas linguagens e realidades de aprendizagem estão sendo abarcadas na alfabetização da geração alpha, por meio das Tecnologias Digitais da Informação e Comunicação (TDIC). Através deste processo, ocorre uma convergência entre abordagens metodológicas, tanto nas políticas públicas educacionais, voltadas à alfabetização, quanto nas políticas voltadas às tecnologias. Palavras-chave: TDIC. Geração alpha. Cibercultura. Multiletramentos. Metodologias ativas.
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Many B2B firms have widely accepted AI-based chatbots to provide human-like service interaction at different customer touchpoints in recent years. One of the objectives behind introducing this technology is to provide an enhanced, live channel Customer Experience (CX) all round the clock. Researchers have focused on delivering the CX by improvising the chatbot's internal algorithm, giving limited attention to CX theories from management literature, which leaves a gap. With the proposed paper, we have investigated the influencing factors of AI-based chatbots from the lens of CX theories for B2B firms. In this paper, a model for organizing CX has been proposed using the diffusion of innovation theory, trust commitment theory, information systems success model, and Hoffman & Novak's flow model for the computer-mediated environment and verified using the social media data. The methodology used for this study is the social media analytics-based content analysis method (sentiment analysis, hierarchical clustering, topic modeling) for data preparation, followed by lasso and ridge regression for model verification. The results suggest that CX in B2B enterprises using chatbots is influenced by these bots' overall system design, customers' ability to use technology, and customer trust towards brand and system.
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Do LEGO® SERIOUS PLAY® (LSP) workshops result in improved experience of flow components as well as higher levels of creative output than traditional meetings (MEET)? This research studies the extent to which LSP, as a specialized material-mediated and process-oriented cocreative workshop setting, differs from MEET, a traditional workshop setting. Hypotheses for differences in individual flow components (autotelic behavior, happiness, balance), group flow components (equal participation, continuous communication) and creative output were developed and tested in a quasi-experimental comparison between LSP and MEET.
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From a sociocultural perspective of autonomy, it is vital that learners can access information, identify their values, know themselves, and manage their cognitive and affective states in their learning environment, and voice their opinions within their community of practice. To provide its learners with autonomy-supportive and structured environments within its specific context, the Learning Advisory Program Unit (LAP) of Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University School of Foreign Languages (AYBU SFL) designed an extracurricular program, the LAP Club, which incorporated self-determination theory (SDT), PERMA-the five pillars of well-being, and intentional reflective dialogue (IRD) to promote advising practices. The resulting content was delivered following the phases defined in the equipped for future (EFF) framework and standards. In this qualitative research project investigating the participants’ perceptions of the efficiency of the program in promoting their well-being, a questionnaire developed based on PERMA profiler by Butler and Kern (2016) was administered to five regular participants in their L1, Turkish. A translation method was applied to the data by the researcher to manage sensitive qualitative data and enhance research transparency. The findings indicate that the awareness gained with notions of well-being improves the learning process and develops the sense of self-determination with high levels of well-being.
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My emerging awareness of a void that lingers with mind-body dualism brought me to this research. I live with the impacts of complex post-traumatic stress disorder, marked by a tendency to ebb between perpetual states of fight and flight, or freeze. Examining my lived experiences in relation to two trauma-informed care principles (safety and empowerment), I present the potential for cultivating an aesthetic appreciation in nature, and improved body consciousness. I hope to empower others to reach a sense of safety by sharing my experiences as I reanimate my creativity to move from fight and flight, to flow and flourish.
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Aram Gershuni is an Israeli artist specialising in realistic and hyper-realistic painting, whose work differs radically from the mainstream of Israeli art and can most distinctly be characterised as ‘mimesis’, a term that is generally associated with traditional western art. Though Gershuni’s still life images may seem at first sight trivial and banal, it is their very banality and mimetic appearance that are significant, reflecting profound and disputed issues in Israeli culture. This article explores Gershuni’s still life paintings and offers several perspectives for their interpretation. The analysis is based on textual sources, mostly Classical, that reflect Gershuni’s approach and affinity.
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Background Although the demand for virtual simulation learning is increasing to substitute clinical practicum, there are a lack of studies that identify the relationships among learning flow, cognitive load, and clinical reasoning skills in virtual simulation learning. Methods This study was a cross-sectional survey with 148 nursing students who completed virtual simulation learning as a substitution for clinical practicum during the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants completed a web-based self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis to identify the mediating effects of cognitive load on the relationship between learning flow and clinical reasoning skills. Results Learning flow and cognitive load were significant predictors of clinical reasoning skills. Cognitive load mediated the relationship between learning flow and clinical reasoning skills. Conclusion Simulation educators should apply best-practice standards by enhancing learning flow and cognitive load to achieve clinical reasoning skills in virtual simulation learning.
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The concern in what follows, however, is with the communication and acquisition of "attitude" understood as a precursor of skill acquisition and an essential quality in the successful use of any other kinds of skill. The focus is on the nature of the attitude that tends to be fundamental to thrival -- often irrespective of the possession of more formally recognized skills, notably those for which certificates can be acquired. These attitudinal skills may be as significant to "success" in a conventional monetary and career advancement sense as they are to thriving under the most modest conditions -- or those in which the recognition of others may be absent, or limited to the simplest forms of appreciation.
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A indústria da construção civil agrega diversas atividades que têm como objetivo a transformação do ambiente natural com vistas ao aprimoramento da qualidade de vida do ser humano. Apesar das grandes contribuições à economia do país, há um índice lamentável que está presente nesse setor: o elevado número de acidentes e doenças do trabalho decorrentes das atividades da construção. Considerando essa necessidade latente de se olhar com maiores cuidados para a segurança e a saúde do trabalhador na construção civil, há, nesse âmbito, uma série de iniciativas de diversos agentes no contexto brasileiro. De modo a integrar essa conjuntura em busca do aprimoramento e do desenvolvimento de práticas que visem a segurança, saúde e bem estar dos funcionários da construção civil, surge o livro “Segurança e Saúde do Trabalho na Indústria da Construção Civil”. Estruturada em 14 capítulos escritos por profissionais de referência em suas respectivas áreas, a obra trata das diretrizes de segurança do trabalho em canteiro de obras de edificações e de obras de infraestrutura, práticas de responsabilidade social para empresas construtoras, ergonomia nos postos de trabalho da construção, saúde e higiene do trabalho, psicologia do trabalho, gestão e inovação aplicada à segurança do trabalho, dentre outros temas de interesse no âmbito da segurança e da saúde do trabalhador da construção civil.
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The increasing development in the field of biosensing technologies makes it feasible to monitor students’ physiological signals in natural learning scenarios. With the rise of mobile learning, educators are attaching greater importance to the learning immersion experience of students, especially with the global background of COVID-19. However, traditional methods, such as questionnaires and scales, to evaluate the learning immersion experience are greatly influenced by individuals’ subjective factors. Herein, our research aims to explore the relationship and mechanism between human physiological recordings and learning immersion experiences to eliminate subjectivity as much as possible. We collected electroencephalogram and photoplethysmographic signals, as well as self-reports on the immersive experience of thirty-seven college students during virtual reality and online learning to form the fundamental feature set. Then, we proposed an evaluation model based on a support vector machine and got a precision accuracy of 89.72%. Our research results provide evidence supporting the possibility of predicting students’ learning immersion experience by their EEGs and PPGs.
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Bu araştırmanın amacı hizmet sektöründe çalışan bireylerin psikolojik esenliklerinin demografik faktörlerden nasıl etkilendiğini ortaya çıkarmaktır. Psikolojik esenliği ölçümlemek üzere M. Seligman tarafından geliştirilen PERMA Psikolojik Esenlik Modeli kullanılmıştır. Bu model psikolojik esenlik çalışmalarında kullanılan en güncel ve geçerli yaklaşım olarak kabul edilebilir. Araştırma hipotezlerinin test edilmesi için 1101 kişiden elde edilen veriler üzerinden farklılık testleri gerçekleştirilmiştir. Cinsiyet, eğitim, yaş ve çalışma süresi gibi demografik verilerde anlamlı ve yüksek düzeyde farklılıklar tespit edilmiştir. Örneklem içerisinde Z kuşağına ait 483 bireyin var olması nedeni ile araştırma sonuçları Z kuşağının psikolojik esenliği ve yönetimi açısından da yorumlanmıştır. Araştırmanın kuramsal katkısı alan yazında demografik veriler ve psikolojik esenlik ilişkisindeki çelişkili sonuçlara temsili düzeyi büyük bir örneklem ile yön vermesi ve uygulamadaki katkısı ise işletme yöneticilerine psikolojik esenlik konusunda gerçekleştirecekleri tüm İK uygulamaları ve yönetim uygulamalarına ışık tutması olarak söylenebilir.
Chapter
We present our system for quantifying artistic production difficulty and adjusting retouching difficulty to improve production. A paper-cutting artwork is created by controlling a knife and cutting designed paper. Paper-cutting craft designs have two parts: a white area for cutting out and a black area for painting. We have measured the difficulty of the picture based on the thickness of the cutting borderlines. In this paper, we have developed the retouching system that eases the difficulty of craft design by adjusting the line thickness. We have experimented with the effect of this system on the novice’s production. As a result, we found that the system improved the accuracy and psychological state (flow state) by retouching craft design.
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Drawing upon materiality theory, this netnographic study explores emerging consumer relationships to Moleskine—a branded object—in hypermobile and hyperconnected times. We introduce the concept of brand nomadicity to account for the spatial, temporal, and contextual mobility of the brand foregrounding its roles as liquid motor and solid anchor alike.
The structuring of organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, by Michael Csikszentmihalyi
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Mintzberg, H. 1979. The structuring of organizations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience, by Michael Csikszentmihalyi. New York: Harper & Row, 1990, 303 pp., $19.95, cloth.